You are on page 1of 21

c 

a) Reasons why people change their names.

c

 

A name change request can come about simply because a person doesn't like
his or her name as given at birth; perhaps they'd prefer something more unique
than Britney or Ashley or something less unique than a homespun name that
combined parents' names.

In this same vein, people with names that could be embarrassing, especially if
mispronounced or misspelled, may also seek name changes.

 
 



If a woman has taken her husband's name upon marriage, she may decide to
reclaim her maiden name upon separation or divorce or take on an entirely new
name; some states may provide an easy way to do revert to a maiden name, so
be sure to check your state's laws.



!"#


It's becoming increasingly popula r for a husband to take his wife's surname, but
the process is streamlined in only California, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Louisiana,
Massachusetts, New York, and North Dakota; in those states, the name change
process is the same as for a wife taking her husban d's surname upon marriage,
but in others, more paperwork is necessary.

$ 
 
!%#!!

In the case of an absent father, a mother may wish to have a child's surname
changed to hers; on the flip side, if a formerly absen t father is now in the
picture, a name change to the father's surname may also be desired.

& "  



'"
%(

Another popular trend with married or cohabitating couples is the creation of a


new surname using parts of each partner's name or simply hyphenating the two
last names for a brand new joint surname.

Again, some states permit the combining or hyphenation of married couples'


surnames with only simple paperwork, so be sure to check the law in your state.

) 
 *#+,
+

People with names that are identifiably "ethnic" sometimes request name
changes for various reasons, including ease of pronunciation and spelling; on
the other hand, some individuals would like to reclaim their e thnic heritage by
returning to a surname that may have been lost over the years or by the
adoption of a new one.

] 

Transgender people often request name changes to reflect gender. Names can
be changed to simply the masculine or feminine form of the current name or can
be new names altogether.

-.

.

Whether it's because of a recent religious conversion or simply to honor a


person's religious deity, name changes for religious reasons are quite common;
take, for example, Steve Kreuscher who changed his name to In God We Trust
to honor the help God gave him during hard times.

/% %01%
%

Although same-sex partners may not be allowed to legally marry in all states,
they can choose to share a surname, which can be particularly convenient in
financial or legal transactions.

c21

 %

Although some may consider it extreme to change your name to support a


cause, name changes for political reasons are not unheard of. In the past 10
years, Christopher Garnett became KentuckyFriedCruelty.com, Brandi
Valladolid became RinglingBeatsAnimals.com, and Marvin Richardson legally
changed his full name to Pro -Life.

b) In what ways can names shape people¶s


personalities?
1) Review different personalities.

An interesting way to figure out what your name says about your personality is
by reviewing people with the same name as you. A lot of people unconsciously
take on the same personality as a person with the same name as them.

For example, girls who are named Princess often grow up to be graceful ladies.
In other cultures, people believe that a baby named after a thief will one day
grow up to be one.

2) Consult the baby book.


One of the easiest ways to find out what your name says about your personality
is to consult the baby names book.

These books already have fixed meanings for common and unusual baby
names. Your parents most likely looked up the meaning of your name before
they actually made the decision to give you that name. I know , cause that's how
most of my friends got their names.

3) Try the power of astrology.

Or rather, the Internet. If you're curious to find out what your name says about
your personality, you might be inclined to check out what your name means
online.

Some websites often only ask you to type your given name, and all you have to
do is click the button. Most of these descriptions are actually quite accurate, so
there might be some truth to them.

So what does your name say about your personality? Names ha ve the power to
shape how your life is going to turn out. If your parents gave you a hideous
name, you might have a not-so-pleasant time growing up. However, in the end,
it's all up to you. You alone have the power to control how your life is going to
turn out.

c) How do people usually get nicknames?

Nicknames are usually awarded to, not chosen by the recipient. Nicknames
may be based on a person's name or various attributes

Some people ar tagged with nicknames that describe them, like a red -headed
person being called "Red" or "Freckles" (because red hair is often accompanied
by freckled skin). Others garner ironic nicknames, such as bald guys being
called "Curly" (like Freddie Neal of the Harlem Globetrotters) or a big guy being
called "Tiny." Still others get nicknames that relate to when they were born...a
kid born in October might be nicknamed "Punkin."

In Viking societies, many people had nicknames a ,  , or   
which were used in addition to, or instead of their family names. In some
circumstances the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in
that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the
nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname also often entailed a
formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts.[
     ]
Slaves have often used nicknames, so that the master who heard about
someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian
martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as
practicing capoeira was illegal for decades. [
     ]

In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is often based on a shortening of a


person's proper name, a  . However, in other societies, this may not
necessarily the case.

In Indian society, for example, generally people have at least one nickname
(
   or 
    ) and these affection names are generally not
related to the person's proper na me. Indian nicknames very often are a trivial
word or a  (such as  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,
aa ,  , , , etc.).

In Australian society, Australian men will often give ironic nicknames. For
example, a man with red hair will get the nickname 'Bluey'.

d) What¶s your opinion about parents who give


unusual names to their children?

I think some parents really do try to come up with the most crazy, off-the-wall
name they can think of for no apparent reason, while others come up with an
unusual name and it DOES have meaning to them (such as in your question¶s
example).

I think it is good when there is creativity in picking a name. Many kids are
picked on for all kinds of reasons, not just because of their name. And I think
that kids need some difficulties to overcome to learn how to be better adults.
So if the parents pick an unusual name, I think they should have a reason for it
so that they can one day explain to the child the significance of his/her name.

I do not think everyone should try to select from the same group of names.
Think about how boring - and confusing - the world would be if everyone was
named a "common" name. And really, who would be deciding what names are
considered "common" anyway? Wow, answering this question is a lot more
complicated than I thought it would be!

I do NOT agree with naming children crazy things for stupid reasons. When I
was a teenager, I read somewhere that a mother named her child the alphabet,
and by that I do not mean the child¶s name was "Alphabet," but rather that the
child¶s name was "Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" because she wanted to set the
record for the longest name or something silly like that (I do not remember
where I read this, and so I cannot corroborate that it is true, but it doesn¶t sound
unlikely.) That kinda thing is just wrong.
So, a little creativity in picking a name is great. But parents should keep in mind
that the child will ha ve to live with that name, so make it something the child can
be proud of.

   
a) Colors and their different meanings in our culture.

.

 
 Good luck, celebration, summoning
   Success, triumph
 °
 Purity
 %3 
 Color of mourning
 .
 Bolsheviks and Communism
 , Worn by brides
  Excitement, danger, love, passion, stop, Christmas (with
green)

(

 °  Religious (Protestants)


  Halloween (with black), creativity, autumn

4 

 
 Nourishing
 ,'" Color of mourning
 â" Courage
 °
 Merchants
  Hope, hazards, coward

5

 
Green hats indicate a man's wife is cheating on him, exorcism
 °
 Islam
 °  Symbol of the entire country
  Spring, new birth, go, Saint Patrick's Day, Christmas (with red)

6 

   Defeat, trouble


 ° Color of heaven and spirituality
  Depression, sadness, conservative, corporate, "something
blue" bridal tradition

1" 
 
 Color of mourning (widows)
  Royalty




 â" White carnation symbolizes death


 , Funerals
  Brides, angels, good guys, hospitals, doctors, peace (white
dove)

6  

 
 Color for young boys
  Funerals, death, Halloween (with orange), bad guys, rebellion

Malbrough:

WHITE: Adds to spiritual strength, breaks curses or crossed conditions,


represents faith, purity, truth and sincerity.

PINK: Overcomes evil, represents honor, love, morality, friendship, general


success.

RED: Love, sexuality, good health, strength and physical vigor.

ORANGE: Encouragement, strengthens the ability to concentrate, attraction,


adaptability, stimulation.

YELLOW: Attraction, persuasion ( can change minds), ins tills confidence,


charm.

GREEN: Money, luck, financial success and prosperity, fertility, good crops and
harvest, cooperation.

DARK BLUE: Depression, moodiness, changability, impulsivness, unfortunate


and very subduing.

LIGHT BLUE: Understanding, health, tranquility, protection, peace, general


happiness, sharpens the power to perceive, spiritual awareness, patience.

PURPLE: Ambition, promotes business progress, power (worldly, psychic or


magical), causes tension, strengthens will power.

BROWN: Hesitation in all matters, uncertainty and doubt, neutrality, robs


energy.

BLACK: Sadness and mourning, evil, loss, discord, confusion.

GRAY: Cancellation, stalemate, neutrality.


GREENISH YELLOW: Jealousy and anger, sickness, quarrels, discord,
cowardice.

b) Feelings and their association with colors.

.

1' 
  ,  While red has proven to be a color of vitality and
ambition it has been shown to be associated with anger. Sometimes red can be
useful in dispelling negative thoughts, but it can also make one irritable. Pink
has the opposite effect of red. Pink induces f eelings of calm, protection, warmth
and nurture. This color can be used to lessen irritation and aggression as it is
connected with feelings of love. Red is sometimes associated with sexuality,
whereas pink is associated with unselfish love.

(

1' 
 ,  Orange has shown to have only positive affects on your
emotional state. This color relieves feelings of self -pity, lack of self-worth and
unwillingness to forgive. Orange opens your emotions and is a terrific
antidepressant.

4 
1' 
  ,  : Similarly to Orange, Yellow is a happy and uplifting
color. It can also be associated with intellectual thinking: discernment, memory,
clear thinking, decision-making and good judgment. Also aiding organization,
understanding of diffe rent points of view. Yellow builds self -confidence and
encourages optimism. However, a dull yellow can bring on feelings of fear.

5

1' 
  ,  Green creates feelings of comfort, laziness, relaxation,
calmness. It helps us balance and soothe our emotions. Some attribute this to
its connection with nature and our natural feelings of affiliation with the natural
world when experiencing the color green. Yet, darker and grayer greens can
have the opposite effect. These olive green colors remind us of decay and
death and can actually have a detrimental effect on physical and emotional
health. Note that sickened cartoon characters always turned green.

6 

1' 
  ,  We usually associate the color blue with the night and
thus we feel relaxed and calmed. Lighter blues make us feel quite and away
from the rush of the day. These colors can be useful in eliminating insomnia.
Like yellow, blue inspires mental control, clarity and creativity. However, too
much dark blue can be depressing.

1" 

1' 
  ,  Purples have been used in the care of mental of
nervous disorders because they have shown to help balance the mind and
transform obsessions and fears. Indigo is often associated with the right side of
the brain; stimulating intuition and imagination. Violet is associated with bringing
peace and combating shock and fear. Violet has a cleansing effect with
emotional disturbances. Also, this color is related to sensitivity to beauty, high
ideals and stimulates creativity, spirituality and compassion. Psychic power and
protection has also been associated with violet.

6

1' 
 ,  Brown is the color of the earth and ultimately home. This
color brings feelings of stability and security. Sometimes brown can also be
associated with withholding emotion and retreating from the world.

6  

1' 
 ,  While comforting and protective, black is mysterious and
associated with silence and sometimes death. Black is passive and can prevent
us from growing and changing.




1' 
  ,  White is the color of ultimate purity. This color brings
feelings of peace and comfort while it dispels shock and despair. White can be
used to give yourself a feeling of freedom and uncluttered openness. Too much
white can give feelings of separation and can be cold and isolation.

5'

1' 
  ,  Gray is the color of independence and self -reliance,
although usually thought of as a negative color. It can be the color of evasion
and non-commitment (since it is neither black nor white.) Gray indicates
separation, lack of involvement and ultimately loneliness.

c) Clothes color as a reflection of people¶s


personality.
Here are some generalizations about colors that will show     
  "
' :

 Red is symbolic of dominance, passion and sensuality. It is a color meant


for bold and firm men who love to lead the world. If you want to make a
distinctive fashion statement, red is the trick.
 Peach and pink shades are indicative of coolness and calm. With pink ,
you'll look as fresh as a flower.
 Black, an all time favorite represents power. Acting as a symbol of
elegance, versatility and grace, this color can smoothly sail in all
functions.
 If your focus is on looking neat and clean, white is just apt for you. It
indicates purity and simplicity. It is the perfect summer color.
 Blue is a color of warmth and trust. It's a fabulous shade that can be
found in almost every man's cupboard.
 Yellow is the color of beautiful sunflower. It conveys anxiety and
alertness of mind. But do not forget it is also the color of deadly fire.
 Burgundy is indicative of spirituality. It is a rich color that decides how
passionate you are. Burgundy shirt looks stylish.
 Green comes from greenery. It is a color of nature with beautiful gr een
leaves, fresh green vegetables. It represents freshness, relaxation and
calm.
 Brown is meant for classy informal styling. It conveys reliability and trust.
 Gray is indicative of the fact that you are a balanced person in life. It
looks elegant and is considered to be brainy.

3- Money:
a) How important is money to you?
When talking about money, always balance the importance of it by the eternal
goals it can help you attain. Remember to comment that money is only a tool.
The motivations behind getting money is to help you achieve your dreams and
visions in life.

So perhaps it is also a good time for you to share your view on life, your view on
how to motivate yourself towards your goals in life and how you manage to
overcome obstacles.

For the criteria to choose your ideal job, I think most of you would undoubtedly
advocate the challenges and opportunity to learn rather than monetary rewards.
Remember, the employers are expecting similar answer. So your ¡§standard¡¨
response is not going to do you any goodness among other candidates. What
make you outstanding is again how your view money against other values in
life. Be realistic, apart from stressing your desire to improve yourself and to
learn, you should clarify your concept of money. You do need it. T here is
nothing wrong to look for better salary and benefits for your rewarding services.

So describe yourself to be a confident employee who does regard a healthy and


fair pay is also your expectation because you deserve it.
b) Which is more important love or money? Why?
Money doesn't buy you true love nor does it give you good health. Without
either money means nothing. Having someone love you with all their heart and
knowing they will stand by your side whether you are wealthy, poor, in good
health or bad or any problems that enter your lives is the best feeling in the
world. They are not just your partner, lover, but your best friend and the only
one you should be able to count on 100%.

Money don't buy happiness, but they sure maintain it"... or someth ing like that.
for me, love IS happines. :) but if i have to choose, i choose LOVE anyday...
'cause i've seen how it feels like to have lots of money and no one to spend
them with. now, i see how it feels to have people to spend everything but money
(they;re gone) with... and it rules!!! :)

c) Why are poor people more generous than rich


people?
I think that it is true what they say about rich and poor people. Poor people are
more generous because they know what it is to feel the lack of money. Rich
people do not know that because they have not felt it ever. On the other hand,
they could guide themselves by the words that everyone should work for what
he wants. I also agree that nothing is for free.

d) Money and its connection with happiness.


A few researchers are looking again at whether happiness can be bought, and
they are discovering that quite possibly it can - it's just that some strategies are
a lot better than others. Taking a friend to lunch, it turns out, makes us happier
than buying a new outfit. Splurging on a vacation makes us happy in a way that
splurging on a car may not.

"Just because money doesn't buy happiness doesn't mean money cannot buy
happiness," says Elizabeth Dunn, a social psychologist and assistant professor
at the University of British Columbia. "People just might be using it wrong."

Dunn and others are beginning to offer an intriguing explanation for the poor
wealth-to-happiness exchange rate: The problem isn't money, it's us. For deep -
seated psychological reasons, when it come s to spending money, we tend to
value goods over experiences, ourselves over others, things over people. When
it comes to happiness, none of these decisions are right: The spending that
make us happy, it turns out, is often spending where the money vanishe s and
leaves something ineffable in its place.

Any attempt to put these findings into practice, however, has to contend with the
subtle but powerful ways money itself channels our thinking, and the ways it
plays on human attitudes about sharing and scarcit y. Recent studies have
suggested that merely thinking about money makes us more solitary and
selfish, and steers us away from the spending that promises to make us
happiest.

Depressed debutantes, suicidal CEOs, miserable magnates and other unhappy


rich folks aren't the only ones giving the lie to this. "Psychologists have spent
decades studying the relation between wealth and happiness," writes Harvard
University psychologist Daniel Gilbert in his best -selling "Stumbling on
Happiness," "and they have genera lly concluded that wealth increases human
happiness when it lifts people out of abject poverty and into the middle class but
that it does little to increase happiness thereafter."

That flies in the face of intuition, not to mention economic theory. Accordi ng to
standard economics, the most important commodity you can buy with additional
wealth is choice. If you have $20 in your pocket, you can decide between steak
and peanut butter for dinner, but if you have only $1 you'd better hope you
already have a jar of jelly at home. Additional wealth also lets you satisfy
additional needs and wants, and the more of those you satisfy the happier you
are supposed to be.

e) How can money affect a person¶s personality and


attitude?
Money may make the world go round, as the song goes, by encouraging the type of
hard work and resourcefulness that leads to economic success. But money might also
put a strain on personal relationships, a new study shows.
Most everyone agrees that having money is a good thing. What is less clear is how it
affects people psychologically. A group of researchers from the University of
Minnesota, Florida State University, and University of British Columbia wanted to find
out how money might affect people's performance and behavior toward one ano ther.

They conducted a series of experiments in the lab in which participants were reminded
of money in several different ways. During one reminder, participants played a game of
Monopoly and received either $4,000 of play money, $200 of play money, or n o play
money. Other reminders asked people to think about having either abundant or very
limited financial resources, organize phrases that were related or unrelated to money
("I cashed a check," or "I wrote the letter"), or sit near images of money or neu tral
objects.

The researchers found that being exposed to money led to big changes in people's
actions. Those who had money on their minds were less inclined to help someone in
need and more inclined to work alone than interact with others. And they tend ed to
work longer on challenging tasks without asking for help.

The bottom line: money appears to have both positive and negative effects on our
behavior. On the one hand, it encourages self -sufficiency and hard work; but on the
other, it discourages som e positive social interaction.

Although it may seem from this study that money makes people greedy or selfish, the
authors say this isn't necessarily the case. "A selfish person likely would have
immediately asked for help when given a tough assignment ... and would have rejected
the notion of accepting more work than was necessary," they write in the June issue of
Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Given the important role money appears to play in human behavior and performance,
the authors say it would be helpful for researchers to conduct more studies evaluating
its impact on human psychology.

f) Explain one of these proverbs.

f.1) Time is money.


"

 ' " is an adage referring to the time value of money that is a
saying first promulgated by Benjamin Franklin

It's an old cliche that we all know and understand, but to what extent do you
  apply it in your business?

For example, do you make a phone call when an email would do just fine?
Sure, there's something to be said for spending a little extra time building
rapport with your clients, but phone calls often stretch out into ten, twenty, thirty
minutes when taking five minutes to craft an email would have gotten the job
done. Remember, your clients and strategic partners are busy too -- they may
appreciate the efficiency of an email instead of a phone call.

f.2) The best things in life are free.

While it is true that we must each work to provide the necessities of life for
ourselves and our families, there are other things we require in life to be happy.
These are the things that money cannot buy: the best life has to offer. They are
the things, which fill our lives with passion, joy, peace and laughter. These
things are why we say the best things in life are free.

To those who say there is nothing free in life that is worth having, I pose the
following questions.
What does it cost to enjoy the beauty of this earth. To sit at night and view the
star filled heavens, to watch a planted seed poke its little head above the soil
and start its ever upward climb toward light. How much must we pay to sit on a
beach

and watch the waves come washing ashore and then ebb slowly back or to
watch a bird glide with ease through the sky.

How much do we pay for being loved by a child. How much is the pure love of a
child, untainted by the harshness of life worth? Is it not freely given. Is it more if
we touch the cheek of a baby and feel their softness, watch their first wobbly
steps or listen to their nonsensical cooing? If they chase fireflies at dusk, are
they charged for each one they capture or for the overall experience?

What a wonderful thing to live in a world with so many worthwhile things that are
free for the taking, seeing, feeling, hearing and experiencing. How sad life
would be without these things that fill our heart s to overflowing as they knock
the rough edges from our otherwise hectic life. The best things in life really are
free and I am so very thankful.

f.3) Money doesn¶t grow on trees.

4 

You use this proverb to tell someone that he/she shouldn't waste money or
there is not enough money to buy something expensive.

If someone says, " #'! ," he/she means that it is not


easy to earn money, so it is valuable, and you have only a limited amount of
money. You should be careful how much money you spend.

ß  

A: "Mom, can I buy a new dress?"

B: "We can't afford one now. #'! ."

Our lab computers are getting old, but we can't afford to buy new ones this
semester. #'! , you know.

4- Cell phones:
a) Advantages and disadvantages of cell phones.
Has it happened to you that sometimes you go out but forgot your cell phone at
home and so you¶re not feeling complete. There¶s a feeling somewhere inside
that you¶re missing something, a sense of ins ecurity sometimes prevails«
welcome to the world of cell phone addiction!

Cell phones are having a great influence in our live and are very convenient to
keep with us. Cell phones are a faster and more effective way to transfer
information. Indeed, it is a resource that gives its user¶s great advantages.

! 
 :

 The more you talk, the more you know how to talk and the better
your communication skills become. This is applicable if you¶re a sensible
person and keep note of your interacting habits over the phone. It can be
a communication tutorial!
 Nothing more than a cell phone comes to great help in emergency. You
are driving by the freeway and the vehicle jams and cell phone comes to
your rescue. You are stuck in a lone place, again call somebody and ask
for directions.
 Parents can be a little less worried about th eir kids by being in constant
touch with them.
 If you¶re a net-savvy, you can have Internet handy all the time and
anywhere the signal of your cell phone provider can reach.
 Trendy and stylish cell phones can be used as a bait to receive attention.
It can be part of fashion and styling.
 From the industy and economy point of view, cell phone companies
(communication industry) is florishing with market capital in billions. This
is a good thing for the economy to be smooth and healthy.

R  
 :

 Some people (especially teens) get so much addicted to cell phones for
talking, video, messaging, games, etc that they forget the real purpose
of the phone and waste large part of their time in unnecessary interaction
over their cell phones.
 Nothing more can be a distraction for a teached in the classroom, when a
student¶s phone rings. Cell phones are increasingly becoming a problem
for the schools during classroom hours and are becoming a means of
cheating during examinations and other kinds of ability tests. All this is
really bad and does hurt the future of the student, who doesn¶t realize
that he/she is him/her-self responsible for it.
 While remaining in touch is good thing but sometimes it becomes
annoying to have to deal with continuous incoming phone calls. You are
on a vacation and your boss calls up, how does that sound!
 Cell phone monthly bills are usually more than a landline bill. Sometimes,
we may not require to have a cell phone but we still buy one and start
paying monthly bills; so it increases our monthly/recurring expenses.
 Use of hands-free (wired/blue-tooth) can at times pass on loud sounds to
our ears which can result in weakening of ear-drums. Nowadays, one
can download lot¶s of songs, so keeping the hands -free glued inside your
ears for long hours can really affect the sensitivity of ears in the long run
of life.
 There have been cases of cell phone blasts, due to the excessive
heating up of it¶s battery. This can be a fatal issue; although rare.

b) The use of cell phones while driving.


Cell phones can be life-saving communication tools to have ready in a vehicle in
case of emergency. However, actually using a cell phone while driving may be
life threatening. Many different studies have shown that when drivers use a cell
phone while driving, it can be very dangerous. At some point during the use of a
cell phone, a driver's eyes are bound to be distracted from the road.

All drivers, not just teens or other new drivers, who use a cell phone while
driving are said by studies to be at least four ti mes more likely to have an
accident than drivers who don't use a cell phone while driving. Such studies
have inspired many countries, including the United States, to have at least
some bans on hand-held cell phone use while driving. However, many people
feel that these restrictions are not enough because studies have also shown
that hand-held cell phones are just a part of the problem.

Hands-free models were still found in many studies to distract the driver even
though the driver had both hands on the whee l. In some studies, drivers
themselves have admitted that they've become distracted emotionally when
they use any type of cell phone while driving. When driver concentration is
impaired, the focus is away from the road and from operating the vehicle at
maximum efficiency. Also, there could be a false sense of hope if people think
they are being safe because they're using a hands-free model of cell phone
while driving.

Some companies have enacted policies for their employees that state that an
employee must not use a cell phone while driving, but must always pull over
and stop the vehicle safely before using the phone. Some studies have shown
that using a cell phone while driving is actually just as dangerous as driving
drunk! Both factors can impair concentration as well as reaction time to other
vehicles or problems on the road. If a cell phone is used in crawling traffic such
as a traffic jam, it is not as likely to cause danger as when a driver uses a cell
phone at even moderate speeds or on twisting and t urning roads.

c) Cell phones and their new functions.


Mobile phones are designed to work on cellular networks and contain a
standard set of services that allow phones of different types and in different
countries to communicate with each other. However, they can also support
other features added by various manufacturers over the years:
 roaming which permits the same phone to be used in multiple countries,
providing that the operators of both countries have a roaming agreement.
 send and receive data and faxes (if a computer is attached), a ccess
WAP services, and provide full Internet access using technologies such
as GPRS.
 applications like a clock, alarm, calendar and calculator and a few
games.
 Sending and receiving pictures and videos through MMS, and for short
distances with e.g. Bluetooth.
 GPS receivers integrated or connected (i.e. using Bluetooth) to cell
phones, primarily to aid in dispatching emergency responders and road
tow truck services. This feature is generally referred to as E911.
 Push to talk, available on some mobile phones, is a feature that allows
the user to be heard only while the talk button is held, similar to a walkie-
talkie.
 features aimed toward personalisation, such as user defined and
downloadable ring tones and logos, and interchangeable covers, which
have helped in the uptake by the teenage market. Mobile phone content
advertising has become massively popular but has also drawn a great
deal of criticism. Usually one can choose between a ring tone, a vibrating
alert, or a combination of both.

As a result of all these features packed into a tiny device, mobile phones have
recently gained reputations for their poor ergonomics. Their small size, plethora
of features and modes, and attempts at stylish design may make them difficult
and confusing to use.

BlackBerry has recently announced its latest smartphone called 6  6'


#  that comes with impressive list of specifications. This phone
runs on BlackBerry 6.1 OS and is powered by 1.2 GHz of Qualcomm processor.
The networks supported by the model include CDMA EV -DO,
GPRS/EDGE/GSM and UMTS/HSDPA.

There is 3.7 inches of capacitive touchscreen display in the phone that delivers
good content quality thanks to its high resolution support of up to 480 X 800
pixels. The phone also comes with integrated accelerometer and
magnetometer.

For capturing all your special moments in form of go od quality images,


6  6' #  comes equipped with 5 MP camera with Auto
Focus and LED Flash. Beside still images the camera is also capable of 720p
HD video recording.

The internal memory of the phone is 4GB and its microSD card slot facilitat es
expansion of the external memory. Additional features of BlackBerry Monaco
Touch include Micro USB port, GPS Navigation, Bluetooth 2.1, WiFi, 768MB
RAM and others.
d) Potential health problems caused by cell phones.
1

7" 

 "

 They emit microwaves.


 They produce heat.
 You hold the source of the emission close to your brain.
 There are claims that people have had brain tumors in the exact size, shape
and position as the antenna on their cell phone.

 " 

 Cell phones use a very, very low level of radio frequency (rf) energy - too low to
cause damage.
 The type of energy emitted is non -ionizing - meaning it doesn't cause damage
to chemical bonds or dna.
 Hundreds of millions of people have been using cell phones and cordless
phones for years. If there were a problem, we would have seen it by now.

8

Studies have been conducted suggesting that rats that have been exposed to
microwaves similar to the sort generated by mobile phones but more pow erful, showed
breaks in their DNA which could indicate an adverse effect. Also, mice exposed to
radiation for 18 months developed brain tumors. Though of course, these studies are
not concrete proof.

6 1

It was observed that people using cell phones were prone to high blood pressure.
Again, there isn't any concrete evidence of the same.

1'
A study at the University of Montpellier in France was carried out on 6000 chick
embryos and suggested that the heavily exposed chick eggs were five times less likely
to survive than the control group.

This study raised questions about possible effects on pregnant women but it has not
yet appeared in peer -reviewed scientific literature or been reproduced, so it s findings
are difficult to assess.

7
, 7


A study brought out that longer the people used mobile phones, the more likely they
were to report symptoms such as hot ears, burning skin, headaches and fatigue.
The study did not include a control group (that is people who do not use mobile
phones, to make a comparison); therefore the symptoms reported could have been
caused by any number of other factors in the mobile phones users' environment, such
as working with computers, stre ss, driving or reading.

#'
There have been various studies into the connection between mobile phones and
memory loss. A study looked into the effect of radiofrequency (RF) on the section of
rats' brains that is linked with the memory. The results sh owed that RF could modify
signals in the cells in a part of the brain that is responsible for learning and short term
memory.

19 
"
 :

Some researchers claim that holding a mobile phone between the raised s houlder and
the ear could have a damaging effect on muscles, bones, tendons and discs. These
problems would apply equally to a cordless phone or a landline phone as to a mobile
phone and are the effect of bad posture.

#
1 


Because of their smaller heads, thinner skulls and higher tissue conductivity, children
may absorb more energy from a given phone than adults.

e) How would life be like without cell phones?


To have freedom away from telephones while out of the house is a glorious
thing, a somewhat peaceful innerself forcing yourself to pay attention to the
outside world instead of a little screen with touch buttons. People deffinetly paid
attention to the world a little more before cell phones. Worrying about
emergencies or not having milk at home was just a simple life challange that I
think could do some people good to worry about that today. You have a flat tire?
then walk to a pay phone and call a tow truc k. what's the big deal.

I still don't own a cell phone, and I love every minute of it. It's sad that the whole
world is so tied down to a device that holds back humanity from a more human
connection. and while that may seem off key, only those of us that lived lives
B.C. (before cells) would I suspect understand.

No internet, so I loose something to do after work. whatever. I could learn once


again to find something better to do. Without the internet children would be
forced to spend their afternoons at a l ibrary, learning card catalogs and reading
things called books.

Perhaps educated the worlds children into learning in a different perspective.


Having a respect for those before us , whom lived life on simple terms.
5- Internet:
a) The impact of internet on people¶s daily life.
The Internet is expected to lead to changes in how people communicate,
how they work, and how they spent their leisure. The evidence suggests that
the Internet has blended into the rhythms of every day life: the Internet is used
at work, in schools, in universities, and hospitals. It is used for a wide variety of
purposes, such as surfing for information, playing online games, and chatting
(Howard et al., 2002; Quan -Haase et al., 2002).

An analysis of the impact of the Internet needs to consider how the Internet
may be contributing to new forms of interaction and community that cannot be
measured using standard indicators of social capital. The fact that people are
not interacting in visible public spaces does not mean that they are in isolation.
They may be going online to chat with friends on instant messenger, visiting
online communities by playing multi-user games such as MUDs or MOOs, or
exchanging short text messages through ³list serves´ or ³newsgroups´ (Smith,
1999; Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler, Mukopadhay, & Scherlis, 1998;
Matei and Ball-Rokeach, 2001). The Internet makes it necessary to rede fine our
understanding of what social capital is and hence, to introduce new ways to
measure it.

Analysts have proposed three basic ways in which the Internet may affect
community:

 h  

    
 : The Internet through its
entertainment and information capabilities draws people away from
family and friends. Further, by facilitating global communication and
involvement, it reduces interest in the local community and its politics
(Nie, 2001; Nie, Hillygus, & Erbring, 2002) .
 h  


  
 : The Internet provides the means
for inexpensive and convenient communication with far-flung
communities of shared interest (Barlow, 1995; Wellman 2001b). Through
its low costs and asynchronous nature it increases communication
among friends and family, especially contact with those who are far
away.
 h  

   
 
: A third perspective sees the
Internet as another means of communication to facilitate existing social
relationships and follow patterns of civic engagement and socialization.
The Internet blends into people¶s life. People will use the Inte rnet to
maintain existing social contacts by adding electronic contact on to
telephone and face-to-face contact. Further, they continue their hobbies
and political interests online.

b) The internet addiction vs the internet phobia.


According to CNN, new research in Taiwan links Internet addiction to a range of
mental health disorders including social phobia.

The study, which followed more than 2,000 stu dents for two years beginning in
seventh grade, found that approximately 10 percent were addicted to the
Internet when the study began. Those who displayed Internet addiction were
more likely to develop mental health problems over the next two years.
Interestingly, although ADHD and hostility were found in both genders, only girls
appeared to be at higher risk for depression and social phobia.

The study has drawn some criticism due its dependence on self -reporting by the
students. Nonetheless, the research is being taken seriously.

Internet addiction is not currently a diagnosable disorder. However, it may be


included in the 2012 revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.

_  :

It is important to note the chicken -and-egg quality of this study. Although the
evidence for a link between Internet addiction and mental health disorders
seems sound, it is not yet clear whether Internet addiction causes disorders.
Perhaps those who already suffer from certain mental health conditions are
naturally drawn to the "safety" of the Internet. In any event, as the Internet
becomes ever more ingrained in our daily lives, it is important to remain vigilant
about its possible negative impacts.

,

 °3

#'6c ',"



"Our culture both mandates and facilitates time spent online," write Dimitri A.
Christakis, M.D., M.P.H., of the Center for Child Health, Behavior and
Development, Seattle, and Megan A. Moreno, M.D., M.P.H., in an
accompanying editorial. "Woven as it is into the fabri c of today's society, the
potential for Internet use to lead to overuse and ultimately to addiction is
concerning «"

"Part of the failure to recognize this potential 21st -century epidemic is the
simple fact that many of us, Blackberry in hand, check e-mail more than we
would like. The inherent difficulties in defining Internet addiction and our own
need for rectification should not prevent us from recognizing an emerging
epidemic," Dr. Christakis and Dr. Moreno continue. "As pediatricians and indeed
as parents, we have all experienced the pull that the Internet can have on
children."

"If all at-risk children achieve sufficient exposure to become addicted, the
prevalence of Internet addiction may easily approach the 2 percent to 12
percent of children reported in other countries, quickly ranking it among the
most common chronic diseases of childhood," they conclude. "Our intention in
raising this concern is not to be alarmist but rather to alert pediatricians to what
might become a major public health problem for the United States in the 21st
century."

c) Positive effects of the internet on people.


The Internet changed our life enormously, there is no doubt about that. There are many
advantages of the Internet that show you the importance of this new medium. W hat I
want to say is that Internet changed our life in a positive way.

First we have to make a differentiation concerning the usage. You can use the Internet
at home for personal or you at work for professional usage. Let¶s come to the first. To
spend a part of our day on the Internet is for many people quite normal. They use this
kind of medium to get information about all kinds topics. Maybe some of them are
interested in chatting, probably they are members of a community. Whatever you are
looking for, you will find it. Even if you want to have very specific information, you will
find it in a short time. Normally, you often have to send a letter, than you have to wait
for the reception of the reply, or you have to make some telephone calls and so on. In
any case, the traditional way is the longer one. To put your own information on the
Internet is also possible. Create your own homepage, tell other users about your
interests, what you want, that¶s no problem at all.

As we all know, software costs a lot, if you buy it legal. Free software, free music is
available on the Internet. You just have to download the program, the mp3 -file or
whatever and that¶s it. Why do you want to pay more as you need to? Special websites
are created just to give you the newest p rograms, or to tell you where you can get it
from. Napster might actually be the most famous one.

The computer is a fix part of every modern office and the greatest part has also an
access to the Internet. Companies already present their products, their se rvices on the
Internet and so they get more flexible.

The next advantage I want to mention is the faster development. Many universities and
research institutions are also linked. They are able to exchange experiences, novelties
and often they start new pr ojects together. If they are linked, they can save time and
money.

Especially at the business sector knowledge is power. If you are the leader of a
product, of a technology or just of an idea you are able to make a lot of money. To get
into this position, the Internet can play an essential part. Companies all over the world
are online. If you want, it is no problem for you to exchange experiences, you will hear
new things, you will see some facts from another point of view. For this reason you will
find new solutions, new ways to go, so take this chance!