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“Safety related

control systems EU-Symposium


for machinery“ “Safety related control systems for machinery”

Brussels, 9th September 2010

“Practical application of EN ISO 13849-1


for machine tools”

INDEX Werke GmbH & Co. KG Hahn & Tessky

Eberhard Beck Head of control techniques INDEX-Werke

09.09.10 ST/Beck -1-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -2-
“Safety related
control systems History of INDEX-Werke
for machinery“ From the beginning …

1914 1914 1954 1970


Founded by Begin with the production 20.000 INDEX machines sold First NC machine
Hermann Hahn of turret screw machines

1985 1990 1992 1997


First CNC-controlled multi The Eugen und Irmgard Introduction of the modular Merger with
spindle machine with Hahn foundation becomes building block system with TRAUB-Drehmaschinen
hollow shaft motor shareholder with 85% after the RatioLine and VerticalLine GmbH
the death of Eugen Hahn
09.09.10 ST/Beck -3-
“Safety related
control systems History of INDEX-Werke
for machinery“ … to the past 10 years

2000 2002 2005 2009

Introduction of flexible Integration of various First provider of a Introduction of 5-axis-


high performance technologies in serial Virtual Machine turn mill centers of the
turn mill centers production for the PC newest generation

09.09.10 ST/Beck -4-


“Safety related
control systems Customer segments and industries
for machinery“ … typical cycle times and part numbers

Cycle times
Medical Industry from ≥ 1 second
up to > 2,5 hours
typical 30 to 240 s
Air- / Spacecraft Technology

Fittings / Fluidics

Electronics

Automotive
Number of parts
from single part
Optics / Precision Mechanics
production up to
> 10 Mio parts/year
09.09.10 ST/Beck -5-
“Safety related
control systems INDEX-Werke GmbH & Co. KG
for machinery“ … in figures, locations and subsidiaries

Turnover (2008) 510 Mio €


Number of Employees (2008) ca. 1950
Number of Machines (2008) ca. 1200
Export rate ca. 40 %

Locations and
subsidiaries Agents

09.09.10 ST/Beck -6-


“Safety related
control systems Typical parts machined by INDEX machine tools
for machinery“ (examples for bar machining)

09.09.10 ST/Beck -7-


“Safety related
control systems Working zone of INDEX machines
for machinery“ (example)

09.09.10 ST/Beck -8-


“Safety related
control systems Machining inside INDEX machines
for machinery“ (video example)

09.09.10 ST/Beck -9-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -10-
“Safety related
control systems Workpiece clamping device as safety function
for machinery“ (based on EN ISO 23125 + EN ISO 13849 requirements )

09.09.10 ST/Beck -11-


“Safety related
control systems Workpiece clamping safety function
for machinery“ “state of the art”
safety equipment (sensors) are monitored by PLC

Monitoring pres-
sure cylinder A
Monitoring pres-
sure cylinder B
Monitoring jaw
Sensor for position
jaw position
Sensors for PLC control +
clamping PLC software
Main spindle
pressure with chuck
Monitoring
24V/I hydraulic
Clamping/ pressure
unclamping
nonreturn valves 24V/O Pressure cylinder A
valves
A
Hydraulic pipes Pressure cylinder B
24V/O
B

24V/O Cylinder stop

Enabling cylinder
Hydraulic power 24V/O movement
supply
P

09.09.10 ST/Beck -12-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -13-
“Safety related
control systems
for machinery“

EN 12415
Cat. “1”
EN954-1

09.09.10 ST/Beck -14-


“Safety related
control systems “C-Standards” for machine tools
for machinery“ in relation to “accidents at machine tools”

Improvement of accidents
in Germany since 1993
Meldepflichtige Unfälle an Werkzeugmaschinen

50000

45000

40000
Anzahl

35000

30000

25000
Maschinenrichtlinie (und Typ C Normen)
20000
1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Jahr
09.09.10 ST/Beck -15-
“Safety related
control systems
for machinery“

09.09.10 ST/Beck -16-


“Safety related
control systems
for machinery“

EN 23125
PL “b”
EN13849

09.09.10 ST/Beck -17-


“Safety related
control systems EN ISO 23125 workpiece clamping function
for machinery“ “state of the art”
EN ISO 13849 safety calculation

Institute of employers„ liability


insurance association (BGIA)

safety function “workpiece clamping”

evaluation according to DIN EN ISO 13849:2007

09.09.10 ST/Beck -18-


“Safety related
control systems VDW-Project
for machinery“ Functional safety for machine tools

More than 100 experts: 60 designers, 30 suppliers, 16 Safety Experts, …have


- 20 typical safety functions for machine tools defined
- 10 safety functions have been calculated in more than 1,5 years
- over 40 meetings have been hold and more than 200.000 € have been spent

09.09.10 ST/Beck -19-


“Safety related
control systems Definition of safety functions
for machinery“ workpiece clamping device
“state of the art”

Standstill of the spindle

Clamping of the workpiece


Clamping
Diagnosis clamping state and door
at
Run up of the spindle

Diagnosis clamping pressure and position


Clamping
Machining of the workpiece at
Run down of the spindle

Opening of the clamping device

09.09.10 ST/Beck -20-


“Safety related
control systems Definition of safety functions
for machinery“ workpiece clamping device
“state of the art”

safety function

safely limited speed d

SF2 workpiece clamping b


without speed (= 0)

SF3 Monitoring work- b


piece clamping with
speed (> 0)

09.09.10 ST/Beck -21-


“Safety related
control systems Safety block diagram + SISTEMA “PL result”
for machinery“ workpiece clamping safety function
“state of the art”

EN ISO 23125

SISTEMA
PL “b”
EN23125

EN ISO 23125

SISTEMA
PL “c”
EN23125

09.09.10 ST/Beck -22-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -23-
“Safety related
control systems EN ISO 13849 result / requirements
for machinery“ workpiece clamping safety function
“new safety status?”

PLrequired
PL “d”
EN13849
?

Selection of performance levels, a - e

Figure A.1 – risk graph to define the performance level for each safety function

09.09.10 ST/Beck -24-


“Safety related
control systems EN ISO 13849 requirements
for machinery“ Comparison workpiece clamping safety function
against remaining residual risks in practice

In spite of PLr (EN 13849) “d” – in practice there is no


significant increasing of real safety at the machine

Because the following remaining residual risks in practice


also have to be considered:
- The risk of a collision between moving tools, tool carriers
and the workpiece or the workpiece clamping device

- The risk for a lack of clamping force based on a bad


maintenance condition of the clamping devices

- The risk of an insufficient hydraulic clamping


pressure in relation to the machining operations
- The risk for a not suitable maximum spindle speed
for the clamping device and / or the workpiece
09.09.10 ST/Beck -25-
“Safety related
control systems EN ISO 13849 requirements
for machinery“ Evaluation EN ISO 13849 requirements
against experts experience in practice

Without having PLr based on experts experience out of


“Type C” standard, the found high end PLr” of EN 13849
can be misleading

- The safety status only can be seemingly increased.


In practice, seldom a real safety improvement at the
real machine can be achieved

- The “high end PLr” requires high efforts in realization.


Remaining risks outside the scope of the safety related
control system could stay unnoticed

- The “high end PLr” often is very difficult to realize.


This can cause to further problems in operation of the
machine and lead to the manipulation of safety devices
09.09.10 ST/Beck -26-
“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -27-
“Safety related
control systems
for machinery“
Conclusion

Conclusion:

The big differences between new EN ISO 13849 PLr


safety requirements and EN 954-1 safety categories
based on “type C” safety standards leads to great
trouble and uncertainty among the applicants of the
EN ISO 13849 standard

09.09.10 ST/Beck -28-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -29-
“Safety related Difficulties in application of EN ISO 13849
control systems
for machinery“ Safety function based on EN 954-1 has been a
1:1 relationship

Technical
layout (Mechanic,
Hydraulik. Hard-/
Software)

Translation from
Technical layout
to
Logical structures of
EN 954-1 categories
“relative easy”
for technicians

Logical
structure of safety
functions according
EN 954-1
09.09.10 ST/Beck -30-
“Safety related Difficulties in application of EN ISO 13849
control systems
for machinery“ From the point of view of a machine tool (MT) builder …
How to translate safety function into EN 13849?

Technical
layout (Mechanic,
Hydraulik. Hard-/
Software)

How to translate from


Technical layout

EN 13489 safety
to
?
block-diagrams?

Structure
of EN 13849
functions safety
block-diagrams
09.09.10 ST/Beck -31-
“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -32-
“Safety related Difficulties in application of EN ISO 13849
control systems
for machinery“ Safety functions based on EN 13849 have a
1:n relationship

SF2: Werkstückspannen im Stillstand (Anlauf verhindern bei falschem Spannzustand)

S1 K2 K1 + T1 M

Spannwegkontrolle Standard SPS Blatt NCU S840D


KR5701.51371 (Seite 515) + SINAMICS
Blatt KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)

SF3: Werkstückspannen unter Drehzahl (lösen verhindern)

G1 K1 + T1 K2 Spannmechanik

Motorgeber Werkstückspindel NCU S840D Standard SPS Blatt


+ SINAMICS KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)
Blatt KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)

SF4: Spindel stillsetzen bei Druckverlust

Spannmechanik S2 K2 K1 + T1 M

Drucküberwachung Standard SPS Blatt NCU S840D


KR5701.51371 (Seite 515) + SINAMICS
Blatt KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)

09.09.10 ST/Beck -33-


“Safety related Difficulties in application of EN ISO 13849
control systems
for machinery“ Safety functions based on EN 13849 have a
1:n relationship

SF5: Druckänderung verhindern unter Drehzahl

G1 K1 + T1 K2 Gesteuertes Druckventil

Motorgeber Werkstückspindel NCU S840D Standard SPS Blatt


+ SINAMICS KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)
Blatt KR5701.51371 (Seite 515)

K1 + T1

Sicherheitssteuerung

Spannungsversorgung für Ventilsteuerung


wird über PROFISAFE geschaltet

SF2 und SF4 sind bei BGIA Betrachtung nicht abgebildet. Kein Induktivgeber in SF2 bei BGIA.

PLr c weil bei Fräsmaschinen d zum Einsatz kommt.

09.09.10 ST/Beck -34-


“Safety related
control systems Overview
for machinery“ Structure for the Presentation

0 General Introduction The company of INDEX

1 Practical application of Workpiece clamping device


EN 13849 to Machine Tool as EN 13849 safety function
Requirements according
EN 12415 // EN ISO 23125
Requirements applying
EN ISO 13849 risk analysis
Conclusion

2 Further experiences out of Translation problems “How


the EN ISO 13849 application to get EN ISO 13849 diagrams”?
Multiple safety functions for
EN ISO 13849 requirements

3 Summary out of the EN ISO 13849


application
09.09.10 ST/Beck -35-
“Safety related
control systems Summary
for machinery“ - out of the EN ISO 13849 application

1. For EN ISO 13849 application there is no description or guideline how


to “translate” technical structures into EN ISO 13849 based safety
block structures for EN ISO 13849 evaluation and calculation.
2. EN ISO 13849 beginners are not able to understand and apply EN
ISO13849 standard without (foreign) introduction and practical
training.
3. The need to specify and define multiple EN ISO 13849 safety functions
for the evaluation of one physical technical safety structure requires
great efforts which SME seldom are able to spend.
4. Different level of safety requirements inside EN 954-1 based C-
standards in comparison to EN ISO 13849 based risk analysis lead
to great uncertainty and trouble among EN ISO 13849 applicants.
5. The “high end PLr” of EN ISO 13849 based risk analysis often is much
beyond the technical “state of the art”. It's realization is difficult, very
expensive and causes most further problems in machine operation.

09.09.10 ST/Beck -36-


“Safety related
control systems Recommendation
for machinery“ - out of the experience of the EN ISO 13849 application

1. There should be a written guideline how to “translate”


technical structures into EN ISO 13849 based safety block
structures in general
2. There should also be a guideline how to apply EN ISO
13849 calculation for EN ISO 13849 based safety block
structures in general
3. The EN ISO 13849-1 and ISO 14121 risk assessment should
be synchronized and harmonized!
4. The safety requirements in C-Standards – based on experts
experience – have to be the leading value in EN ISO 13849
“translation” of these standards!

09.09.10 ST/Beck -37-


“Safety related
control systems EU-Symposium
for machinery“ “Safety related control systems for machinery”

Thank you for your attention!

Questions?

Eberhard Beck Head of control techniques INDEX-Werke


09.09.10 ST/Beck -38-

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