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Conduct of Yudhanjaya 2 Conduct of Somanassa 3 Conduct of Ayoghar:a

4 Conduct (involving) Lotus-Stalks 5 Conduct of Wise SOQa


6 Conduct of Wise Temiya


7 Conduct of the Monkey-King 8 Conduct of Wise Sacca

9 Conduct of the Young Quail 10 Conduct of the Fish-King

1 J Conduct of Kanhadlpayana 12 Conduct of Surasoma


13 Conduct of Suvanna-Sfima 14 Conduct of Ekaraja

PERFECTION OF EQUANIMITY The Great Astounding Conduct


Index of Pali Proper Names

PAGE 30 31 32 34 35

39 40 40 41

43 44



Homage to that Lord, Arahant, Fully Self-Awakened One






1 In the interval between now? and a hundred thousand eons and four incalculables ago, all that conduct- was maturing for Awakening.

:4 Setting aside conduct in many an existence in past eons; I will speak of conduct in this eon. Listen to me."

3 When I, having plunged- into a huge forest, into an empty? open forest-glade", was living as an ascetic named Akitti,

4 Then the overlord of the Threefold Heaven" (his ornamental seat) warmed by the incandescence of my austerity, approached me for almsfood in the guise of a brahman,

! Akitti-jataka, No. 480. Cf. jtm, NO.7 where the Bodhisatta is called Agasrya.

Ee reads Akatti, noticed as a v, 1. at Ceo lIn ll,i" Bhad.da-eon, CpA. 16, :~O.

J carim. CpA. 17 •• .,ading cariyaril. e",~bins etth~ caritan ti c[ijriyii, It then gives the same 8 cariya as at Pts, ii, 19, 225, Nda, 237.

4 The Buddha is said to have related Cp, to Sariputta, at his request, as he

is said too have related Bv. too,

sEe ajjhog,[ihf'tv.'1; CpA. 2T, Ce. Be -goh"tvii, 6 Of people, CpA. zc,

7 Ee vivinakanana ; CpA. 20, Ce vipina-, Be not clearly printed, probably v.Lpino-.

" Sakka, He rules (WP1' Tnvatimsa, here called Tid iva ..



5 Seeing him standing at my door 1, together with the receptacle (for food) I scattered (before him) leaves gathered from the forest, without oil and without srut.2

6 Having given him the leaves, I, turning the (food-) vessel upside down, abandoning a further search- (for alms), entered the little leaf-hut.

7 And a second and a third time he came up to me. Unmoved, without clinging4, I gave as before.

S By reason of this5 there was no discolouration of my physical frame. With zest and,with delight I spent that day.

9 If for only n month or for two months I were tofind a worthy recipient, unmoved, unflinching, I would give the supreme gift.

10 While I was giving him the gift I did not aspire for fame Or gain. Aspiring for omniscience I did those deeds (of merit).

1.2 CONDUCT OF SANKHA6 (Sankhacari yam)

I And again, when I was the brahman called Sankha, wanting to cross over the great ocean I was on my way to the port.'

2 There I saWl on the opposite side of the way a self-become one.? an unconquered one10 fating along a desert-path whose ground was hot and rough.

3 When I saw him on the opposite side of the way, I investigated this matter: "This isa field (for merit) that has been reached by a person desiring merit.

1 Of hi, leaf-hut, CpA. Z4.

2 It wns ia great gift of merit even though it was a lowly gift, ibid.

, Not part of the austere life to search for food twice in one day. ibid.

4 Unshaken by avarice, not clinging even minutely because of greed, ibid. > This gift, ibid.

" Sonkha-j5taka, No. 44<l. Called Soil.khahriihn-,"Q.nCIl,.iy,l1-;' nt. CpA. 28, j S· BCL identifies as ja. No. _124 which is also the identification he; gives for Cp, II. I".

7 The port of Tamalitti, in order to take a boat for Suvannabhumi (Burmar),

CpA. ,,8.

s Ee tatths adassirn, Ce tanh' addasami, Be tatth' adassarn, 9 A paccekabuddha, CpA. 28.

10 Not conquered by anyone of the kilesarnaras, defilements, and so forth.

CpA. 28 speaks of j Mara".



4 Just as a cultivator, seeing a field that would yield a great return, does not sow seed there, he cannot be in need of grain, 5 Even so I, desiring merit, seeing the glorious and superb field(for merit), if I 00 not: render service there, I cannot he in need of merit.

6 Just as a minister, desiring power? over the persons in a king's palace, does not give them wealth and grain, he dwindles in power,

7 Even so T, desiring merit, seeing one eminently worthy of a gift of faith, if I do not give him at gift, I will dwindle in merit ".

8 Thinking thus I, taking off' (my) sandals", honouring his feet, gave him sunshade and sandals.

9 T who was even a hundred times (more) delicate and comfortably nurtured" than him, yet fulfilling (the perfection of) Giving, thus I gave him (these things I needed more than he did).


(Kuru dharnmacariyarn)

I And again, when I was a king named Dhanafijaya in the superb city of Indapatta" I was furnished with the ten skilled (ways of acting).'

1 The paccckabud dha.

2 muddi, power, authority, a rate word. Cf. muddikarn iihanpesi. DhA. ii, 4, and muddikarh deti, Miln. 379.

• .a orohitva upahana, an unusual expression. At Vin. ii. 20,;,f. monks coming l,:,-to a mon"otcry lmvc to take off their sarrdala, up.hana olYluncitvii, (na a sign ef respect). But according to Ja No. 442 (iv, 16) the paccekabuddha knew the brahman would be shipwrecked but saved from drowning by his gift of sandals.

• 4 Even so, indifferent to his own phyaical htlrd,hip, he gave the peccckabuddho hiS. own sunshade and sandals .. 'Comfortably nurruredv=Be, Ceo v.l. sukhedhita; Ee, sukkhethita.

S Rurudlhammajataka, No. 276. justification for the name "The Story of Dh"fi3njay>\" as hMding in Ec ie apparcnely in.tcrnnl, for o.t end of the verees the name is Kurudhammacarivarh ; at CpA. 35", Ceo Be it is Kururaiacariyam. Also see lDh.o.. iv, 86ff. where, at p .. 88 as at ja. ii. 367, the Kurudhamn1;i are called the 5 srla, moral habits.

• S,1 Ce, CpA. But Iridapotpha in Ee, -prrtfhn ;n Be .•

~ CpA. 35, these are either the ren pufifiakiriyavatthu, grounds for making



2 Brahmans from the realm of the kingdom of Kalinga approached me; they requested me for the elephant-naga! which was regarded as auspicious and of good omen.

3 "The country has a drought, is short of food, there is a great famine. Give (us) the glorious black2 elephant- called Aiijana." 4- A refusal by me was not suitable when a supplicant had arrived. (1 thought), "let not my undertaking" be torn. I will give the mighty elephant>."

5 Having taken the elephants by the trunk, sprinkling water from a jewelled ceremonial vessel over the hand? T gave the elep antS to the brahmans,

6 When he had bestowed this" elephant? the ministers spoke thus: "Why did Y011 bestow the gloriolls elephant" on the supplicants?

7 Auspicious, possessed of gnarl omen, snpreme in conquest in battle, now that the elephant6 has heen hestowed what will your kingdom rio?"

8 J would give ev,m the whole of my kingdom, I would give my own hody. Omniscience wag dear to me, therefore I gave the elephant,"



I When in the city of Kusavati I was lord of the earth, n.amed Maha-Sudassana, a wheel-turner, very powerful,

merit (~f'1' P .. g. M A. i. '3'., TTJ. 2f(_;), [W the ten kusalakammapatha (see e.g. D. iii .... 69, IvL i. 287, A.. v. z66ff., cf. Netti, 43.), i.e. three skilled ways of acting by body, four by speech, three by thought. Also below, II. 8, z ; HI. 14, z. Mvrris's aurruise tlra t k usal.e, 1n kusale dasehi, is "lnerdy a contracted form fm·In.T'l>llehi"· (~f'e his Preface, p. xvi, n. 3 to Fe) ~s home out by CpA. 3';.

1 hatthinaga.

~ nila, not always dark blue, sometimes a lustrous black, see Bud. Psych.

Ethics, p. 6'1, n,

J n~ga. They said this believing he would hring rain, CpA. 3S. Below, ver, 7

suggests that without l:im there might be a drought.

• The gaining of omniscience. s gaja. 0 naga,

• Water of dedicati'on. "CpA. 38, Co, D~ tassa, 'by him', Ee tasrrlim.. ~ njiga. If he failed in tho first perfection he would he unable to win omnisc-

ience, CpA. 38.

10 Mahasudassana-suttanta, D. Sta, No. q, Mahasudassana-jataka, )l"o;95.

I foflo.w the verse-numbering in Ce, Be a. the arrangement sccrns better' than in Ee,




I had it proclaimed there three times daily in this place and that: Who wants, desires what? To whom what is. the wealth to be given?

Who is hungry? Who thirsty? Who (wants) a garland, who an unguent? Who, being naked, will put on many-hued raiment?

Who will take a parasol on the highway, who sandals, soft and pleasant.?! Thus in the evening and at dawn I had it prodaimed in this place and that.

Not in ten places nor merely in a hundred places, in countless hundreds of places wealth was got ready for the supplicants. If there came a mendicant beggar", whether by day or by night, receiving whatever goods- he wanted he went away with hi .. hands full.

T gave a great gift such as this as long as my life lasted. I gave the wealth not because it was disagreeable nor did I not have a hoard",

Just as an invalid in order to recover from an illness, satisfying the doctor! with (some) wealth. recovers from the illness, Even so did I, realizing" it, in order to achieve complete fulfilment? and to fill the mind that was lacking in contentment", give gifts to mendicant beggars? without attachment. expecting nothing in return.!" for the attainment of Self-Awakening,







I. 5 CONDUCT OF MAIIA-GOVINDAll (M ahagovindacariyam)

1 And again, when I was the brahman Maha-Covinda, priest

to seven kings12, I was honoured by devas among men.13 1 Ee muclusabha, CpA. 42 -subhii. Ce, Be lTIUdl1 subhd.

2 Ee vanipako, CpA. 44, Ce vanibbake, Be vanibbako. See BHSD. 3. Ee, Be bhogarn, Ce danarh.

"Ee pi natthi, Ce, Be na pi n'atthi, Cf. I. 5. 3 .. Not' In transl. not justified

jf we accept CpA.

s Ee, Be vaijarn, Ce vejjarn. 6 jiinamiinoj glossed by bujjhamano at CpA.

7 The fulfilment of the aspirations. of beings and my own, CpA.

• Ee unadhanarn ; CpA., Ge, Be unamanarn ... As my perfection of Giving

had not been fulfilled I hud not reached contentment ", CpA.

~ For spelling see above, ver. 6 n. to Ee apaccayo ; CpA., Ce, He -a~".

11 Cf. Maha-Govinda Sta., D. ii.; also :.\111"1.1. iii. J:9?!I.

1~ Named at D. iii. Z30.

13 nl<r~dey", here kings. CpA. 45 refers this to these kings and .11 other rulers, khauiya, in Iambudfpa.



z Then I, with whatever offerings I had in the seven kingdoms, gave great gifts, imperturbable like the ocean.!

3 Wealth and grain were not disagreeable to me, nor did I not2 have a hoard. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I gave g]orious wealth.>



I And again, when in the superb city of Mithila I was a great Icing named Nimi, learned, desiring good,"

2 1 had then four halls built (each) with four entrances". There 1 conferred gifts on beasts, birds, men and so forth",

3 Clothing and beds and food and drink and (a variety" of other) victuals~I conferred great gifts, making them continual."

4 Just as a servant, going to the master for the sake of wealth, seeks for satisfaction by gesture, speech, thought,

5 So will I seek in every becoming for what is produced for Awakening"; refreshing creatures with gifts-"; I long for supreme Awakening.


(Candakurnaracariyam 13)

I And again, when I was own son of Ekariija in the city of Pupphavati-", a prince called Can cia,

1 This seems to mean he neioher refused to give nor ,howf'rll favouritism.

Same simile, in other applications, at Bv. xi. r, Miln. ~ I, :: Ee pi ri'atthi, Ce, Be napi n'atthi .. Cf. 1. 4. 7.

3 CpA. 47 varam dhanan ti UnagHIITI icchitarn vfi, dlranarii, the utr nos.t wealth

wished for.

• Nimi-jataka, No. 541. s Of self and others, CpA. 5 I.

ti Doorways to the four directions, CpA. 53,

"Ee naranarinarn, men and wornen ; C~, Btl Ill<rauiu",il. CpA. says: not only on animals but on petas too.

8 So CpA. 54.

~ Ee, CpA. abbhocchinnarh; Ce, Be abbo-. He made the gifts in perpetuity

fOI the duration of his life.

10 CpA 55, knowledge of the "riynn Wnys, 11 So as to fulfil the perfection of Giving.

12 Khandahala-jataka, No. 542. For different versions see Handurukande,

p. 87. Mentioned Miln. :0:03.

13 CpA. S8 C~nd~r~j"c",iy~rrL 14 An old name for BiiriloasI, CpA. 58.




Then I, £rt;;:ed from (being made a) sacrifice, issuing forth from the sacrificial pit\ stirring up a deep thrilP, conferred 0. great gift.

I did not drink, I did not eat-', nor did I partake of soft food even for five or six nights without having given to one worthy of offerings.

Just as a merchant making a store of goods takes the goods there" where the profits are great,

Even so, even from what one has himself used, what is given to others is of great fruit; therefore what is to be given to others will become a hundredfold.

Knowing this truisms I gave gifts in existence after existence", For the attainment of Self-Awakening I did not draw back from giving.







( Sivirajacariyarh)

In the city called Arigha I was a warrior-noble named Slvi. Seated in a glorious palace I thought thus then:

"\Vhutever is a human gift8 there is none that has not been given by me. Even if someone should request me for an eye I would give it, unmoved."

Knowing my desire Sakka, lord of devas, sitting in a company of devas, spoke these words:

"Seated in a glorious palace Sivi the king, of great psychic ]potency, thinking of various gifts, does not see what could not be given.

Come, I will test? him as to whether this is true, not untrue. Wait for a moment till I know his mind."




1 CpA. 6r, Ce, Be yailii>lviitato, Ee -viit'lko.

• For a discussion of this difficult word see A. K. Ccomaraswamy, Sarnvega,

'Aesthetic Shock', I-IlAS Vol. 7, NO.3, Feb. '943· J khadati, the verb for eating solid or hard food. 4 Ce, :Be tattha tarn harati, Ee tatthaharati,

, etam atthavasam fiatvil \IS at Sn. 297. Here the reason for giving is tlre

expectation of gr-eat fmit as well no. being" means £Off gaining Full Awakf'l1ing. • bhavabhave in a variety of existences, CpA. does not comment here.

1 Sivi-jataka, N;. 499. i\-Ientioned Miln, IZO.

• CpA 64 "an ordinary human gift".

9 Ee virrH>rns"yiimi, Ce, Be vi-,



6 Appearing at; a trembling, grey-haired man", with wrinkled limbs, old, ill, and blind, he approached the king.

7 Stretching out his left and right arms then, bringing his clasped hands to his head, he spoke these words;

8 "I request you, great king, who have fostered the kingdum righteously, whose renown for delight in giving has spread to devas and men;

9 Even both my eyes, my guides, are b~ind, destroyed. Give me one eye, you too? keep going with one."

10 When I had heard his words, elated, deeply thrilled in mind," my hands clasped, filled with enthusiasm, I spoke these words:

n "Now I, thinking (of this) am come here from the palace; you, knowing my mind, are come to request an eye.

12 Ah, my intention is accomplished, fulfilled is my desire.

Today I will give a gloriou:s gift not given before to a supplicant. "

13 "Come, Sivaka4, be up and doing, do not lingerS, do not tremble. Plucking out even botheyes" give to the mendicant beggar."7

If Thereupon Slvaka, urged on by me, doing my bidding, tearing (them) out llike the pith of a palm-tree" bestowed them on the supplicant.

15Whilc I was desiring to give, while I was giving, and after the gift had been given by me, there was no contrariety of mind9; it was for the sake of Awakening itself ..

16 The two eyes were not disagreeable to me nor was myselflO disagreeable to me. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I gave the cye( 3).

1 He phalitasiro, Ce, Be palita-,

, They would then each have one eye, CpA. 65.

3 For it was a. though the' brahman' knew his thoughts, CpA. 65, as described

in next ver,

4 Sivi's physician.

, Ec, CpA. 68 dantayi, Ce, Be dandhayi, 6 E", nayane, Ce, Be -nsm,

7 Ee VB tibbake, w.r, for vanibbake, See 1. 4. 6n.

, t.alamifija. But perhaps meaning the kernel of a nut from the palm-tree.

o ciua""", ",matha, see CPD s.v. ailflatha. Same expression at EvA. 60, Ja. i, 46, ApA. 50.

10 Cf III. 6. !9, which reads atta me na ca ; above all edns, readatta ria me TIll, except Ja. 1'1. 406 which, mentioning Cp by name and quoting this ver e . , leads attauam HU; ria,





She who was my mother" the warrior-noble lady named Phusatf' and Sakka's chief consort" in a former birthf-e-

On seeing" the destruction of her life-span, the lord of devas spoke thus, "I am giving you ten boons, lovely one,choose~ the boon you wish."

And 'when this had been said that devt spoke of this again? to Sakka, "In what way is there a fault in me? In what way am I disagreeable to you that you cause me to decease from

a delightful place as the wind (blows down) a dharanrroha"?" And when this had been said, Sakka again said this to her, "It is not at all that you have done any evil and nor are you

not dear to me.

To this extent only is your life-span; it must be the time for deceasing. Accept the boons given by me, ten inccrnpar-

able boons."

She, Phusatl, given the boons by Sakka., elated, exultant, joyous, accepted the ten boons including myself.'>

She, Phusatl, deceasing from there, arose among warriornobles in the city of jetuttara'", and wedded Safijaya,

When I descended into the womb of Phusati, my dear mother, through my incandescence my IIIULll!:[ was always

ddighting in giving.

"Vessantsra-jataka, No. 5+7; Jtm NO.9. Detailed bibliography at Lamotte T'raite vol, .ol, p. 7'3- Rcf","cnces to Vessantara and the Jl at Miln, "3, Z74, VA. 245, DhA. i. 84, !IS, iii. 164, VbhA. 414. Mahavamsa 30. 88. Culavarnsa 42- 5.

2 he Phussatl, but Phusati ill vcr. 7, 8. 10. J Be, Ce ca. mahes,ya, De mahesf piya.

4 In spite of pl. atltasu jatim, CpA. 74 maintains that the immediately preceding ibi,th is meant.

e Ee, Ce disva, Be fiatva,

.~ Eo. Be vare, C" vara, CpA. 75 vad ti varasau varamgaJ;l.ha, clroosc a boor: among boom.

1 CpA. 7S pun' idarn, this again, referring to Phusatl's imminent decease from the eleva-world. Ee, Ce, Be purindarn . Purinda, lord of cities, and purindada, bounteous giver, abo meaning citaclcl-b rcnlrer, ore among S"ld",'s epithets.

8 See Jj.. vi. ¥!2, 497, Miln. 376. 385, 410 for this name of a tree,

9 Le, she made me t(1 be included among these boons {to be received).

CpA. 76.

1" The capital of Sivi kingdom where reigned Sivi and his son Safiiaya,





'"7 I




'9 She gave gifts to the destitute, the sick, the old, to supplicants, to people travelling", to recluses and brahrnans, to those who had loot their property-, to those who had nothing.

10 Phusati, carrying me for ten months, making a circuit of the city gave, birth to me in the street of the vessa. 3

I I My name was not from my mother's side! nor yet did it. originate hom my father's-, As I was born there6 in the street of the merchants" therefore Vessanatara? was T called.

12 When I was a boy, eight years old, seated in the palace then I thought of giving gifts.

13 I would give my heart, eyes, flesh and even too my blood, I made it known" I would give my body should anyone request me,

While I was considering my state (of mind) which was unmoved, steadfast, the earth, garlanded with Sineru's (celestial) Groves:9, trembled there.

Every fortnight-" (and invariably) on the full moon day, the Observance (day), 1 mounted the elephant Paccaya and went

to give a gift.

11 Brahmans from the realm of the kingdom of Kalinga approached me; they requested me for the elephant-nags which was regarded as auspicious and of good omen:

"The country has a drought, is short of food, there is a great famine. Give (us) the glorioll~ all-white elephant, supreme

among elephants.'


I" I

1 CpA. 77, Ce, Be addhike, Be patthike, noticed as a Y. L at Ce with patthi-,

psthi- (also noted at Be).

2 klill;le, so explained at CpA. ".

J The common people, Vaisya being a scdry, of vis, a settlement.

4 Ee mettikarh, CpA. ,3, Ce rnatti- noticing the reading metti-, also Be, , Ee rnettika-, CpA., C~, Be peuika-.

6 E"" Ja, vi, 485' jato 'mhi, noted M CpA. ,R which with Ce, Be reads jilt'


7 Among the vessas,

e Be yacetva, CpA., Ce, Be, la. "I. 486 siiwtvii.

9 Groves in Tiivatimsa (11R11"'-rl at l-11!'\. "79, Vism, 424) arisen on Sineru are known as Sineru's Groves. Or, the meaning is Sineru and the delightful G-roves in the (various) jambudipas and Sineru-Grove. This means garlanded With Sineru's Groves (CpA.).

)0 Ee addhaddhamase, Ce, R~ anvaddha-, also CpA. 80 which glosses by anu-addhamase, See Vin. iv. 145 anvaddhamjisan ti anuposathikarn, every fast day.

11 As pointed out a! CpA. 81 the 've -sea beginning here (.6, I7, 19, <\0) have o ceurred R l~e''':\y (~t 1. 3· 2- S) .



I did not waver, I gave whatever the brahmans requested of me. I did not conceal what was there (in my possession), my mind delighted in giving.

A refusal by me wag not suitable when a supplicant had arrived. (I thought) "let not my undertaking be torn. I will give the mighty elephant."

Having taken the elephant by the trunk, sprinkling water from a jewelled ceremonial vessel over the hand, I gave the elephant to the brahmans,

An-d again, when I was giving the superb all-white elephant the earth, garlanded with Sineru's (celestial) Groves, trembled then too,

At the gift of the elephant the people of Sivi.! angry, gathered together; they banished me from my own kingdom (saying), "Let him go to Mount Vanka."

While they were driving me out, unmoved, steadfast, I requested- one boon: to confer a great gift.

On being requested, 311 the people of Sivi gave me the one boon. I, having a pair of drums ' sounded", gave the great gift.

Then at this sound great was the tumult, the dread. Because of that (earlier) gifts they threw me out-e-I gave the gift again. Giving slephants, horses, chariots, women and men slaves, cattle, riches-having given the great gift, I departed from the city then.

When r h ad departed from the city and turned back to look (at it),6 the earth, garlanded with Sineru's (celestial) Groves, trembled then too ..

Giving the chariot drawn by four horses', standing quite alone 'without a companion at a great cross-road, I said to the lady Maddi:






! Including the sons of King Sivi, and in fact Everyone except King Safijaya, Queen Phusatj, and the lady Maddt, CpA. 8;;:,

1: Re, Ce ayaciss:am, Be -cisarn.

l ka'.ll}.abherin ti yugalamahabherirn, CpA. 85, a pair of great drums, or perhaps 8 double-drum,

• TIc ayii""yitvii; Y. 1. tii""v"yi~vii at CpA arul so at Ce with v, ll. s;;'vetva, iiYHvayitva; R". 8i\vayitvu. Explained n t CpA hy !l'ho~ii.petvii.

; Ee, Ce danena mam, Be diinen' imam.

• nivattitvii vilokite ; d. D. ii. 122 where the Buddha for the last time" gazed at Vc;ali with the elepnant-Iook ", lIiigiipalokita111 V. apal.oleetvd ; cf. Divy z c S.

, Giving it to thl' hmhrnnns, l-pA. 85.




"You) Maddi, take Kanha, she is light and the younger. ] win take Jali for heavy is he being the brother".

Maddi took up KaQ-hajina as though she were a blue lotus (or) a white water-lily. I took up the warrior-noble Fili as though he were a golden gourd.!

Four warrior-noble people, well-born, delicately nurtured, walking on uneven and on even (ground), were going towards Mount Vanka.

Whatever people were coming2 the same way or from the opposite direction, we asked them the way saying, "Where is Mount Vanka.?"

Seeing us there they uttered compassionate words, they made known their sorrow --far away was Mount Vanka.

If the children saw trees in fruit in the forest>, the children cried out for these fruits.

When the taIl4 massive trees saw that the children were crying, bending down of their own accord, they came within reach of the children,

Seeing this marvel, wonderful, astounding) Maddi, beautiful in every limb, gave applause.

"A marvel indeed in the world, wonderful) astounding. The trees hove bent down of themselves through Vessantara's incandescence. "5

Out of compassion for the children yakkhas shortened the path ; on the very day they set out they reached the Ceta kingdom.

Sixty thousand kings were living then in Matula. 6 All, holding up their clasped hands, weeping') came forward.

When they had held conversation there with the Ceta (kings) and their sons, departing from there they8 came to Mount Vanka.







., an image, also a kind of gourd. A~ noted by BeL, p. 103, n, 2- .. The line jalarn hatthe akiritva brahmananam adam gajaIi1 which follows ill text of the P.T.S. is cmieted in other recenoiono nncl [s not supported b,. the Commentary. ~ therefore refrain from translatinz it."

2 Ee yanti, CpA_ 86, Ceo Beenti, J Ee, Be pavane .. C" pavana,

• Ee ubbrdha, Be ubbiddha, Ce ubbigga, 'The might of his merit, CpA. 87· 6 Ee miltula, Ce, Be matule alec CpA. 88 which cruls it a city in the Ceta


, CpA explains this was because they were much concerned to see that it was Vessantara who had come in such circumstances,

8 This refers to ""Va four people", CpA. 88.



The lord of devas, addressing Vissakamrna' who was of great psychic potency, said, "Create properly a well-made hermit-

age, a delightful leaf-hut. " -

When Vissakamma 1 who was of great psychic potency had heard Sakka's words, he created properly a welt-made h~rmit-

age, a delightful leaf-hut. "

Plunging into the forest which was quiet and undisturbed, we four people lived there on the mountain,

I and the lady Maddi and both Jali and Kanhiijinii lived in the hermitage then dispelling each other's sorrow.

Keeping guard over the children I was not idle? in the hermitage. Maddi fetched fruits, she fed three people.

While I was living in the forest a traveller approached me. He requested me for both the little children, Jali and Kan-

hajina. .

Seeing the supplicant approaching, joy arose in me ', Taking hold of both children, I gave them to the brahman then. When I was relinquishing my own children to the brahman supplicant, the earth, garlanded with Sinew's (celestial)

Groves, trembled then too. -

And again, Sakka, descending in the guise of a brahman requested me for the lady Maddi who was virtuous", a chaste wife.

Taking Maddi by the hand) filling the clasped hands with water>, having a mind of faith in my purpose", to him Madill I gave.

As Maddi was being given the devas in the heavens were rejoiced; the earth, garlanded with Sineru's (celestial) Groves, trembled then too.

Jali (my son), Kal}-hajina my daughter, the lady Maddi, a






1 Ee Vissu- .

. ' asuo.fio; .CPD gives "assiduous" for this passage, CpA. 89---90 says "even ,j,s. the he~1ll1tag-!:.. WI'S n~~cl~p!'y (:lsunfio). S() ,-"M I 'not empty' (not idle) in devel:,pmg asunna ; ~,unne .!" also a reading; my abode was not empty due to my OCCUp.2tlOll of it guarding the children: there I lived, Through the might of th~ Bocil'!satla', meW. (loving-kindness) a.l the animals too for 3 yojanllS all round acquired meH~."

~ Thin.king .h.e would fulfil the perfection of Civing. ; ~e sflavatim, ~pA. 9{-5 (prose), Ceo Be -vantirn. 6 Fhc b ralarnan S O"bl,..,t<J,e,j u"-,,,l., CpA. ,)5.

He thought that, reaching the snrnmir nf the perfecrinn, of Giving, he would arrrve at Self-Awakening.



chaste wife-relinquishing them I did not think"; it was for the sake of Awakening itself.2

Neither child was disagreeable to me, the lady Maddi was not disagreeable. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I gave away those who were dear.:'

And again in the company of my parents" in the v~st forest, when they were lamenting compassionately and talking about

my happiness and sorrow>, . .

I approached them both with shame ~nd t~ar of, blame, v.:1th reverence; the earth, garlanded With Smeru s (celestial) Groves, trembled then too.

And again, having departed from the vast forest with my relations," I entered? the delightful city J etuttara, supreme among cities.

The seven (kinds of) gems rained down, a great rain-cloud showered down; the earth, garlanded with Sineru's (celestial) Groves, trembled then too.

Even this cognizant earth, not knowing happiness or sorrows, at the power of my giving quaked seven times.f







And agam, when I was a hare who roamed in the forest, feeding on grass, leaves: herbs and fruit, refraining from oppressing others,

1 He did not think of the torment; he was released (in mind), CpA. 9?, which also gives the five sacrifices incumbent on all Bodhisatras: that of their wealth, that of their own heads, eyes or limbs, that uf their 'J"'U life, chat of their dear chilcl(ren}, that of their loved wife.

2 Cf. 1. 8. 15. Ver, quoted Miln, D7.

3 Ver, quoted Iiln, 28r, which mentions Cp, by name,

• Other people came too, CpA. 100. .. . •

S I.e. the vicissitucles hE had been tlwou"h. Ee, ApA_ 5 I dukkhsrn, Ce, Be,

Ja. i, 47 dukham.

6 Ee, Ce sai'iiitibhi, CpA. 101 -tihi, Be safiiiatibhi. Cf. Ill. 3.411.

7 Ee pavissami, Ce, CpA, De pavis!lmi. . ,

a This vel'. cited "t .T~. i. 47, ApA. 5 f which add that llfter the (Bndhisatta s) life-span as Vcssantara was ended he arose ill 'Tusita-realm,

9 Sasa-jataka, No. 316; Jtm. No.6. Versions vary; als~) i~l A~-adanasataka ed, J. S. Speyer, St. Petersburg ~<,Ioo, ")0,), N'J. 37., aJllI Sasakavadana, No. 10+ in Avadanakalp~latii (K~"melldr~, ed. S. C. Dns ~nd Vidydbhirsharia, Calcutta 1888). For more detail see Handurukande, p. 83.

PER FEe '1' 1 U.\J U l" G 1 V 1 N G



A monkey, a jackal, a young otter and I dwelt then in the same neighbollrhood and were to be seen evening and morning.'

I instructed them as to lovely and evil deeds: "Shun the evil ones, keep to the lovely ones"2

Seeing the moon at the full on an Observance day, I pointed it out to them there saying, "Today is an Observance (day).

Prepare gifts to give to one worthy of gifts; having given the gift to one worthy of gifts, observe the Observance

(day)." '"

Saying" Very well j, to me, havung prepared gifts according

to their ability, according to their means, they sought-' one worthy of gifts.

Seated there I thought about+ a worthy, suitable gift: "If I should get someone worthy of gifts, what 'would be my gift?

I have no sesamum, gram or beans,S rice, clarified butter. I keep myself going on grass; it is not possible to give grass.

If anyone" worthy of gifts comes into my pres·ence for food I will give my own self; he will not go a,vay empty." Knowing my intention, Sakka in the guise of a brahman

approached my lair so as to test my giving. .

When I saw him, elated I spoke these 'words, "It 1S good that for the sake of fodder you have reached my presence." Today I will give you a glorious gift not given before. You are furnished with moral virtue; unfitting in you is the oppressing of others.

Come, light a fire, collect different kinds of sticks. I will roast myself, vou will devour (me) roasted."

He saying ,., Very well", exultant in mind, collected differen t












1 Ee piito padiissare, Ce, Be pato ca d.isaare.

1. Onslaught on creatures, wrong view, etc.: and giving, mora.ity, ctc., CpA,


, E", gavEsililsLlln, Ce gavesiyum, CpA. 10"4., Be gavcsisum.

~ Ee: nisajja eintesi, C~ rt;s~ajja cint~sirit, CpA, Be ni."jja cin tesirn. .

sEe, Ce, Be miisa va, CpA na masii. This and mugga, green gram or (in

Anglo-Indian) the mung: bean, are both pulses, • 1':'0 yarl i eti, C<" De yadi lwei cti,

~ Ee mam' nntike, Ce, Be lTIm1iU sant ike.



kinds of sticks; making a womb of embers he made a huge pyre.

He lit a fire there that would become big quickly. Shaking my dust covered Iirnbs-, I sat down at one side.

'iVhen the great pileZ of sticks was burning and roaring", 1,eaping up then I feU down into the middle of the blazing


17 As anyone entering into cool water allays4 his distress and fever and finds5 satisfaction and zest,

I8 SO did the burning fire when I entered it allay all my distress as though it were cool water.

19 I gave to the brahman the whole of my entire body, the outer skin, inner skin, flesh, sinews, bones, and the muscles of the heart.?


Its summary":

1(20) Akitti the brahman'', Sankha, Dhanafijaya the Kuru king, King Maha-Sudassana, the brahman Maba-Covinda, 2(21) Nimi, and Prince Canda, Sivi, Vessantara, the Hare-ssuch was I then who gave these glorious gifts.

3(22) These were the preliminary requirements? for giving, these

I In the Jiitak~ the hare shook himself so as not to harass or oppress others (sec vcr, !, ,,,), such as any small creatures who night be in his fur being burnt to death. Cp.A. r06 is similar.

2 Ee pafija, CpA. 106, Ce, Be pufija, Ce gives pafija as a v, I.

J Ee dhumam ayati, grammatically wrong; CpA, Be dhamadhamayati, Ce

dhulTI"dhum~y"ti, making the noise db arnadb arna. Cf. II I. 9. 4. 4 samcti, glossed CpA. r07 by vupasarneti.

S deti, ibid. uppadeti.

o Traditionally this story ends with Sakka making- a likeness of the hare on thc rnoori (visible in the tropics). Ja. i. '7:< '''y' tha't one of the four marvefs of this eon is that for the whole of it the likeness of the hare will endure on the moon. Another of these Four marvels is the inability of fire to burn a certain

district, see below H1. 9. .

7 On the notation of the following verses see Intr. ? xi.

S CpA. roe takes brahmano as beloneing to Akitti, though that he was a brahman before he became ar; ascetic is not said in leis Story at 1. I.

• patikkhara, apparently meaning it was necessary to have been born as the first nine persons of this Division f01" the Hare to fulfil the ultimate perfection of Giving, namely the giving of his own life. For they had fulfilled the perfection and the higher perfection of Giving by giving their possessions and their limbs (which includes the giving of one's eyes, children and wife). Sec 1. 9. 5z n. and H. 10. S" n.



the perfection of Giving; giving my life to a supplicant, I fulfilled this perfection.

When I saw one approaching for alms, I sacrificed my own self, 1 'hete was no one to equal me in gi ving=-this was my perfection of GiviI!.g.~

1 Ja. i. 45, BvA. 59, ApA. 49 refening to the Sasapaudita-jatake, quote this ver. to illusrrars the culmination of the> perf"""tinT1 of Giving.





(Matiposakacari yarn)

I When 1 was a lordly elephant- in a forest supporting my mother there was none then on earth like me in respect of (moral) virtues. J

2 A forester, having seen me in the forest, informed the king about me: "Sire, an elephant+ befitting you is living in a forest-glade,

3 There is no need of precautions for him, nor even of pit or stake." If he is taken? by the trunk he will come here himself."

4 When he had heard his words the king, joyful in mind, sent an elephant-tamer, a skilful teacher, well-trained.

5 That elephant-tamer, going there, saw (me) in a lotus-pond pulling out lotus roots' for my mother's sustenance.

6 Discerning my moral virtue he looked out for distinguishing marks. Saying, <Come, son', he held me by my trunk,

7 What was then the natural strength of my physical frame is today exactly the same as the strength of a thousand elephants.

8 Had I been angry with those who came to capture me I was

1 Ee Sflavanagacariya: CpA. no, Ce, Be Matuposakacariva. See Jii. No. 455,

iatiposaka-jataka (K. Matu-). The Silavaniigajdtaka, Ja. No. ;2, to which ,BCL refers in his translation, p. IO/'. 11. I, is quite different from Cp, story. The title of this story th.,Nfore is better taken (IS ]V[atlpo9!lka, A :tI,.1othcr's Supporter.

z kufijara.

a gunena, explained as silag .inena at CpA. 110, 4 gaja.

, Ee, Be na pi ajakakamyR, Ce na p:yiiUlaka-, with v. 1. napi iilahaka-, CpA. I I J -ii!aka- (in another compound), v. s. v, CPf).

• Ee samagahite, CpA, Be sahaga-, Ce samarn gahite. 7 Ee, CpA. bhisamula, Ce, Be -rnulalc, lotus stalke.




capable of crushing to death even the whole kingdom of men.!

Yet I, for the sake of guarding morality, for fulfilling the perfection of Morality, would not change my mind (even though) they were tethering/ me to a stake.'.

If they had attacked me there with axes and spears I would not even have been angry with them for fear of breaking my morality,




And again, when I was Bhuridatta", of great psychic potency", I went to a deva-world" with the great king Viriipakkha", There I, seeing de vas who were entirely given over to happiness, undertook the vow of morality for the sake of going to?

that heaven.

Having seen to my physical needs.I? having eaten enough to keep myself going, resolutely determining on the four factors!', I lay down on top of an anthill.

He who had some need of my inner skin, outer skin, flesh, sinews or bones, let him take it away , given as it was."

1 A free transl, based on CpA. 112 of patibalo bhave tesam yiiva rajjam pi rnanusarn, "I would have been capable [of destroying not only) him who had come to capture me (but also) even to the extent of the (whole) human domain,JlI

'2 pakkhipantam,

; Ee, CpA alake, Ce ii1hake, Be lilake. Thus too he shows resolute determination (also a perfection), CpA. I 13.

4 Bhiiridattacjataka, No. 5+3.

5 CpA. 115, bhirri is the earth, Datta the name given him by his parents ..

In his great wisdom he resembled the earth, therefore 'Vise Datta.

o Ibid .. , the psychic potency of niigas. 7 CpA. 117, Tavatimsa,

8 Ibid .. lord of the Nagas. He is also One of the four Greot Kings_

9 Ibid. arising in, i.e, in some future birth.

10 Ibid. such as washing the face.

" As at II. 10.2. The four are the' fourfold energy' ofMA. iii. 1t;l4 011 M. i. 481 =S. ii, ,,8 ~A. i. 50: "ghldly would 1 be reduced -;0 ski", sinew;, kmo.3nd let my body's flesh and blood dry up." See next ver., and CpA 117, which says chavicamma is one factor the rest are to be taken separately. It is therefore misleading of Bel., to a~notate: "the four constituents are Sila, Samadhi, !P!Lnfi,), Vimutti", though these Form rmot-her- + aoga, factors, constitLlent~, at

A. ii. 79,

12 As at H. IO. 3; cf, 1. 10, 19.








As I was lying down the ungrateful Nampana1 caught me, Having thrown me into a basket he made me perform in this place and that.

Even though thrown into a basket, eventhough crushed down by his hands, I was not angry with Alampana2 for fear of breaking my morality.

The sacrifice of my own life was (more) trifling to me than that of grass. The transgression of morality was to me like the earth inverted.f

In a hundred successive births I could sacrifice my life rather than violate morality even for the sake of (reigning over) the four continents.

So I, for the sake of guarding morality, for fulfilling the perfection of Morality, would not change my mind even though they were throwing (me) into the basket."





II.3 CONDUCT OF THE NAGA CAMPEYYA" ( Campeyyanagacariyarn)

And again, when I was Carnpeyyaka6 of great psychic potency, even then I was righteous", given over to the practice of moral VQ',YS.

Even then, a sriake-charrnerf catching me who was a Dharnm.afarer", who observed the Observance (days), made [he perform 10

at the royal gateway. 1 I

Assuming the colour he had thought of-blue, yellow or red H, I "vas obedient to his intention, carrying out his thoughts.

1 CpA, I22, Be ALambiiyano, Ce Alambm;lO.

:1 Ec AIan:.p5LlL:_na na, Ce fo ... larnb ane na, De ~~]i:lnl.bayeJ1.a rtn.

3 Be uppattarui, CpA. 122 uppatana, CG, Be up pa tanam , CpA uses the word parivattana in explanation, with which d. parivatteyyam etc. at Vin, i. 7 where Moggallana suggests he should' invert' the earth or turn it upside-down .

• Cf. II. I. 9. • Carn peyya-jatuka , No. 506.

e Aruiga-king who lived under the river Campa between AiJ.g~ and Magadha 1 dhammika, explained by dharnmacarin, dhamma-farer, at CpA. 126. "Ec ahikundika, CpA. 130 -gunthika, Ce -gundika, Be -tundika,

o clharnrnucdriru, CpA. IZ9 'one who fared the Dhamma of the ten skilled

ways of acting.

HI Ibid. 130 explains kilati by m!iipeti.

11 To the residence of K:ing Uggasena of l:laral)Bsi

12 Ee yarn sa vat;>'')'''';,l cirrtayat i nilapitam 'va lohirarh ; Ce yarh so Yat,l.l;cam cintayari nilan ca pitalchitarn ; Be yam yam so vannarn cintayi nllam va pltalohiram.




.. 1

I could have turned dry land to water and turned w:atf';r to dry land. If I had be,em angry with him I could have reduced him to ashes in >I moment.

Had I been under the mastery of mind, I would have fallen away from morality: the supreme aim! does not succeed fOJ!' one who has fallen away in respect of morality.

Willingly let this body be broken up. let it be scattered in this very place-s-not for all that would I violate morality in spite of its being scattered like chafI.2



II. 4 CONDUCT OF CULABODHP (C~abodhicariyam)

And again, when I was Cillabodhi, very virtuous, seemg becoming as a peril, I departed on the Departure."

She who had been my wife'', a brahman lady of goldencoloured skin, without expectation in the round" (of rebirths), departed on the Departure.

Without attachment," kinsmenf cut uiT', without expectation from a family or company", walking along to village and

market-town, we reached Bflriiry:1si.

There we lived prudently, not in association with a family (or) company; we both lived in the royal pleasaunce, un-

disturbed, (where there was) little noise." .

When the king went to see the pleasaunce he saw the brahman lady .. Approaching me he asked, "Is she yours r' Whose wife

is she?H"

( Buddhahood in accordance with the aspiration the Bcdhisatta made at the

feet of Dipankara, CpA. 130f.

2 'This 500m5 to refer to til", body, CpA. IJI.

, Cullabodhi-jataka, No. 443: also Jim. No. 21.

4 nekkhammam abhiriikkhamirii, "I utterly renounced the world and its pleasures through fear of further existence in sarnsara •. seeing that nibbana was close", CpA. IJJ.

'dutiyikii" companion, i .. e. in the household life. e Ee, CpA vivatte ; Ce, Be pi vatte.

, niralaya. CpA equates alaya with tanha, thirst •. craving, .

S T'ckcn by CpA. I33 a, fi."tisu tar;lbabandhanassa chinuatta, aince the t-ses

of attachment to kinsmen of desire have been cut off.

~ A family who supported monks and ascetics, and a group of ascetics, m From animals and birds, CpA.

II Be, C .. tuyh' eGii .1",,,",, bhariya (C" bha~iyii), Cpi\. r 35. Be tuyhe so kil? lcasen bhariya? and mcaninJ("" she to vou=wifc or sister? Is she another's wife 1"







6 This said, I spoke these words to him, "She is not my wifel; she is of the same persuasion, the one dispensation".

7 Infatuated with her- he had his hirelings- seize her; compelling her by force he made her enter the inner appartrnents of the palace.

8 She who had been mine by touching a water-jar+, conatal-, of the one dispensation-s-when he dragged her Along and she was being led away, anger arose in me.

9 'With anger arising I recollected! the observa ce of the vow of morality": then and there I held back (my) ;lnger, T rlid not let it increase further 7.

10 If anyone were to attack that brahman bdy with a sharp knife. for the sake of Awakening itself never would J violate morality.

11 That brahman lady W<lS not clisClgr,ee;]hle to me, nor even did strength not exist in me. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I guarded morality.


(Mahisardj acariyarii]

I And again, when I was a buffalo roaming in a forest", very well-grown in body, strong, large, terrifying to behold,

2 Here and there in a mountain-cave!", on a rough hillside and

1 CpA_ !35 explains that she w.s not his wif .. ~ftf'r hI" had eon~ forth nor

was he her husband. She W'IS a fellow Brahma-farer, ~ Ee, Ce tassa, Be tissa,

a Ee cetake, CpA, ee, Be cetake, king's III'=n, riijapu[-isa.

4- odapattakiya. A wife taken Rftp,r touching" j'H' of Witter is callied ndspattika, CpA. 135. One of the ro kinds of wives at Yin. iii. 14'0, odapattakini nama udakapattarn amasitva vaseti, having touched a bow] of water he makes her live (in his hULLS,,). VA. 555, "plLLJJI5';"!-; tlreir two lmn ds into one pot Q' water. he says, Joined like this wotf"', ~o j,pt them rint h~ divided." The r o kinds of wives also enumerated at VvA. 73.

s By reason of going forth at the same time.

6 "il"Lbala, tlre perfection of Morality, CpA. 136.

7 R .. niir1~~i vll~<:Ihitllm THtri; CpA. Ceo Be niidasiril vaddhitupari, For pari

read 'pari, CpA gloss: upari, uddharii.

" Mahisa-jataka, No. 278. misprinted al 275 in Ee. Cf. Jtm. No. 33. ~ Ee vanacarako, CpA. I40, Ile puvarmcfi rako, Cc pavanacariko.

10 Perhaps a rocky declivity; CpA. 140 olambakasilakutiva.


at the root of a tree, near a water-course, there was some place or other for buffaloes

3 Wandering about in the hllg~ forest I saw a favourable place", Going to that place I stood and T lay down.

4 Then an evil, foul, nimble monkey came there and urinated and defecated over my shoulder, forehead and eyebrows.

5 Ami on one day, even on a second, a third and a fourth too, he polluted me. _All the time I was distressed by him.

6 A yakkha, seeing my distress, said this to me, "Kill that vile evil one with horns and hoofs."

7 This spoken, I said this then to that yakkha, "How is it that you (would) besmear me with a carcase, evil and fcmF?

R If 1 were to be angry with him, from that I would become more degraded than him;" and morality might be violated by me and wise men might censure me.

9 Better indeed is death through (leading a life of) purity" than a life subject to. disdain. How will 1. even for the sake of life, do an injury to another?

10 This one," thinking thus of me, will do the same to others and they win kill him there; for me this will be freedorn.v

I I This one of wisdom, forgiving 7 disrespect among low, middling, high, thus obtains, intent of mind, according as he aspired ."8

1 CpA a comfortable place at the root of a tree.

~ CpA. I42 takes kim rvam makkhesi kunapena .•• marn to mean: it is not snitnble in you to incite me to the evil of onslaught orrcreatures, arid GO forth; and he explains why in the following verses.

3 tato hinataro bhave, which CpA. 142 takes to mean, "I would become more degraded, lamakataro ; the foolish monkey has been born in a low (state) and he, th" buffalo. would b~come mote evil than the monkey."

4 Purity of morality, CpA.

5 This monkey.

• Prom onsluught on creatures, CpA. ]43 .. Other ibuffaloes might do what the yakkha (who lived in the tree) told them, and kill the monkey. But this bufffllo,_ by resisting the yakkha's advice, overcame the temptation to take life. There LS. no indication of where his words to the yakkha are supposed to end. Ver. 10 18 th~ QuI)' un" having a parallel in Mahisa-jataka.

, sahanto, gTosserl ,H CpA_ q:; by leharnanto,

8 Namely, for omniscience; it is not far off for him, ibid.




I And again, when I was Ruru, the deer-king, resembling fine burnished- goM, concentrated on the highest morality?

2 I approached a pleasant region, delightful, secluded, without human beings, and dwelt there on a charming bank: of the Ganges.

3 Then at the upper reaches of the Ganges a man, hard pressed by creditors, fe114 into the Ganges (thinking), "I live or I die")

+ Day and! night he, borne along in the great water of the Ganges, crying out a piteous cry, went on in the middle of the Ganges.

5 I, hearing the piteous sound of his lament, standing on the bank of the Ganges, asked, "What man are you? "

6 And he, asked by me, explained then his own action, "Terrified of creditors, I jumped, fearful, into the great river."

7 Talking pity on him, sacrificingf my life, entering (the river"] I dragged him out in the darkness of the night.

8 When I knew he had recoveredf I said this to him, "I ask one boon of you: tell rio-one about me"9.

9 Going to the city, when questioned he conveyed (this news) for the sake of wealth. Bringing the king, he came close to me.

10. All that had been done by me was told to the king. The king,

1 Ruru-jstaka, No. 482; cf, Jtm. No. 26. Another version in Jatabstava, No. 17. See also MQ. i. 292, n. 4.

" Ee suttatta-, Ce, Be suta-,

3 CpA. 1-11 says paramasllasnrnnhira means either purified morality and the

mind well concentrated, Or the mind properly concentrated On purified morality. 4 Ee patati, Ce, Be papati.

5 In either case tho: creditors could not press him.

• cojitvi'i, usually s,,",ri·firing, ahandoning ; here it seems rnore in the sense of hazarding.

1 tassa, gen .. in sense of acc., CpA. I46, which adds that tattha lS also the p~ii (i . e, Le:<.L) and Lhat iDS meaning here Is nadiyarh. This is loco sing. and could rnaan "naar 1t.hp. river.'

8 After two or three days when the deer had given him all sorts of fruits, he knew the man had got over his exhaustion.

""Do not <ell the king or a minister t hat- a golden deer lives In such ond such 8 place", CpA. 147.



hearing the words, fitted his arrow, "Here will I kin this ignoble betrayer of a friend."

][1 I, shielding him, substituted! myself, "Let him be, sire, I will be he who carries out your will and pleasure".

I 2, I guarded my morality, I did not guard my life, for I was then one of morality for the sake of Awakening itself.


(Matailgacariyarh )

I And again, when I was a matted-hair ascetic of very severe austerity, Matanga by name, I was one of rnoralitv well

concentrated.P . ,

2 I and a brahman" both lived on a bank of the Ganges; I lived in the upper reaches, the brahman lived in the lower.

3 Wandering along the bank he saw my hermitage up-river.

Reviling me there he cursed so that my head would split."

-4 If I had been angry" with him, if I had not protected morality, I, by (merely) looking at him, could have made him like ashes.

S As he, angry, corrupt in mind", cursed me then with that", it fell iback on his own head- I let him free by means of a device."

6 I guarded my morality, I did not guard my life, for I was then one of morality for the sake of Awakening itself.

1 nimminim, CpA. 150 tarn parivattesirh ... tass. maranarii niy;ire:;iln,

Cf, II. 9· 7. I exchanged him (for myself), I prevented his death.

2 M~tllnga.jataka, Nu. 497. Called 1vliitallg"pal.lY_ita at C!:,A. '52. J Jbid .• an attainer of meditation, jhiina_

.. A brahman who had gone forth from the household life. S Into seven pieces on the seventh day.

6 Ee kuppeyynrn, CpA. '57, Ce pakuppeyyarn, Be pakupeyyarn,

J duttha, corrupt. defiled, polluted, often hy anger and hatred (to he unrlarstood}.

• Vvitil that splitting of the head.

~ I.n the Jatah", and CpA. 160 this clevice, yoga, was that the Bodhisatte who .on the ~ev~nth day had prevented the sun from rising told the people that If .he let rt rise the brahman ascetic's head would break in to seven pieces .. Su he mstrueted them to get a lump of clay and put it on the brahman's head .. Then he let the Sun rise whereupon the lump of clay broke into seven pieces. So the brohman was freed from the recoil of his curse.



11.8 CONDUCT OF DHAMMA THE DEVAPUTTAl (Dbamruadevaputtacari yam)2

I And again) when I, having a great retinue-', great psychic potency, was DhaI1llma4 by name, a great ynkkha was I, compassionate towards all the world.

2 Rousing the populace to the ten skilled W<ly~ of acting", I toured villages and market-towns with friends, with attendants. 3 An evil, avaricious yakkha, making known the en evil" (ways of acting), he too was touring here on earth? witli friends, with attendants.

4 The speaker of Dhamma and Adhamrna we, both enemies, striking chariot-pole against chariot-pole, uoLh met face to face."

5 A terrible? quarrel proceeded between the good and the evil and imminent was a great battle for desceuding from the way.lO 6 If I had been angry'! with him, if I had broken the ascetic qualities, I could have reduced him and his companions to dust.

7 But I, for guarding morality, having caused my mind to be cooln., descending with my people, the patli to the evil one I gave.

,, No, 457. Mentioned Miln. ,",02. 2 Ee Dhammadhammndevaputtacarivam.

lEe mahayakkho, Ce, Be mahapakkho, CpA. 16, mahesakkho, explained by rnahaparivaro.

• A devup'ut.ta reborn in the k1imaV[lC[lI[l deva-worl d. Adh"mma likewise was a devaputta reborn in the same deva-world, CpA. I6It".

S dasaknsalakammapatha, see I. 3, ~; III. 14.2.

6 Ee pavake, CpA. IOZ, Ce, Be papake, The ten are given at e.g, M, i, 2861., and apoken of at Jit. iv. 10. by tl:eir generic title akuealakammapsthe. BeL's "burning with the ten kinds of fire." must be due to the reading pavake and to the two meanings of dipeti, to light, kindle, and to illustrate, explain.

7 The encounter took place in the sky in the Ja story. CpA. 16:;: therefure inserts here the word asanna, rresrr, .close to (jambudlpa).

"samimhil. ti samagata samrnukhi bhuta; CpA. J63. They met as they were going in opposite directions with their retinues,

" JEe asma, CpA, Ce He bhesrna. Cf. assa and bhasma, Morris JP'l'S 189 <-3,

p. 10.

10 See TI. 7.

11 Ee, CpA, Ce pakuppeyyaru, Be kup-,

A> Arousing khantl and metta, patience and loving-kindness (two of the perfections), also mercy, CpA. 166.



8 As soon as I had descended frorn the path having cooled my thoughts, the earth iristantlv! formed a fissure f.::Jr the evil yakkha.2


[Alinasattucari yam 4)

I In the kingdom of Paficiila in the city of Kampilii;s, the incomparable city, the king named jayaddisa" had attained the qualities of moralitv.

2 I was that king's son, well-instructed", of great morality, Allnaeattu, having (virtuous) qualities", always caring for the attendants. g.

3 My father who had gone deer-hunting met a man-eater 10. He seized my father {and said), "You are mty prey, do not move." 4 Hearing those words of his he was alarmed and trembled with terror; his thighs became rigid on seeing that man-eater,

5 II Taking the venison, let me go free". lVlaking a promise to return again and giving wealth to the brahman 11, my father addressed me:

6 "Son, take care of the kingdom, do not neglect this city. I promised the man-cater to return."

I Ibid. tav~d.e ti tam kha~"\.alincva, 'that ver,' moment', forthwith.

2, Vari<;JUS occasions are recorded when in the past, atite, 'Devadatta ' entered the earth, e.g. Ja, Nos. :U2, 518. In the Dharnmajataka Adhamma, here the evil yakkha, is idennried as Devadatta, Five other occasions are recorded at Miln. Tal, when in p reserrt times, etarahi, evil-doers. were swallowed by tbe earth. Om: of these was Devadatra, see Ap, p. 300, ApA. rz rff., DhA. i. 1. 47ff.

3 Iayaddisa-jataka, No. 513.

.. Be J ayacld iaac .. riyam ; CpA, Be Altnasanu-: Ce Allnasarru- and -satta-, 5 Ee Kapillii, CpA. 167, Be Kapiln. Ce Karnp ils. Elsewhere Kamp illa.

6 Vanquishing enemies.

./ sutadhamrna, He had heard, i.e. learnt, all that a prince should learn; he had learnt muclr, bahussutu, CpA. 16S.

8 Ibid. endowed with +be splendid qualities of ~ Crear M~tL

gEe anuttara-parijjano, supreme in; CpA alluratta-parijano, devoted to; Ce, Be anurakkha-parijano guarding: namely, with the four bases of sympathy or ~~n<'ro.ity, sangehavauliu (1I'''I1liuw:.u at III. 14- :.< awj enumerated at e.g. D. 11. r 52, 2],2. A. ii. 32)- S"H CpA_ i liS.

10 Son of a yakkhni, ibid.

11 ~'ho had recited some verses just as the king was setting out to hunt; t~e kmg,. who had! promised him a reward whe,u he got back, wanted to keep his promise.



7 Having honoured my mother and father, substituting myself;' discarding bow and sword I approached the man-eater.

8 Approaching him with '\-",eapom ill my hand perhaps he would be afraid. If I roused dread ill him so would morality be violated.

9 I did not speak what was disagreeable to him for fear of breaking my morality. \V'ith a mind of loving-kindness, of benign speech", I spoke these words;

10 "Kindle a great fire, I will fall (on it) from a tree'. Knowing when the time has come you, grandfather4, ean cat."

II Thus fur the sake of moral VOY" I did not guard my life. And I banished forever his tendency for (making) onslaught on creatures.

n.10 CONDUCT OF SANRHAPALA5 (S ankbapalacariyarh)

I And again, when I was Sankhapala, I was of great psychic potency, with fangs6 my weapons, terribly venomous, twotongued, overlord of nagas.

2 At a cross-road 011 a highway crowded with divers people, resolutely determining on the four factors", I made my dwelling there,

3 He who had some need of my inner skin, outer skin, flesh, sinews or bones, let him take it away, givcn as it was.s

4 Hunter-boys", rough, harsh, pitiless, saw me and came up to lilt: there, sticks and clubs in their hands.

5 Piercing lIly nostrils, tail and backbone, placing me on a carrying-pole, the hunter-boys bore me off.

1 Cf. II. 6. II.

2 hitavadi, or speaking what was useful. beneficial, speaking in a friendly way. 3 j ayaddisa-jataka, voL v, 33 here refers to the hare who jumped into a

blazing fire; see above 1. 10.

• pitamouha, {oecbcnr-? The rnurr-e atcr', h,tlf-hum"n, was the king's brother,

and so uncle to the prince.

S Sankhapala-jataka, No. 524. "Two above, two below, CpA. 175. ? Sec II. a, 3.

" As at II. 2. 4: cf. I. ro. I().

9 bhojaputta, explained by luddaputta at CpA. 177; both words occur 1lt ]a. v. I7zf" translated! 'lewd fellow,', 'ruffians ',


6 If I wishing it, I could have burnt there with the hreath of my nose this sea-girt earth- with the forests, with the mountains, 7 Though pierced by stakes, though hacked about by knives, I was not angry with the hunter-hoys=-this W::JS my perfection of Morality.?

Its surnmary+:

1(8) Lordly elephant. Bhiiridatta, Campeyya, Bodhi, the buffalo, Ruru, Matanga, and Dharnma, and Iayaddisa, (and his) own sen.

2(9) All these, strong in morality, were the preliminary requirements in partial fulfilment+ Having maintained 5 life they preserved moral habits.

3(10) When I was Sankhapala, all the time handing over even my life to whomever it was6-therefore that was the perfection of Morality.

L The great earth sasagara, with the RC8, which ~pA_ 178 tokes as bounded by the ocean.

• According to CpA. 178[, he evinced all the perfections. This ver. is cited at Iii. i. 45, B-:A. 60, ApA. 5o;n illustratioll of tile ultimate perfecriou uf Morality.

On notation of following verses, see Intr. p , xi.

4 pariklililirii padesika, The former conduct of the 9 beings mentioned in ver, !'. ~ above would appear to have been necessary preliminaries to the culminatlI}_g" perfection of morality .as exhibited by SaIiklHlpiila. They wen: ?ot sepam;e fr?m the fina~ achievement, but sappadesa, perhaps meaning

combl?ed 01" integrated with It, showing the process of full mastery of the perfeerlon of morality was a gradual cr.e, eft'. 1. ro, S3.

.S Ee porikl'hitvii, C~A. lSI, Cc, Be parirakkhitvR. ·rho: beings of ver. S, i~Qugh aware of the neco~sity to' zuard th~ir morality did not giv-e up thei; 1 e but preserved both that and their morality.

. ' yassa ~a>saci. This seems to mean that, irrespective of persons he preserved h,~ morahty but .gave up his life. Cf. MA. iv. >7°: of the Bodhisatta, "there was no gift not given. there was no morality not protected."



DIVISION III: (Somanassacariyam)






When I was Yudhafijaya, the Icing's son, of irameasurable renown, I thrilled when I saw a dew-drop fallen down in the warmth of the sun.e

Taking that itself as the sign I increased the thrill. Honouring my mother and father I requested (their consent) for the going forth.

Their hands folded, with the citizens, with the inhabitants of the kingdom, they begged. me, "Son, this very day take care of the great estate- which is rich and p.r0sperolls".

While the (multitude) together with the king, the court ladies, the citizens and the inhabitants of the kingdom, were lamenting piteously, I went forth+ without expectation,

It was for the sake of Awakening itself that, renouncing the sovereignty of the entire earth, relations, retinue, renown, 1 did not think (anything abolltitS).

Mother and father were not disagreeable to me, and nor was the great retinue disagreeable to me", Omniscience was dear to me, therefore T gave up the kingdom.






, YuvuNjay"-jiiit,,ka, Nu. 41'0.

Z He thought of imp<'twmnence and the brevity of life, CpA. r83. 3 mahamahiril, lit. the great earth, i.e, kingdom.

4 Ee, CpA._ 184 hi pabbajim, Ce, Be parivajjirn, omitting hi. • Only uf all"i1l1Jlg Awakcnir.g , CpA. I8S.

G E,,_ ornits. Cf. HT. 3. TO 'where me, to me, occurs.

And again, when in the incomparable city of Iridapatta-, I was the (king's) son named Somanassa, I had been longed for (by my parents), was deal!' (to them), widely famed.

2 I was virtuous, possessed of (good) qualities.', of ready and lovely speech, paying respect to the elderly, modest, and proficient in the bases of sympathy. 4

3 An ascetic who was an imposter wass that king's favourite. He lived" by cultivating the orchard and the flowering shrubs.

4 Seeing him to be an impostor like a heap of chaff without the rice-grain", ancP a tree hollow imide, like a plantain-tree with no hard core T (thnught),

5 "T'his one, for the sake of' his livelihood, has no (virtuous) conduct? towards what is good, has fallen away from recluseship, find abandoned modesty and pure conduct."

6 The bnrrler district was'? dusturbed by neighbouring wild tribes. My father, on going away to pacify it, instructed me, 7 "Do not yon, my dear, neglect the matted-hair ascetic of severe penance. He is the giver of all (our) desires; act in conformity v .... ith his wishes."

R Going to attend on him, I spoke these words, "I hope you are well 11 householder-s, or what may be brought to you?" 13 9 At this the impostor, stuck up with conceit, was angry14 and said, "I will have you slain today15 or banished from the kingdom."

10 The king, having pacified the border district, said to the:

J Sorranassa-jataka, No. 505.

2 Ee Indapatthe, CpA. 186, ee, Be -patte,

~ Faith, much truthfulness, and so torth, CpA. I~6.

4 Cf, II. 9. '" rr, S Be lis;, Cc, Be nh-oai.

6 Ee SO jivati, Ce, Be omit so. 1 Ee, CpA. 190, Be atandulam, Cc tan-,

8 Ee, Ce, Be ca, CpA va, > dhamma.

,0 Ee, Ce ahosi, Be ahu. n Le. well, kusa!a, in body, CpA. 191.

12 Somanasco S"W him watering the plant" nne! knew he "'''3 "- greengrocer, pannika, C)A. IQO.

13 Gold, wrought or unwrought, ibid. 19I, Geld is not given to ascetics. Ee anariyyaru, CrA, Ce, Be -Iyatu,

14 At being addressed as 'householder', CpA. 1S The time when the king would return, ibid.




impostor, "I hope, reverend sir, you are well and honour was paid to you?" The evil one told him why the prince should be killed.

When he had heard his words the lord of the earth COmmanded, "Out off his head wherever he is1 and, with him2 in four pieces, display them from street to street-this is the fate" of those who are contemptuous towards matted-hair ascetics."

Accordingly the executioners+ fierce, harsh, pitiless, went off and, dragging me away as I was seated on my mother's lap,5 led me away.

I spoke thus to them as they were binding me tightly, "Let me appear forthwith before the king-I have business with the king."

They let me appear before the evil king, follower of the evil one. When I saw him I convinced him and brought him under my influence.

He asked my forgiveness therein, he gave me the great kingdom. But I, having burst asunder'' the gloom 7, went forth into bomelessness.

It was not that the great kingdom was disagreeable to me, enjoyment of sense-pleasures wag not disagreeable. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I gave up the kingdom.






I And again, when I was own son of the king of Kasi, grown up in an iron house", I was Ayoghara by name.

2 (My father said), .. Having obtained (your) life with difficulty,

1 tatth' eva, in whatever place you see him, ibid. 2 Hoc body, ibid.

a gat!, bourn, destination.

< Ee tatth' akarut,liki'i, CpA. ISH, Ce, Be tattha,till:a. , He was only seven years old, CpA. 189.

6 Ee druayehii, Ce diil"),,tv1i, CpA. I94, Be di'ihyitva.

, Of delusion, confusion; he had seen the peril in sense-pleasures, CpA. 194.

• Ayoghara-jdtaka, No. 510; d. Jun. No. 32.

• ayoghara, He was brought up here so as to avoid trouble from non-human beings, female yakkhas h: ... ,ing ester) his two brothers, CpA. I95 f.




nurtured in close confinement-, this very day, son, take charge of this whole earth-

With the kingdoms, the townships, the people." Paying homage to the warrior-noblev raising my clasped hands in salutation, I spoke these words,

"'Whatever the beings on the earth:', low, high, middling, without protection they grow up each in his own home together with kinsmen."

This (way of) nurturing me in confinement its unique in the world, I have grown up in an iron house with no light from moon or Sl1 fl.

Having heen released from my mother's womb which was full of obnoxious, offensive matter, from there again I was thrown into more frightful anguish in the iron house.

H T, having come to the cruellest anguish such as this, were to find pleasure in sovereignty" I would be the most degraded? of evil ones.

I am wearied of the body, I have no need of sovereignty. I shall seek for waning out where death shall not crush me."

Thinking thm while the populace was wailing aloud", like au elephant bursting asunder its bonds" I entered the forest, the (great) wood,

Mother and father were not disagreeable to me, and nor was great renown disagreeable to me. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I gave up the kingdom."







1 Ee pat; p oaifo, Ce, Be pntipocito, CpA. 197 explains samp i]e by ssmbadbe. 2 vasudha,

3 mahi.

4 Ee, Ce saha natibhi, Be sakanatibhi, Cp.Asakanetth] ti sakehi i'UHihi sarnrno-

d~mi!inii vIs,ttha (\1 w , r.) an·.ddro!].\hitii. cr. I. 9. 56 ru, , rajjesu, taken as reiie at CpA. 197.

6 uttama, explained as nihinatama, ibid.

7 Ee, Ce CpA. 198 viravantam mahajanam, Be -vanre -jane, S He burst asunder the bond. of craving, CpA.

~ Cf, III. r , ti, III. 2 .. 16.



I And again, when I was in the glorious incomparable city of the Kasis a sister and:' seven brothers had been born in a learned (brahman''] family.

2 I was the first-born of these, furnished. with the pure (virtue of) conscientiousness. Seeing becoming as :Jl peril, I greatly delighted in renunciation.

3 Sent by my mother and father, my friends unanimously invited me to sense-pleasures: "Maintain the family lineage", they said.

4- Whatever they said regarding what brings happiness in the household state, to me was like a hard, heated ploughshare.>

5 They then asked me, who was rejecting (the household state), about my aspiration, "What do you aspire for", friend, that you cia not enjoy sense-pleasure?"

6 I, desiring my own good", spoke thus to these who were seeking my welfare, "I do not aspire for the household state, I greatly delight in renunciation."

7 When thf'.y had heard my words, they informedf my father and mother. My mother and father spoke thus, "Then, good sirs'', we are rrll10 going forth."

R We, both my mother nnd f~ther, sister and-! the seven brothers, casting aside immense wealth, entered the great wood .

• 1 Bhisi-jataka, No. 488: cf Jtm. No. 19. When Sakka tested the good intentions of Mahakaficana (the Bodhisatta) and hi" brothers and sister, all of them ascetics, by causing Mahakaficana's share of the fruits collected in the forest to diecppcar before he could cat them: his relations invited curses to fall upon them if any was guilty of stealing so much as a lotus-stalk, bhisa,

2 CpA. 200 Mahskaficanacariya. 3 Be adds ca.

4 Supplied by CpA. ::;00 which glosses sotthiya, learned, by udita, high

(-rankin_g), elevated.

5 Words that burned his ears, like a ploughshare heated all day, CpA. 201. "Ec; Ce patthayasi, Be -yase,

7 Ee, Be n+thalrdrrio, Ce -kuma, CpA. ,""0,, at ta-, and saying artakfirrso ti

attano atthakarno ... atthakamo ti pi piUi. •

sEe, CpA. 202 savcyyurn, Ce, Be sdvayurn,

, bho ; CpA says they were addressing the brahmans. 1m Ee pi, Ce, Be va,

11 Ce omits ca,





(SoI;lapaJ;lc_iitacari yam.2)

And, when I was in the city of Brahmavaddhana' I was born there in a high family, eminent. very wealthy.

Even then, seeing that the (whole) world was blind, smothered in gloom", my mind recoiled from becoming as if harshly pricked by a goad.

Having seen manifold (forms of) evil, I thought thus then, "When shall I enter the forest having departed from (life in) a house? "

Then too" relations invited? me to the enjoyment of sensepleasures. Them too I told of my desire (saying), "Do not invite me to these (things)."

My younger brother who was named Nancla the W~se) he too, following my training", found equal pleasure in going forth.

I S01).a, and Nanda and both my mother and father, even then casting aside their possessions, entered the great wood.





1 SUl.",.Nam.1a.jat"lm, No. 532•

2 E.~, CpA. ?,n(J. c-, Be SoU~-. Jii Snr.~-. J An old name for Baranasi, Ja. iv, 119.

4 Of nescience, CpA. 21 l. Ec -otthntarii, CpA, Cc, Be -tarii, _, Rt:culng back ltJ III. J' ll,,,, llOl1-hoC1SC bh th, CpA.

o Ee, CpA nirr.antimsu, Ce, He -temsurn.

1 In morality and so forth, CpA.





I And again, when I was own son of tlie king uf Kasi and was Mugapakkh<l2 by name, they called rue Teini va, 3

Z To none of the king's sixteen thousaud women had a (male) child" been born then. After many days and nights, I arose, the only one.

3 My father, having a white sunshade held uver my bed, brought me up, a dear son, of good birth, a light-bringer, so hardly got.

4 When I awoke after sleeping on tlie glorious bed I then saw the pale sunshade by means of which I had gone to purgatory. '

5 At the sight of the sunshade a terrible dread arose in me. I reached the decision" IIow6 shall I release 7 thbS?"

6 A dcvata who formedy had been a blood-relation uf mine? desiring my weal, seeing rne anguished, advised me about three (kinds of) behaviour!":

~ Mu.gapa~a-jataka, No. 538, also called Te'lJ'ya-jiitaka.

One who IS dumb and crippled.

: On the day of his birth a great shower of rain made him wet, terniya, Though puma usually refers to a male, CpA. 2I6 says it does not mean only" 30n here, for the king had TIC> daughter either.

• 5 Kings, having to be very 1:ar8h. accumulated 1'1),,<,1, cemerit le~d;ng to Niraya, CpA.. 2I8 says taro tatrye attabhave aham niraye gat", in the third mdl':'lduahty!ror:n now 1 to Niraya had gone. These three' individualities' are specified at Ja. VI. Z.

• Ee kadaham, CpA,. Ce, Be kathaham, when (shall} r?

7 Ee muccissam, CpA. 218 muficeyyam, Ce, Be muficissarn. a This unlucky kingdom, CpA.

9 Hi" mothe,- in " former birth.

10 For escaping the anguish of sovereignty. CpA 219_


7 " Show no intelligence!, to all creatures be like a fooP, let all people heap scorn on you3-thllS will there be weal for YOll_4" 8 5 When this had been said I spo1\:(;: these words to her, " I will do your bidding as you" say, devata. You wish me weal, my dear, you wish me welfare, devata."

9 When I had heard her words I obtained as it were dry land in the sea. Exultant, th riill ed in mind, I resolutely determined on the three factors:

10 I was dumb, deaf, a cripple-unable to walk.? Resolutely determining on these factors I lived for sixteen years.

II Then they, rubbing my hands. feet, tongue and ears", seeing no defect in me designated me 'inauspicious one '9,

12 Then all the people of the country 10, the generals and priests, all being unanimous, approved of casting me aside.

13 I, when I had heard their opinion, was exultant, thrilled in mind (for) the purpose for which I had practised austerity was a purpose that had prospered for me.

It Having bathed me, rubbed me with ointment, fastened the royal diadem (to my head'"), having ceremonially anointed me, they had me make a circuit of the city under the sunshade. 15 Holding it aloft for seven days, (one day) when the orb of the sun bad arisen the charioteer, having taken me out in a chariot, carne to a wood,

16 Keeping the chariot in an open space, the bridled horse set free from his hand+', the charioteer dug a pit to bury me in the ground.

17 Fearing+' for the resolute determination that in the various

1 Be pandiccarn; Ce, Be pandiccayarn, also CpA. 2 I 9 which says "or this (pandiccam) is the reading."

a Ee bahurnatarnsappaninarn, 0:, Be, Jii. vi. 4 biihmat'O bhava sabbapanjnnrii

CpA biilam,,,to .. " ssbbo,

,. Ee, Ce sabbo jano ocinayatu, Be, la. vi. 4 sabbo tam jano, 4 tava, om. in Ee,

• Verses 8-u are arranged here a" ill Ce', Be . ~ tvam, only Ja mam,

7 gativivajjito ; CpA silent.

8 To test whether he was deaf, dumb, a cripple.

o kal.ali:aQ.:;lI, Mack-eared. Cf. DhA. ill. J I, 38 for the epithet implying a bad


io Ee janapada, Ce, Be jana-.

11 vethctva rajavethanam, SO explained at CpA. 223.

1.2 Ee hatrhamuncitarn, CpA, C" -ruuficito, Be muccito. ]3 Ee tajjanro, CpA, Ce, Be _"nto_


way."l was resolutely dl'!t~rmin~d on, I did not break that2 resolute determination which was for the sake I1f Awakening itself.

IS Mother and father were not disagreeable to me and nor was self disagreeable to mel. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I resolutely deterrni ned on that itself. 4

19 Resolutely determining on those factors I lived for sixteen years. There was no one equal to me> in resolute determination-this was my perfection of Resolute Determination.

1 Refertifig M ,,11 the rnariy and various tests by which his rrurses tried to

discover what was wrong with him until he 'was sixteen years old, sccver. IO. ~ Ee, Ce va tam, Be tarn only,

o Cf, 1. 8, ]6, Ill" I. 6.

4 Hlustrating the ultirn~:e p eefect iori of Resolute Dctcrminetion, this verse is cited at la. i, 46, BvA. 6I, ApA. 51; all read na (pi} me dessarn mahayassarii, nor was great wealth (or a great follov ... ·ing) disagreeable to me, foi:' Cp's alta na me ca dcssiyo.

S Be inserts rue, ~gaiftst the metre, but conais+ent with the concluding' verses in III, 7 and III. 9-14.



rn, 7 CONDUCT OF THE MONKEY-KINGl (Kapirsjacariyarn)

I When I was a monkey (living) in a lair in fi cleft of a river-hank, harrassed by a crocodile- I had no opportunity of going (to the island)3.

2 In that place where I used to stancl~ (when I had jumped) from the hither bank and descended on the further (bank)5, there sat t.he crocodile, an enemy," a killer, fierce of aspecr."

3 He spokeS to me saying' Come'. '1 am corning"? I s<lirl10 to him.

Stepping on to his head, I g<linedl!l the further bank.

4; No untruth was spoken to him, I acted according to my worrF2.

There was. no one to equal me in tr1Jth~this was my perfectinn of Truth,

1 Vanarinda-jataka, No. 57, Ee, Intr, xiv identifies with No, 208, BeL with No, 250.

a surhsumara. In next ver. kumbhila,

3 'There was " rock in the river h"lf-w>ly between the I'"mk and nm islcnd on which grew many fruit-trees, The crowdiie's mate wanted to eat the monkey's heare ~O, till the monkey outwitted him, the crocodile lay on the rock to catch him, thereby depriving him both of his feeding-ground and his safety.

4, I,e,. the rock in the river, CpA. 22,<).,

5 The monkey would then jump from the rock to where he lived, ibid. t; Ec, CpA (Be) satthu, but C~ sattu,

7 Be rudcladassana, CpA, Ce, .Be ludda-.

• Ee, f:pA, 230, Be Mari~si, Ce, giving thiaes n v, L"hiriwi, 9 KEeping his word, he thus spoke the truth.

ru Ee vadi, CpA, Ce, Be vadirn

11 p"tighal,hh, I was established on, stood firm on.

'2 In both thp Smtl!mm;;ra-jatak", No, ".08, and the Viinor"-jil,t.k,,, No, 342;, the monkey told an untruth to a crocodile.




I And again, when I was the ascetic called Sacca- I protected- the world by means of truth" I made the people united."


(Va ttapotakacariya rh6)

I And again, when 1 was a young quail in Magadha, wings (as yet) not grown, newly hatched, a morsel of flesh in the nest,

2 My mother reared me (on food) she brought in her beak; 1 lived by means of contact with her, I had no bodily strength.

3 Every year in the hot season a forest-fire? would blaze. (Once) the fire", black-trailed, came close to us.

4- The great fire", making sounds like Dhilma Dhtuna", a blazing fireH, gradually came close to me.

S My mother and father, alarmed and terrified with fear at the ferocity of the firell, abandoning me in the nest, saved themselves.

1 There does not appear to' be a corresponding [ataka; BCL identifies with

h"o, 73.

l Not in DPPN_

j Ee, CpA, 231, Be palesirn, Ce palerni,

4 sarnagga. CpA. 232 says that he showed the populace the peril in the quarrels and disputes they hod been indulging in, and iw;lcatlc"c,.lJihj,ed MIne in the ro "killed ways of conduct nnd, having allowed others to go fnrth (no doubt in the going forth of seers in which he himself had gone forth), he established them, according to their merit, in control by moral habit, in g!larding the sense-faculties, in mindfulness and clear consciousness, ill aloof, in the meditations and super-knrrwing s,

5 Vattnka-ja:tnka, ND. 15; cf, Jtm No. r6. ~; Vattkarajacariyarii at CpA .. 233.

,. Ee, B", d"vau~hu, C", -dhilhlJ.

S p~v>lb. Jit. pm·ifier.

9 sikhin, lit. flame-crested.

19 "Smoke". CpA says" thus making the sound. dhama-dhama, This implies the rum or a [0,·",[-.11,."." Cf. I. 10. r6.

11 ~ggi_




I strove" with feet, with '-',ings_ I had no bodily strength. As I could not go2, tlrere" I thought thus then:

Those to whom I, alarmed, terrified, trembling, should run, have gone leaving rne behind, How should I act today?

In the world is the quality of morality, there is truth, purity, mercy. 4By this truth I will make a supreme asseveration of truth:

Reflecting on the power of Dhamma, remembering former Conquerors, relying on5 the power of truth, I made an asseveration of truth:

"Wings there are that fly not, feet there are that walk not", Mother and father are gone away. Jiltaveda7, recede."

With truth asseverated by me, the great burning fireS drew back sixteen karisas'' (and was) like a fire10 that has reached water. There W:l!S no one to equal me in truth-this was my perfection of Truth.







(Macchariijacari yarh)

And again, when I was a fish-king in a large lake the water in the lake dried up in the hot season 12 in the heat of the sun.

1 psj"h&ITli. CpA. 234 explains by pasflremi i<iy1lrni viiyilITli, ih&mi; the variant patihami, 'I struggle' is explained as vehasagamanavogge karurn ihami, 2 agatika, a non-goer,

3 CpA says "since I was unable to go I had become without a refuge on acco'unt of the deportu,,, of my parents, Tutthu (thel'e): rernoining either in that forest ... or in the nest."

4 Verses 8 to half way through II also" t J ii. i. 21ff. • avassaya ; [a, i. ZI4 apa-,

6 Referring to hi" own wing." unci feet, CpA. "35.

? Name for Azni, fire. CpA says "arisen. jata, it is experienced, vediyati, itbecomes manifest with the appearance of smoke arid blaze, thcrefore jstaveda."

; sikhin, Ii t. flame- crested. -

_ 9 A kal:isa seems to be a square piece of lund, p.,.hop" equal to aboue 4 acres, See Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p, 18. Ja. i, I72-, referring to the V:1ttakajiitaka, says this, is One of the 4 marvels that will last the whole of this eon, namely that this place will never be burnt by fire. This

is also snid at the end of the Yatt.ol«'jMulu,. "

W Again sikhin; here CpA. 2~6exp1ains that as the fire, jiiitaved., retreated it went out like a torch dipped in water.

111 M.ccha-jatal[lI, No. 75; BeL identifies with No. 34: of Jtm. No. ]5. n unhe, which CpA. 237 ""Y" is tho hot ecasori,



2 Then crows and vultures and herons", hawks and falcons, ::;itting near the fish2 devoured them day and night.

3 Oppressed there together with my relations, I thought thus, "Now, by what means can I set frcc my relations from suffering? "

4 Having considered the good in Dhamma>, I saw truth as a support. Standing firm in truth, I removed that great destruction of my relations.

5 Having recollected the true Dhamma4, considering the highest good, I made an asseveration of truth that would be lasting, eternal in the world:

6 "As long as I (can) remember about myself, ever since I have come to (years of) discretion I am not aware of having hurtS intentionally even one living thing. By this utterance of truth may Pajjunna6 pour down rain.

7 Thunder, Pajjunna! Destroy the treasure-trove of the crows", besiege8 the crows with grief, set free the fishes? from grief."

g And immediately after the glorious (asseveration of) truth was made, Pajjunna thundered out; and in a moment he poured down rain filling uplands and lowlands,"?

9 Putting forth 11 the utmost energy for the glorious (asseveration of) truth, relying on the power and incandescence of truth, I made a grent storm-cloud rain down. There was no one to equal me in truth-this was my perfection of Truth.

1 Ee, Ce, b~ka. Be kaIikii.

" The fish got into the mud in the bed of the lake.

, dham,.">ttth,,, thc good in Dburnma, ito Dim, its meaning? CpA. "37 expbins by dhammabhutam attharn. Dhammato va anapetam attharn, "the good that is (has become) Dhamma, Or, the good that deviates not from Dhamma."

• That at not harming even a single creature, CpA. 238.

, Ec vihil;"l3itam, Cc, Be pi him-. 'The "arne neaeveration IS made at e.g.

Ja. .v. [42, and d. M. ii. 103.

6 Called megha (srorm-] cloud, CpA. 238, Jii. i. 332. At SA. 8r he is called deva-king of rain and thunder-clouds.

7 Thongh 1</iI", 19 in the aing., tbe pl. is intended, or the flock of crows, kakasamzha, CpA. 238£.

sEe, CpA, Ce rundhehi, Be, Iii. i. 332 ran-, noticed as a v, 1. at Ceo

9 macche, CpA. 239 says this means: all the fish who are my relations; adds that they read mart ca, 'and me ', in the J iitak,,;, and then says: set rne free and my relations,

ie Cf. S. i. J00, It. 66. At CpA., Iii. i. 332, it is said it rained. over the whole of Kosala,

JI 1",,,,,,,,,. making, having made, taken with viriyam uttamam at CpA. 240.





( Kanhadi payanacari yam)

And again, when 1 was Kanhadjpayana-, a seer, I fared dissatisfied-' for more than fifty years.

No one knew of this dissatisfied mind of mine for" I told no one; the dissatisfaction went on in my mind.'

A fellow Brahma-farer, Mandabya, a friend of mine, a great seer, in cormexion with a former deed" acquired impalement on a stake.

I, after attending to ' im, restored him to health. Having asked permission? I went back to what was my own hermitage.

A brahman friend of mine, bringing his wife and little sonthe three people, coming together, approached as guests.

Whi 1 e I was exchanging greetings with them, seated in my own hermitage, the youth threw a ball along" (and) angered a poisonous snake",

Then that little boy, looking for the way by which the ball had gone, touched the head of the poisonous snake with his hand. At his touch, the snake, angered, relying on its strong venom, angry with utmost anger, instantly bit the youth.

As he was bitten by the poisonous snake'? the youth fell to the ground, whereby afflicted was I; that sorrow (of the parentsj-? worked on12 mine.









I Kanhadlpayana-jataka, No. 444.

: CpA. Z41 cap lama that the Bodhisatta's rierne then was Dlpayana, but because his body became black in colour as he sat. under his friend Mandabya's body which, impaled on a stake, was dripping with blood, he was knOV1'1l as Dipayana the Black.

3 annbhimti. cf. BD. i. "4, '9'Z. 4 Ee pi, CIlA. 2420, Ceo Be hi.

3 Ee aratirn me ratirnanase. I follow Ce, Be arati me carati manase, and the explanatory words at CpA mama manase cine arati carati pavartari,

6 In a former existence be had pierced a By with a splinter of "bony.

1 i:ipucchati is usually to ask the permission to depart of someone who has conferred a benefit. Here Mat;t4abya had built hermitages for Dipayana and another ascetic.

a Playing ~ game called g",~~{u:C'l-game, CpA. 246.

~ The ball entered an ants' nest and hit the snake, already inside, on the

head. .

:0 E~ acivtsena, CpA. 2;;,.6, Ce, Be MI-.

11 So CpA.

12 vahasi, "it bore on my pity as on my body", ibid.



10 Comforting them that were afflicted, shaken by grief, first of all I made the highest, supremely glorious asseveration of truth:

II 1" For just seven days I, with a mind of f:l!ith, desiring merit, fared the Brahma-faring. After that, this that was my2 faring for fifty years and more'

12 I fared only unwillingly. By this truth m~y there he wellbeing+, the poison destroyed may Yafifiad~tt~S: live!'

13 With this (asseveration of) truth made hy me, the brahman youth who had trembled w-ith the strength of the poison, rousing himself, stood np and was well. There was no one equal tn me in tn ith-s-this was my perfection of Truth.




And again, when I was Sutasoma, lord of the earth, captured by a man-eater I remembered my promise? to a brahman. Having strung up a hundred warrior-nobles by the palms of their hands", having let them dry out.? he brought me for sacrifice.

The man-eater asked me, "Is it that you wish your release'P? 1 win act according to your pleasure if you will come to see me



agam. "

J Ver, II, I2 at Ia. iv, 3I.

2 Ee, Ce mama yidarn, Be mamedarii.

3 Identical line at D. ii, 151. At DAT. ii, Z3o. samadhikani, 'and more' is explained by dena vass cna , which would make a total of S t. years. CpA. ;s silent.

4 etena saccena suvatthi hotu; cf.'s safety. rune at iVI. ii. roj , tena

sacccna sotthi hotu. ,-:. I"rhc bO!'S n arne ,

° Mahasutasoma-jataka, ~o. 537; Itrn, No. 31.

7 Ee sankara, CpA. 2.5 I, Ce, Be, Iii. v. +8 I sangara,

• CpA says he made a hole in the palms of their hands and passed a rope through so as. to hang t'h ern On a tree.

9 sampamilapetva, CpA pamilapctva, "withered, visoserva, desiccated, khedapetvd, tortured. Or is. it from the root mil, and not mlii, as suggested by CpA and adopted by .l::'ED? But cf. pamilata at Miln, 303, obviously having the meaning of dried up, withered.

10 Ee, CpA. 254 nissajjarn, Ce, Be nissajarn, i.c, from the man-eater's hands.




Having assured him of my retllr~ at dawn, approaching the delightful city, I renounced the kingdom then.

Rt<.:Qllecting the Dhamma of the good followed hy former Conquerors, giving the wealth to the brahman, T approached the man-cater.

I had DO doubt whether he would kill me or not. Protecting ~ruth-speaking I approached to sacr ifice my life. There was no one to equal me in truth-this was my perfection of 'Truth.!


I I do 1:0t see this ver. in Ja. No" 537, nor the different one ascribed tu il at }ii. i. 46, BvA. 60, ApA. 51 to exemp lify the u1tirnate pet-fectiort of truth, paramatthaparaml, hut BvA. 60 reads esa me saccaparami.





(Suvannaaamacariyarh 2)

When in a wood I was Sarna, created by Sakka", I brought the lions and tigers in the forest to loving-kindness.

Surrounded by lions and tigers, by leopards", bears, buffaloes and by spotted deer and wild boar I lived in the wood.

Noone was frightened 5 of me nor did 16 fear anyone 7; sustained by the power of loving-kindness I delig] ted in the forest then."



III. 14 CONDUCT OF EKARAJA9 (Ekarajacariyam)

I And again, when I was called Ekaraja, widely famed, resolutely determining on the suprememorality'", I governedll the great earth.

1 Siima-jiitaka, No. 540; d. Mhvu, ii.zo9, and jiiLakaSldva, Story 4+. Siirna

mentioned at Miln. 123, 198.

2 CpA. 258 Samapm;l<;iitacariyam. 3 I.e. produced on his advice.

4 Ee dipehi, Ce, Be dipihi. 5 Ee uttassati, CpA. 260, Ce, Be uttasati.

6 Ec, Be na pi, Ce nap; "harii,

? CpA. 260 animals, yakkhas, non-human beings or human heing'< who were hunters.

e This verse, cited at Ja. i. 47, EvA. 6r in illustration of tile ultimate perfection of Loving-kindness, is attributed there to Ekad;jajiitaka; also cited at ApA. 5' as from Sama-jataka, with v. I. Ekarajajataka. See HI. J4, n. r ,

9 Ekaraja-jstaka, No. 303, At DPPN, la. i. 47, B,A. 61 it is given as an example-of a birth where the Bodhisatta practised rnetta to the highest perfection. The vcrac quoted, l-iowcvc.r, is the last verse in the previous Cp 'tQ,L'Y (IH. I:J) which is not a story concerning this perfection at its utmost limit. At ApA. 5'1 it is rightly ascribed to the Sama-jataka.

10 As named in next verse.

11 CpA. 264 explains pasfisdrrn as smuaaedrnj , I governed, and rajjarn kiiremi, I ruled, reigned-e-namely, over the kingdom of Kasi,

PER FEe T ION OF L 0 V l:-.:r G - KIN D N E S S 47


Without exception J practised the ten skilled ways of acting;' I treated the populace kindly with the four bases of generosjty '. While I was being diligent thus for the sake of this world and the next, Dahhasena.:' having approached, sacking: my city" (by force of arm~),

Getting complete possession of the dependants of the king, the

townspt'Dple together with the armed forces and with the country-folk, buried'' me in a pit 6

When he had captured the (whole) body of rmrusters, the

• • 7 I d

prosperous kingdom, my rnner city', . saw ,even. my ear sO.n

taken. There was no one to equal me III loving-kindness-e-thie was my perfection of Loving-kindness.




1 As at r. 3, I; II. 8, 2. ~ Set: II. 9· z , n.

3 King of KOMI". 4 Bi'idl)asi, also called Kasi.

sEe nikkhani, CpA. 266 nikhani, Ce nikhaIfi, Be nikhanl.

(;; kasu explained by avii.ta at CpA which adds 'U? to the neck.'. Kasu also

at II. L 3.

7 antep ura is the inner city. i.e. the royn] 1f1rulace, which will have included

the king's women-folk, children and retainers.


(U pekkhaparamiUi)

UI. 15 THE GREAT ASTOUNDING CONDUCTl (M ah ill omahrunsacariyam)

21 lay~O\\'~ in a 4cemetery leaning against- a skeleton. Crowds of ~u~tlC chjldren approached me and displayed a great deal of derisive behaviour.

Others, exultant, thrilled in mind, brought (me) offerings of many perfumes and garlands= and a variety of food.

Tho~e who caused" me anguish and those who gave me hapPII:ess-I was the same to them all; kindliness anger7 did

not exist. '

Having; become balanced toward happiness and anguish, toward honours and reproaches", I was the same in all circumstances-this was my perfection of Equanimity.

Concluded is the Exposition on the Perfection of Equanirnity9

1 Th id ifi .

C .1 crrn cat-ion of tui" cariyu with Lomahamea-jaraka No 94 :'

to doubt. See Intr, p. viii. ' . ,is open

2 A.t J_. B .

- _ a. J.4?, vA. ?I, ApA. 51 this verse il cited to illustrate the ultimate

perfectl?u ot Equanltruty,~ll t~lTee passages saying that the full meaning can be cbtciricd fro.m the Callyap1laka. At M. i. 79 in the Mahasihanada Sta No. r z, the episode of this :':f'r~~ is called 'abiding in equanimity'. At the en? of th~ Sta, the Buddha IS recol"d?d to advise Nagasamala that since his hair hal: stO?? on end while he was listening to it he should remember it as

the Hmr-mLsmg (or Astour J. ) D· ... L

r .. -,. . 11 mg lsqulsltlOn, omahamsanapariyiiva. See

ntr, p. vui, also my Ten Jiitab Stories. London !9"7 Intr p ~.X; •

;) E ·dh- C· " ~, ... .~ r ,

b em. aya;" e, Be, B."A. 6.1, ApA .. 51 upanidhaya ; CpA. 26Q 'making a

o~e my PIH~w , 27~, M. 1. 79 (in prose], Jii. i. 47 upadhaya,

, Ee, B: g"'-:na')~la_a; Ce, CpA., M. i, Ja. I, EvA .. ApA. ~all loc cit) go-

peasants . . ~ ..

: ~e, <?,e gandhafi ca rnalafi ca, Be gandhamalafl ca.

Ee, uc upadahanzi, CpA. 270, Be upaharanti, 7 Ee dnynkopo, CpA., Ceo De daya 1..OjJ".

: yasesu aya~es~ ex~la!ned by ~ittisll nindssu at CpA. 270.

Ce upekkhiiparamj niddeso nitthiro, Be upekkhavaggo tatiyo,





Its sumrnary i-


Yudbafijaya, Somanassa, Ayoghara, and involving a Lotusstalk2,_ Sona-Nanda, Mugapakkha, Monkey-king, Sacca by


The Quail, and the Fish-king, the seer Kanhadipayana, again I was Sutasoma, I was Sarna and Ekarajaj there was the perfection of Equanirni ty. So it was declared by the great seer.


l (7) Having thus experienced manifold anguish and manifold happiness in a variety of existences.', I attained supreme Sclf- A wakening.

2(8) Having gj..'en gifts that should have been given", having fulfilled morality in its entirety, having gone to perfection in renunciation, I attained supreme Self-Awakening.

3(9) Having inquired ofthe Iearned-, haying engaged in supreme energy, having gone to the perfection of patience, I attained supreme Self-Awakening.

4(10) Having made resolute determination firm, guarding truthspeaking, having gone to the perfection of loving-kindness, I attained supreme Self-Awakening.

S( II) Toward gain and non-gain, toward! honour and reproach", toward! respect? and disrespect-having been the same" in all circumstances, I attained supreme Self-Awakening,

6(12) Having seen indolence as a peril and output of energy as

IOn the numbering of these final Itll vel'ses, see Intr. p. , Vcr, 4-(,0).

2 bhiseria, explained at CpA. 271 m: conduct of Mahakaficana, its title for this carjya, III. 4.

J bhavabhave, CpA. 272: in small as well as in large existences, or in growings an.d declluings. See too CpA. ;':0.

4 (j?it.hh"bm. Ver. 1(8)-(14) alsn at Ap, p. 5-6, ver, 69---'75, with a few VY. ll.

5 Indicating the perfection of Wisdom, CpA. 274. None of tbe 3 perfections

of tills ver, has a corresponding cariya in Cp. .

6 yasayasej see III. '5.4-

., Read samma- with CpA. 2-75, Ce, B~ for Ee sama-, g Read sarnako with il id., for Ee samano.



peace, be putters forth of energy-this is the teaching of the Buddhas."

Having seen contention- as a peril and non-contention- as peace, ~ be united, tender.-hearted 4-this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

8(r4) Having seen negligence as a peril and diligence as peace, develop the eight-fold> Way-this is the teaching of the Buddhas.

The Lord, in this way6 illustrating his own former conduct, spoke the disquisition on Dhamm~ called Heroic Stories of the Buddha."

Concluded is the Basket of Conduct

1 Ee, Be, CpA. 333 on ver, 6 huddhanusasanj, Ce, CpA. 333. 33.5 on ver, 7, S -ano-.

2 CpA. 333 refers to the six matters causing vivada, contention, quarrel.

See e.g. Vin. ii. 89, D. iii. 246, IvI. ii. 245, A. iii. 334.

J CpA, this is cultivation of loving-kindness, or also the six things to be remembered (Go.rfi,')iYlldhmnmn, e.g , D. iii. "'45, M. i. 322,. A. iii. 288) causing absence of contention.

~ Ee akhila, CpA, Ce, Be sakhila, explained at CpA as muduhadaya,

J Ee bhave atthan-, CpA. 334, Ce, Be, Ap, p. 6, ver, 75 bhaveth' atthan-,

5 Itthcm sudarh, CpA. 335 ''''Y'' that eu.dam is only a participle, srid ittharii means 'the hundred thousand eons and' (four incalculables), see CpA. a, ver, 16; these were needed to bring Awakening to maturity.

7 Buddhapadaniya, given as <111. alternative title for Cp at CpA. S. This mean. according to CpA .. 335, that the earlier deeds, puratanak"'.mrn.:l, done under (different) Buddhas and difficult to do, were told as pertaining to himself, adhikiccappavattatta (this word also at Visrn, 450), i.e. to the Buddha Gotama. The stories collected in Cp to Illustrate his former heroic conduct are supposed to recount deeds done in this Bhadd,,-eon only (~e I. ~ and CpA. 20); see Intr. p, vi f. x.




Numbers refer to me Division, Story, Verse. S stands for the Summaries at the end of each Division.

Abbreoiations used

ICy. city, k. king, 1«1 .. kingdom, pro prince, y. yakkha.

Adbamma, y_ n S. 4 Akitti I I. :;, 10. SI .Alampiina II 2. Sf. Aljriasuu.u II 9. 2. Atig1l1imala III 1]. rz n. Afijana, elephant I 3· 3 Anitth.a, ey .. I ~. I

Ayoghara, pro III 3. r , 15. SI

BiiraJ;lasi I 7. I n., II 4- 3, III 5. I n,

14- 3 n

Bhuridatta II ". I, 10. Sr Brahrnavaddhana, "y. III 5. I Buddhapadaniya p. v 50, n, 7

Curnpeyyafka) II 3. 7, 10. 51 Canda ~ 7. T, 10. 82

Cera I 9. 38;: kings of I 9. 40 Culabodhi II 4. I, 10. 51

Dabbasena, k. III 14 .. 3 Dhamma, y. II 8, I) 10. SI Dhanahjaya, k, I 3. I, 10. SI Dipankara, B_ II 3. 5 n.

Ekaraja k. (1) I 7- I (2) III 14. I, IS.


Ganges II 6. 2ff., 7. ~

Indapaera, cy- I, 3. 1, HI z. 1

litE, I 9· 29 30 44 46 52 Iambudipa 1 9. 14 n, Jiitaveda III 9- 10 Javaddisa, k. ]1 9. T, 10. Sr Ieruttara, cy, I 9. 7. 56

Kiiliilga, kd. I 3. 2, 9. 16

Karnpila (Kapilla, Kapila), cy; II 9. 1 Kanhadrpayana HI II. I, 15.52 Kn:(1hil(jin._~) I 9. "9 30 H 46 sa

Kasi, cy. III 4-. I; k. of I1l3. I, 6. I Kosala In 10. 8 n., 14. 3 n, Kusavati, cy. I 4. I

Maddi I o, 28ff. ~:6 441'. 49ff. Magadha III 9. I

Maha-Govinda I 5. I, 10.51 M<iliiilw.i'icana, III 4. n.x , IS. 51 n. Maha-Sudassana, k. I 4. I, 10. 51 Mandabya III II. :3

Matanga II /. I, 10. 51

lVlithilii, "1'. I 6. I

Moazallana II 2. 7 n. Mugapakkha, pro III 6.. I, 15.51

Kilgus.mina III 15. a n. Nanda HI 3. 6, 15.51 Nimi, k. I 6. I, 10.82

Pacc;lya, elephant T I). T 5 Pajjunna III 10. 6ff. Paficala, kd. II 9. I Phusan I 'J- 1 {off. iO Pupphavsti, ny. T ,_ r

Rum II, 6. I, 10. SI

S~ce" TTT Ii. 1, uS. Sr

Sakka I I. 411., 8. 3, 9· I 3 46 42 49,

ro, TO Igll., HI 4. n.r, 13. I S.a,na III 13. " I5. SZ

Sanjaya, I 9. 7

Sankha 12.1,10.81