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Серия

«Учебники и учебные пособия»

И.П. Агабекян

Практический
английский
для юристов

Ростов-на-Дону
«Ф еникс»
2003
ББК 81.2Англ-92
А23

Агабекян И.11.
А23 П рактический английский для студентов-нфи-
стов. Серия «Учебники и учебные пособия >>. Р о­
стов н/Д: «Ф еникс», 2003 - 416 с. i
Пособие для студентов-юристов на первом и втором
этапах обучения соответствует программе по английско­
му языку для гуманитарных неязыковых факультетов
высших учебных заведений. В пособии подробно рассмат­
риваются некоторые разделы гражданского и коммерчес­
кого права с практическими примерами и задачами для
самостоятельного решения, отражающими реалии. Содер­
жит повторительный курс (устные темы, грамматичес­
кий практикум, лексические упражнения и др.). Посо­
бие может также использоваться студентами юридичес
ких колледжей И для самостоятельного обучения.

ISBN 5-222-03379-0 ББК 8 1 .2 Англ-92

© Агабекян И Л ., 2003
© Оформление, изд-во «Феникс», 2003
О т автора

:Х:'
I Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов
£ юридических факультетов в качестве базового курса на
первом и втором этапах обучения. Цель пособия - обуче­
ние навыкам чтения и перевода оригинальной литерату­
ры по специальности, ознакомление с юридической тер­
минологией на английском языке и ее усвоение.
В последнее время расширение деловых связей с англо­
язычными странами вызывает необходимость в более де-
тальном изучении правовой системы этих стран, особенно
в области гражданского и коммерческого права. С этой
: целью в пособии используются оригинальные и адаптиро­
ванные тексты для чтения и перевода, взятые из амери­
канских и английских источников. Содержание уроков
основного курса тематически связано со специальными
предметами, изучаемыми на юридическом факультете
Основной курс пособия рассчитан на 240—280 часов
аудиторных занятий (в зависимости от уровня подготов-
р! ки студентов).
I Повторительный курс пособия рассчитан на 50—70 ча-
сов аудиторных занятий и его можно проходить или до
начала работы с основным курсам (в том случае, если
? уровня подготовки студентов недостаточно), или парал­
лельно с основным курсом (как домашние задания или
самостоятельная работа), В соответствии с «Программой
по иностранным языкам для вузов неязыковых специаль­
ностей* повторительный курс пособия, содержит: устные
темы (About Myself, Student’s Working Day, My University,
и др), цикл страноведческих тем Great Britain, London,
USA, Washington, Russian Federation, Moscow, и т.д., ос­
новные сведения по грамматике с закрепляющими упраж­
нениями, лексические упражнения, направленные на рас­
ширение активного словаря и развитие языковой догадки
(интеряациоиализмы, словообразование, синонимы).
ASIC COURSE
[ОСНОВНОЙ КУРС]

.E S S O N

H istory of the Law

Ш TEXT 1
Since the time when people first began living together,
rules have been adopted to protect individuals and groups
and to govern their relationships. Even the most ancient
peoples compiled-Law codes. A law code is a more or less
systematic and comprehensive written statement o f laws.
The oldest law code is tablets from the ancient archives
o f the city o f Ebla (now Tell Mardikh, Syria), which date
to about 2400 BC.
The earliest written law was also the Law Code o f
Ham murabi, a king who reigned over Babylon (on the
territory o f modem Iraq) around 2000 B.C.
Hammurabi’s Code had 282 paragraphs and was carved
in cuneiform on a pillar made of very hard stone. This
pillar was set up in a temple to the Babylonian god Marduk
so that everyone could read it.
A fter the fall o f Babylon in the 16th century B.C.
the pillar was lost for centuries. It was found again during
archeological expedition among the ruins of the Persian >
city o f Susa in 1901. Now the pillar is in Paris in the £
Louvre museum.
The scientists managed to read Hammurabi’ s Code. It
dealt with many o f the same subjects as our legal system
today. It included real and personal property law (the
rights of slave owners and slaves, inheritance and property
Basic course, lesson! I ■ 5

contracts), fam ily lgw (divorce and marriage), criminal


law (crimes and punishment o f crimes), and business
law (settlement o f debts and even regulations about taxes
and the prices o f goods).
The Code gave very harsh punishments for almost all
crimes. Not only murderers but also thieves and those
guilty o f false accusation faced the death penalty. The
punishment was based on the principle o f revenge: an
eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. The criminals
had to receive the same injuries and damages they had
inflicted upon their victims.
Nevertheless, the penalty according to Hammurabi’s
laws could not be harder than the crime. The code banned
the tradition o f kidnapping women as brides. The laws
o f Hammurabi’s Code took into account the circumstances
of the offender as well as the offence itself. For example,
if a citizen o f a lower rank lost in a civil case he had to
pay fewer penalties than an aristocrat, though if he won
he also was awarded less.
The laws set forth in Hammurabi’s Code were written
fay the King — a divinely inspired authority. Only the
King could change such laws. This absolutism o f power
in the monarch was typical o f legal systems until the
time o f the Greeks around 300 B.C.

£ f Vocabulary
comprehensive archive ('mkaiv] архив
[,kompn'hensiv] полный paragraph fpieregra-.f]
statement изложение, параграф, пункт; статья
заявление, утверждение
закона
ancient f'emfant] древний
to compile составлять to reign over ['rein] цар­
(книгу, сборник и т.д.) ствовать
to deal with иметь дело с to carve высекать, выре­
чем-л.; рассматривать зать
Ч Т О 'Л . pillar ['pila] столб, колонна
6 | Практический английским для студентов-юристов

cuneiform ('kjumnfermj real property недвижимость


КЛИНОПИСЬ debt [det] долг
temple храм to infliet наносит,
archeological expedition vietim жертва ■ .
f-crlna'bdpksl} археоло­ to ban запрещать
гическая зксиедиция injury [' indjari} поврежде­
real property недвижимость на
inheritance наследование take into account прини­
settlement раечет, уплата мать во внимание
regulation правило, регла­ circumstances
мент, предписание, £'sa:k:3mst3nsiizj обстоя­
: постановление тельства
harsh [ha Л суровый offender преступник
punishment кара, наказание offence нарушение, пре­
murderer убийца ступление
false accusation лживое civil case гражданское дело
обвинение award присужденное нака­
thief (мн.ч. thieves) вор зание, решение (судей)
penalty [' penltL) наказание, to award присуждать
взыскание, штраф divinely inspired, боже­
death penalty смертная ственный, священный
казнь authority [э:'0эгНг] власть
revenge Jn'vends] месть to set forth излагать,
slave owner рабовладелец формулировать

E f Answer the following questions:


1. W ho was Hammurabi? Where and when did he reign?
2. Where and why was the pillar with carved Hammura­
b i laws set?
S, Tell what kinds of law did Hammurabi’s code deal
with?
4. Explain the principle «an eye for an eye and a tooth
for a tooth»?
5. How do you understand «fair punishments»?
6. Did Hammurabi’s code treat people o f different ranks
differently? W hy? _
Basic course. Lessonl | 7

Ы 1СХТ2

LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME


The absolutism o f power in the monarch Was typical
o f legal systems until the time of the Greeks around 300
B.C. Before the Greeks people believed that their laws
were given to them by gods, represented by their kings.
The Greek system emphasized that law was made by man,
fo r man, and could be changed by man. Instead o f being
an instrum ent o f total social con trol o f th e whole
population by a monarch, the law was to serve peace and
prosperity o f the people.
In the year o f 621 B.C., D raco, Athenian lawgiver,
drew up Greece’s first written code o f laws. This harsh
legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in
Athens with death. The word draconian (безжалостный)
is still used to describe repressive legal measures.
In 594 B.C. Solon, Athens’ lawgiver, repealed Draco’s
code and published new laws, retaining only Draco’ s
homicide statutes. He revised every statute except that
on homicide and made Athenian law more humane. He
also retained an ancient Greek tradition — trial by jury.
Enslaving debtors was prohibited, along with most o f
the harsh punishments o f Draco’s code. Under Solon’ s
law citizens o f Athens could be elected to the assembly
and courts were established in which citizens could appeal
against government decisions.
The Greek ideals were carried over into the Homan
system o f laws. The Greeks have contributed to the Roman
system o f laws the concept o f *natural law». Actually,
natural law was based on the idea that certain basic
principles are above the laws o f a nation. These principles
arise from the nature o f people.
A s the Roman Empire increased, a set o f laws was
codified to handle the more sophisticated legal questions
8 | Практический английский для студентов-юристов

o f the day. This was done under the sponsorship o f the


Byzantine emperor Justinian I (from AD 529 to 565).
This collection o f laws and legal interpretations was called
Corpus Juris Civilis («Body o f Civil Law») and also the
Justinian Code.
French Emperor Napoleon made some modification o f
the Justinian Code at the beginning of the nineteenth
century. Napoleon Code is still the model fo r the legal
codes governing most of the modern nation-states of
Europe today.

0 Vocabulary
to represent представлять trial jury ['trawl 'cfeuan] суд
to emphasize придавать присяжных
особое значение; подчер­ to enslave делать рабом,
кивать порабощать
prosperity процветание to appeal обжаловать
Draco ['dreikou] Драконт, to carry over переносить
афинский законодатель to handle справляться c
trivial 1) обычный, триви­ чем-л.
альный 2) незначитель­ corpus лат. свод законов,
ный кодекс
to repeal аннулировать, Roman Empire ['ешраю)
отменять закон Римская империя
to retain сохранять Justinian Code [t&As'tmjan
homicide убийство 'kaud] Кодекс Юстиниа­
sponsorship покровитель­ на
ство Emperor Napoleon ['етргэ
natural law естественный ns'psuljan] император
закон Наполеон

П Answer the following questions: \


1. W hat did the ancient Greek system o f law emphasize?
2. What was typical of legal systems until the time of
the Greeks?
Basic course. Lessonl t 9

3. What does the word ’draconian’ mean and what is the


origin of this word? . \ '
4. What have the Greeks contributed to the Roman sys­
tem o f laws?
5. W hat is the concept o f ’natural law’? W hat is its basic
idea?
6. What was Solon? W hat contribution to ancient law
did he make?

Ш TEXT 3

H O W DID THE BRITISH LAW DEVELOP?


In early medieval England, there was no written law.
Each feudal lord or baron administered justice personally.
Although these baronial courts had similarities, the laws
were different in different places. Disputes-were settled
on the basis o f local customs and the baron’s judgment.
In time, the king was able to establish a system o f courts,
which enforced a common law throughout England. The
rules o f law, which were stated in these early cases,
became precedents (examples) for settling future, similar
cases. In the beginning, few decisions were recorded,
and so the early common law was sometimes known as
♦unwritten law .» Finally, the principles and rules
announced by the courts were preserved in writing. Thus,
particular rules became fixed, and people knew what to
expect i f similar problems arose in the future. This
resulted in what has come to be known as the Common
Law - judge-made case law that has its origin in the
traditions, customs, and trade practices o f the people.
The .English common law began to develop after the
conquest o f England by William the Conqueror in 1066.
To keep order and peace, the Kings o f England tried to
ТО ( Практический английский лая сгудентов-юристов

create a uniform or «common* law to govern the d if­


ferent regions of-the British Isles, Circuit-riding judges
(выездная сессия суда) and the use of the jury aided
the Norman Kings in the consolidation o f their kingdom.
In medieval England, sometimes there was no remedy
available from a common law court to enforce certain
rights or to correct certain wrongs. This was because in
civil cases the court could give only monetary damages. A
person who wanted any other kind of relief would appeal
directly to the king. The king would refer the person to
his chancellor, who was usually a clergyman o f good con­
science and fairness. The chancellor would hear the case
without a jury and would then give appropriate relief.
Such hearings developed into what came to be known as a
separate system of Courts o f Equity.

For example, suppose that Citizen A promised to


sell a parcel of land to Citizen В and then refused to
complete the deal. Citizen В could have then bought a
similar, but possibly more expensive, parcel of land
and sued in a common law court for money damages
to cover the extra cost. But every piece of land is
unique in location. Therefore if the original parcel was
desired, Citizen В could have gone to the chancellor for
equitable relief. The chancellor would have ordered
specific performance of the agreement. Thus, the seller
would have had to deliver the land as promised.

0 Vocabulary
medieval [,medi'r.vsl] baron t'beeran] барон
ередаевековыи Common law общее право
feudal lord ['fju:dl] феодал monetary damages денеж­
administer justice отправ­ ный ущерб
лять, осуществлять, to enforce осуществлять,
обеспечивать правосудие приводить в исполнение
Basic course. Lesson 14 | 11

dispute спор, разногласия; to deliver уступать, сда­


ссора вать, отдавать
to settle a dispute разре­ chancellor судья в суде
лорда-кавплера
шать спор
equitable справедливый,
controversy конфликт, спор
объективный
case судебное дело relief помощь
citizen гражданин remedy средство судебной
parcel o f land участок защиты, средство защи­
земли ты права >
Courts of Equity суды wrong правонарушение,
справедливости преступление
to refer направлять; отсы­ clergyman священник
лать good conscience J'konfans]
equitable relief средство чистая совесть
судебной защиты no fairness честность, справед­
ливость, законность
праву справедливости
precedent ['president]
specific performance прецедент _
исполнение договора в tosue [sju:] возбуждать
натуре дело, судиться

Q A n sw e r the questions:
1. W as there any written law in medieval England?
2. How was justice administered in early medieval En­
gland?
3. What are precedents?
4. W hat is Common law based on?
5. W ho examines cases and pronounces judgment in the
Courts o f Equity?

/
12 | Прзктиче-кий английский для студентов-юрисгов

Ы TEXT 4

THE M AGNA CARTA


In 1215» the English barons forced the English King
John I to sign and adopt the Magna Carta, which provided
fo r them certain guarantees and protection against
unreasonable acts o f the king. Later, the M agna Carta
was revised, and other documents, such as the English
B ill o f R ights (1689), were adopted.
W hen the thirteen American colonies broke away from
Great Britain after the Revolutionary War, the colonists
adopted the principles of the Magna Carta and the
common law. These principles became the foundation of
the legal system of US federal government and o f all the
states.
Today, the two great systems of law in the Western
world are the Common law of the English-speaking world
and the Rom an civ il law found on the continent o f
Europe. Both systems have the same objectives, but they
d iffer in origins and methods. The Roman civil law
originated in codes (systematic collections of written rules
of law) imposed on the people by the emperors of ancient
Rome. In contrast, the English common law originated
in decisions of judges based on widely held customs of
the people. Also, English common law uniquely provides
for trial by a jury o f one’s peers (equals).
The English colonies in America recognized the English
common law as governing until July 4, 1776. A fter that
date, existing rules were retained, but further changes
in the law were, made in the courts of the newly formed
American country. The Common Law, with its emphasis
on judges making rules of law, continues to serve well
till now.
Basic course. Lesson l l 13

Ш Vocabulary
the Magna Carta Великая to provide for предусматри­
Хартия Вольностей вать
to force заставлять, вы­ Common Law общее право
нуждать Roman civil law римское
to break away отделиться гражданское право
Bill o f Rights Билль о peer равный, ровяя
правах trial судебное разбиратель­
unreasonable неразумный, ство; судебный процесс,
необдуманный суд
objective цель to provide for предусматри­
in contrast в противопо­ вать
ложность (чему-л.) emphasis акцент

И Answer the questions:


1. When was the Magna Carta adopted?
2. W hat did the Magna Carta provide?
3. W hat principles of law did first American states adopt
after they broke away from Great Britain?
4. How do the two great systems o f law, Common law
and the Roman civil law, differ?

M atch the follow ing:


1. common law
2. equity
3. Magna Carta
4. Roman civil law
5. specific performance

a. completion o f an agreement as promised


b. body o f regulations imposed by emperors o f ancient
Rome
c. great charter o f liberties for English people
d. form o f justice administered when there is no suit­
able remedy available in common law courts
e. case law, reflecting customs o f the people
14 | Практический английский для стулентов-юристов

T ranslate into English:


1. Сегодня в мире имеются две больших системы
закона - Общий закон в англоязычных странах и Рим­
ское гражданского право в Европе и ряде других стран.
2, Обе системы имеют одинаковые цели, но они отли­
чаются но происхождению и методам. 3. Римское граж­
данское право основано на кодексах, принятых импе­
раторами древнего Рима. 4. Английский общий закон
основан на предыдущих решениях судей. 5. Обпщй
закон предусматривает использование суда присяжных.
LESSO N

Kinds of Law
TEXT 1
KINDS OF LAW IN THE UNITED STATES
There are 51 basic legal systems in the United States:
the federal system and a separate system in each o f the
50 states. Although these, systems are mainly similar,
they also have important differences. For example, laws
governing marriage and. divorce are not the same in all
states, The differences among legal systems exist because
each of the original 13 states was previously sovereign
(independent).
The US law consists of the following:
1. The constitutions of the United States and o f the
50 states, and charters or constitutions fo r cities or
counties,
2. The statutes enacted by elected representatives
3. Administrative law, and
4. Case law, as expressed in court decisions.
These four types o f laws — constitutional, statutory,
administrative, and case - are each created by federal
and state governments. Local governments generally
create only statutory and administrative laws,
1. Constitutional Law
Constitutions are the supreme sources o f law. The
federal Constitution o f the USA is said to be «the supreme
law of the la n d .» This means that any state law -
including a part o f a state constitution - is void to the
extent that it conflicts w ith the federal Constitution.
16 | Практический английский дли юристов

The Supreme Court o f the United States is the final


interpreter o f the federal Constitution and each state
supreme court is the final authority on the meaning o f
its state constitution.
The federal and state constitutions allocate powers:
1. Between the people and their governments,
2. Between state governments and the federal go­
vernment, and
3. Among the branches o f the governments.
The federal Constitution is the main instrument for
a llo c a t in g p ow ers b etw een p e rso n s an d t h e ir
governments. It does this with its first ten amendments
to the constitution, called the Bill o f R ights, which
protect citizens from certain acts o f their governments.
Important rights of citizens are included in the Bill o f
Rights. They are:
1. freedom of religion,
2. freedom of speech, press, and peaceable assembly,
3. security in person and property against unreasonable
searches and seizures,
4. right to remain silent if accused o f a crime, and to
have a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury,
5. protection from any cruel or unusual punishment
i f convicted of a crime,
6. right to fair compensation for private property taken
by the government for any public purpose, and
7. protection from deprivation o f life, liberty, or
property without due process of law.
The federal Constitution allocates certain governmental
powers to the federal government and certain other
powers to the state governments.
State and federal constitutions allocate governmental
powers among the three branches of government: the
executive, the legislative, and the judicial. Constitutions
d o this to create a system o f checks and balances among
Sasic course. Lesson 2 I 17

the branches so that no branch o f government becomes


too powerful.
2. Statutory Law
The C ongress o f the U nited States and federal
legislatures are composed of elected representatives of
the people. A cting on behalf o f their citizens, these
legislatures may enact new statutes.
A ll state legislatures have delegated some of their
legislative authority to local governments. Thus, towns,
cities, and counties can legislate in their own geographic
areas on matters over which the state has given them
authority. This legislation is created by a town or city
council or by a county board or county commission.
Legislation o f this type is usually called an ordinance
rather than a statute.
To be valid, the statute or ordinance must not conflict
with the federal Constitution or state constitution.
3. Adm inistrative Law
The federal, state, and local legislatures all create
administrative agencies.
A lthough they are created by legislatures, admi­
nistrative agencies are usually operated by the executive
branch of the government. Thus, the President, governor,
or mayor will supervise the agency’ s activities. For
example, the United States Congress'created the Internal
Revenue Service (an agency) and directed that the Presi­
dent appoint and supervise the staff of the agency.
The ru les and r e g u la tio n s esta b lish ed by an
administrative agency generally have the force o f law.
Like statutes, the regulations can be reviewed by courts
to determine whether they are constitutional. In addition,,
the courts may invalidate a rule or regulation if it is
beyond the scope o f powers delegated by the legislature.
18 | Практический английский для юристов

4. Case Law
Case law is created by the ju d icial branches o f
governments. Each state creates case law through its
state courts. Similarly, federal courts establish federal
case law. Case law is usually made after a trial has
concluded and one o f the parties has appealed the case.
This may result in a review of parts o f the trial by a
higher court — a process called appellate review. When
the appellate court publishes its opinion on a case, that
opinion may state, and thereby create, new case law.
The effectiveness o f case law arises out o f the doctrine
o f stare decisis (Latin for «to abide by, or adhere to
decided cases»). This doctrine requires that once Case
law is established, it must be followed by lower courts in
other similar cases. Stare decisis generally does not
strictly bind appellate courts because they can overturn
their own case law when justified by new conditions or
better understanding o f the issues.
W hile courts are the final authority on the inter­
pretation o f constitutions and the constitutionality of
statutes, rules, and ordinances, they are not the final
authority on the content and meaning of such legislation.
Legislative bodies can, in effect, nullify a court decision
interpreting its statute, ordinance, or rule by abolishing
or rewriting the statute or amending the constitution.

iUJ Vocabulary
charter устав, хартия authority [a: eonti] власть,
statute статут, законода­ полномочие
тельный attr парламента legislature ['ledpsleitfa] зако­
ordinance указ, декрет, по­
нодательная власть; зако­
становление
нодательные упреждения
to enact предписывать, ус­
танавливать; вводить за­ legislative authority законо­
кон дательная власть
Sasic course Lesson 2 I 19

Jrules and regulations пра­ eounty графство (админист­


вила и нормативы ративно-территориальная
administrative agency прави­ единица в Англин), округ
тельственное учреждение (административно-терри­
; to invalidate лишать закон­ ториальная единица в
ной силы США)
'гай! недействительный; не Statutory law статутное пра­
имеющий юридической во, право, выраженное в
законах, ’писаный закон”
: to allocate f'ajbukeit] распре­ Саве law прецедентное право
делять stare decisis лат., букв, «сто­
to review пересматривать ять на решенном»
enact a law принимать закон to bind обязывать, связы­
due должный, надлежащий, вать, ограничивать
соответствующий appellate review апелляци­
beyond (one’s) scope вне онный пересмотр
(чьей-л.) компетенции issue предмет тяжбы
, araendmeid to Йюconstitution to abide by придерживаться
поправка к конституции to adhere fad'hia] оставать­
seizure ( ' бкзэ] конфискация, ся верным
наложение ареста to delegate (authority) пе­
impartial беспристрастный, редавать полномочия, по­
непредвзятый, объектив­ ручать
ный to overturn опровергать, от­
deprivation of life лишение менять
жизни lower courts суды первой ин­
system of checks and balances станции
система сдержек и проти­ to nullify [nAhfai] аннули­
вовесов ровать

H A n sw er the questions:
1. W hat is the cause o f differences among legal systems
, in different states? ,
2. What is the Constitutional Law?
3. What is the Statutory Law?
4. What is the Administrative Law?
5. What is the Case Law?
20 | Практический английский для юристов

Ш TEXT 2

H O W D O CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS DIFFER?


When the private legal rights o f an individual are
violated, the matter is governed by civil law. It applies
whenever one person has a right to sue another person.
An example o f such a situation is when a tenant fails to
pay the rent. The police will not investigate civil conflicts.
When a person violates certain duties to society and
disturbs public peace and order, the violation is governed
by crim inal law. The government, acting in the name o f
all the people, investigates, prosecutes, and tries to fine
or imprison the alleged wrongdoer.
Generally, when a crime occurs, private rights o f the
individual victim are violated at the same time. Thus, the
civil law may also apply. The victim o f the crime may,
therefore, sue the wrongdoer but seldom does because it
is usually difficult to collect damages from criminals.

IZf Vocabulary
civil law гражданское право whenever всякийраз когда
criminal law уголовное право tenant наниматель, жилец
to violate ['vaisleit] нару­ to investigate расследовать
шать to prosecute преследовать су­
damages ['dEemufciz] убытки; дебным порядком
возмещение убытков fine штраф

H A n sw er the questions:
1. What cases are governed b y civil law?
2. W hat cases are governed by criminal law?
3. W ho are plaintiff and defendant under civil law?
4. W ho are plaintiff and defendant under criminal law?
Basic course. Lesson 2 | 21

M atch the follow ing:


1- administrative agencies
2. administrative law
3. appellate review
4. Bill o f Rights
5- case law
6. civil law
7. common law
8. constitution
9. criminal law
10. doctrine o f stare decisis
11. Magna Carta
12. ordinance
13. Roman civil law
14. rules and regulations
15. rules or regulations
16. specific performance
17. statute

.a. a review of a trial by an appellate court


b. a supreme source o f law for a government
c. body o f regulations imposed by. emperors of ancient
Rome
d. case decisions and opinions reflecting customs and
practices o f the people.
e. completion o f an agreement as promised
f. enactment of a local governmental body.
g. first ten amendments to the U.S, Constitution.
h. governmental bodies which administer certain stat­
utes
i. great charter of liberties for English people
j. law concerned with public wrongs against society
k. law created by appellate courts
l. law enacted by a state or federal legislature
m. law that governs relations between individuals
22 | Практический английский для юристов

n. laws created by an administrative agency


o. statutory law created by a town, city, or county
p. the names given to laws created by an administrative
agency
q. the principle that new cases must be decided in ways
consistent with prior ones

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1* The two great systems o f law in the W estern world
are the English common law and the Roman civil law,
2. The common law arose from the customs and practices
o f the people. It operates through the doctrine o f stare
decisis.
3. When no adequate remedy is available through the
common law, a person may often obtain relief through
a supplementary system o f justice known as courts of
equity.
4. Law is found in constitutions, statutes, cases decided
by courts, and regulations and rulings o f administra­
tive agencies.
5. Civil law governs relations between individuals. Crim­
inal law governs violations of public duties owed to
society as a whole.
ESSON

L a w enforcement
and the courts

ca text 1 '

H O W CAN DISPUTES BE RESOLVED PRIVATELY?

Many persons decide too quickly to litig a te their


disputes — to take their disputes to court. W hen someone
in ju res another person or fa ils to keep a b in d in g
agreem ent, he usually first tries to settle the matter by
direct negotiation. The injured party should discuss the
problem with the wrongdoer as calmly as possible. The
two o f them can often reach a m utually acceptable
solution. If there has been an automobile accident and
the prospective defendant is injured, the insurance
company will sometimes send an insurance adjuster to
the injured prospective plaintiff. The adjuster tries to
learn the facts about the accident and may suggest a
mutually acceptable settlement.
In some cases, an independent third party may be
called in to act as m ediator (also known as a conciliator
арбитр, мировой посредник ). The mediator talks to both
parties and tries to develop a solution acceptable to both
parties.
In other cases, an independent third party known as
an arbitrator may be brought in by agreement o f the
parties. Sometimes original agreement between the parties
has a provision for arbitration o f disputes. The arbitrator’s
decision, unlike that o f a mediator, is binding on both
24 | Практический английский для юристов

parties. By using negotiation, mediation, or arbitration,


the disputing.parties may avoid the heavy costs and delays
and difficulties o f litigation (court trial). Moreover, the
arbitrator’s decision (award) can be enforced by court
order if necessary.
When no provision has been made for arbitration,
and if the parties cannot reach an agreement by any
other method, either party may go to court. However,
courts generally treat the decisions o f arbitrators as final;
the matter cannot be reheard by a trial court.

0 Vocabulary
law enforcement 1) правовое binding обязательный, при­
принуждение; применение нудительный
закона 2) обеспечение wrongdoer преступник; пра­
правопорядка; деятель­ вонарушитель
ность правоохранитель­ negotiation переговоры
ных органов arbitration арбитраж
to litigate судиться (с кем- mediation посредничество
л.); быть тяжущейся сто­ mutually acceptable solution
роной (в судебном процес­ взаимоприемлемое реше­
се), оспаривать (на суде) ние
litigation тяжба; судебный settlement урегулирование;
процесс соглашение, расчет
to resolve разрешать; решать provision условие (договора
(задачу, проблему и т.п.) и т. н.)
to injure причинить зло, ра­ insurance adjuster оцешцик
нить, ушибить, испор­ размера страхового убыт­
тить, повредить (что-л.) ка *
injured party сторона, понес­ mediator посредник, прими­
шая ущерб ритель
defendant ответчик arbitrator третейский судья,
binding agreement соглаше­ арбитр
ние, обязывающее обе сто­ to rehear вновь заслушивать
роны дело
Basic course. Lesson 3 I 25

H Answer the questions:


1. W hat are the ways to solve the dispute privately with­
out litigation?
2. W hat is the role o f mediator (arbitrator) in the reso­
lution o f private disputes?

Ш TEXT 2

H O W IS THE LAW ENFORCED?


Governments create laws. They are also very involved
in enforcing the law. In the US, They have three levels
o f government —federal, state, and local. A ll three levels
create laws and all three leveis enforce laws. Each level
o f government usually uses police, public prosecutors,
ahd courts to enforce the law.
Table
Examples of common names used for police, public
prosecutors, and courts of the three levels of
government in the U S.

Le vel of P ro s e c u to rs
P o lice C o u rts
G o v e rn m e n t (п р о к у р о р ы )
Federal Level FBI Agent (агент U.S. Attorney U.S. Suprem e C ourt
ФБР) General (Верховны й суд СШ А)
Customs (министр Court o f A ppeals
Inspector юстиции СШ А) (апелляционны й суд)
(таможенник) D istrict C o u rt
Internal Revenue (окружной суд)
Agent (агент t a x C ourt (налоговый
напогоеой суд)
службы) B ankruptcy C o u rt
(отдел по делам о
State Level Highway Patrol Attorney Supreme C ourt
(дорожный G eneral (Верховны й суд)
патруль) (министр Court o f A ppeals
State T rooper юстиции штата) (апелляционны й суд)
(патрульный) State Prosecutor Superior C o u rt
(прокурор (главны й суд первой
штата) инстанции)
А> ,| Лракгиче' кий английский для юристов

Level of P o lic e P ro s e c u to rs C o u r ts
G o v e rn m e n t (п р о к у р о р ы )

L e c a tL e v e ! Р в И с е О П Ь е го г District A tto rney C ity C o u rt


(C ity and □ elective (прокурор округа) (м униципальны й суд)
County) Sheriff C ity Attorney T raffic C ourt (дорожный
(гфокурор города) суд)
Public Prosecutor D ivorce C o u rt {с у д no
(прокурор) разводам) .
Juvenile Court (суд no
делам
несоверш еннолетних)
Justice Court (суд
' справедливости)

In general, each level o f governm ent is m ost


concerned with its own laws. Thus, agents o f the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) investigate only violations
o f federal laws.
Procedural law deals with methods o f enforcing legal
rights and duties. Laws, which specify how and when
police can make arrests and what procedures can be used
in a trial are procedural laws. In contrast, substantive
law defines rights and duties; it is, concerned with all
rules o f conduct except those involved in enforcements
There are tw o typ es o f p roced u ra l law - c iv il
procedure and crim inal procedure. Criminal procedure -
defines the process for enforcing the law when someone
is charged with a crime. A crime is an offense against
society, as well as a violation o f the rights o f the victim.
B ecau se a crim e is an o ffe n s e a g a in s t s o c ie t y ,
representatives o f society such as city police, the state
highway patrol, or FBI agents investigate the alleged
criminal conduct and try to arrest and imprison those
who commit criminal acts. Other representatives of society
- city prosecutors, state attorneys general, or U.S.
attorneys try to convict the alleged offender during a
criminal trial. The law o f criminal procedure controls
each o f these activities.
Basic course. Lesson Э 1 27

Civil procedure is used wire» a civil law has been


violated. C ivillaw is concerned only with private offenses.
These are offenses against a particular person who has
been injured. When a civil law is violated, the injured
party uses civil procedure to protect his or her rights,
primarily through a civil trial. Since civil matters involve
a private offense, police and public prosecutors generally
do not involve themselves in the dispute.
One act may be both a crime and a civil offense. That
is, one act may violate the criminal laws and at the same
time violate the civil laws by causing a private injury.

EJ Vocabulary
procedural law [ргэ' sic^aral] тюрьму; лишать свободы
процессуальное право offense щ ю етутж , наруше-
substanlive law f'sAbstantiv} ние (against — чего-л.);
материальное право преступление
civil procedure (civil trial) prosecutor [ prcsikjuitaj обще­
гражданский процесс китель, прокурор, истец
criminal procedure уголов- public prosecutor прокурор
ный процесс convict ['koavikl} отбываю-
to enforce [m'fo:s) оеуществ- щий наказание (преступ-
лять, приводить в испол- ник); осужденный, зак-
нение люченный
to violate ['vaialeit] нарушать to convict [кэп 'vikt] осуж-
violation o f the rights нару- дать, признавать вянов-
ш етте драв ным (в чем-л. - of); вы-
to charge (with) (syn. to носить приговор
prosecute, to indict) alleged offender [a'lecfref)
обвинять предполагаемый пресгуп-
to im prison заключать в ник, подозреваемый

H A n sw er the questions:
X, W hat does procedural law deal with?
2. What is substantive law concerned with?
28 | Практический аиглий-кий для юристов

3. What are the two types o f procedural law?


4. What does criminal procedure define?
5. When is civil procedure used?
6. W hat is civil law concerned with?

ШТНХТЗ

WHAT IS A COURT?

A court is a tribunal established to administer justice


under the law. It may decide civil disputes or criminal
cases. A cou rt may award dam ages or adm inister
punishment for crimes.
Courts vary in authority (or jurisdiction) from justice
o f the peace and small claims courts to the supreme courts
o f various states and the Supreme Court o f the United
States. State courts have power to decide cases involving
state and local laws. Federal courts have power to decide
cases involving federal law.
There are two different levels o f courts: trial courts
and appellate courts. A trial court is the first court to
h ear a d isp u te. W itn esses t e s t ify and p resen ted
inform ation to prove the alleged facts. A trial court
consists not only o f a judge but also of lawyers, who are
officers of the court, and others who are necessary for
the court’s operation. The words court and judge are
often used to mean the same thing. W hile presiding over
a legal action, the judge may be referred to as «The
Court? or «Your H onor.»
An appellate court sometimes reviews decisions o f a
trial court when a party claims an error o f law was made
at the trial level. In most cases, the decision may be
appealed to the next higher court, including the state
Basic course. Lesson 3 I 29

supreme court. The decision o f the supreme court o f a


state may be reviewed by the Supreme Court o f the
United States.
Unlike trial courts, appellate courts d o not hear
witnesses or accept new evidence. They examine the
transcript - the word-for-word written record o f what
was said at the trial. They also read appellate briefs
(w ritten arguments on the issues subm itted by the
opposing attorneys). Then the appellate courts listen to
oral arguments o f .the attorneys and may question them
about the case. Finally, the appellate courts decide
whether, as a matter of law, the decision below should be
affirmed (upheld), reversed (overturiied опровергать),
amended (changed), or remanded (sent back to the trial
court for corrective action, including possibly anew trial).

0 Vocabulary

court суд нием фактов и докумен­


trial court суд, судебное за­ тов, с которым сторона
седание выступает в суде
appellate court апелляцион­ the Supreme Court Верхов-
ный суд ^ный суд
administer justice вершить to affirm подтверждать
правосудие officer чиновник, должнос­
to award damages возме­ тное лицо; служащий
щать убытки to reverse [ri'va:s| аннули­
to administer punishment
ровать, отменять
применять наказание
to amend [a'mend] исправ­
testify давать показания,
свидетельствовать, пока­ лять
зывать (to — в пользу, to remand [r'mcund] отсылать
against - против)' (дело) обратно на доследо­
transcript расшифровка (сте­ вание, возвращать в пер­
нограммы) воначальную инстанцию
brief краткое письменное из­ legal action судебный про­
ложение дела с привлече­ цесс
30 I Практический английский для юристов

Ц А п$ * « г tfie questions:

1. W hat is a eourt?
2.W hat powers have State courts?
3.W hat powers have Federal courts?
4.W hat are the two different levels o f courts?
5.W hat does a trial court consist of?
6.W hat is the role o f witnesses at the trial?
7.W hat is the role o f lawyers at the trial?
8.W hat is an appellate court?
9.Dp appellate courts hear witnesses or accept pew evi­
dence?
10. W hat is a transcript and appellate briefs?
11. W hat is a procedure in appellate courts?
12. W hat are possible decisions of appellate courts?

Ш TEXT 4

WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE


IN A CRIMINAL ACTION?

A crim inal action is a lawsuit brought by the state


(also known as the people) against a person accused o f a
crime. If found innocent the person is released. If found
guilty, the person is sentenced by the judge. Under law,
a person is presumed to be innocent until:
(1) guilt is admitted or,
(2) guilt is proven doubt in a competent court.
Code$ o f procedure specify in detail the conduct o f a
trial. This is done to protect the rights o f the accused
person.
The first step is usually an investigation to determine
who may have committed a reported crime. The inVes­
Basic rour.se. Lesson 3 t 31

tigators seek evidence to present in court. Usually an


arrest w arrant {written court order) must be issued by
a court fo r the suspect to be arrested. Upon arrest, the
suspect must be booked (fingerprinted and photographed).
A fter the booking, a judge, in a preliminary hearing,
determines whether the suspect shall be kept in jail or
released on bail. Bail is a sum o f money or property
deposited or pledged to guarantee that the arrested person
w ill appear fo r a p relim in ary h earin g o r trial. The
amount in each case is set by the judge.
In some cases, the accused person may be released on
his own recog n iza n ce. This means that the suspect
promises to appear as scheduled without putting up bail.
This usually happens if the accused is a reputable citizen
with substantial assets.
For some m inor offen ses, including m ost tr a ffic
violations, the arresting officer may give the offending
person a citation. This is a notice that identifies the
offense and directs the person to:
1) appear in court at a specified time if he or she
wants to dispute the charge or
2) paya prescribed amount without appearing in court.
The amount is a standardized fine fo r the offense.
In some states and at the federal level, an indictment
by a grand jury is required before a person can be brought
to trial fo r a felony (serious crime punishable either by
death or by imprisonment for more than one year). An
indictm ent is a written accusation, which declares that
there is sufficient evidence to try the identified individ­
ual for a specified crime, A grand jury is a group o f
citizens selected to hear, in secret, the evidence o f alleged
crimes submitted by the prosecutor.
One who has not been indicted by a grand ju ry is
given a preliminary hearing before a judge. The purpose
of the hearing is to determine from the evidence whether
32 | Практически^ английский аля юристов

the accused person should be released or held fo r trial as


charged offender . A fter the filing o f the form al charge,
the accused person is called the defendant. A defendant
is the person against whom a crim inal (or civil) action is
brought. In a criminal action, the state - the party
bringing suit against the defendant — is known as the
prosecution.
Before the criminal trial, the defendant is brought
b e fo r e the cou rt to hear the form al charges . The
defendant is also required to plead guilty or not guilty.
This court proceeding is known as arraignm ent. I f the
defendant pleads guilty, the defendant is sentenced. If
the plea is not guilty, the defendant must stand trial.

IZf Vocabulary
criminal action уголовное preliminary hearing предва-
дело рительное расследование
arrest warrant [s'rest (слушание) дела
'worant] ордер на арест recognizance подписка о не-
guilt [gilt] вина, виновность выезде
Codes o f procedure процес- with substantial assets
суальный кодекс ['aesets] обеспеченный,
tO presume [pri'zjiiim] пред- состоятельный
полагать - suspect f'sASpekt] подозрева-
innoeent невинный человек емый
charged offender обвиняв- citation [sai'teifn] повестка
мый о вызове в суд
to plead guilty признать себя notice извещение, уведомле-
виновным кие
to bring (take) an action воз- indictm ent обвинительное
будить дело заключение
to release on bail отпустить grand jury большое жюри;
под залог присяжные, решающие
to pledge [pled?] отдавать в вопрос о предании суду
залог, закладывать form al charge формальное
to book регистрировать обвинение
; Basic course. Lesson 3 Г 33

defendant ответчик; обвиня­ prosecution обвинение (сто­


емый, подсудимый рона в судебном продес­
to plead guilty признавать ое)
себя виновным arraignment [э' remmsnt]
to sentence выносить приго­ привлечение к суду;
вор; приговаривать предъявление обвинения
to plead обращаться с to stand (undergo) trial пред­
просьбой, ходатайство­ ставать перед судом
вать lawsuit ['b:sju:t] судебный
plea заявление, сделанное в процесс; иск; тяжба
суде одной из сторон proven доказанный

И Answer the questions:


1. W hat is a criminal action?
2. W hen is a person presumed to be innocent?
3. W hat are the steps o f a trial?
4. W hat does release on bail mean?
5. W h a t does release on recognizance mean?
6. W hat is a citation?
7. W hat is an indictment?
8. W hat is a grand jury?
9. What are the parties at the criminal trial?
10. When is the defendant sentenced in a criminal law
suit?

M atch the follow ing:


1, court
2, trial court'
3, a p ella te court
1. transcript
6, criminal action
(1. bait
7, recognizance
8, citation
ЗД | "Практический английский для юристов

9. indictment
10. grand jury
П. defendant
12. prosecution
13, arraignment

a. court that reviews trial court decisions


b. lawsuit brought against a person accused o f a crime
c. copy o f the written record o f a trial
d. ' promise o f the accused person to appear in court,
without posting bail
e. group o f citizens selected to hear evidence o f alleged
felonies
f. court where a dispute is first heard
g . person against whom a criminal fo r civil) action, is
brought
h. tribunal established to administer justice
i. deposit o f money to guarantee appearance at one’s tri­
al
j. order requiring a defendant to appear in court
k. court proceeding where the defendant pleads guilty
or not guilty to the formal charge o f a crime
l. state as the party bringing a legal action against a
person accused o f a crime
m. accusation by a grand jury declaring there is reason
to try a person for a crime
Basic course, lesson 3 I 35

Ш TEXT 5

WHAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN A CIVIL ACTION?


A person injured b y the wrongful conduct o f another
may be able to obtain relief from the court and b rin g a
civ il action against the wrongdoer.
A civil action involves two parties. Each o f these
p&rties may consist o f one or m ore persons. The party
who brings a civil action in order to enforce a private
right is the plain tiff. The party against whom the civil
action is brought is the defendant.
In state courts, the plaintiff begins a civil action by
filin g o f com plaint with the clerk o f the court- This
step is> usually done by the attorney for the plaintiff.
The com plaint states the p la in t iff’ s claim s, w hich
allegedly justify the relief demanded.
Next, the defendant must be properly served with a
copy of the complaint and with a sum m ons. The summons
is a co u rt order, obtained by the plaintiff, which directs
the defendant to answer the complaint. The defendant
norm ally files an answer (statement in reply). In the
answer, the defendant may do any one o f the following:
1. Declare that even i f the fa cts alleged in the
complaint are true, they do not constitute a wrong
fo r which the defendant has. any duty to pay or
otherwise act. This is an issue o f law w hich is
decided by the judge in a hearing.
2. Deny the truth o f the facts alleged in the complaint.
This raises an issue o f fact. The dispute can then
proceed to trial.
3. Adm it the facts alleged but introduce other facts
th at excuse th e defendant from lia b ility . The
dispute can then proceed to trial.

Г
36 | Практический английский для юристов

If the defendant does not answer the complaint within


the time allowed (generally not more than 20 days), the
plaintiff may win the case by default judgm ent.
Both parties may engage in discovery procedures. These
pretrial procedures are done under court order to obtain
facts about the case and to identify the issues in dispute
that require decision at the trial. A very frequently
used d isco v e ry proced u re is the d e p o s it io n . In a
deposition, parties and witnesses are questioned under
oath by the opposing attorney usually in the office o f
one o f the attorneys, and in the presence o f a court
reporter, who makes a written record o f what is said.
Depositions and other discovery procedures, such as
physical examinations o f persons claim ing they were
injured, help the attorneys learn the facts before the
trial. The process greatly assists both attorneys in
preparing for the trial and often leads to out-of-court
settlements.
A t this point, a pretrial hearing may be held by the
judge and the attorneys to specify what issues o f fact
must be decided at the trial. Often, an attempt is made
to resolve the differences without trial. If the attorneys
cannot compromise and agree on some settlement, either
party may ask the court to set a date for the trial.

IZt Vocabulary
to bring a civil action воз­ alleged [a'ledjed] утвержда­
будить гражданский иск емый
(дело) allegedly будто бы, якобы
plaintiff ['plemtifj истец alleged murderer лицо, об­
defendant ответчик виняемое в убийстве
claim иск; претензия relief demanded требуемая
to ju s t ify оправды вать, помощь
объяснять, подтверждать complaint иск, жалоба
Basic course. Lesson 3 | 37
filing o f complaint подача to win the case выиграть дело
иска opposing attorney прокурор
attorney [эЪ:ш ] (lawyer) ад­ court reporter протоколист
вокат; юрист суда -
constitute a wrong состав­ under oath [оц0] под прися­
лять правонарушение гой
summons судебная повестка, default judgm ent заочное
вызов в суд решение суда в пользу ис­
answer возражение ответчи­ тца (вследствие неявки от­
ка ветчика)
otherwise иначе, иным спо­ discovery procedures проце­
собом; по-другому дура нахождения доку­
to compel [кэш'pel] застав­ ментов, которые могли бы
лять, вынуждать, при­ послужить поддержкой в
нуждать доказательстве требова­
liability [ ,lais'brlm] ответ­ ний той или иной сторо­
ственность ны
to excuse from liability ос­ deposition письменное по­
вобождать от ответствен­ казание под присягой
ности d istrict attorn ey, circu it
to enforce a private right attorney прокурор окру­
осуществить личные пра­ га (в США)
ва to file обращаться (с заяв­
issue ['iju:] предмет тяжбы лением, прошением), по­
issue of law вопросы права давать какой-л. документ
Issue o f fact фактическая (for; with)
сторона дела (спорный default неявка в суд
вопрос, когда одна сторо­ out-of-court settlement вне­
на отрицает факты, при­ судебное урегулирование;
водимые другой стороной) соглашение
to introduce приводить pretrial hearing предвари­
to serve вручать тельное разбирательство
to deny ['dinaij отрицать дела судьей и адвокатами
38 | Практический английский для юристов

Н Answer the questions:


1. What are the two parties to the civil action?
2. W ho files the complaint?
3. W hat is an answer?
4. W hat is a deposition?
5. What may the defendant do in an answer to the claim?
6. W hat are the discovery procedures needed for?
7. W hat is the role of a court reporter?
8. W hat is a pretrial hearing?

M atch the follow ing:


1. answer
2. complaint
3. default judgment
4. deposition
5. discovery procedures
6. plaintiff
7. pretrial hearing
8. summons

a. one who brings a civil action


b. conference of the judge with the opposing attorneys
before the trial
c. court-ordered means o f getting facts about the dis­
pute from the opposing party and witnesses before
the trial
d. judgment given (without a trial) to the plaintiff when
the defendant fails to answer the complaint
e. pretrial questioning o f the opposing party and wit­
nesses under oath
f. defendant’s statement in reply to the plaintiff’s com­
plaint
g. court order directing the defendant to answer the
plaintiff’s complaint
h. first paper in a civil action, filed by the plaintiff,
stating the claim for judgment
.E S S O N E

Criminal Prosecution
Ш TEXT 1

H O W IS A CRIMINAL CASE TRIED?


In a trial, issues o f fact are determined by a jury if
one is used. The jurors listen to the witnesses and decide
who and what to believe. Both the p la in tiff and the
defendant may voluntarily waive (give up) the right to
trial by jury. If they do so, the judge alone listens to the
testimony and decides the facts.
Issues o f law, however, are always decided by the judge.
The judge explains to the jury what rules o f law to apply
to the facts.
A trial jury is a group of independent citizens (usually
12) selected to determine questions o f fact. The method
o f jury selection can be different.
The procedure in a jury trial is the follow ing. A fter
the jury for a specific case has been selected and sworn,
the attorney for each side may give an opening statement.
These statements briefly outline what will be proved.
The evidence is then presented to the ju ry, first by the
plaintiff and then by the defendant. Evidence includes
anything that provides information used to prove or dis­
prove the alleged facts. Evidence may consist o f written
documents, audio and video records, weapons, photo­
graphs, and other objects, but usually it is the testimony
o f witnesses. Testim ony consists o f statements made by
witnesses in court. A witness is someone who was present
during the incident and has personal knowledge o f the
40 | Практический английский для юристов

facts. Some mes expert witnesses (witnesses who possess


better knowledge about a subject in dispute) are called
upon to give expert opinions.
A witness is invited to the court by means o f a
subpoena. A subpoena is a written order by the judge
commanding the named person to appear in court at a
given time and place to give testimony. W illfu l failure
(unexcused failure) to appear in court is a type o f
contem pt o f court and can be punished by the judge,
without a trial.
A fter the presentation o f the evidence, the attorney
fo r each side gives closing rem arks. D uring those
remarks, each attorney summarizes the case, trying to
persuade the judge (and jury if there is one) to favor his
side. A fter consultation with the attorneys, the judge
then instructs the ju ry as to the rules o f law governing
the issues o f fact they must decide, and as to the corpus
delicti incriminated to the defendant. The ju ry then
retires to the ju ry room fo r secret d iscussion and
deliberation in order to reach a verdict. The verdict is
the decision o f the jury. In a civil case, the verdict will
be for either the plaintiff or the defendant. In a criminal
case, the verdict will be either for the prosecution or
for the defendant.
For conviction o f a crime, a unanimous verdict of
guilty is usually required. This means that every juror
must vote the same way. A jury which cannot reach an
agreement is called a hung jury. In this event, the case
may be retried by another jury.
In a civil action, a majority or three-fourths in a jury
is usually required for a verdict.
Basic course. Lesson 4 | 41

M Vocabulary
testimony свидетельское no- contempt o f court оскорбле­
кнзание под присягой ние суда
Irial jury суд присяжных closing remarks заключи­
I» waive отказываться тельные замечания
opening statement вступи­ to retire уходить, удаляться
тельные показания
deliberation размышление,
In outline наметить в общих
взвешивание, обдумыва­
чертах, обрисовать ние
evidence свидетельские по­
казания corpus delicti состав преступ­
ления
1«* disprove опровергать; до­
ма n.mim, ложность to incriminate инкримини­
' »pert opinion мнение экс­ ровать, обвинять в пре­
перта ступлении (in), возлагать
Niihpoctta [sab'pi.no] вызов вину
ivoro л. в суд в качестве verdict ['va:dikt] вердикт;
■мидетоля решение присяжных засе­
w llll 11I преднамеренный; на­ дателей
меренный, сознательный, prosecution [,prosikju:Jh] об­
умышленный винение (сторона в судеб­
1<*1lure to appear in court ном процессе)
Иенпка II суд hung jury суд присяжных,
" Ниеча еиидетель который не пришел к еди­
I " I iiv o i им uiepxatiuiTii (ка- ногласному решению
M VI M I II I сторон)
to retry снова разбирать (су­
e Spel l wUnchscH судебные эк- дебное дело), снова слу­
|перты шать в суде

Ы \nswer the questions:


.. ........ issues o f fact in a trial?
■ Win* decides issues o f law in a trial?
1 Wind i : a trial jury?
I WImt is evidence?
^ bit can be used as evidence?
42 | Праютгчеаш* анивйский для юристов

6. W ho can be a witness?
7. W ho are expert witnesses?
8. What is sent to the witness to participate in a trial?
9. What is a verdict?
10. What can be done i f a jury cannot reach an agree­
ment? '

Ш TEXT 2

W H O GIVES THE JUDGMENT?


A fter the verdict o f a jury has been returned, the
judge, in accordance with the verdict, pronounces (or
gives) a judgment. The judgm ent is the final result o f
the trial. In a crim inal action the judgm ent is the
sentencing of the defendant to jail or prison, or it is the
imposition o f other punishment, such as a fine.
In a civil action, the judgment will normally be for a
sum o f money i f the plaintiff wins. I f the defendant
wins, the judgment will merely be «judgment fo r the
defendant.» The loser is sometimes required to pay the
court costs o f the trial, but ordinarily each party pays
his or her own attorney’s fees. As a consequence, even
the winning defendant may incur losses in money, as
well as in time and energy.
Generally a judgment o f a lower court is not final in
regard to the rights o f the parties. Either o f the parties
may have the case reviewed fo r errors by a higher court.
As was explained earlier, issues o f law are decided by
the judge. If either party believes the judge did not rule
p roperly on any such issue, an appeal against the
judgment (appeal claiming error) may be made to a higher
court.
' . - важ course, lesson .4 f 43
When an appeal is taken, the higher cou rt may find
that an important error was made during the trial in
the low er cou rt. Examples o f errors w ould include
incorrect instructions to the jury, admission o f evidence
that should have been rejected, or exclusion o f evidence
that should have been admitted. In such an event, the
court may m odify or reverse the judgment o f the lower
court or order a new trial. If there is n o error in the
record, the reviewing court will affirm the judgment of
the lower court.

How is a judgm ent satisfied?


Ordinarily, when a civil judgment f o r the plaintiff
becomes final, the defendant will pay th e amount o r
perform any other requirements o f the judgment. H the
defendant does not pay, the plaintiff may obtain a writ
(court order) o f execution. E xecution is the process by
which a judgment fo r money is enforced. The court
directs the sheriff, or other officer, to gei™ япН «рЦ
specific property o f the defendant identified by the
plaintiff. The proceeds, after deduction o f the costs o f
seizure and sale, are applied to the payment o f the
judgm ent. Certain item s, such as essential clothes,
household goods, and tools o f trade are exem pt from
execution.
If the defendant has no property over the
that is exempt, nothing can be obtained by execution.
The judgm en t w ill rem ain Ьо^яияе the
defendant is «judgment proof.» Sometimes the
or the plaintiff’ s attorney w ill determ ine this status
before any action and will therefore refrain from fffin *
a suit. 6
44 I Практический английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
appeal claiming error касса­ writ [rit] предписание, пове­
ционная жалоба на ошиб­ стка; судебный приказ
ки, допущенные при рас­ seizure ['si:3a] конфискация,
смотрении дела наложение ареста
the record суть дела ordinarily обычно
to pronounce ajudgment вы­ essential clothes необходи­
носить решение мые вещи
to satisfy a judgment выпол­ household goods предметы
нять решение суда домашнего обихода
judgment приговор, реше­ tools o f trade профессио­
ние, заключение суда нальный инструменты
to sentence приговаривать proceeds доход, вырученная
imposition наложение сумма
appeal against the judgment to refrain воздерживаться
протест на решение суда to reverse judgment отме­
execution [,eksi'kju:Jan] при­ нять решение
ведение в исполнение to file a suit подать иск
exempt [ig'zempt] не подле­ «judgm ent p roof» лицо, в
жащий отношении которого не­
to incur losses потерпеть возможно исполнить ре­
убытки шение суда, ввиду отсут­
to seize [siz] конфисковать ствия имущества

Q Answer the questions:


1. W ho gives the judgment?
2. What may the judgment be in a criminal action?
3. What may the judgment be in a civil action?
4. W ho pays the court costs o f the trial?
5. Is the judgment o f a lower court final?
6. What are the examples o f possible errors during the
trial?
7. Where can the losing party appeal against the judg­
ment?
8. What can be possible decisions o f an appeal court?
Basic course. Lesson 4 I 45
9. How is the execution made in a civil case?
10. What items are exempt from execution?
11. What is a judgment proof defendant?

Match the following:


1. arbitrator
2. contempt o f court
3. evidence
4. execution
5. hung jury
6. judgment
7. litigate
8. plaintiff
9. procedural law
10. subpoena
11. substantive law
12. testimony
13. trial jury
14. verdict
15. witness

a. Final result o f a trial.


b. One, other than a judge, who can make a decision that
is binding on the parties to a dispute.
c. Person who was present during an incident and has
personal knowledge o f the facts.
d. Oral statements given as evidence by witnesses under
oath. •
e. Body o f citizens selected to determ ine. questions of
fact.
f. Process by which a judgment for money is enforced.
g. W ritten order commanding a person to appear in court
as a witness and to give testimony.
h. Decision o f a jury
46 I Практический английский для юристов

i. The body o f Jaw concerned with enforcement o f legal


rights and duties.
j. Party who brings a civil action against another.
It, To take a dispute to court.
l. Anything that provides information used to prove or
disprove alleged facts.
m. Jury unable to agree unanimously upon a verdict.
n. Process by which a judgment for money is enforced
by court order.
o. W illful disrespect to a court or disobedience o f its
orders.

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Law includes not only the rules of conduct but also
the means for enforcing those rules. A ny set o f rules
would be useless without mechanism for enforcement.
2. Civil law is enforced through the courts at the in­
quest of the injured party, who is assisted by a pri­
vate lawyer. Criminal law is enforced through the
courts by the prosecuting attorney, who is aided by
the police.
3. In civil actions, the plaintiff brings suit against the
defendant. In criminal actions, the prosecution (the
state) brings action against the defendant (the ac­
cused).
44 A criminal action usually begins with an arraign­
ment. The defendant must plead guilty or not guilty
to the charges.
5. A civil action is generally begun by the plaintiff fil­
ing a complaint. A process server then delivers a sum­
mons and copy o f the complaint to the defendant. The
defendant must answer the complaint or lose the case
by default.
Basic course. Lesson 5 I 47

6. Members o f a trial jury should be impartial, should


not be biased or prejudiced, and should vote honestly
and fairly in reaching a verdict.
7. Evidence usually consists o f testimony, but it may
include documents, objects, pictures, etc.
8. Persons who have knowledge o f the facts in a case
may be ordered by subpoena to appear in court, as
witnesses and to give testimony.
9. Most trials are concluded with judgment by the trial
court. However, a judgment may ordinarily be ap­
pealed to a higher court. The higher court will either
affirm or (if there was a serious error of law in the
trial) reverse the decision o r send the case back to the
court from which it came to have furth er action tak­
en on it there.

4
4$ | ЦвйешческиЙ английский для юристов

i. The o f law concerned with enforcement o f legal


right and duties.
j. Partjvho brings a civil action against another.
k. To tale a dispute to court.
l. Anything that provides information used to prove or
dispute alleged facts.
m. Jurj unable to agree unanimously upon a verdict.
n. Proc® by which a judgment for money is enforced
by court order.
o. Wilttl disrespect to a court or disobedience o f its
order!'

Translate into Russian:


Revising Important Points
1. Law includes not only the rules o f conduct but also
the means for enforcing those rules. A ny set o f rules
woullbe useless without mechanism for enforcement.
2. Civil law is enforced through the courts at the re­
quests the injured party, who is assisted by a pri­
vate lawyer. Criminal law is enforced through the
courts by the prosecuting attorney, who is aided by
the pice.
3. In cid actions, the plaintiff brings suit against the
defenfent. In criminal actions, the prosecution (the
state) brings action against the defendant (the ac­
cused
4* A ciiiinal action usually begins with an arraign­
ment The defendant must plead guilty or not guilty
to tfecharges.
5. A civil action is generally begun by the plaintiff fil­
ing aomplaint. A process server then delivers a sum­
monsed copy o f the complaint to the defendant. The
defeilmt must answer the complaint or lose the case
by default.
Basic course. Lesson 5 I 47
6. Members o f a trial jury should be impartial, should
not be biased or prejudiced, and should vote honestly
and fairly in reaching a verdict.
7. Evidence usually consists o f testimony, but it may
include documents, objects, pictures, etc.
8. Persons who have knowledge o f the facts in a case
may be ordered by subpoena to appear in court as
witnesses and to give testimony.
9. Most trials are concluded with judgment by the trial
court. However, a judgment may ordinarily be ap­
pealed to a higher court. The higher court will either
affirm or (if there was a serious error o f law in the
trial) reverse the decision o r send the case back to the
court from which it came to have further action tak­
en on it there.
ESSON в
of crimes
Ш TEXT 1

WH^T are CRIMES?


It is very important; to know which acts are criminal.
O ffenses A gain st Society
The most fundamental characteristic of a crime is that
it is a punishable offe^gg against society. Consequently,
when a crime occu r^ society, acting through such
employees as the роЦсе an(j prosecutors, attempts to
identify, arrest, prosecute> and punish the criminal.
These measures are deign ed to protect society rather
than to aid the victim the crime. Victims o f almost all
crimes can sue identified criminals for civil damages,
but seldom do because it is costly and difficu lt to collect
from such defendants.
Elements o f Crimea
Before anyone can ье convicted o f a crime, three
elements usually must be proved at the trial. They are:
1. a duty to do or n^t to do a certain thing,
2. a violation of the duty, and
3. criminal intent.

D uty. The duty to do or not to do a certain thing


usually is described by statutes which prohibit certain
con d u ct. G enerally Opiy conduct that is serious —
involving violence or t^eft o f property — is classified as
an offense against society and therefore, criminal.
Basic course. Lesson 5 I 49

Violation of the Duty. The breach of duty must also


be proved in a criminal trial. This is the sp ecific conduct
by the defendant, which violates the d u ty . For example,
battery is always a crime. Criminal b a ttery is often
defined in statutes as «the intentional causing o f corporal
harm .» Corporal harm means bodily harm . A breach of
this duty could be established in a trial b y the testimony
of a witness who swore that she saw the defendant delib­
erately punch the victim.
Criminal Intent. The third element, c riminal intent,
must be proved in most cases. Criminal intent generally
means that the defendant intended to c-ommit the act
and intended to do evil.
A few crimes do not require criminal in ten t.. These
are generally less serious crimes, for w hich a jail sentence
is v e ry u nlik ely. T ra ffic o ffe n s e s faLl w ith in this
classification. You may not have intended to speed or
have intended evil but you have still com m itted this
crime.
Today, statutes of most states fix the age of criminal
liability at 18, but the figure ranges from 16 to 19. Statutes
Often provide that minors as young as 13 or 16 may be
tried and punished as adults if they are accused o f serious
crimes such as murder. Generally, however, what is a
crime for adults is juvenile delinquency fo r minors.
Ignorance or m istake is generally n o excuse fo r
violating a law. A person is presumed to know what the
law is. To have criminal intent, one must have sufficient
mental capacity at the time one commits a crime to know
the difference between right and wrong and to be capable
o f deciding what to do. Accordingly, insane persons are
not held liable for their criminal acts.
Normally neither voluntary intoxication nor drug abuse
is a good defense against a criminal charge.
®B I Практический английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
duty гражданские обязатель- to violate a law нарушать
ства , ■ закон
breach o f duty нарушение to presume (pn'zju:m] пред-
ЛИХ^0%1своих обязй!вдьсув полагать
deliberately сознательно insane душевнобольной
criminal intent преступное liable ответственный
to be liable for one’ s
jail (prison) sentence тюрем­ criminal acts нести
ное заключение ответственность за свои
to prosecute преследовать су­ преступные действия
дебным порядком juvenile delinquency
{'<fe«:vmail di'lnjkwensij
to sue for damage возбуж­
подростковая преступ­
дать иск о возмещении
ность
убытков
minor несовершеннолетний
battery побои, оскорбление
ignorance незнание
действием
excuse [iks'kju:s] оправдание
corporal harm (bodily harm)
voluntary ['vobntan] добро-
вольный
to commit совершать intoxication опьянение
tm ffle offenses дорожные drug abuse злоупотребление
наркотиками
adult f'aecklt] взрослый, со­ criminal charge обвинение в
вершеннолетний

1. What is the most fundamental characteristic of a crime?


2. W hat is a criminal conduct?
3. W hat are the three elements o f a crime?
4. W hat is the age o f criminal liability?
5. What is the age o f criminal liability fo r serious crimes?
6. What is the criminal intent?
7. What is the criminal juvenile delinquency?
Bask course, lesson 5 I 51

Ш TEXT 2

H O W ARE CRIMES CLASSIFIED!


(M ines m aybe classified in various ways. One type o f
classification is given below. A s you read the following
list, however, keep in mind that human beings are the
ultimate victims in all crimes: _ •
1. crimes against a person (murder, assault and battery,
kidnapping, rape),
2. crimes against property (larceny, robbery, hijacking
loaded tru cks, em bezzlem ent, receivin g stolen
property),
3. crim e s a g a in s t th e g o v e r n m e n t and th e
administration o f justice (treason, tax evasion,
bribery, counterfeiting, perjnry),
4. crim es against public peace and order (rioting,
carrying weapons, drunk and disorderly conduct,
illegal speeding),
5. crimes against buddings (burglary, arson, criminal
trespass),
6. crimes against consumers (fraudulent sale o f wild
cat securities), or
7. crim es a g ain st d ecen cy (b ig a m y , o b s c e n ity ,
prostitution, sexual harassment).
Crimes are classified in terms of their seriousness as
felonies or m isdem eanors.
1. Felonies
A felony is a crime o f a serious nature. It exists when
the a c t :,
1) is labeled so by law or
2) is punishable by death or confinement fo r more
than one year in prison.
Murder, kidnapping, arson, rape, robbery, burglary,
embezzlement, forgery, larceny (also called theft) o f large
52 | Практический английский для юристов

srnms, and perjury are examples o f felonies. A person


whc* lies when under oath commits perjury.
25. M isdemeanors
A misdemeanor is a crime o f a less serious nature, It
is uasually punishable 1) by confinement in a jail for less
t h a n one year, 2) by fine, or 3) by both confinement and
fine . Crimes such as drunkenness in public, driving an
autcomobile at an illegal speed, shoplifting, and larceny,
o f a*mall sums are usually m isdem eanors. A lesser
miscdemeanor is known as an infraction. Parking overtime
on m etered parking, failing to clear snow from sidewalks,
and littering are examples of infractions. Ordinarily, no
jury is allowed in cases involving infractions because
the punishm ent is no more than a fine.
W hat are business related crim es?
A business, like any person, is subject to general
crim, inal law. Some crimes, however, are found more
freq u en tly in the business than elsewhere. Business firms
are freq u en tly the victims o f crimes such as robbery,
b u rg la ry , shoplifting, employee pilferage, passing bad
checEks, vandalism , receiv in g stolen p rop erty, and
em bezzlem ent. Less frequently, but often with much
large sr sums o f money involved, business persons and
f i r m s may commit crimes. Because such criminals are
generrally w ell-educated, respected m em bers o f the
comirnunity, the offenses are called w hite-collar crim es.
T h e s e criminals exploit their victims through conceal­
ment and deceit.
Co:<mmon examples o f white-collar crimes are income
tax e v a s io n , consum er fra u d , ch eatin g w ith false
w eighting machines, conspiring to fix prices, bribery,
and em bezzlem ent. N orm ally no physical violence is
in v o lv e d in crimes of this nature. Thus, courts tend to
be m core soft with the criminals, punishing them with
fines * or short prison sentences.
Basic course. Lesson 5 I 53

Here are some o f the c o m m o n business-related crimes:


1. Larceny
Larceny (commonly known as th eft) is the wrongful
taking o f m oney or personal property belonging to
someone else. V ariations o f larceny include robbery
(taking property person in immediate presence and
against the victim ’s w ill, and by force or by causing
fear) and burglary (entering a building with the intent
to com m it a crim e). Other types o f larceny include
shoplifting, pickpocketing, and purse snatching.
Larceny may be either a felony or a misdemeanor.
The classification is determined by the value o f the
property stolen and the circumstances surrounding the
act. However, burglary is always a felony. In addition,
if the burglar sells the stolen goods, he is guilty o f two
crimes — burglary and selling stolen property.
2. R eceiving S tolen Property
Knowingly receiving stolen property is an offense
separate from larceny. It consists of receiving, concealing,
or buying property known to be stolen, with intent to
deprive the rightful owner o f the property. One who
receives stolen property is known as a fence (скупщ ик
краденого). Special statutes deal with the fencing o f
types o f property that are commonly stolen, such as motor
vehicles and valuable airplane, ship, or truck cargoes.
3. False Pretenses
One who obtains money or other property from another
person by lying about a {>ast or existing fact is guilty o f
false pretenses (also known as false representation). This
crime differs from larceny because the victim parts with
the property voluntarily. False pretenses is a type o f
fraud.
4. F orgery
Forgery is falsely making or altering any writing (for
example the signature o f another person). In forgery
52 | Практический английский для юристов

sums, and, perjury are examples o f felonies. A person


who lies when under oath commits perjury.
2, Misdemeanors
A misdemeanor is a crime o f a less serious nature, It
is usually punishable 1) by confinement in a jail for less
than one year, 2) by fine, or 3) by both confinement and
fine. Crimes such as drunkenness In public, driving ии
automobile at an illegal speed, shoplifting, and larceny,
o f small sums are usually m isdem eanors. A lesser
misdemeanor is known as an infraction. Parking overtime
on metered parking, failing to clear snow from sidewalks,
ahd littering are examples o f infractions. Ordinarily, no
jury is allowed in cases involving infractions because
the punishment is no more than a fine.
W hat are business related crim es?
A business, like any person, is subject to general
criminal law. Some crimes, however, are found more
frequently in the business than elsewhere. Business firms
are frequently the victims o f crimes such as robbery,
burglary, shoplifting, employee pilferage, passing bad
checks, vandalism , re ce iv in g stolen p rop erty, and
embezzlement. Less frequently, but often with much
larger sums o f money involved, business persons and
firms may commit crimes. Because such criminals are
generally w ell-educated, respected m em bers o f the
community, the offenses are called w hite-collar crimes.
These criminals exploit their victims through conceal­
ment and deceit.
Common examples o f white-collar crimes are income
tax evasion, consum e? fra u d , ch eatin g w ith false
weighing machines, conspiring to fix prices, bribery,
and embezzlement. N orm ally no physical violence is
involved in crimes of this nature. Thus, courts tend to
be more soft with the criminals, punishing them with
fines or short prison sentences.
Basic course. Lesson 5 | 53

Here are some o f the common business-related crimes:


1. Larceny
Larceny (commonly known as th eft) is the wrongful
taking o f money or personal property belonging to
someone else. Variations o f larceny include robbery
(taking property person in immediate presence and
against the victim *s will, and by force or by causing
fear) and burglary (entering a building with the intent
to com m it a crim e). Other types o f larceny include
shoplifting, pickpocketing, and purse snatching.
Larceny may be either a felony or a misdemeanor.
The classification is determ ined by the value o f the
property stolen and the circumstances surrounding the
act. However, burglary is always a felony. In addition,
i f the burglar sells the stolen goods, he is guilty o f two
crimes - burglary and selling stolen property.
2. R eceiving S tolen Property
Knowingly receiving stolen property is an offense
separate from larceny. It consists of receiving, concealing,
or buying property known to be stolen, with intent to
deprive the rightful owner o f the property. One who
receives stolen property is known as a fence (скупщик
краденого). Special statutes deal with the fencing of
types of property that are commonly stolen, such as motor
vehicles and valuable airplane, ship, or truck cargoes.
3. False Pretenses
One who obtains money or other property from another
person by lying about a ^ast or existing fact is guilty o f
false pretenses (also known as false representation). This
crime differs from larceny because the victim parts with
the property voluntarily. False pretenses is a type of
fraud.
4. Forgery
Forgery is falsely making or altering any writing (for
example the signature o f another person). In forgery
S4 | ПраламчеашМ .английский для юристов

#Ьеше «м и* he intent to defraud either the person whose


name is signed or someone else, th e nw*t common
fa fg ^ ie e aaie found on checks when case has earned
another’* ««m e without pemysston to do «a . Forgery « 1 »
includes altering a check, saeh as when one
*$7» to *$70» and ■*Seven.» to «Seventy.» Ftergery as
шмаНу a fefcmy.
J u S rfeery
Bribery is offerin g or giving to a government official
money or anything of value which, the official was not
Aatharixed t o receive in order to Зяйшшюе performance
<of a » official duty. Accepting the money o r o ffe r is also
bribery.
<& E xtortion
E xtortion (commonly known as blackmail) is obtaining
money or other property from a person by wrongful w »
o f force, fear, or the power o f office. The extortionist
(bZacianaiier) may threaten to in flict bodily Щ|угу on
the victim or a abase tehu&we o f the -victim. £*ma*tim*m*
tbe extortionist threatens t o expose a secret crime i f
ptymeirt is not made. Kidnapping is a related crime.
7. Conspiracy
Conspiracy is an agreement between two or а ш »
persons to da an amlawfnl criminal set, or to do a lawful
ac* fey unlawful means, tl anally fe e agreement is s e cr e t
Depending on the circumstances, the crime may be eifeer
A felon y o r a milfildf mean or. Business e x e ce tiv e s o f
cofi^eting oarporatjons ^oaietimes; « а и р е to fix prices
o r to divide markets.
S. A rson
A rson is the wiilftd and illegal burning o f * fetriMing
Under early common law, the courts sought primarily to
protect human life. Therefore, arson was limited to the
malicious burning <rf sooth er’* home. This definitaco lias
tonne been extended to mdsicfe other structures, to » —
■DKfrcows* t«aw i5 1 33

fire or causes ал espfeeion that- rewrite и any burning.


9. SeHmg tmd Buying N arcotic Drugs
Narcotics, when abused, can eatiae serious mental and
physical harm. There exist laws, which make certain
narcotic-related activities criminal offenses. The activities
include selling o r offerin g to sell* possessing, tran­
sporting, administering (снабжать)* or giving narcotics
without & Ьсема* excep t by medical ркяепрйш т.

Society has only recently addressed the problems o f


crimes made possible b y the computer revolution.
One p rob lem in v o lv e s th e s te a lin g o f v a lu a b le
information from other persons’ computers. Recall that
larceny is «the w rongful taking o f the personal property
o f others.* This traditional definitkm e£ the crim e made
it d ifficu lt t o prosecute those who steal com puter data
fo r two reasons. First, many courts concluded that there
was n ot a> «taking* i f an intruder merely copied the
information in the computer. Second, even i f an intruder
copied and erased computer inform ation, some courts
concluded that there was no taking o f «personal property*
hut only the loss o f electrical impulses, w hich no one
really owns.

0 Vocabulary
jttfetcsuceic brwglary кража со взломом
a r s o n ['№ S n } П О Д Ж О Г public peace облиственный
assault [a'sodt] оскорбление ■прядок
и угрозе физическим ня- concealment укрывательство
; силием conspiracy ры а'эрвэи} яре-
ступаый сговор
Iwjbery взяточничество counterfeiting ['kauatafituj]
||кеЙ*гПгаг'djjckijjJ наца- подделка
деяяе^ ограблеииег угон illegal speeding езда с не­
самолета дозволенной скоростью
56 I Практический английским для юристов

fraudulent sale ['froidjulantj kidnapping киднэппинг, но-


продажа во вред кредита- •хищение людей
рам larceny flccsam] кража
wild cat securities ничего не murder убийство
стоящие ценныебумаги passing bad checks пускать
decency ['di:snsi] приличия в обращение фальшивые
sexual harassment чеки
fhaerasmant] сексуальная perjury ['рэ:фэп] лжесвиде­
агрессия (в основном на тельство
рабочем месте) income tax evasion уклоне­
bigamy бигамия; двоеженство ние от уплаты подоходно­
obscenity |ob'si:niti] неприс­ го налога
тойная брань ' pilferage {'pilfendj] мелкая
disorderly conduct нарушение кража
общественного порядка rape изнасилование
deceit [dfsi:t] обман metered parking автостоян­
embezzlement Jim'bezlmsntj ка с паркоматом
растрата; присвоение (де­ to litter мусорить
нег, имущества) receiving stolen property ук­
extortion [iks'to:Jn] вымога­ рывание краденого
тельство rioting ['raiotig] нарушение
blackmail шантаж; вымога­ общественной тишины и
тельство порядка
false pretenses обман, мо­ robbery грабеж
шенничество pickpocketing карманная
felony уголовное преступле­ кража
ние drug abuse (a'bjuis]
misdemeanor [mis'dimi:na] (addiction) наркомания
судебно-наказуемый про­ to abuse [a'bju:z] злоупотреб­
ступок лять
fraud [fro:d] мошенничество to trespass ['trespas] проти­
forgery подделка воправно нарушать вла­
shoplifting кража из мага­ дение
зина vandalism вандализм, вар­
infraction нарушение правил варство
intruder человек, незаконно wrongful незаконный
присваивающий чужое white-collar crime преступ­
владение ление, совершаемое слу­
to intrude вторгаться жащими
Basic course- Lesson 5 I 57

PJAnswer the questions:


1. What are crimes against a person?
2. What are crimes against property?
3. W hat are crimes against the government and the ad­
ministration o f justice?
4. W hat are crimes against public peace end order?
ft. What are crimes against consumers?
6. W hat are crimes against decency?
7. What is a felony? Give the examples o f felonies.
Й, What is the punishment fo r felonies?
0. What Is a misdemeanor? Give the examples o f misde­
meanors.
10. What is the punishment fo r misdemeanors?
11. What is an infraction? Give the examples o f infrac­
tions.
12, What is the punishment fo r infractions?
13, Give the examples o f business related crimes.

Matoh the name of a criminal with the suitable


ifl&ttton of the offence:
member of a criminal group
1Г who runs away from the army
Ыгмка the law
robe people In the street
i l Into house* or. other buildings to steal
lye and sella drugs illegally
eiuees damage or disturbance in public places
deliberately causes damage to property
LMta secret information from another country
Fnelpe a criminal in a criminal act
kills someone
l, makes counterfeit (false) money or signatures
m. marries illegally, being married already
П. murders for political reasons or a reward
$t | Практический английский лля юристов

o. illegally sets fire to someone’s house or property


p. someone who steals
q. steals from shops while acting as afl ordinary custom­
er
r. steals money or things by force from people o r places
s. steals things from people’s pockets
t. takes away, people by force, and demands money fo r
their return
u. takes control o f a plane by force and makes the pilot
change course
v. uses violence fo r political reasons

1. a burglar
2. a drug dealer
3. a forger
4. a gangster
5. a hijacker
6. a hooligan
7. a kidnapper
8. a mugger
9. a pickpocket
10. a murderer
11. a robber
12. a shop-lifter
13. a smuggler
14. a spy
15. a terrorist
16. a thief
17. a traitor
18. a vandal
, 19. an accomplice
20. an arsbnist
21. an assassin
22. an offender
Baste course. Lesson 5 | S9

M atch the follow ing:


1. arson
2. bribery
3. burglary
4. conspiracy ^
5. crime
6. assault
7. battery
8. ’ extortion
9. false pretenses
$9. felony
11. forgery
12. immunity
13. juvenile delinquency
14. larceny
15. misdemeanor
16. pardon
17. parole
18. perjury
19. probation
20. punishment
21. receiving stolen property
22. robbery
28. victimless crimes
24. white-collar crimes *

* punishable offense against society


Intentional, illegal burning o f a building
nonviolent crimes committed by generally respected
parsons.
Crimes for which there may be no real victim
penalty‘imposed for committing a crime
punishment allow ing liberty under court-ordered
supervision
60 | Практический английский для юристов

g. release from all punishment


h. crime o f a less serious nature punishable by fine and/
or jail up to one year
i. taking o f property by force from the person or presence
o f another
j . buying known stolen property with the intent to deprive
the rightful owner
k. a threat which causes a well-founded fear of immediate
bodily harm
l. freedom from prosecution
m. wrongful taking o f another's personal property with
intent to deprive the owner o f possession.
n. early release o f a prisoner with suspension o f the
remainder o f the prisoner’s sentence
o. lying under oath
p. illegally entering a building with the intent to commit
a crime
q. violation by minors o f crim inal and other laws
x. intentional causing of, bodily harm
s. making or materially altering any writing, with intent
to defraud
t. serious crime punishable by death or imprisonment
for more than one year
U. obtaining property by lying
v. obtaining property wrongfully by force or fear
w. agreement to commit a crime
x. offering, giving, or receiving money to influence
official action

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. A crime is an offense against society. In order to
convict, the prosecution must establish a duty to do
Basic course. Lesson 6 I 61

or not to do a certain thing, a violation o f the duty,


and, in m ost cases, crim inal intent.
2. A crim e is punishable by the appropriate governm ent
— federal, state, or local.
3. Crimes are generally divided into (a) felonies and (b)
misdemeanors.
4. Some crim es in w hich a business may be the victim
are: robbery, burglary, shoplifting, em ployee p ilfer­
age, passing had checks, vandalism , receiving stolen
property, and embezzlement.
5. Some business related crim es are incom e tax evasion,
consum er fraud, conspiring to fix prices, false adver­
tising, embezzlement, and bribery. The offenses are
often termed w hite-collar crimes because o f the re­
spected status o f the crim inals.
6. Victim less crimes include com mercial gam bling, ille ­
gal drug trafficking and prostitution. Despite the name
o f such crimes and the voluntary involvem ent o f the
parties, there are often victim s in such crim es.
7. Generally any adult capable o f knowing the d iffer­
ence between right and w rong is responsible for his
or her crimes.
8. Generally what would be criminal conduct for an adult
is Juvenile delinquency fo r a m inor, w ith ligh ter pen­
alties and an emphasis on reform and rehabilitation.
9 . Anyone accused o f com m itting a crime has certain
constitutional rights including (a) no arrest w ithout
probable cause, (b) equal protection o f the law, (c)
due process, and (d) a speedy, public, fa ir trial.
10- Crimes are punished by fin e, im prisonm ent, or both.
Probation and parole are m ild punishm ents because
the crim inals remain at liberty, subject to lim ited
restraints on their actions.
ESSON

Punishment for crimes

Ш ТЕХТ1

WHAT IS THE PUNISHMENT FOR CRIMES?


♦Let the punishm ent fit the crim e» is m ore easily
said than done. Punishm ent is any fin e, confinem ent in
ja il or prison, or other penalty provided try law and
im posed by the court. The purpose o f punishment is not
to rem edy the w ron g b u t rath er to d iscip lin e th e
w rongdoer. Punishment should deter the w rongdoer and
others from sim ilar behavior in the fu tu re. The fa ct
that many «career crim inals» are arrested repeatedly
indicates that the penal system is far from perfect.
Criminal statutes ordinarily set maximum lim its fo r
punishm ent but give a judge freedom in determ ining
the appropriate punishment w ithin those lim its.
A court may im pose and then suspend punishm ent,
subject to the good behavior o f the gu ilty party, who
may be placed on probation fo r a prescribed period o f
tim e. P robation is a type o f punishment* w hich allows
the convicted person to avoid confinem ent and to remain
at liberty few a prescribed tim e under the supervision o f
a probation o fficer. Som etimes a fine is also im posed, or
re stitu tio n (returning what was stolen) is required.
Specific conditions are usually attached to the probation.
These conditions m ay include keeping a jo b , avoiding
certain companions and m eeting places, and not leaving
the area. A defendant who violates the probation term s
Basic course. Lessor 6 | 63

may have the probation and suspended sentence revoked


at a court hew ing and then be sent to ja il or prison.
Sometimes a convict serving in prison m ay be released
early on because o f good behavior and evidence of
rehabilitation. The decision is made b y a parole board
and may be revoked, if specified conditions are violated.
These conditions generally include periodically reporting
to a parole officer and avoiding any crim inal activity.
Pardon, by the governor or president, releases the
convict from the entire punishm ent, including future
disabilities such as the ban on holding public office.

[Zf Vocabulary
punishment кара, наказание probation условное освобож­
to fit соответствовать дение преступника на по­
penalty ['penlti] наказание руки
confinement тюремное зак­ probation officer должност­
лючение ное лицо, осуществляю­
to remedy the wrong исправ­ щее надзор за условно
лять зло, несправедли­ осужденными
вость specific conditions особые ус­
to impose налагать ловия
to detar удерживать to serve отбывать срок (на­
«career criminal* (recidivist)
казания)
рецидивист parole (рэ' raul] освобождать
to avoid избегать заключенного условно-
to suspend приостанавли­ досрочно; амер. освобож­
вать; откладывать; (вре- дать под залог
Меино) прекращать parole board коллегия по ус­
| IMpended sentence условное ловно-досрочному осво­
Осуждение, условное нака- бождению
to revoke отменять, аннули­
•■bjeot toi&nyeJiomra.ecan ровать
convicted person (convict) to report являться, предста-
осужденный
64 У Практический английский для юристов

rehabilitation restitution возвращение,


pm .bili'teijh j исправле­ возврат (утраченного);
ние, перевоспитание возмещение убытков;
преступников реституция
disability неправоспособность
to impose penalties налагать
ban он holding public office
штраф
запрет занимать цост в го­
pardon ['pa:dn] амнистия, сударственном, муници­
помилование пальном или обществен­
governor губернатор ном учреждении

Q Answer the questions:


1. What is the purpose o f punishment?
2. W hat kinds o f punishment can be applied?
3. W hat is probation?
4. W hat are the conditions o f probation?
5. W hat is a release on parole?
6. W hat is pardon and who can pardon the convict?

Ш TEXT 2

HO W DO CRIMES AND TORTS DIFFER?


A crime is an offense against society. It is a public
wrong.
A tort, in contrast, is a private or civil wrong — an
offense against an individual. If a tort occurs, the person
injured can sue and obtain a judgment for money damages
from the person who committed the tort. The money is
intended to compensate fo r the injury.
One act can be both a tort and a crim e. Then the
defendant is both crim inally liable (fo r a fine and/or a
jail sentence) and civilly liable (fo r m onetary damages).
Basic course. Lessor) 6 1 65

W hat are the elem ents o f a tort?


Like crim inal law, tort law is a broad legal category.
Just as there are many specific crim es, such as murder
and shopliftin g, there are many specific torts. There
are, however, certain elements which are com mon to all
torts. In a tria l, these elem ents m ust be proved to
establish liability (legal responsibility) fo r any specific
tort. The elements o f a tort are:
1. a duty owed by one person to another to do or
not to do a certain thing,
2. violation or breach o f the duty,
3. injury recognized by the law, and
4. proximate causation o f the inju ry by the breach.
1. T he Duty
By law everyone has certain rights. Since everyone
has the duty to respect the rights o f others, everyone
therefore has certain resultant duties. The follow ing are
tlw principal duties created by tort law:
1, the duty not to injure the another person: this
in clu d es b o d ily in ju r y , in ju ry to som eon e's
reputation, or invasion o f someone’s privacy,
2. the duty not to interfere with the property rights
t of others, such as by trespassing on their land,
■ 8, the duty not to interfere with the econom ic rights
o f others, such as the righ t to contract.
2. V iola tion o f the Duty
A breach (or violation) o f the duty, must be proved
before the injured party can 'collect damages fo r a tort.
W hether there has been a breach o f a tort duty is alm ost
■lweyi a question o f fact fo r a jury to decide.
Some tdrts require that the breach be intentional. In
other torts, intent is not required; it is enough if the
breach occu rred because som eone was ca reless o r

9, 3tK 273
66 | Практический английский для юристов

negligent. In still other torts, even carelessness violated


and this caused inju ry. Torts are often classified on the
basis o f their requirements fo r intent or carelessness:
1) One group o f torts is called intentional torte.
2) Another group o f torts is called negligence.
3) The last group, where neither intent nor care­
lessness is required, is strict liability .
3. Injury
Generally injury resulting from the breach o f duty is
required before the courts w ill hold a person liable in
tort. For example, if you act very recklessly, bu t no one
is injured, there is usually no tort.
4. Proxim ate C ausation
Causation is simply the idea that the breach o f the
duty caused the injury. There are degrees o f causation.
W hen the amount o f causation is great enough fo r it to
be recognized by the law, it is called p roxim ate cause.
Generally proxim ate cause exists when it is foreseeable
that a particular breach o f duty will result in a particular
in ju ry.

Ш TEXT 3

WHAT ARE SOME COMM ON


INTENTIONAL TORTS?
1. Assault
A person has the right to be free from fear o f personal
injury from others. A ssau lt consists o f placing another
person in fear o f an immediate harm ful or offen sive
touching. (Note that there need be no actual physical
contact.) There must be a threat o f injury, coupled with
an apparent ability to carry it into effect.
2. B attery
A battery is frequently the eontinuatitm o f an assault,
a n d s o one freq u en tly reads about «an assault and
battery.» Shooting, pushing in anger, spitting at, or
throw ing a pie in the face o f another are all batteries.
W hen the victim is hit w ithout w arning from behind,
there is a battery w ithout assault.
If the contact is not intentional there is no battery.
A lso, the contact may be ju stified . For exam ple, when
you act in self-defense, you have not com m itted a battery.
Further, there may be consent to the contact. Thus a
boxer does n ot com m it battery because the opponent
consents to the contact.
3. Defamation
A person has the righ t to be free from false reports
about his or her character or conduct. The victim ’ s
rep u ta tion is underm ined by such re p o rts. I f the
defam ation is spolcen, it is slander. If the defam ation is
written or printed, it is libel. To be legally defam atory,
the material must (1) be false, (2) be com municated to a
th ird person and (3) bring the victim into disrepute,
contem pt, or ridicule by others.
4. Invasion o f P rivacy
Invasion o f privacy is a tort, defined as the unwelcome
and unlawful intrusion into one’s private life so as to
cause outrage, mental su fferin g, or hum iliation.
In general, privacy is the right to be le ft alone if one
s o w ish es. S p e c ific a lly , it in clu d es freed om from
unnecessary publicity regarding personal m atters. It also
includes freedom from com m ercial exploitation o f one’s
hame, picture w ithout perm ission. The righ t to privacy
bans illegal eavesdropping by listening and electronic
devices, interference w ith telephone calls, and unau­
thorized opening o f letters and telegram s.
68 | Практический английский для юристов

However, the right o f privacy is not unlim ited. For


example, the FBI is perm itted to tap telephone lines-
secretly* under lim ited circum stances, when such action
is necessary for the national defense. A lso, public figures,
such as politicians, actors and actresses, and people in
the news, have lim ited rights o f privacy.
Even ordinary citizens may not com plain if they are
included in pictures taken at public events, such as games
and rallies, which are later printed in newspapers.
5. T respassing
Trespass is a w rongful entry onto the property o f
another. However, trespass may consist o f other form s
o f interference with the possession o f property. Dumping
rubbish on the land o f another or breaking the windows
o f a neighbor’s house are trespasses.
Of course, intent is required to com m it the tort o f
trespass. H owever, the only requirem ent is that the
intruder intended to be on the particular property. If a.
person thought she was walking on her own property,
but was mistaken, there would be a trespass because she
intended to be on that particular property.
6. C onversion
W hen the right to possession o f personal property,
such as a diamond ring, is violated by another who steals,
uses, or destroys the property in a manner inconsistent
w ith the ow ner’s righ ts, the w rongdoer is g u ilty o f
conversion . A th ief is always a converter. So, too, is the
buyer o f stolen goods even i f the buyer acts in good
fa ith and does not know that the good s are stolen.
Conversion does not depend on the intent to do a w rongful
act. Intent to do the act is enough. Thus, even an innocent
converter is liable for damages.
Basic course. Lesson 6 J 69

7. W ron g fu l In terferen ce w ith B usiness R elation s


p , Every individual has the legal righ t to enter any
Iptism ess, trade, or profession. If the-right to establish
S i d conduct a law ful business is violated, the tort o f
pSrrongful in terferen ce w ith b u sin ess is com m itted.
Interference with the right to contract is a tort, a lso..

Vocabulary
Щ-
tort деликт, гражданское foreseeable предвидимый,
правонарушение предсказуемый
proxim ate cause непосред­ assault [a'sodtj словесное ос­
ственная причина корбление и угроза физи­
intent намерение ческим насилием
duty обязанность, долг battery побои, оскорбление
breach (violation) o f duty на- действием
:T рушение обязанностей d e fa m a tio n [,d ef3 'm eijh ]
Intentional torts умышлен-
диффамация
ное гражданское правона­
slander злословие, клевета
рушение
to Ъе liable for ... нести от­
n e g lig e n ce небреж ность;
ветственность за ...
невнимательность, халат­
ность liable fo r dam ages несущий
strict liability обязанность Ответственность за ущерб
возмещать ущерб, причи­ to hold liable обязывать
ненный другим лицам libel клевета (в печати)
recklessly необдуманно, без- outrage возмущение, гнев
P t. рассудно; опрометчиво h u m iliation [hju.m ili'eijn ]
'tS$ury телесное повреждение унижение
causation [k x'zei/эп ] при­ disrepute дурная слава; пло­
чинность, каузация (дей- хая, сомнительная репу­
• ствие, приводящее к ре­ тация
зультату) - , contem pt презрение
proxim ate cause ближай- ridicule ['ndikjudj осмеяние;
; шая причина, непосред­ насмешка; предмет насме­
ственная причина шек
70 | Практическим английский для юристов

invasion of privacy вмеша­ « а п т я о п незаконное при­


тельство в чью-л. личную своение имущества, или
жизнь использование чьего-л,
eavesdropping ['uvzdropxo] имущества в собственных
подслушивание целях
unauthorized ['лп,э:Вэгаш1] 1ц good faith добросовестно
несанкционированный wrongful interference with
trespassing ['tresposirj] втор­ business relations проти­
жение на чужую террито­ воправное вмешательство
рию в деловые отношения

Q Answer the questions:


X. W hat in the differen ce between a crim e and a tort?
2. W hat relief can a victim o f a tort obtain?
3. W hat are the elem ents o f a tort?
4. W hat are the principal duties o f everyone?
5. G ive an example of intentional tort.
6. Give an example o f negligence.
7. W hat is causation?
8. Name some common intentional torts.
9. W hat is assault?
10. W hat is battery?
11. W hat Is defam ation?
12. W hat is invasion o f privacy?
13. What is trespassing?
14. W hat is conversion?
15. W hat is w rongful interference with business?

M atch the follow in g ;


1. tort
2. assault
3. battery
4. conversion
5. damages
Baste союзе. Lesson 6 I 73

6. defamation
7. invasion o f privacy
8. libel
ft. negligence
10. proxim ate cause
11. reasonable man standard
12. slander
13. strict liability
14. trespass
> 15. w rongful interference with business relations
( .. ''

a. invasion o f right to conduct a business


b . w ron gfu l in terferen ce w ith the use o f an oth er's
property
c. reasonably foreseeable cause o f injury
jjf. oral defam ation
p . responsibility fo r injury regardless o f negligence or
Ш attempt
Ж w ritten defam ation
failure to use reasonable care
I®. an offense against an individual
i . in ju ry o f a person's reputation by false statem ents,
f oral or w ritten
|. the duty to act w ith the care, prudence, and good
|; judgm ent of a reasonable person
. harm ful or offensive touching o f another

1
-unlawful intrusion into another's private life naimiwg
mental or em otional injury

u p lacing another in fea r o f harm ful or offen siv e


touching
» monetary compensation for loss or in jury
■wrongfully depriving another o f possession o f personal
72 | Практическим английский для Юристов

Translate in to R ussian:
Reviewing Important Points •
1. A tort is an unlawful act that causes private injury to
the person or property o f another.
2. Most crimes are also torts, but not all torts are crimes
3. Torts may he broadly classified as intentional torts,
negligence, or strict liability.
4. The m ost com m on tort is negligence, w hich is the
failure to act with reasonable care, thus causing a
foreseeable in ju ry to another.
5. In a tort caused by negligence, the negligent act (or
failure to act) m ust be the proxim ate cause o f the
injury. That is, the injury must follow as a natural
and reasonably foreseeable effect o f the act (or fa il­
ure to act).
6. Generally every individual is personally responsible
fo r damage resulting from any torts com m itted by
that individual.
7. In some states, if the injured person was also negli­
gent and the negligence contributed to the in ju ry,
the injured person may be barred from recovering
damages.
8. A person injured by a tort is entitled to damages—
monetary compensation for the loss or injury suffered.
The amount o f damages is determ ined by the jury.

Solve the problem:


1. Phillips drove a tractor onto a ferry boat and left the
tractor in gear because of a failure in the braking system.
Phillips wanted to be able to move as qutpkly as possible once
the ferry landed. Therefore,- when the ferry was about 50 feet
from the dock, he cranked the engine to get it started. He did this
despite regulations forbidding the starting of engines before
docking. The tractor jumped forward and struck Herrick’s car,
Basic course. Lesson 6 I 73

Which in turn hit Patton's car. Patton's car, at the head of the
line, crashed through the ferry's barricades and plunged into
the water. What was the proximate cause of this accident?

ff l TEXT 4

WHAT IS NEGLIGENCE?
Negligence is a specific tort. In fa ct, it is the m ost
common tort. Intent is not required fo r this tort, only
carelessness. Like the other torts, negligence involves
the elements o f a duty, breach of the duty, causation,
and injury.
1. T he D uty in N egligen ce
The duty im posed by negligence law is called the
reasonable man standard. This duty requires that we
act w ith, the care, prudence, and good judgm ent o f a
reasonable person so as not to cause inju ry to others.
There are, how ever, some individuals fo r whom a
different degree o f care is applied. Generally children
under seven years o f age are presum ed incapable o f
negligence. Older children are only required to act with
th a t ca re w h ich a rea son a b le c h ild o f lik e a g e,
intelligence, and experience would act. If, however, a
child undertakes an adult activity, such as d rivin g a
boat or car, the child is held to the adult standard.
Professionals and persons skilled in a trade are also
held to a differen t degree o f care — in this case a higher
one. These persons are required to act in their w ork
that degree o f care and skill whiqh is norm ally
possessed by members o f the profession or trade.
2. T he B reach o f D uty in N egligence
The reasonable man standard defines the duty. A
defendant’s conduct is compared with the reasonable man
74 f Практический английский лля юристов

standard to determ ine whether a violation o f the duty


has occurred.
3. Causation and Injury in N egligence
As with other torts, the violation o f the duty m ust be
the proxim ate cause o f an injury, such as personal injury
and property damage.
But sometimes a p lain tiff could not recover fo r loss
caused by another’s negligence i f the p la in tiff's own
negligence contributed along with the negligence o f the
defendant in cau sin g the injury* E very person was
supposed to use proper care to avoid injury. Failure to
do so was con tribu tory negligence.
Many injustices have arisen because o f the harshness
o f the contributory negligence rule. The rule sometimes
results in the p la in tiff’s recovering nothing even when
the p lain tiff’s own negligence was minimal. M ost states
have substituted comparative negligence fo r contributory
negligence. Com parative n egligence applies when a
p la in tiff in a negligence action is partially at fau lt.
Instead o f being able to recover nothing, the p la in tiff is
awarded damages that are reduced in proportion to the
extent o f the p la in tiff’s own negligence.

0 Vocabulary
negligence неосторожность, breach o f duty невыполне­
халатность ние обязанностей
Carelessness невниматель­
common частый, общий
ность, беспечность, не­
prudence f'pruidans] осмот­
брежность
рительность, остор ож ­
reasonable man standard
ность
стандарт здравомысляще­
good judgment рассудитель­
го человека (обязанность
ность
действовать осторожно и
to contribute содействовать,
предусмотрительно)
способствовать
Basic course. Lesson fc | 75

to substitute for заменять; постшштельная неосто­


замещать рожность (система, когда
contributory negligence ото- ущ ерб присуж дается в
собствующая веосторож- пропорции с неосторож-
Г
костью истца)
Trn/Mftt ТЛ T»HtTTAl

0 A n s w e r the questions:
1. W hat does the reasonable man standard require?
2. W hen does com parative negligence apply?

Ш TEXT 5

WHAT IS STRICT IIABI LITY?


Sometimes a person can be gu ilty o f tort on the basis
o f absolute or strict lia b ility - liability that exists even
though the defendant meant or intended no harm and
was not negligent-
Strict liability makes the defendant liable, not on the
basis o f provable fault, but rather on the basis that the
d efen d a n t engaged in a p a rticu la r a ctiv ity , w hich
resulted in injury. In strict liability, p roof o f both the
activity and the injury substitutes for p roof o f a violation
o f a duty.
Engaging in dangerous activities gives rise to strict
liability. I f a person is engaged in activities like blasting
o r storin g flam m able liquids in large quantities and
someone is injured as a result, he is strictly liable.
A n oth er s tr ic t-lia b ility a ctiv ity is ow n ersh ip o f
d an gerou s anim als. D om esticated anim als a re n ot
76 --f. Практический английский для юристов

considered, dangerous unless the owner knows that &


particular animal is vicious. Dogs, cats, cow s, and hOf^es
are domesticated animals. Bears, tigers, snakes, elephants,
and monkeys are w ild or dangerous animals. I f the dan­
gerous animal causes injury, the owner is strictly liable.
A third strict-liability activity is the sale o f goods
w hich are unreasonably dangerous. If the goods are
defective, and the defect makes them dangerous, and
Нити causes an injury, any merchant who sold those goods
is strictly liable, as is the m anufacturer.
tinder strict liability, the m anufacturer and any seller
in the chain o f distribution are liable to any buyer or
user o f the defective product who is injured by it.

0 Vocabulary
proof доказательство (виновности)
provable fault доказуемая вина
blasting подрывные работы
to give rise вызывать
vicious злой
to engage заниматься чем-л
strict liability строгая ответственность

ffi TEXT 6

WHEN IS A PERSON RESPONSIBLE


FOR THE TORTS OF ANOTHER?
In general, all persons, including m inors, are res­
ponsible for their conduct and are therefore liable for
their torts. Thus, even children or insane persons may be
held liable for negligently or intentionally injuring others.;
W ith some exceptions, parents are not liable for the
torts o f their children. In some states, by statute, parents
are liable up to a specified amount o f money fo r property
Basic course. Lesson 6 | 77

lin a g e by their m inor children. This is usually designed


tp cover vandalism and m alicious destruction o f school
property. The statute also provides that parents are liable,
Up to the lim its o f financial responsibility laws, fo r
dam ages n egligen tly caused by th eir children w hile
Operating m otor vehicles. Parents, may also be liable if
they give their children «dangerous instrum entalities,*
such as guns, w ithout proper instructions. Sim ilarly,
parents may be liable for their children’ s dangerous
habits, such as throwing stones at trains and vehicles.
W hen one person is liable for the torts o f another,
the lia b ility is called v ic a r io u s lia b ility . The m ost
common example o f this is the liability o f an em ployer
for the acts o f employees com m itted within the scope o f
the em ploym ent. To prevent such liability, the em ployer
should select, train, and supervise employees carefully.
The em ployer should also ca rry adequate lia b ility
insurance. Employer’s responsibility does not relieve the
em ployee o f liability. The injured party may, sue both
the em ployer and the employee. A lthough the p la in tiff
may then get a judgm ent against both, he or she can
collect only one fu ll recovery. Usually it is the em ployer,
or the em ployer’s insurance company, who pays.
W h at can the victim o f a tort c o lle ct?
D a m a g es are aw arded to the in ju red p a rty to
compensate fo r loss caused by tort. The purpose o f the
award is to place the injured party in the same position
as if the tort had not occurred. In many cases, the loss
may be d ifficu lt to measure. An example would be where
negligence causes bodily in ju ry w ith continuing pain
and su fferin g or even death. H owever, the dollar value
Of the inju ry or loss must be set. The value is usually
‘ decided by a jury.
T h e ju r y m ig h t aw ard a d d itio n a l p u n itiv e o r
exem plary dam ages. These damages w ould be awarded
78 I Практический английский лл* юристов

pa punishment fo r intentional tort Mid as an example to


deter others. Punitive damage© are never awarded fo r
ordinary negligence.

0 Vocabulary
vicarious [vai'krenes] liability employee [,етр1я'п] служа­
ответственность за право­ щий; работающий но най­
нарушения других ЛИД му _
to relieve of liability осво­ within the scope в рамках
бождать от ответственно­ instrumentality средство
сти full recovery полное возме­
liability insurance ажер. щение затрат
страхование ответствен­ damages f'cteemitfeiz] денеж­
ности ная компенсация убытков
injured party сторона, по­ punitive ['pju;nittv] or
несшая ущерб exemplary damages
employer [tmploia] нанима­ штрафная или типовая
тель, работодатель компенсация

И Answer the questions:


1. W hat activities give rise to strict liability?
2. Are parents liable fo r the torts o f their children?
3. W hat are the exceptions o f parent’s liability for the
torts o f their children?
4. What is called vicarious liability?
6. W ho decides the money value o f the inju ry or loss
caused by a tort?
6. W hat damages can be awarded as punishm ent for
in te n tio n a l to r t and as an exa m p le fo r oth er
wrongdoers?

Match the follow ing:


1. com parative negligence
2. contributory negligence
£ . damages
Basic course. Lesson 6 1 79

4. negligence
5. punitive or exem plary damages
6. reasonable man standard
; 7. vicarious liability

a. added damages intended to punish and make an example


o f the defendant
b. causing in ju ry by failing to act as a reasonable person
c. m onetary com pensation fo r loss or inju ry
d. responsibility o f one person fo r the torts o f another
e. system in which damages are awarded in proportion to
the p lain tiff’s negligence
f . system in w hich recovery is barred if the inju ry is
, partly the result o f carelessness by the p lain tiff
g. the duty to act with the care, prudence, and good
judgm ent o f a reasonable person

Solve the problems:


. 1. Watson was a guest in Decker's home. While leaving the
^puse, Watson was injured when she slipped on some ice that
bad formed on the steps leading from the door. Decker had
Cautioned Watson about the possibility of the steps being
(Slippery, and Watson admitted seeing the tee. In a legal action
^claiming negligence, would Decker be liable?
; 2. Town Finance Corporation (TF C ) foreclosed a mortgage
f l o w i n g a dispute with Hughes as to whether a loan had been
1. T F C had a locksmith remove the locks on the dwelling of
, T F C personnel then entered the house, seized household
is, and left the inside of the house m disarray. No one was
>me when this was done. Hughes filed suit over the debt. T h e
rt held that the finance company had been paid and thus
I no further right of action against Hughes. Hughes thereupon
this action, which claimed malicious and willful trespass
asked both actual (compensatory) and punitive damages.
fUttas Hughes entitled to judgment?
.E S S O N

Business law

Ш TEXT 1

WHAT IS BUSINESS LAW?


Business law (also known as com m ercial law) covers
rules that apply to business situations and transactions.
B usiness law is la rg ely con cern ed w ith c iv il law ,
especially with contracts. Some business law applies to
torts (private wrongs against individuals, distinct from
broaches of contracts). Tor example, a tort may occur
when a m anufacturer makes a defective product that
injures a user. Criminal law sometimes governs business-
related activities, too. For example, crim inal law would
punish a firm that conspires w ith com petitors to fix
prices or an employee who steals com pany tools.

WHAT IS A CONTRACT?
PROBLEM: Moreland phoned Eagan, saying, «Г1!
let you have my video-cassette recorder for $150. Is
it a deal?» Eagan answered, «Sounds fair; sure. Bring
it tomorrow.» Was a contract made?

Have you ever wondered how it is possible that you


па™ eat a variety o f foods produced in different parts of
the w orld? That your TV - a very com plex machine -
brings you news and entertainm ent at the flick of a
finger? T hat-the streets are paved and crowded with
Basic course. Lesson 7 \ #1

vehicles? That you and others are com fortably dressed?


That there is fresh running water in the kitchen tap?
The list could go on and on.
These and all other marvels o f modern civilization are
the output o f work b y m illions o f persons. The key or
link among the people who produce and consum e these
many goods and services is: the contract.
A con tra ct is an agreem ent, w hich is enforced by
law. This agreement norm ally results from an exchange
o f prom ises.
Tor example, a husband and w ife want their house
painted. A painter exam ines the bu ild in g and offers
(promises) to do the job fo r $1,500 during the next month.
The owners could accept the offer by prom ising to pay
the price. For a contract to arise, the painter as offerer
(one who makes the offer) must make a defin ite offer,
and generally the o ffe re e (one to whom the o ffe r is made)
must accept the o ffe r exactly as presented. O f course,
th e p a rties m ay n e g o tia te a d d ition a l d e ta ils . The
^homeowners could reject the offer by dem anding a lower
price or earlier com pletion. The painter, in turn, conld
accept or reject such a cou n teroffer. W ithout both o ffe r
and acceptance, there is no agreem ent. N o particular
language need be used. The intent of the parties is the
im portant thing.

Answer to the problem: There was a contract


even though payment and delivery were to be made
later.

Vocabulary
: business transactions private wrongs частные npa-
[trsenz'aek/anzj деловые вонарушения
contract контракт, договор,
операции
юридический документ1
82 | Практический английский для юристов

offeree [ofia'ri:] лицо,


negotiate Ini'gsaj'ieit} дого­ которому делают пред­
вариваться (с кем-л. ■ — ложение заключить с
with); обсуждать условия ним договор
offer f o fa ] оферта (предло­ counteroffer контрпредло­
жение одного лида друго­ жение (ответ на предло­
му, сообщающее о жела­ жение, содержащий
нии заключить с ним до­ новые условия и пре­
говор) кращающий первона­
offerer ['ofaraj лицо, дела­ чальное предложение)
ющее предложение заклю­ acceptance согласие, приня­
чить с ним договор тие, акцепт

[Answer the questions:


1. W hat is business law?
2. W hat is a contract?
3. W hat results from an exchange o f promises?
4. W ho is an offerer?
5. W ho is an offeree?

P TEXT 2

W HAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN OFFER?


An offer is a proposal by an offerer to do or not to do
some specified thing in the future, provided the offeree
agrees w ith stated conditions. If the offeree accepts the
proposal, a contract arises. Generally, to be an offer, a
proposal must be:
1 . intended to create a legal obligation,
2. defin ite, and
3. communicated to the offeree.
Bask course. Lesson 7 ) 83

;; 1. Ад Offer Must Be Intended to Create a Legal


OgdigatJea

PROBLEM: Along a beach a child is swept out to


sea by a sudden wave. The frightened mother screams
out, «S a ve Timmy! I'll give you anything if you save
him!» You swim and rescue Timmy. Then you ask for
$10,000. Is there a legal basis for collecting?

The offerer m ust intend to create a legal obligation if


m e proposal is accepted. People often make agreements
that no one considers legally enforceable. For example,
If two friends make a date to go to the m ovies, ho contract
& intended or form ed. If either breaks the date, the
ether may be o f fended but cannot sue. There is no lega l
remedy (legal means to enforce a righ t). That is because
socia l in v ita tion s are n ot inten ded to create le g a l
obligation s.

A n sw e r t o th e problem : There is no legal basis


for collecting when Tim m y is rescued.

if;’ Certain words, w hich may seem to create offers, really


]| do not create them. B efore m aking a contract, parties
Will often discuss it. The parties often bargain to reach
m utually acceptable terms. Sometimes one party may state
‘ tentative terms, inviting other parties to make offers.
[Advertisem ents in newspapers and m agazines, on radio
TV, or in catalogs or direct m ailings are generally
itations to others to make offers. They are hot offers
lives. A person who advertises som ething fo r sale
ipt be exp ected to s e ll to th e th ou sa n d s w ho
itically m ight reply to the advertisem ent. Perhaps
seller has only a lim ited number o f item s. H owever,
business firm s attem pt to deliver m erchandise as
Ivertised to all who want to buy.
84 | Практический английский для юристов

Sometimes an advertisement is worded to give a reader:


reasonable cause to believe it is an offer rather than ah
invitation to make an offer. This is true in ads, which
promise to pay a reward fo r a lost pet or jew el. It is also
true in direct-m ail advertisements sent to one or just a
few prospects. For exam ple, someone trying to sell a
very expensive yacht mails a prom otional letter to ten
prospects. The letter describes the yacht and offers it
fo r a stated price to the first person whose acceptance is
received on or before a stated date. This letter would be
an offer.
If a statement sounds like an offer but sim ply is a
joke, the words cannot be transform ed into a contract by
acceptance. The person to whom the statement was made
should realize that no offer was intended.

2. A n O ffer M ust Be D efinite

P R O B L E M : Arbus agreed to buy, and Oaknoll, Inc.,


agreed to sell, orve lot from among the 200 in a large
suburban subdivision. Arbus paid $1,000 as a down
payment and was given a recei pt. The tots shown on
the preliminary plan were of various sizes, shapes, and
prices, and no particular lot was specified in the
agreement of Arbus and Oaknoif. Was either party
bound by the agreement?

If a proposal is vague or incom plete, a court w ill not


enforce it. The terms must be definite enough to allow
the court (1) to determine what was intended by the
parties and (2) to fix their legal rights and duties. '

A n sw e r to the problem : There is no contract.


Neither party is bound because important terms have
not been agreed upon.
Basic course. Lesson 7 I 85

There are, however, some im portant exceptions to the


requirement o f definiteness* For example, medical, dental,
ated fegal fees are often set after the work is com pleted.
Mn-ny workers are em ployed on a payday basis; the actual
length o f employment remains uncertain. In contracts
between m erchants, when either the price or the credit
and delivery term s are not specified, current m arket
prices and trade custom s may be used to provide such
details.
In business, producers sometimes agree to sell their
entire output to a single buyer during a specified period.
Som etim es buyers agree to purchase all o f certain
materials they may need during a given period from a
single supplier. In both cases, the actual amounts remain
uncertain until the contracts are perform ed. The parties
m ust act in good fa ith as to quantities delivered or
demanded.

3. A n O ffer M ust Be C om m unicated to the O fferee

PROBLEM: Julia w as engaged in animated


conversation with four other students on the steps
of their high school. When a bell called them to
class, Julia absentmindedly left a bag behind. The bag
contained a pocket computer and other valuables.
After class she posted an ad on three bulletin boards,
offering $15 to anyone who would return her bag.
Ms. Lehman, one of Julia's teachers, who had not seen
the ad, found the bag and returned it. Is she entitled to
the reward?

A person cannot accept an offer without knowing about


It. That is because any action taken would not have been
a response to the offer. Thus, an o ffe r o f a reward that
la made to certain persons or even to the general public
N | Практический английский для юристов

cannot be accepted by someone who h aen ever seen or


heard o f the offer. In such cases, the o ffe re r may get
what sms sought, but m ost courts require that anyone
who claims the prize m ust have known o f the o ffe r end
acted in response to it when perform ing the requested
act.
Answer to the problem: Ms. Lehman was not
entitled to the reward.

E l Vocabulary
to collect востребовать (день­ p ro sp e ct потенциальный
ги) клиент
leg a l obligation правовая gen eral p u b lic ш ирокая
обязанность публика, общественность
vague [veig] нечеткий to entitle [m 'taitl] давать
legal remedy судебная защи­ право
та ad сокр. от advertisement;
down payment первый взнос разг. объявление, рекла­
при оплате в рассрочку ма
receipt [n'sr.t] квитанция yacht foot) яхта
fee гонорар, плата valuables ценные вещи
ten ta tive J'tentstiv] дроб­ reward вознаграждение
ный, экспериментальный act in good faith действовать
term s условия соглашения добросовестно
m erchandise ['martfandaiz] output продукция
товары

H A n sw er the questions:
1. W hat is an offer?
2. What characteristics must a proposal have to become
an offer?
3. W hat are the requirements o f an offer?
4. A re advertisements in newspapers and TV always o f­
fers?
вакк cdetw , tesson 7 I 87

Ш TEX T 3

H O W IS A N OFFER END ED ?

PROBLEM: On October 10, the Macro-Mercantile


Bank sent a letter to Boggs, who had applied for a
loan. In the letter, Macro-Mercantile offered to lend
$50,000 on specified terms and stated that the
acceptance had to be received no later than October
18. Boggs posted an acceptance on October 17, but
the letter was delayed and did not arrive until October
20. Was there a contract?

Gnee made, an o ffe r does not last forever. If it is not


accepted, it ends w ithout any contract arising:
1. at a prescribed tim e, i f во stated in the o ffe r,
2. at the end o f a reasonable length o f tim e i f the
o ffe r does not state how long it w ill rem ain open,
3. by rejection o f the o ffe r b y the offeree,
4. i f the offeree makes a counteroffer,
5. if it is revoked (withdrawn) or m odified by the
- offerer before the offeree accepts, or
6. by the death or insanity o f the offeror or offeree.
1. A n O ffer Ends at th e T im e S tated in th e O ffer
In m aking an offe r, the offeror may state how and
when the o ffe r must be accepted.

Answer to the problem; Macro-Mercantile did


not receive Bogg*s reply by the time specified. Therefore
there was no contract.

2. И the O ffer D oes N ot S ta te H ow L on g It W ill


R em ain O pen, It Term inates at the End o f a R easonable
L ength o f Tim e
88 | Практический английский для юристов

P R O B L E M : Farman, a broker at produce market


in New Jersey, telephoned DandeJ in Florida one morning
and offered to sell a truckload o f blue berries. Farman
then phoned his next-door neighbor, Sheldon, and made
an offer to sell a used truck and trailer. Both Dandel
and Sheldon told Farman they would «think about it*
and «get back later.» How long would these offers
remain open?

W hat is a reasonable length o f time depends upon all


the surrounding circum stances.

Answer to the problem: If the offer to sell the


blue berries was not accepted within an hour and
possibly within minutes, it probably would terminate
automatically. That is because blueberries are perishable
produce, which must be marketed quickly.

In contrast, the o ffe r to sell the truck and trailer,


expensive, durable equipm ent, w ould not term inate until
a longer time had elapsed, at least several days. Purchase
o f the truck and trailer w ould in volve a long-term
investm ent o f funds. There w ould be only a lim ited
num ber o f prospective buyers in the im m ediate local
market.
3. A n O ffer Ends I f the O fferee R ejects It

P R O B L E M : Kelsey offered to sell Reynolds a


bicycle for $60, but Reynolds replied, «N o , too much.»
The next day, Reynolds called Kelsey and said, « I’ve
changed my mind. I’ij take your bike for $60.» Was a
contract formed?

If the offeree clearly rejects the o ffe r, the offer is


term inated. This occurs even if a tim e lim it set by the
offerer has not expired. -
Basic course. Lesson 7 I 89

Answer to the problem: tf Reynolds had said,


«Th at is too much. Would you take less?» he would
still be negotiating on the original terms. But he flatly
said « N o .» This refusal was a rejection, which killed
the offer.

4. A n O ffer Ends i f th e O fferee M akes a C ou nteroffer

PROBLEM: Haviland wrote to Smith offering a


40-unit apartment building for sate for $1,300,000. By
telegram, Smith replied, offering to pay $1,200,000.
Haviland rejected this offer. Smith then'wrote a letter
saying, «О .К . It’s daylight robbery, but you have a
deal. I will pay $1,300,000 as you demand.» Was
there a contract?

Generally an offeree who accepts an o ffe r m ust accept


it exactly as made. I f the offeree changes the offerer’s
terms in any im portant way, the result is a counteroffer.
In m aking a cou n teroffer, as in the problem , the offeree
says in legal effect, «I refuse your offe r; here is my
cou n teroffer.» Thus, a counteroffer not only terminates
the original offer, but also im m ediately becom es a new
offer. The original o ffe r cannot be accepted by the offeree
after a counteroffer has been made unless the original
offer is renewed by the offerer.

Answer to the problem: No contract was made.

5. A n O ffer Is U su ally Ended I f It Is R evok ed or


M odified by the O fferer B efore the O fferee H as A ccepted

PROBLEM: Peters offered to build 20 concrete


mini-storage warehouses on Vinton’s land, at a fixed
price of $7,770 each. Two weeks later, as before Vinton
90 I Практический английский для юристов

had accepted the offer, the price o f concrete mix and


steei bars had gone up by Ш percent. Peters
telephoned Vinton and said he would have to boost
the price of each unit by $500. Can Peters change his
offer without liability?

Ordinarily, an o ffe r can be revoked or m odified by


the offerer at any tim e before it has been accepted. This
is true even if the offe re r said the o ffe r w ould remain
open fo r a definite longer time.

Answer to the problem: Peters could modify his


offer to Vinton.

The right to withdraw an o ffe r before it is accepted is


known as the right o f revocation . A m odification or
revocation is not effective until it is com municated to
the offeree or received at the offeree’s m ailing address.
Until then, the offeree is free to accept the o ffe r as
originally made.

6. A n O ffer Is Term inated by the D eath or In san ity


o f the O fferer or O fferee
Contracts are agreements voluntarily entered into by
the parties and subject to their control. Death or insanity
obviously eliminates such control. Therefore the law acts
fo r these parties when they can no lon ger act and
terminates their offers.

E9 Vocabulary
rejection отказ; непринятие, revocation o f o ffe r отзыв
отклонение оферты
to revoke an o ffe r отменять in legal effect с точки зре-
предложенне ния закона
Basic coiirse. l esson 7 I

Insanity умопомешательство to elapse проходить, исте­


m odification изменение; мо­ кать (о времени)
дификация long-term investm ent дол­
to boost the price повышать госрочные инвестиции
цену to term inate к он ч аться ),
produce m arket товарная завершаться)
биржа prospective buyer предпо­
perishable скоропортящийся лагаемый покупатель
to expire закончиться, ис­
durable equipm ent обору­
течь (о сроках)
дование длительного
flatly категорически, прямо
пользования

Answer the questions:


1. Does an offer last forever?
2. W hat is a counteroffer?
3. Name the conditions under which an o ffe r is term i­
nated.

Q TEXT 4

H O W CAN AN OFFER BE KEPT OPEN?

PROBLEM: The Downings were offering their


factory building for sale for $950,000. Robinson, a
developer, was interested in buying. She needed time
to persuade a group of investors to join her in a
syndicate to purchase the building. Robinson offered
$10,GQG to the Downings to keep the offer open to
her alone for 60 days. The Downings accepted the
money. Are they now legally bound to keep the offer
open?
92 | Практический английский для юристов

Generally an offerer is not obliged to keep an o ffe r


open fo r a specified time even i f such a promise is made.
The o ffe re e has given, n oth in g in exchange fo r the
prom ise. H ow ever, i f the o ffe re e gives the o ffe re r
som ething o f value in return fo r a prom ise to keep the
offer open, this underlying agreem ent itself is a binding
contract. It is called an op tion . The offer may not be
withdrawn during the period o f the option.

Answer to the problem: Robinson held an option


to buy the factory building. Thus, the Downings could
not withdraw the offer nor sell to anyone else during
the 60-day period without becoming liable to Robinson.

The offerer keeps the am ount paid fo r an option.


Usually, if the offer is accepted within the tim e allowed,
the money paid for the option is applied to the purchase
price. However, this must be agreed to in advance.
In a few states, statutes provide that a firm offer
cannot be revoked within the stated period. A firm o ffe r
is a binding offer stating in w riting how long it is to be
held open. Merchants selling or buying goods usually
agree in a signed writing to keep an offer open fo r a
definite tim e (not more than three months).

0 Vocabulary
developer застройщик
to persuade убеждать
revocation отзыв оферты
option залоговый договор (залог)
firm offer твердое предложение, твердая оферта
underlying agreement основное соглашение
in a signed w riting в письменной форме с подписями
Basic course. Lesson 7 1 93

■ ^ Answer the questions:


1. W hat is an underlying agreement?
2. W hat is the difference between an offer and a firm
' offer?
3. May an offer be withdrawn during the period o f the
option?

Ш TEXT 5

WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS


OF AN ACCEPTANCE?
PROBLEM: Darrow offered to trade his camera to
Monette in exchange for her videocassette recorder.
Smith, who had a recorder of the same make and model,
overheard the offer and said she would make the swap.
' Did a contract result from Smith acceptance?

A cceptan ce occurs when a party to whom an offer


has been made agrees to the proposal or does what is
proposed- To create an enforceable agreem ent, acceptance
must be:
1. made only by the person or persons to whom the
offer was made,
2. unconditional, and identical in term s w ith the
offer, and
3. communicated to the offerer.1

1. A n A cceptance Can Be M ade Only by the Person(s)


to W hom the O ffer W as M ade
Answer to the problem: An offer made to one
person cannot be accepted by another. Accordingly,
no contract was made. Only Monette, or her authorized
agent, could have accepted Darrow's offer.
94 | П рактически английский для юристов

Sometimes, however, an offer i3 made to a particular


group or to the public and not to an individual. For
example, an offer o f a reward may be made to the general
public. Any member o f the general public, who knows o f
the o ffe r, may accept it by doing whatever the o ffe r
requires.

RING LOST at Craigsville Beach in fron t


o f beach house. Lady’s yellow -gold bracelet
w ith 12 small diam onds. Inside inscribed:
« Like diam onds. F orever. Y ou rs, J .R . J .*
$1,000 reward. Cal! 555-8142.

Dowell saw this newspaper ad and rushed to the beach


w ith a homemade sand sifter. About ten others were also
searching, using various sifting devices. A fter four hours,
D ow ell sh ou ted , « I ’ ve fou n d it!» D ow ell p rom p tly
returned the ring to its owner and received the reward.

2. T he A ccep ta n ce M ust Be U n con d ition a l and


Id en tical w ith the O ffer

P R O B L E M : Schneider offered to sell his motor


boat to Nunzio for $28,000, but specified that the
entire amount was to be paid within 30 days. Nunzio
accepted the offer but changed the terms to $8,000
down and the balance in 20 equal monthly payments
with interest at 10 percent a year on the unpaid
balance. Did these changes affect the acceptance?

The offerer may specify precisely when and how the


acceptance is to be made. To complete th e agreement,
the offeree m ust then com ply with such term s. Any
change by the offeree in important terms o f the o ffe r, as
in the problem , results in a counteroffer. This is so even
■■■ Baste course, lesson 7 I 9S

Ы the result would be m ore advantageous to the offerer.


;A cou nteroffer term inates the original o ffe r.

Answer to the problem: Nuncio's changes of the


terms kffl the offer.

Suggestions as to routine details o f carrying out the


contract, or other unim portant m atters, do not k ill the
o ffe r and affect the acceptance.

3. The A cceptan ce M ust Be C om m unicated

P R O B L E M : Jones, an art dealer, wrote Walcott, *1


understand you are interested in selling your four-
panel Chinese lacquer screen. I sold it to you in 1990
for $500 and said it would go up in value. Now 1
offer to buy it bat* for $2,000. Unless 1 hear from
you to the contrary, I’ll send my truck to pick it up
next Monday morning. The driver will bring my certi­
fied check for the full amount.» Walcott did not reply.
Is he bound by a contract?

A n acceptance must be more than a mental decision.


It m ust be communicated. M oreover, one is not obliged
to reply to;offers made by others. The offerer generally
inay not express an offer so that silence w ould appear to
be acceptance.

Answer to the problem: Walcott would not be


bound to sell the screen in accordance with Jones’s
P offer.

| Sometimes, in a continuing relationship, the parties


’im ay agree that silence is to be regarded as acceptance.
For exam ple, a food market may have a standing order to
fc-'' - .

I:
96 | ' Практический английский для юристов

have a wholesaler ship a certain amount o f fresh produce


every day unless the retailer breaks the silence w ith
some notice.
In certain transactions, only one o f the parties makes a
promise. Such a transaction is called a unilateral contract.
The o ffe r e r prom ises som ethin g in retu rn fo r the
perform ance o f a certain act by the offeree. For example,
the offerer may publicly promise to pay a $100 reward to
anyone who returns a lost dog. Many persons learn of the
o ffe r; all may join the search. But no one promises to
look, and no one is required to look. Only one person may
fin d and return the dog, thus perform ing the act required
to earn the reward. W hen the act requires substantial
tim e and resources, sometimes the offer cannot be revoked
until an offeree who has begun perform ance has had a
reasonable amount o f time to complete it.
In m ost cases, the agreement is a b ila tera l con tra ct
where both parties make prom ises. For exam ple, a dog
owner promises to pay someone $10 an hour to look fo r a
lost dog. The fee is due for the tim e spent looking fo r
the dog even if it is not found. Bilateral contracts require
that the offeree make and communicate the requested
prom ise to the offerer. Until this is done, there is no
agreem ent.
A n acceptance may be communicated orally, in person
or by telephone. Or it may be communicated in w riting
and sent by mail or telegraph. The offerer may state
w hich method the offeree is to use.

0 Vocabulary
swap мена, обмен
standing order постоянный заказ
unilateral contract односторонний контракт
bilateral contract двусторонний контракт
reward вознаграждение
to be due быть должным
Sasic course. Lesson-7 | 97

Answer thequestions:
1 . How is the agreement called where only one o f the
parties makes a prom ise?
t . How is the agreement called where both parties make
promises?
3. How can the offerees communicate their acceptance
o f the offer?

Ш TEXT 6

WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF ACCEPTANCE?

PROBLEM: Whitaker offered to buy the Melody


Music Shop for $52,000. She gave Melody a check for
$2,000 as a down payment, with the balance to be paid
in ten monthly installments of $5,000 each starting
July 1. The agreement provided that if the offer was
not accepted by Junef, the check «shall be returned.»
Melody cashed the check before June 1, but did not
notify Whitaker. What effect did cashing the check
have on the offer?

A valid acceptance o f a valid o ffe r results in a con­


tra ct — an agreem ent en forceable at law . A v a lid
con tra ct is legally effective and enforceable in court.

Answer to the problem: Cashing the check indi­


cated assent, so there was a valid acceptance.

A v oid agreem ent (also called invalid) cannot be


enforced in court by either party. It has no legal force
or effect.

4. Э&- 273
98 | Практический английский для юристов

Under certain circum stances, only one o f the parties


has the power to compel legal enforcem ent. If that party
'ch ooses otherw ise, or decides to withdraw from the
transaction , then the contract w ill not he enforced. Such
an agreement is a void able con tract. For example, when
one party persuades the other to contract by means of
fraud, as by saying a used car is new, the contract is
voidable by the buyer.
The difference between a void agreement and a voidable
contract is important. A voidable contract can be enforced
or a v oid ed by th e in ju re d p a rty o r b y a le g a lly
incom petent party, such as a m inor. A void agreement,
on the other hand, cannot be enforced by either party.
A valid contract sometimes becomes an u nen forceable
con tract because the tim e lim it for filin g suit to enforce
it has passed or because the defendant has gone bankrupt
and a judgm ent against the person cannot be collected.

Ш Vocabulary

effect результат, следствие силу, который может


v a lid con tra ct законный быть принудительно осу­
контракт ществлен в судебном по­
void agreement недействи­ рядке
тельный контракт unenforceable contract за­
voidable contract контракт,
конный контракт, кото­
который может быть ан­
рый не может быть осу­
нулирован одной из сто­
рон ществлен
to compel legal enforcem ent otherwise иначе, по-другому
принудить в соответствии to withdraw from the
с законом transaction выйти из
en forceable con tract кон­ ГДР.ТПСИ
тракт, имеющий исковую to collect востребовать
Bask course. Lesson 7 j 99

H Answ er the qu estiom :


1- W hat is a valid contract?
2. W hat is a void agreement?
3. W hat is a voidable contract?
4. W hat is called an enforceable contract?
5. W hat is called an unenforceable contract?

Match the following;


1. acceptance
2. bilateral contract
3. capacity contract
4. offerer
5. option _
6. revocation
7. unenforceable contract
8. unilateral contract
9. valid contract
10. void agreement
11. voidable contract
' 12, counteroffer
13. firm offer
,14. legally com petent
15. o ffe r
16. offeree

a. A ffirm ative response necessary to transform an offer


, into a contract.
Фь P srty to whom an o ffe r is made.
b. Proposal to enter into a legal agreement.
4 . Contract that may be avoided by only one o f the par­
ties.
6. Agreem ent that is not enforceable by either party,
f. Response, w ith new term s, by offeree, w hich ends the
original offer.
100 | Практический английский для юристов

g . H aving the capacity to contract,


h. Contract to keep an offer open a specified length o f
time.
i. Party who makes an offer.
j. Agreem ent that is legally effective
k. Underlying contract to keep an offer open.
l. W ithdrawal o f o ffe r before acceptance.
m. Agreem ent in which both parties make promises.
n. Contract that can be nullified by one of the parties.
o. Agreem ent that is not enforceable by either party.
p. Agreem ent that is legally effective and enforceable in
court.

T ranslate into R ussian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between
two or more parties. It results from a valid o ffe r and
acceptance.
2. There can be no contract w ithout a mutual agreement.
3. Generally all persons who can understand the nature
o f a contract and its consequences have the capacity
tp con tract. Such persons are said to be lega lly
com petent.
4. M inors, insane persons, seriously intoxicated persons,
convicts, and aliens lack fu ll capacity to contract.
5. An offer must be (a) made w ith the offerer’s apparent
intention to be bound by it, (b) d efin ite, and (c)
communicated to the offeree.
6. If not accepted, an o ffe r is ended (a) at the tim e
stated, (b) at the end o f a reasonable tim e i f no tim e is
stated, (c) by rejection, (d) by counteroffer, (e) by the
offerer’s revocation or m odification, or (0 by death or
insanity o f either o f the parties.
Basic course. Lesson 6 1 101

G en era lly th e o f fe r e e m u st a cce p t th e o f fe r


unconditionally and in the exact form and manner
indicated by the offerer.
8. An acceptance must be com municated to the pfferer.
If it is sent by mail or w ire, it is effective at the time
it is properly sent unless the offerer specified that it
had to be received to be effective.
8 . Agreements that are enforceable by the courts are
valid contracts. Those that are not enforceable by
either party are void agreements. Contracts enforceable
only by the injured or specially protected incom petent
party are voidable at such party’s option. Unenforceable
contracts are those that are valid bu t cannot be
enforced.

Solve the problem:


For months Bovard had tried to persuade Black to purchase
a computerized system for all accounting records of Black's
plastic manufacturing company in New Hampshire. Finally, he
persuaded Black to visit New York in order to inspect a
Similar installation already in use. That night Bovard took Black
and his wife to dinner at an exclusive restaurant and then to a
Broadway play. After the play they went to a nightclub and
had several drinks. Before the party ended, Black had signed
the contract saying, «L e t me sign that contract and let’s get on
with the fun.» Is he legally bound?
L esson

of agreements

Ш TEXT T

W H A T IS C O N S ID ER AT JON?
PROBLEM: The people next door plan to go abroad
for tw o weeks. They promise to pay you $60 if you
will take care of their garden and pick up their mail
and newspaper while they are away. You agree. Is
this a contract? Do both you and your neighbors
give and receive consideration?

A con tra ct» ш аай у an agreement in w hich, in effect,


one party says to another, t lf you do this fo r ю е, I shall
do that fo r you.> C onsideration is the promise or a ctio »
that one person (the prom isor) gives in exchange fo r
the prem ise or action o f another person (the prom isee).

Answer to the problem: There was a contract.


The promises exchanged were the consideration, in
performing, the parties changed their promises into
services and money. The neighbors will give the money
and receive the gardening and pick-up services. You
will provide the services and receive the money. Both
parties give consideration; both parties receive
consideration.

Consideration may consist o f some right or benefit to


one party —the prom isor, or some duty or detriment (cost)
Sasic coarse. Jjssson 6 1 103
to the other party - the prom isee. Thus, consideration
toay consist o f forb earan ce - that is, refrain ing from
dtohg what one has a righ t to -do. Frequently, in -gimp b
«fender-bender* acciden ts, the gu ilty party pays the
innocent party in return fo r a prom ise not to sue. Often
the paym ent is made by the w ron gdoer’s insurance
com pany. The victim ’s forbearance is consideration fo r
fe e w rongdoer's payment.
The co n s id e ra tio n req u ired to m ake a p rom ise
enforceable may con sist o f :
1) a return prom ise,
2) an act other than a promise,
3) forbearance,
4) a change in a legal relation o f the parties,
5) money, or
f>) property.

W H Y IS CONSIDERATION REQUIRED?
P R O B L E M : f o r a college graduation present, an
aunt prom ised to give EtJeen tw o tickets for a
Caribbean cruise with a frifend of her choice. A t the
graduation exercises, however, her aunt gave her a
kiss instead and said, «Th e stock market is down.
Sorry, darling!» Although not likely to do so, could
Eileen successfully sue her aunt for breach of contract?

Consideration is required to make a valid, enforceable


Iponfract. It must be mutual (also called reciprocal). This
■means that each party m ust give consideration, and
m ust receive consideration. The presence or a W n re o f
consideration is one test o f whether a contract has been
m ade. I f no consideration is given and received b y one o f
toe parties* there may be a moral duty to keep the prom ise
made. H owever, there is no b ffll obligation
104 | Практический английский для юристов

A g ift is the voluntary transfer o f the ownership of


property w ith out receivin g consideration in retu rn .
Property actually transferred by g ift cannot be recovered
by the donor. The one who received the property by g ift
has good title or ownership.

Answer to the problem: Eileen promised nothing


of value in exchange for her aunt's promise of the tickets.
(A «thank you» and continued love and affection do
not suffice as consideration in most states. That is
because such things lack determinable market value.)
Therefore Eileen and her aunt did not make a contract.
Instead, the aunt merely promised to make a gift. Such
promises are not enforceable.

Thus, while Eileen’ s aunt could not be forced to keep


the promise, if she had delivered the cruise tickets, she
could not compel Eileen to return them.

Consideration is presumed to exist in contracts under


seal, A seal may be any one o f the follow ing:
1. an im pression on the document,
■2. a paper or wax affixed to the docum ent (perhaps
inscribed with a design), or
3. the w ord «S e a l» o r th e le tte rs « L .S .» (an
abbreviation for the Latin words meaning «place
o f the seal») on the document.
Seals were used more frequently years ago when few
people could read or w rite. Such persons who wished to
hind themselves to some agreement would a ffix their
seals to the w ritings. The seal was often a very elaborate
w ax im p ression . Som etim es a c o lo r fu l rib b on was
attached. These form alities indicated that the parties
intended to be bound. Therefore the old com mon law
courts did not demand p roof that both parties had given
Basic course. Lesson 8 | 105

and received consideration. Today, however, the seal is


not a substitute fo r consideration. The seal is still used
sometim es, but it neither adds to nop takes away from
the validity o f the contract.
Consideration will be presumed if the prom ise is made
by a merchant, is in w riting, and. is signed.

Й Vocabulary
consideration возмещение; under seal с приложением
встречное удовлетворение печати
prom isor ['promise] лицо, fender-bender accident мел­
Дающее обещание или обя­ кая дорож ная авария,
зательство легкое столкновение
prom isee [^promi'si:] лицо, to presum e [pn'jjurm ] пред­
которому дают обещание полагать, полагать; до­
return prom ise ответное обе­ пускать; считать доказан­
щание ным
forbearance [fo'be этапа] воз­ ela b ora te [I'lsebant] тщ а­
держание от действия; от­ тельно, детально разрабо­
каз от принятии мер танный; искусно сделан­
g ift дарение; дар ный
benefit выгода; польза to refrain воздерживаться
donor ['donna] даритель good title законный титул
seal печать собственности
validity законность ownership право собственно­
detrim ent убыток сти

0 Answer the questions;


г.'

1. W hat is consideration?
2. W hy is consideration required?
8. W hat may consideration consist of?
4. W hat is a g ift? 4
5. "What is a seal? Is the seal a substitute fo r consider­
ation?
106 ] Практический английский для юристов

M atch the follow in g :


. 1. promisor '
2. promisee
3. consideration
4. forbearance
5. g ift
6. seal

a. person who makes a promise


b. person to whom a promise is made
c . refraining from doing what one has a lig h t to do
d. impression on a legal document identifying the sealer
e. voluntary transfer o f ownership without consideration
f . what one gives and receives in a contract

Ш TEXT 2

ILLEGAL AGREEMENTS
*
W hat m akes an agreem ent illeg a l?
Even when parties are com petent to form a binding
agreement, they are not free to make any contract they
want. Thus, for a contract to be valid, its form ation,
purpose, and perform ance must be legal. This means that
the agreement must not be contrary to law.
Illegal agreements are generally unenforceable. Indeed,
in some cases, one or both parties to an illegal agreement
may be arrested and tried as crim inals.
W hat types o f agreem ents are ille g a l?
Agreements which are illegal and therefore void and
unenforceable include the follow ing:
1. Agreements That Obstruct Legal Procedures
Agreements that obstruct legal procedures are those,
Sasic course. Lesson Я 1 1Ц7

;: Vhicfa delay or block the achievement o f justice. Examples


, o f such illegal agreements are:
a. premises by witnesses to give false testim ony or not
to testify at all,
b. prom ises to give ju rors som ething o f value to
influence their votes, or
c. payment o f m ore than the regular fee to ordinary
witnesses. (N ote that expert witnesses m ay legally
charge their custom ary professional fees, w hich are
much higher.)
A n example o f an agreement that obstructs justice is
com pounding a crim e. It involves accepting m oney or
property in exchange fo r a prom ise not to prosecute or
not to inform on one who has com m itted a crim e. I f the
inju red party independently and voluntarily decides not
to press crim inal charges against the crim inal, then the
; orim inal makes r e s titu tio n by restorin g the stolen
property or its value to the owner.

2. A greem ents T h at A ffe c t M arriage N egatively


The fam ily is the basic unit in society. Therefore
agreem ents that violate the freedom and secu rity o f
m arnage are illegal. Such agreements are contrary to
public policy, which encourages fam ily life. A n agreement
in which one person prom ises not to m arry is void. Like­
wise1
, an agreement in w hich a person prom ises to get a
divorce is void.

3. A greem ents to Com m it Crim es o r T orts


- A n y agreement to com m it a crime or a tort is illegal.
It w ould be foolish fo r the law to* prohibit crim es and
torts yet enforce agreements to commit such acts.
4 . A greem ents to W aive C ertain L egal R igh ts
A w aiver is the voluntary and intentional givin g up
Of a legal right. A lthough many rights may be waived,
188 | Практический английский для юристов

some may not, such as the right to w orkers' minimum


wages. Law forbids agreements to pay less than legally
prescribed minimum wages. W orkers injured on the job
must be given necessary m edical.care w ithout charge, as
well as financial help. A person may not waive such a
right.
5. Agreem ents Made W ithout a Required Com petency
License
Persons in specified occupations and businesses have
a license or perm it. P h ysicians, teach ers, law yers,
plumbers, electricians, pharmacists, real estate brokers,
insurance agents, and building contractors are among
su ch p erson s. L icen sin g law s attem p t to p reven t
incom petent and dishonest persons from harm ing the
public. In any event, no agreement made by or w ith a
person who lacks the required com petency license may
be enforced by the unlicensed person.
6. A greem ents That A re U nconscion able
A court may fin d that a contract or a clause o f a
contract is unconscionable—that is, grossly unfair and
oppressive. An unconscionable con tract or contract clause
offends an honest person’s conscience and sense o f justice,
th e terms need hot be crim inal nor violate a statute,
but simply unethical.
C ontracts o f adhesion are more likely to be uncon­
scionable. This is so because in such contracts one o f the
parties dictates all the im portant terms and the weaker
party must take it as offered or not contract.
If a cou rt decides that a clause o f a con tract is
unconscionable, it may:
a. refuse to enforce the contract,
b. enforce the contract w ithout the unconscionable
clause, or
Basic course. Lesson 8 | 109

c. lim it the clause’s application so that the contract


: no longer unfair.
The law is not designed to relieve a person o f a had
bargain. One may still be legally bound by the purchase
M overpriced, poor quality, or unneeded goods.
7. A greem ents to Pay U surious Interest
Lenders o f money may not charge more than a specified
- maximum rate o f interest. This rate varies among the
states from 8 percent to 16 percent a year that are
com m on m axim um s. Som e o f these rates have been
increased in recent years because o f inflation.
The exact rate o f interest agreed upon by borrow er
and lender in a particular loan is the contract rate of
interest. Ib is rate may not legally exceed the maximum
rate. Lending money at a rate higher than the maximum
rate is usury. The penalty for usury is generally that
the lender cannot collect some or all o f the interest, but
the borrow er must still repay the principal.
Som etimes a person borrow s money fo r which interest
is charged but no exact rate is stated. The rate to be paid
, is the legal rate o f interest, w hich is specified by state
?statute. This rate in m ost o f states is 7 percent or less
[per year. In other states, the legal rate ranges between
; 8 and 12 percent.
‘ Usury laws generally do not apply to the carrying
ch a rg es added to the price o f goods sold on credit. This
Ь because the debtor is buying goods and not borrow ing
дю пеу. H ow ever, a m inority o f states regulate such
Miarges as interest. They do this on the theory that the
it o r e ~ in effect - borrow s m oney and relends it to the
a&ustomer-debtor to finance the credit sale.
Г M any states perm it licen sed loan com panies and
pawnbrokers to charge a small loan rate o f interest. This
||ate is typically 36 percent a year, usually on loans o f
110 f Практический англиЯскийдля юристов

up to $300 or $500. The overhead cost per dollar loaned


is high, and presumably the risk o f loss from defaults is~
also high on such loans. This concession is made to protect
people against crim inal loan sharks, who illegally charge
extrem ely high rates (often 100 percent annually, and
sometimes more).
9. A g reem en ts T h a t In v o lv e Ille g a l G am blin g,
W agers, and Lotteries
Every state either forb id s or- regulates gam bling.
Gambling involves an agreem ent w ith three elem ents:
payment to participate; a chance to win, based on luck
rather than on skill; and a prize for one or more winners.
- A wager, one o f the m ost common form s o f gambling, is
a bet on any event w hich depends on chance or uncer­
tainty.
Unless specifically perm itted by law, the winners in
illegal gambling agreements cannot enforce payment o f
their winnings through court action.
10. A greem ents That R estrain Trade U nreasonably
Agreements that unreasonably restrain trade are void.
The econom ic system is based upon the concept o f free
and open com petition, w hich ben efits consum ers by
rew arding efficien t producers. It seeks to ensure all
business firm s o f an equal opportunity to trade. It tends
to protect consumers in their search fo r quality goods at
fa ir prices.

0 Vocabulary
to obstruct препятствовать, unconscionable contract
затруднять, мешать [лп'кэв/пэЫ] недобросо-
legal procedures процессу- вестаая сделка, незакон-
альиые нормы ная сделка
Basic course, lesson 8 I lit

€ w aiver отказ (от права, тре- loan заем, ссуда


^ бования) pawnbroker ростовщик, ссу­
f com pounding a crime согла- жающий деньги под залог
!. шение о замене судебного loan shark разг. ростовщик
| ■ преследования материала usury r'ju:3uri] ростовщиче­
; -X ным вознаграждением ство
I restitution возврат (утрачен­ legal rate o f interest легаль­
ного); возмещение убытков ная процентная ставка
■ building contractor подряд­ sm all loan rate o f interest
чик-строитель повышенная процентная
contract clause пункт дого­ ставка на небольшие зай­
вора мы
contract o f adhesion overhead costs накладные
[aed'hi:3n] X) договор на расходы
основе типовых условий livelihood средства к жизни
2) договор присоединения to en su re гарантировать,
gam bling азартная игра обеспечивать
concession уступка to earn зарабатывать
maximum rate o f interest fa ir com p etition честная
и : максимальная процевт- конкуренция
■ ная ставка to benefit помогать, прино­
con tra ct rate o f in terest сить пользу
^контрактная процентная carrying charge сумма, ко­
t ’-'" ставка торую клиент платит при
^interest проценты покупке в кредит
^principal основная сумма w ager пари, ставка

‘^ Answer the questions;


% A re illegal agreements generally enforceable?
j2 . W hat is necessary for a contract to be valid?
|;8. Name the types o f agreements that are illegal.
W hat is restitution?
1$. W hat is an unconscionable contract?
t'6. W hy contracts o f adhesion are m ainly unconsciona­
ble?
112 | Практический английский для юристов

7. W hat can a court decide in case o f an unconscionable


contract?
8. W hat is usury?
■to

. What is a wager?

Match the follow ing:


1. com pounding a crime
2. contract o f adhesion
3. contract rate o f interest
4. illegal lobbying contract
5. legal rate o f interest
6. maximum rate o f interest
7. restitution
8. small loan rate o f interest
9. unconscionable contract
10. usury
11. wager

a. Accepting som ething o f value fo r a prom ise not to


prosecute a suspected crim inal.
b. Bet on any event, w hich depends upon chance or
uncertainty.
c. C harging in terest on a loan beyond the lega lly
permitted maximum rate.
d. Higher rate o f interest allowed on loans up to $300 or
$500
e. Oppressive and unfair agreement.
f . Restoring or m aking good (возмещение) a loss.
g. Contract in which one party has no realistic choice as
to the terms.
h. Contract under which bribery or other im proper means
are used to influence legislation.
i. Rate specified by statute when interest is called fo r
but no percentage is stated in the contract.
j. Highest rate lenders o f money may generally charge
borrowers.
k. Rate o f interest agreed upon by parties in a contract.
Basic course. Lesson 8 I 113

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. The form ation, purpose, and perform ance o f an agree­
ment must not be contrary to statutory or case law,
contrary to public policy, or unconscionable.
2. Illegal agreements are usually void and therefore not
enforceable by either party.
3. Am ong agreements w hich violate law or public policy
and are therefore void and unenforceable are those
w hich:
a) Obstruct legal procedures.
b) Injure public service.
c) Threaten the freedom or security o f m arriage.
d) Require com m itting a crim e or tort.
e) W aive certain legal rights.
f) A re made w ithout a required com petency license.
g) Involve payment o f usurious interest.

Solve the problems:


1. Jackson was the defendant in a legal action. Pierce was a
key witness for the plaintiff. Jackson told Pierce that he would
pay her expenses if she would take a long cruise — from New
York to San Francisco and back — while the trial was in progress.
Pierce agreed to takethetrip. Upon her return, she presented
her expense account to Jackson. Can she collect?
2. Crump was the owner of a restaurant. He applied to the
state liquor control board for a $500 license to sell alcohol.
When the application was denied, Lynch, a customer, told Crump
that he knew someone on the board and could get a license for
him for $7,500. Crump paid Lynch the money but never received
the license. Can he recover the money?
ESSON

T ypes of contracts

Ш TEXT 1

MUST CONTRACTS BE IN ANY SPECIAL FORM?


PROBLEM: Collins orally agreed to buy a mini-
warehouse from Stein. Over the telephone, Collins then
persuaded Keith to promise to lend $100,000, which
Collins needed for the down payment on the purchase
price. A mortgage {claim on the property) was to be
given to Keith as security for the loan. Collins and
Stein then signed the sales contract. Early the next
day, Collins was stunned when Keith said that the
loan could not be made as promised. Can Collins force
Keith to make the loan? is the sales contract with
Stein enforceable?

, Contracts may be oral or w ritten. They may even be


im plied from conduct. M ost contracts are oral. M any o f
contracts are made by telephone. Some contracts are made
and carried out in a single face-to-face conversation. For
exam ple, in the sale o f goods, payment by buyer and
delivery by seller often occu r when the agreem ent is
made. A person may take a job, rent an apartm ent, and
en ter many oth er business agreem ents w ith ou t the
form ality o f a written contract. Sometimes conduct alone
is sufficient. For exam ple, a person may stop a bus, board
it, deposit the proper coins, and later get o ff. No words
are spoken or written by either passenger or driver, yet
there is a valid contract.
8as*c c o u rse . L essori 9 1 115

T h ere a re, h ow ever, certa in im p orta n t k in ds o f


con tracts w hich w ill n ot be en forced in court « « i » »
some properly signed w riting proves their existence. For
exam ple, contracts to transfer an interest in real property
(land or objects permanently attached to the land) must
be in w riting.

Answer to the problem: The written agreement


between Stein and Collins is enforceable. However,
the oral agreement between Stein and Collins is not
enforceable. Also, the oral agreement between Keith
and Collins would not be enforceable. The two oral
agreements pertained to an interest in real property—
an agreement to buy a building, the other an
agreement giving a mortgage on the building. Thus,
they were insufficient because they were not in writing
and properly signed.

Even when a w ritten contract is not required by law,


it is often wise to put the agreem ent in w riting and
have a signed copy fo r each party. This is particularly
true i f the agreem ent is com plex and contains, many
details, w hich could lead to later m isunderstandings. It
also is im portant when large sums o f m oney o r long
p eriod s o f tim e are in v olv ed . In su ch ca ses, it is
advantageous fo r both parties to express th eir intentions
w ith reasonable precision in w ritten form . In this way,
the agreement can be easily ref erred to or readily proved
i f necessary. The chance o f la ter con fu sion or d is ­
ag reem en t is g re a tly red u ced . N e ith e r p a rty can
effectively deny having agreed to particular term s. A lso,
the process o f putting ideas in to w riting encourages the
Jdrtiee to anticipate and provide for problem s that could
arise later. It is usually easier to settle such matters
before eith er party signs and w hile both parties are
116 | Практический ahi лийский для юристов

in clin ed to com p rom ise in ord er to con clu d e th e


agreem ent. Later, each party tends to demand strict
p erform a n ce o f th e term s. O f c o u rse , w h en ever
appropriate, prudent persons seek the aid of a lawyer in
the preparation or review o f im portant contracts.

HOW ARE CONTRACTS CLASSIFIED?


PROBLEM: Rissan walked into a telephone booth,
dropped some coins into the telephone, and dialed a
number. No w ords were spoken until the party
answered. A conversation followed between Rissan
and the party. A few minutes later Rissan hung up the
receiver and left. What kind of contract had Rissan
made with the telephone company?

Contracts can be classified as either unilateral or


bilateral, according to whether one or both parties make
a prom ise. Contracts also can be classified according to
en forcea b ility as valid, voidable and void or unen­
forceable. The follow ing classifications are also im portant:
1. M ethod o f Creation
The way a contract com es into being gives some idea
o f its nature. Thus, there are express contracts, im plied
contracts, and quasi contracts.
E x p ress co n tra cts . In an express co n tra ct, the
agreement is stated in w ords—w ritten or spoken.
Im p lied con tra cts. In an im p lied co n tra ct, the
agreement is not stated in words. Instead, the intent o f
th e parties is show n by th eir con d u ct and b y the
surrounding circumstances. For example, a schoolboy buys
some fru it ju ice in the high school cafeteria by inserting
coins into a vending machine.
Basic course. 1ейоп 9 I 117

; Q uasi contracts. In a quasi contract, the parties are


bound as though there were a valid contract even though
technically there is none- For exam ple, a doctor m ay
volu n tarily give fir s t aid to a, person in ju red in an
accident. There is no agreem ent. Y et the doctor may
Submit a bill and collect a charge reasonable fo r such a
professional service. Thus, the law creates an obligation
in the absence o f an actual agreement between the parties.
This is done to prevent unjust enrichment o f one party.
S trictly speaking, no con tra ct exists because som e
essential element is m issing. Someone who is not a doctor
could give sim ilar first aid yet not be entitled to payment
since the service is not done w ith the expectation o f
payment nor by a licensed specialist.
2. F orm ality
A few contracts must meet strict requirements as to
form ality. They are called form al contracts. M ost need
h ot m eet such requirem ents. They are called sim ple
contracts.
Form al contracts. A form al contract is a w ritten
co n tra ct th a t m ust be in som e sp ecia l fo rm to be
enforceable. Examples are commercial paper and contracts
under seal. Commercial paper, such as an ordinary check,
m ust meet certain requirem ents to he valid. A contract
under seal is one w ith a seal attached or w ith a sim ilar
im pression made on the paper. Seals served to validate
agreem ents years ago, when few people could read or
w rite. Today, in m ost states, the legal effect o f the seal
on contracts has been lim ited or ended.
Sim ple con tracts. A contract that is not form al is a
sim ple contract. This is true whether the con tract is
Oral, w ritten, or based on conduct.
11Я | Практический английский для юристов

А д example of Simple» Written Contract:

THIS AGREEMENT i s made an May 10, 20___ ,


betw een Mew Way P a vers, 17 Beacon S t r e e t ,
Boston, Massachusetts, and J. Clayton. Jones,
742 R egent C i r c l e , B r o o k lin e , M assa­
c h u s e tts .
New Way Pavers a g re e s t o fu r n is h a l l
m a te r ia ls and t o p erform in a w orkm anlike
manner a l l n e c e s s a r y la b o r r e q u ir e d t o
rem ove p r e s e n t c o n c r e t e w alk in Errant o f
th e r e s id e n c e a t 742 R egent C i r c l e from
th e b u ild in g d oor t o th e p u b lic s id e w a lk ;
t o r e p la c e th e w alk w ith r e d b r i c k ( o f
q u a l i t y and grade as in sam ple) l a i d in a
herringbone p a tte rn , on a new c o n c re te base
2 ,5 " th ick , in con sid era tion f o r which Jones
agrees t o pay New Way Pavers o r i t s a ssig n ee
th re e thousand two hundred d o lla r s ($3,200)
upon c o m p le tio n o f th e work on o r b e f o r e
A p r il 10, 20___ .

NEW WAY PAVERS


B y Jam e^G. Мшоп/ j . ClewtmvTone*

3. E xtent o f P erform ance


C ontracts can be classified as eith er execu ted or
executory, according to whether or not they have been
com p leted . M any co n tra cts are p erform ed alm ost
im m ediately; others require days, m onths, or years to
com plete. Many life insurance contracts are not completed
fo r decades.
E xecuted contracta. A n execu ted con tra ct is one that
has been fu lly perform ed. Both parties have done all
they prom ised to do.
Basic course, lesson 9 I 119

E xecutory contracts. A n execu tory con tra ct is one


that has not been fu lly perform ed. Som ething as agreed
’ upon remains to be done by one or both o f the parties.

Answer to the problem: RissanJs contract with


the telephone company was bilateral and valid. It was
executory when the coins were deposited. It became
executed when Rissan finished the conversation and
hung up the receiver. As to formality, it was simple;
as to method of creation, it was implied.

0 Vocabulary
real property недвижимость im plied contract подразуме­
m ortgage {'m a-gidj] заклад; ваемый договор; договор
ипотека на основе конклюдентных
vending m achine торговый действий
; автомат quasi contract {'kwcczi ]
assignee {.assi'ni:] представи- частичный контракт
;. тель; агент, уполномочен- form al contract оформлен­
'; : ный: правопреемник ный договор; формальный
; prudent благоразумный, пре­ договор
дусмотрительный sim ple con tract простой до­
valid contract законный кон- говор, договор не в фор­
: тракт ме документа за печатью,
■ voidable contract оспоримый неформальный договор
договор executed con tract договор с
void contract недействитель-
исполнением в момент
ный договор
заключения
| express contract положитель-
executory contract договор
S s но выраженный договор (в
с исполнением в будущем
устной или письменной
concrete бетон
■г форме)
workmanlike manner профес­
t .con tract under seal договор
сионально
Г’.: за печатью
> im plied подразумеваемый; herringbone pattern кладка
предполагаемый кирпича «в елку»
1-20 | Практический английский для юристов

H A n s w e r the questions:
1. W hat contracts have to be in w riting?
2. W hat contracts may be oral?
3. W hat is an express contract?
4. What is an im plied contract?
5. W hat is a form al contract?
6. W hat is a simple contract?
7. W hat is an executed contract?
8. W hat is an executory contract?

Ш TEXT 3

WHAT IS THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS?


P R O B L E M : When the general manager of Special-
Teas Sales Company hired Hudson as advertising
manager for a five-year period, the tw o parties
discussed the terms of employment and then ttfby
shook hands. A s Hudson later recalled, his beginning
salary was to be $3,000 a month but would go up
annually if, and as, sales rose. A t the end of the first
year, Hudson expected a pay increase of at least $500
a month, but his pay did not increase at all. He
threatened to quit. The manager admitted that sales
were up; however, he claimed that expenses had also
risen and therefore profits were down. He threatened
to sue Hudson for breach of contract if he actually
left. How could their misunderstanding have been
avoided?

An im portant purpose o f business law is to protect


and assist persons in their business dealings. One such
w ay is to crea te aw areness th a t ce rta in ty p es o f
agreements be evidenced by a signed w riting in order to
' Basic course. LeSson 9 | 121
>
f be enforceable. A w riting is more reliable p roof o f an
j, executory agreement than is oral testim ony based on
m em ory. A lso, a w riting is not affected by the death or
absence o f witnesses. In addition, a w ritin g helps to
prevent dishonest persons from in ten tion ally m isre­
presenting the facts and it prevents honest but forg et­
fu l persons from innocently doing so.

Answer to the problem: Dispute between Hudson


and Special-Teas could have been avoided if their
contract had been in the form of a signed writing
with all important terms clearly spelled out.

Y ears ago, in ju stices arisin g from the fa ilu re o f


m em ory or from in tentional m isrepresentation w ere
frequently found in court cases involving certain kinds
: Of im portant oral contracts. Sometimes parties w ould lie
wnder oath— although perjury is a crim e, it was d ifficu lt
•. prove. The Statute o f Frauds and Perjuries required
, fh at certain agreements be in w riting and be signed by
b fb e party against whom the contract was to be enforced
f In court: the defendant in the action. Now the name
f sta tu te o f frau ds is used to designate statutes, which
v require certain contracts to be evidenced by a signed
I w riting in order to be enforceable in court.
| T h u s, y ou sh ou ld alw ays g et th e o th e r p a rty ’ s
t. signature on im portant contracts. N ote that som etim es
one party w ill wisely postpone signing to gain m ore tim e
to think about the deal,
| The statute o f frauds does not prevent the voluntary
| perform ance o f oral agreem ents that should have been
in w riting. It has no e ffe ct on oral agreements w hich
| have been fu lly perform ed. A fter all, contracts subject
if to the statute are not illegal i f oral; they are sim ply not
p enforceable. Courts w ill not enforce oral contracts when
the statute o f frauds requires that they be in w riting.
112 J Г^рвкгичвотй английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
dealings деловые отношения ровольное исполнение
statute offrau d s закон, тре­ to quit увольняться с рабо­
бующий, чтобы контракт ты
имел гягсьменнун) форму с to m isrepresent искажать
подписью ответчика to postpone откладывать
perjury лжесвидетельство to spell out разъяснять, ра­
voluntary perform ance доб­ столковывать

WHAT CONTRACTS ARE SUBJECT


TO THE STATUTE OF FRAUDS?
T o be enforceable under the statute o f frauds, six
im portant types o f executory contracts must be in writing
and signed by the party against whom the contract is to
be enforced. A s an alternative, the contract must be
provable by some other w riting, such as a letter signed
b y such party. O bviously, since either party m ight later
want to sue the other in case o f breach, good business
practice calls for both parties to sign.
Contracts subject to the statute o f frauds include those
to:
L buy and sell goods fo r a price o f $500 or m ore;
2. buy and sell real property or any interest in real
property;
3. do something that cannot be perform ed within a
year;
4 . pay the debt or answer for a legal obligation o f
another person;
5. give something o f value m return feu л promise o f
marriage;
A. be personally liable for a debt o f an estate o f someone
w boh asdied.
BasU: сейме. Lessee 9 | >23

CSmtraet for the S ab of Goods for $509 or

P R O B L E M Brandon bought a new ear and wanted


t o sett h w okf car. She advertised in the local paper
and Smythe agreed to Ежу the ear for $S85. ffe promised
to pay for it when he received his paycheck it? two
weefca and to take deffrery then. West this contract
be in writing to be enforceable?

To be enforceable, a contract for the sate o f goodte


(tangible personal property) for $500 or more would
рмшйу have to be a signed writing or a signed agreement,
ffc e writing would need to be signed fey the person against
whom enforcement was sought.

A n s w e r t o the problem : If Brandon refused to


sell, Smythe could enforce the agreement only if Brandon
had signed a written agreement. Likewise, if Smythe
refused to buy, Braocton could collect damages only
if Smythe had signed.

2. A Contract to Sell o r a Sale o f A ny Interest in


R eal Property

P R O B L E M : The Maters orally agreed to sell their


mountain cabin, and HarreH orally agreed to buy it.
The price agreed upon was $8,950. Suppose that before
the contract is executed, the Maters get a better offer
from someone else. O r suppose they simply change
their minds about the safe. Cotrfd Harreff still hold
them to their promise to self for the agreed-upon
price?
124 | Практический английский для юристов

The transfer, or promise o f transfer, o f any interest


in real property must be in w riting to be enforceable.
(N ote that real property includes land, buildings, and
other things perm anently attached to land; personal
property includes all other property.)
Thus, there should be w ritten evidence o f contracts
to transfer title to the entire property. Leases also come
under this classification . H ow ever, m ost states have
special statutes which provide that oral leases for a period
o f one year or less are enforceable. In some-'states, an
agreement authorizing or em ploying an agent to buy or
sell land must also be in w riting.

Answer to the problem; Unless the agreement is


evidenced by a writing signed by the Maiers, HarreU
cannot hold them to the oral contract. Similarly, if
Harrell changes his mind, he cannot be heid to the
agreement unless it is in writing and he has signed it.

A s an exception to the general rule, a court w ill enforce


the oral contract if the buyer has also done all o f the
follow ing:
a. made partial payment,
b. occupied or possessed the land, and
c. made substantial im provem ents to the land.

3. A C ontract T h at Cannot B e P erform ed w ith in


One Y ear a fter B eing M ade

PROBLEM: Late in March, Borger, personnel


manager of Data Dash Data, Inc., orally promised
Westerman a job in the information processing
department of the company. The job was to be for a
year at $1,000 a month plus benefits. It was to begin
a month after Westerman received his diploma in
Basic course, lesson 9 | 125

June-from the Civic Center High School. Westerman,


still a minor, discussed the offer with his parents. The
next day, he telephoned Borger and accepted the offer.
Latdr, Borger refused to employ Westerman. Was the
contract enforceable by either party?

A contract which cannot be perform ed w ithin a year


from the tim e it is made w ill not be enforced by courts
# ile s s there is a signed w riting or a signed memorandum
o f the agreement. The year is figured from the tim e the
contract is made, not from the tim e perform ance is to
begin.

Answer to the problem: The oral agreement was


not enforceable against Data Dash Data o r its agent,
Borger. Nor could the company enforce it against
Westerman. The fact that Westerman was a minor did
V no| affect the outcome of this case. Had there been a
’ written contract, however, only Westerman could have
s> avoided it.

■: f^ us tim e provision does not apply to agreements that


can be executed w ithin a year. This is true even i f such
^agreements are not actually carried out w ithin that tim e.
:^he test is not w hether the agreem ent is a ctu ally
perform ed within a year but whether there is a possibility
o f perform ance w ithin a year. For example, tw o persons
ahake hands and orally agree to be business partners.
Jpit they don’t say fo r how long. Because either partner
feay legally quit w ithin a year, their agreem ent need
Ш be in w riting. On the other hand, their partnership
lou ld last indefinitely.
| Because the agreem ent was fo r an in defin ite tim e,
(&ther partner could withdraw at any tim e, «at w ill,*
Without liability to the other fo r breach o f contract. Of
126 | Лракшче£*зай английский для юристов

course, it is Always wise t o prepare a con tra ct to form a


partnership very carefu lly and to put it in w riting. That
is because o f the com plexity o f m partnership as well as
the amount o f m oney and potentially long tim e involved.

4. A C ontract to Pay a D ebt or A nsw er fo r the L egal


O bligation rtf A n oth er Person

PROBLEM: Heywood wished to buy art electric


guitar for $4S5 from the Music Shop. He lacked cash,
and his credit rating was poor. Amaro, a professional
music instructor, told the music store owner,« Heywood
has a rare talent. He will soon earn the full price. But if
he doesn't pay when payments are due, 1will.» If Music
Shop sells the guitar on credit and Heywood later
fails to pay, is Amaro liable for the balance due?

One provision o f the statute o f frauds requires a


w riting for a prom ise to answer fo r the debt or default
o f another person.

Answer to the problem: Am aro’s promise in


unenforceable. That is because it is not m writing and
signed by him. On the other hand, if Amaro had said,
«Sell the guitar to Heywood, and I will pay you ,» it
would be a direct, primary promise to the seller. Amaro
' would therefore be liable even if this promise was oral.

Sometimes a third party is liable under an oral promise


to pay another's debt, but only if the payment serves the
prom isor's own financial interest. Thus, a buyer o f a
house under construction wants to see it com pleted. He
orally prom ises to pay a lumberyard fo r continuation o f
supplies when the general contractor fa lls behind in
payments. The h om eb u y eris legally bound, ev en th ou ^ i
the contractor remains prim arily liable.
Sasic course; lessor 9 | 127

[ &. A Contract fo r W hich, the Consideration Is


.-liaM tiage

P I& M ILE M : Jim had a kmg conversation with his


V girlfriend, Rita, in the presence of herekterfy father. Jim
^ ; solemnly promised Rita and her father that if Rita
‘ ; would marry him, he would support the father if that
j e w became necessary. Rita agreed, and the couple
i married Is Jim's promise enforceable?

A w ritin g is req u ired fo r agreem ents m w hich


m arriage is the consideration fo r a prom ise to pay money
o r to give valuable consideration to the offeree or to
some third party if the offeree m arries as requested. It
te som etunes made by a parent o f the woman or man
G&mtemplating m arriage. It does not refer to m utual
o f persons to m arry.

A n sw e r to the problem : Jim's oral promise was


not enforceable.

;;,■ In som e sta tes, m utu al prom ises to m arry are


E n forceable, but the trend is to ban such su its fo r
dam ages. Generally, however, if the man breaches his
рекяшзе to m arry, the woman may keep the engagement
If the woman breaches, the ring m ust be returned.
pDrditjary g ifts from оме another need not be returned.

Ш. в . A C ontract by an E xecu tor or A d m in istra tor to


HE P erson ally L iable fo r Claim s against the E state o f
w D eceased Person

P R O B L E M : Liddell was executrix and principal


beneficiary of her father’s estate. A t the time of his
death, the father owed his friend Clifton $2.500. Clifton
128 I Практический английский для юристов

urgently needed the money, but probate court rules


would have delayed payment for at least six months.
Therefore Clifton offered to accept $2,000 in full
- settlement, if the amount would be paid immediately.
Liddell agreed in writing to pay Clifton immediately
out of her own funds. Is this promise enforceable?

A n executor (called executrix if fem ale) is one named


in a w ill to settle affa irs o f a deceased person. The
executor pays the debts and distributes the rest o f the
estate according to the terms o f the w ill. If there is no
w ill, th e cou rt appoints an administrator (admini­
stra trix) to do the necessary w ork. The cou rt also
appoints someone if the w ill doesn’t name an executor.
Such personal representatives are not personally liable
fo r debts o f the deceased person unless they expressly
agree in a signed w riting to pay.

Answer to the problem: Liddell is personally


liable for payment of Clifton's claim against her father's
estate, since she agreed in writing to pay.

EZJ Vocabulary
provision условие договора estate имущество; имение,
tangible personal property поместье
личное материальное иму­ probate ['praubit] официаль­
щество ное утверждение завеща­
to hold обязывать ния судом
lease аренда, сдача внаем deceased person умершее
lega lly bound юридически лицо
обязанный executor душеприказчик, ис­
to fall behind in payments полнитель завещания
задерживать оплату title правовой титул; право-
to owe быть должным > основание; документ о
full settlement полный расчет правовом титуле
Basic course. Lesson 9 I 129

to contemplate ставить целью, ad m inistrator попечитель


иметь намерением что-л. над наследственным иму­
engagem ent ring обручаль­ ществом, администратор
ное кольцо наследства

Answer the question:


W hat contracts are subject to the statute o f frauds?
Name som e'of them.

INCREASE YOUR VOCABULARY


Here are some of the meanings of the word h old
1. держать, владеть
2. признавать, решать, выносить решение (о суде)
3. обязывать Т
4. проводить (заседание, собрание, конференцию,
выборы-и т.п.)
5. занимать (должность)
6. иметь силу; оставаться в силе

Make up and write down sentences with the following


Word combinations:
Example:
hold up ~ останавливать с целью врабежа.
The criminals held up the bus and took all the
passengers’ money.

"J- to hold smb. to his prom ise настаивать на выполнении


^ кем-л. своего обещания
rx. hold a brief вести дело в суде в качестве адвоката
,8. hold a consultation совещ аться
4. hold a session проводить заседаниеI

I
' 0. 3* . £73
130 | Практический английский для юристов :

5. hold against обвинять


6. hold an appointment занимать должность
7. hold office занимать пост (должность)
8. to hold to term s настаивать на выполнении условий
9. to hold up поддерживать
10. hold with соглашаться
11. holder o f estate владелец недвижимости
12. to hold land владеть землей
13. to hold решать ( о суде )

Ш "TEXT 4

WHAT TVPE OF WRITING IS REQUIRED


IN CONTRACTS?
P R O B L E M : In June, Bachman orally agreed to sell
to Caruso Commodities Company the entire next
harvest of wheat from his 640-acre farm. He agreed to
sell the wheat at the current market price. Later, he
changed his mind and wrote to Caruso, «Complications
force me to alter plans for the sale of my wheat crop. I
will not be able to let you have my harvest at the June
price as we discussed. It's a good year. Therefore I
trust you'll get all the wheat you can handle from
other sources.» Bachman then signed his name to the
writing. Was this writing sufficient to allow Caruso
to enforce the oral contract against Bachman?

Usually a memorandum (памятная записка) satisfies


the w riting requirem ent o f the statute o f frauds for
evidence o f an agreement. Usually any words that clearly
state the im portant terms o f the agreement su ffice. N ote,
how ever, that the m em orandum is en forceable only
against those who have signed it.
Basic course. Lesson 9 I 131

Answer to the problem: The tetter Bachman wrote


would actually prove the existence erf the agreement to
seH his wheat to Caruso. Bachman is bound.

The memorandum need not be in any special form .


N or does it have to be a single w riting, A series o f
w ritings, such as an exchange o f letters or telegram s, is
^ efficien t i f it includes all essential terms. A lso, the
later w ritings m ust refer to earlier w ritings in such a
w ay that they are clearly part o f the same agreement.
The memorandum may be printed, typed, or w ritten w ith
pen or pencil. The signature may be w ritten, stamped,
engraved, or printed. It may consist o f any mark that is
intended as a sign atu re. A n adequate m em orandum
includes the follow in g item s:
;/■ 1. date and place o f the contract;
2. names o f the parties;
3. all material term s o f the agreement. These usually
include the subject m atter, price, and any special
conditions, such as tim e or method o f delivery or
terms o f payment;
4 . the signature o f the party against whom the contract
is to be enforced. This signature may be by an
agent authorized to sign.
These items do not need to be in any particular order.
I f custom or business usage is well established, some
item s may be excluded. For exam ple, such item s as term s
e f payment and delivery, even price, are often om itted
from orders fo r goods.

WHAT IS THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE?


PROBLEM: High man bought a new personal
computer from Advance Bectroraes. She signed the store's
usual contract, which stated the terms completely. Later,

6‘
132 | Практический английский для юристов

Highman alleged that as p a l of the bargain, the sales­


person orally promised that if the factory list price was
reduced within two months, he would refund the same
amount to Highman, The factory list price was reduced,
but Advance Electronics refused to pass the savings on
to Highman. What were Highman’s rights? .

The parol evidence rule applies whenever parties put


their agreement in w riting, whether or not a w riting is
required under the statu te o f frauds. W ith certain
exceptions, under the p arol evidence ru le the w riting
itself is the only evidence allowed in court to prove the
terms o f a written contract if the w riting appears to be
the complete agreement between the parties.
The parol evidence rule bars evidence o f p rior or
contemporaneous (made at the same time) oral or w ritten
agreements related to the w ritten contract being disputed
if these agreements were not mentioned or included in
the written contract. Under the rule, such evidence is
generally not allowed to add to, subtract from , or other­
wise change the w ritten contract. The court presumes
that when the parties had their agreement to w riting,
they included all essential terms and intended to exclude
a ll p reviou s agreem ents. A cco rd in g ly , the w ritten
contract is held to be the only evidence o f their intent.

A n sw e r to the problem : Highman loses. She


probably could not prove that the salesperson's promise
was ever made. All important terms of the agreement
were presumably included in the written contract.

In the interests o f justice, however, the trial judge


w ill sometimes perm it parol evidence to be introduced to
prove certain th ings. These include m istake, frau d ,
illegality, custom and trade usage, clerical errors, and
Basic course. Lesson 9 | 133

the m eaning o f terms. A lso, when a contract is obviously


am biguous, parol evidence may be used to cla rify terms
у determ ine the true intent o f the parties. Such evidence
jo e s not change the w riting. Instead, it explains the
m eaning o f the w riting or shows that there never was
any enforceable contract.

Ш Vocabulary

to allege fo'ledj] заявлять; ambiguous [aem'bigjuas] не­


утверждать
ясный, двусмысленный
trade usage торговое обык­ contemporaneous
новение, узанс
[ken'tempo'reinjuos ]
parol evidence rule прави­ одновременный
ло, исключающее устные clerical error канцелярская
доказательства, изменяю­ ошибка, описка, опечатка
щие или Дополняющие to bar исключать, недопус-
письменное соглашение кать, запрещать

||| Answer the questions

W hat item s are to be included in memorandum?


•■ Is the memorandum enforceable in court?
:?.■* W hat is the parol evidence rule?

Ш TEXT 5

H O W ARE WRITTEN CONTRACTS INTERPRETED?


PROBLEM; Milo contracted with Corrigan for the
installation of a complete burglar alarm system for $2,900.
J l L PrInted cor,tract Provided that Milo was to pay
5900 down and the balance at $100 a month for twenty
months. Failure to pay any installment when due would
accelerate the debt and make the entire balance due. The
payments were to be made on the first day of each
134 I Практический ан глийский для юристов

month. Milo explained that he did not receive h&paycheck


until the tenth. Therefore, he said, he would prefer to make
the payments on tttal date. Corrigan agreed and in the
margin wrote in «tenth.» and initialed it on Milo's copy
only. During the first month, Corrigan demanded the fidt
balance when Milo failed to make the payment on the first
day. Is Corrigan entitled to the full balance immediately?

Even when the parties put their contract in writing',


som ething in the contract may not be quite clear or may
require interpretation. Ib is is frequently the case when
standardized, printed order blanks are used. It also occurs
when printed contract form s w ith blank spaces are used.
In the com pletion o f the form s, some contradictory terms
may be added. M oreover, words do not always have the
same meaning to different persons. One person may use
a term that seems perfectly clear but w hich may mean
som ething quite different to another party.
Annually, in m illions o f transactions, consumers buy,
borrow , and lease goodfs and serv ices. U sually the
consumers are asked to accept and sign a printed form
that is a contract o f adhesion. These are contracts, such
as credit purchases and life insurance policies , prepared
by the stronger party w ith the help o f their lawyers to
favor their own interests. Generally such contracts are
not subject to m odification; the consumer m ust «take it
or leave it.*
Understandably, in disputes over the m eaning o f the
language in such contracts, courts favor the party who
d id n o t p rep a re th e d ocu m en t. A n o th e r h e lp fu l
developm ent is the requirement by statute in some states
that the language o f consum er contracts be clear, simple,
and understandable to the average person.
Generally courts seek to determ ine and to enforce the
intent o f the parties by applying the follow in g rules o f
interpretation to w ritten contracts:
Basic course. Lesson 9 I 135

Is to 80 Conside^®d * Single, Whole

, w , 5 ch с1а^ Ь interpreted in th e.ligh t o f all other


provisions o f the contract. W ords are interpreted as they
are ordin arily used unless circum stances in d icate a
A fferen t meaning. Legal and other technical terms or
’ J f breviatioas are given their technical m eaning unless
? in W e d М ^ Wh° ie Sh° WS that a C e r e n t meaning

„ 2 - W here a Printed Form Is Used, Added Typewritten


^ovim on s W ffl Prevail over Contradictory Printed
Provisions, and Added Handwritten Ones W ill Prevail
over Both Printed and Typewritten Ones
typ ew ritin g supersedes (replaces)
printing because it presum ably represents that person’s
“ n s- Sim ilarIy* handwriting prevails
over both printing and typew riting.

Answer to the problem: Milo’s payments were


not due until the tenth of the month. The handwritten
change to that effect made by Corrigan on Milo's copy
of the contract superseded the printed version. It was
not essential that Milo add his Initiate because he was
the party benefited by the change. He could, and
undoubtedly would, add his Initials if requested or if
the validity of the change were challenged.

. ** ^s . nevertheless, good preventive law practice to

copies o f the contract.

W m P r Z l T and FigUreS АГе ^ “ « ^ t e n t , the W ords

leSSi i kl y *° mBfce a mistake ® writing out a


*J b . 111 w^ lds Лап writing it in figures, Thus, words
prevail over figures. us
136 ' I Практический английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
to supersede [,sju;ps'si:d3 от- inconsistent противоречивый
менять, заменять собой validity действительность,
to allow позволять, разре- законность
шать contradictory противореча-
provison положение, условие щий; несовместимый
(договора) to initial подписывать иници-
to prevail преобладать алами, ставить инициалы
life insurance policy полис receipt [п si:t] квитанция
страхования жизни contingency [kon'tmtfeansi]
printing напечатанный текст случайность, случай; не-
typewriting написанное на предвиденное обстоят©ль*
пиш. машинке ство

Q Answer the questions:


1. W hat are the rules o f in terp retation o f w ritten
contracts? Name them.
2. If words and figures are inconsistent, what prevails?
3. W hat prevails over both printing and typew riting?

H ead and tran slate into R ussian:


When You Enter a Contract.
1. if a contract is com plex or involves much tim e or
money, put it in w riting even when not required by
the sta tu te o f fra u d s. Be su re th e w ord s are
understandable, cover all im portant contingencies, and
clearly reflect your intentions. W hen appropriate,
consult a qualified lawyer;
2. if a prepared contract is presented to you fo r signature,
read it carefu lly, especially if it is a con tract of^
adhesion;
3. insist on definition and explanation o f any terms o f
the con tract w hich you do not understand. Make
necessary changes, or reject the entire contract;
Basic course. Lesson 9 | 137

4, make sure that all changes are w ritten in to the


contract on all copies as well as on the original, and
that all changes are initialed by both parties;
5. be sure your entire agreem ent is included in the
w riting. The parol evidence rule may bar evidence o f
a ll p r io r and con tem poran eou s oral or w ritten
agreem ents; and
5. when any payments have been made in cash, be sure
to get a receipt if payment is not acknowledged in the
contract. (If payments are made by check, indicate
the purpose on the face of the check. The canceled
check w ill serve as your receipt.)

M atch the follow in g:


, A . executed contract
B. executory contract
C. express contract
й D . form al contract
E. im plied contract
F. parol evidence rule
G. quasi contract
■ H. simple contract
I. statute o f frauds 1

1, B u ie under w hich a w ritten con tra ct can n ot be


changed by prior oral or w ritten agreements.
% Contract in which the agreement o f the parties is
| spoken or written.
W ritten contract that must be in a special form to be
enforceable.
4* Contract that has been fu lly perform ed.
■th A ny contract that is not a form al contract.
Contract in which intent o f the parties is shown by
conduct or circum stances.
138 I Практический английский для юристов

7. Obligation that is enforced as if it were a contract in


order to prevent unjust enrichment o f one party.
8. Law stating that certain agreements are not enforceable
unless they are in w riting and are signed by the party
against whom the contract is to be enforced.
Contract that has not been fu lly perform ed.

T ranslate into R ussian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Unless required by law, contracts need not be in
w riting.
2. A n express contract is stated in words, w ritten or
spoken. An implied contract is shown by conduct o f
the parties and by surrounding circum stances.
3. A form al contract must be in some special, written
form . A ll contracts which are not form al contracts
are simple contracts.
4. An executory contract has not been fu lly perform ed.
A n executed contract has been com pleted by both
parties.
5. A quasi contract exists when some element o f a valid
contract is m issing, yet the arrangement is enforced
as if it were a contract. This is done to prevent unjust
enrichment o f one party.
6. To be enforceable, the follow ing Contracts must be,in
w ritin g (or evidenced by some other w ritten proof)
and signed by the party against whom enforcem ent is
sought: ■ -
(a) contracts to buy and sell goods for a price o f $500
or more, . -w
(b) contracts to buy and sell real property or any
interest in real property,
(c) contracts that cannqt be perform ed w ithin one
year after being made,
олыс course. Lesson 9

(d ) contracts to pay a debt or answ er fo r a legal


obligation o f another person,
(e) contracts having m arriage as the consideration
and
(f) contracts o f an executor or adm inistrator to be
д Personally liable for the debts of an estate.
A memorandum o f an agreement need not be in any
special form . However, it must contain all the material
facts and must be signed by the party against whom
p- the contract is to be enforced.
I 8. The terms o f a w ritten contract may not be changed
b y jia r o l evid en ce u n less the w ritin g is clea rly
am biguous. Parol evidence may also be used to show
that a written agreement is not binding because o f
mistake, fraud, or illegality.

| Solve the problems:

Ito n n wrKler 3 written contract' Vancura bought Trickett’s car for


fS800. Vancura gave Trickett a check for $300 as a down payment
p d took delivery of the car. On the way home, Vancura bought
>some gas at a self-service station. She then got a soft drink from
f* vending machine. What kinds of contracts were these?
2. Bruno bought Hummel’s condominium under a written
contract. The title was to be transferred in 30 days. Bruno then
orally a&eed to most of Hummel’s furniture for the lump
of $2,800. When she took possession of the condo, Bruno
|pld Hummel she had changed her mind about buying the
p rm tu re . Can Hummel enforce the furniture deal?
4. Central-Cal Lands Corporation orally agreed to seil a
^ UCing ranch to Ceres- ,nc** f° r $1,280,000. Ceres
paid $25,000 and immediately took possession,
a ) Can Central-Cal legally withdraw from the agreement?
b) SuP P ° » Ceres proceeds to spend $75,000 to level part
of the land for improved irrigation purposes. Can Cares
now enforce the oral contract?
.E S S O N 10
V o i d or voidable
agreements
£ 3 TEXT 1

WHAT MAKES AN AGREEMENT VOID


OR VOIDABLE?
P R O B L E M : Patty, a minor, worked hard as a
farmhand all summer and saved her money. In
September, she bought a bicycle for cash. Patty rode
the bicycle home. When she got there, however, her
parents said it would be too dangerous to ride the
bicycle on downtown streets as planned. Patty returned
the bicycle and asked for her money. W as she entitled
to a full refund?

A v a lid (leg a lly e ffe c tiv e ) o ffe r and acceptan ce


generally result in an enforceable contract. H owever,
sometimes the agreement may be void or voidable because
one o f the parties lacked capacity to contract or failed to
give consideration. The contract also may be void or
voidable because one o f the parties failed to genuinely
assent to the agreem ent. Genuine assent exists when
consent is not clouded by fraud, duress, undue influence,
or mistake. Generally, i f genuine assent is lacking, the
victim may cancel or disaffirm the contract. ™
D isaffirm an ce is a refusal to carry out or com ply
with the terms o f a voidable contract, without any liability
to pay damages. Disaffirm ance is perm itted in certain
cases when the offer and acceptance were not given freely
Ё Basic course. Lesson 10 | 141

К and voluntarily in a spirit o f honesty and fairness. If a


I: cou rt decides that a person who used reasonable care
[ »ш1.judgm ent was nevertheless deceived or mislead about
йп im portant fact, that person may disaffirm (or avoid)
: the contract. A person who was compelled to enter into
Г * contract against his or her free will may also disaffirm .
$ ■
К Answer tothe problem: Patty, being a minor, as
f■ - a Peraon who lacks capacity to contract might be able
’ to disaffirm.

L 0 Vocabulary
f void недействительный, не lack отсутствие (чего-л.)
имеющий силы disaffirm ance отмена, взя­
voidable 1) могущий быть тие обратно согласия; от­
f аннулированным 2) ос- каз в подтверждении
1; поримый to com ply With the terms вы­
I- to assent дать согласие, со- полнить условия
глашаться to com pel [kam'pel] застав­
I consent [кэп'sent] согласие лять, вынуждать, при­
\ genuine assent подлинное Co­ нуждать
S':. гласив refund возврат суммы
L fraud tfrord] обман; мошен- entitled имеющий право
I начество, жульничество to .mislead (m isled) вводить
duress [djua'res] принужде- в заблуждение
to deceive [di si:v] обманывать;
| ние, давление
вводить в заблуждение
. to disaffirm аннулировать,
capacity to contract способ­
■ расторгать (соглашение)
ность заключать договор

ГИ Answer the questions:


f ^ W hen the agreement may be void or voidable?
I 2. W hat is disaffirm ance?
f 8. W hat is genuine assent?*
142 | Практическим английский для юристов

Ш TEXT 2

W H A T IS FRAUD?
P R O B L E M : When Milliken sold a used car to
Camacho, he told her that the car had been driven only
50,000 miles, had never been in an accident, and had
the original paint. In fact, Milliken had stolen the car,
set back the odometer from 90,000 miles, and repainted
the exterior in the original color. Moreover, Milliken
had stood between Camacho and the right rear end
of the car. He did this so that she would not see a
crudely repaired fender, which had been damaged in
an accident. After Camacho learns the truth and if she
can find Milliken, can she avoid the contract?

The basis o f fra u d is false representation or con ­


cealment o f a m aterial fa ct. However, not every m isre­
presentation or concealm ent is a fraud. A ll o f the fo l­
low ing elements must be present fo r fraud to exist:
1. The F alse R epresentation or C oncealm ent o f a
Present or Past F act M ust Be D eliberate
Fraud results from deliberate lies. It also results from
deliberate concealm ent o f u n favorable fa c ts w hich
otherw ise cou ld be n oticed by a reasonable person.
Generally neither seller nor buyer is obliged to reveal all
good or bad facts about the subject matter o f the con­
tract. Courts would have trouble trying to define what
must be known and disclosed in every case. M oreover,
buyers are free to ask questions as they investigate before
they buy. The seller must answer the questions honestly.
If the seller refuses to answer a question, the buyer need
not enter the contract. In addition, the seller must not
give false inform ation or act to prevent the other party
from , learning important facts.
Basic course. Lesson to | 143

Answer to the problem: Milliken was a criminal


. who acted fraudulently. He lied about the car and actively
concealed the damaged rear fender (заднее крыло).
Accordingly, if Camacho could find Milliken, she could
avoid the contract and sue for damages for the tort of
fraud. Milliken should be prosecuted as a criminal, and
the car should be returned to its true owner.

To constitute fraud, the m isrepresentation or con­


cealm ent must be deliberate. N orm ally silence is not
blam eworthy. But sometimes fraud arises when the party
has a duty to speak yet does not. For exam ple, honesty
requires a seller to tell about a concealed defect not
- Readily discoverable by a buyer.
, a seller innocently m isrepresents a m aterial fact,
the buyer may avoid the contract or collect com pensatory
damages for the in ju ry suffered. However, no tort has
been com m itted, so the buyer is not entitled to punitive
damages. On the other hand, one may not claim fraud
when the means were available fo r determ ining the
truth, as by sim ply reading a paper before signing.
The false representation or concealm ent must be o f a
present or past fact. This does not include opinions o f
value or predictions. For example, if someone tells you
that a certain article «w ill pay fo r itse lf,» «is a bargain »>
*is the best on the m arket,» or «is a super value,» you
have no legal right to rely upon such remarks. They are
hsually no more than statem ents o f personal opinion
^personal belief or judgm ent), not statem ents o f fact.
O pinions, w hich prove to be w rong, norm ally do not
constitute fraud.I,

I , 2 - The Misrepresented or Concealed Fact Must Be


Material
To be fraudulent, a statement must be a false repre­
sentation or concealment o f a present or a past material
144 | Практическим английский для юристов '

fact. A fact is material, regardless of its apparent


importance, if it influences the other person’s decision
to enter into the agreement. Misrepresentation or
concealment of such a fact usually means that the person
who was misled would not have entered into the contract
if he or she had known the truth.

3. The Person W ho M akes the False R epresentation


M ust Know It to Be False or M ake It R ecklessly w ithout
R egard to Its Truth

P R O B L E M : Dimmer was a new sales agent for


Proto Metal Supply Co. Stein was the purchasing
agent for Space-Age Specialties Corporation. Eager
to make a sale, Dimmer told Stein that certain steel
sheets and rods had a high chromium content and
would not rust. Actually she did not know the chemical
content but said what her prospect wanted to hear.
Stein believed her and Ordered a carload shipment.
When the facts were discovered after many Space-
Age customers had complained, Space-Age sued Proto
Metal and Dimmer for fraud. Should Space-Age win
the suit?

Fraud clearly exists when a person deliberately makes


a false statement or conceals a material fact. Fraud also
exists if a person makes a statement of fact rashly, without
determining its truth or falsity. This is especially true
if that person should know the facts.

A n sw er to the problem : Dimmer, acting as agent


for Proto Metal, made the statements about the steel
products with reckless disregard of the truth. Hence,
Space-Age was justified in claiming fraud and should
win the suit against Proto Metal and Dimmer.
Basic course. Lesson 10 I 145

4. The M isrepresentation M ust Be Made w ith the


Intention o f Influencing the Other Person to A ct upon It

P R O B L E M : Benson was deep in debt and needed


more credit to Keep his business going. He gave Central
Credit Controls (C C C ) false information which showed
his financial condition to be good. Grant subsequently
obtained a credit report on Benson from C C C . Relying
on the report, Grant sold a computer and expensive
software to Benson on account. Within a month, Benson
became insolvent (unable to pay debts) and failed to
make a payment. Grant then learned the truth about
Benson’s financial condition. Claiming fraud, Grant
sued to repossess theequipment. Should hesucceed?

For a statement to be fraudulent, the person making


the statement must intend that it be relied upon and
acted upon. Generally the false statement is made
directly to the intended victim. However, this is not
essential. A person may tell someone something with the
intent that the statement will be passed on to another,
whose conduct is to be influenced, as did Benson in the
problem.
A n sw er to the problem : Grant will be allowed to
repossess theequipment.

WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS


OF THE DEFRAUDED PARTY?
P R O B L E M : Smith was fraudulently induced by
Chapman to buy a painting. Chapman had described
the painting as an authentic Van G o gh . Upon
discovering the fraud, before payment or delivery, Smith
notified Chapman that she was canceling the contract.
Was she within her rights?
446 | Практический английский для юристов

Contracts altered in to as a result o f fraud are voidable


b y the in ju red p arty. Thus, a defrauded party may
repudiate (disaffirm ) the agreement. Norm ally when one
decides to disaffirm a contract, anything that has been
received m ust be returned. A deceived party who has
perform ed part o f the contract may recover what has
been paid or given under its terras.

Answer to the problem: A defrauded party who


has done nothing, like Smith, may cancel the contract
and be released with no obligation to pay.

I f sued o n the contract, the defrauded party can plead


fraud as a defense. In either case, the victim may sue in
tort and collect damages caused by the fraud.
A defrauded person may choose not to disaffirm but
instead to ratify the agreem ent. Either party may then
enforce it. H owever, a defrauded party w ho decides to
ratify an agreement may seek reimbursement (financial
com pensation) for any loss suffered.

0 Vocabulary
p rosp ect предполагаемый personal opinion личное мне-
клиент ние
insolvent неплатежеспособ- concealment сокрытие
ныЙ m aterial fact существенный
deliberate [di'libarit] наме- факт
репный, предумышленный reasonable разумный, благо-
fraud [fro.d] обман; мошен- разумный; здравый
ничеетво, жульничество; to induce [in'djuis] побуж-
подделка дать; склонять
fraudulent ('fro:djuUmJ об- tocancelfkajnsl]аннулировать,
: манный; мошеннический отменять; отказываться
defrauded fdi'fro:didJ обманут m isrepresentation лекаже-
тый; потерпевший от мо- ние, неправильное пред-
шенничества ставление
Basic coarse. Lesson 10 I 1*7

ГУ-Ыдая ['геЫБ^опроыетчн- to repudiate agreement


, аый ■ [n'pjudjert] отказываться
disregard пренебрежение, от соглашения
Д игнорирование reimbursement
blameworthy [bleim'wa:8i] kriam'baismant] возме­
заслуживающий порица- щение, компенсация
■ ния loss suffered понесенный
|о disaffirm (cancel) a contract убыток
расторгать договор
to ratify утверждать, рати­ to plead fraud ссылаться на
фицировать обман

Jg A n s w e r the questions:
1. W hat is the basis o f fraud?
2. W hat elem ent» must be present fo r fraud to exist?
:% W hat is a m aterial fa ct?
4 . May a defrauded party in a contract repudiate the
agreem ent?
5. May a deceived party who has perform ed part o f the
contract recover what has been paid.?
6. W hat is a reimbursement?

ffi TEXT 3

W H A T IS DURESS?
An agreement is said to be made under duress i f one
person compels another to enter into it through coercion
(th rea t o f force or an act o f violen ce) or by illegal
imprisonment (unlaw ful arrest or detention). The victim
in such cases has been denied the exercise o f free will.
Therefore he or she may disaffirm the resulting contract.
The threatened or actual violence may be to the life,
liberty, or property o f (1 ) the victim , (2 ) the victim ’s
immediate fam ily, or (3) the victim ’s near relatives
14в | Практический английский для юристов

A person usually is not guilty o f duress when the act


or threat is to do som ething the person has a legal right
to do* Thus, to persuade another to contract under threat
o f a Justifiable civil lawsuit is permissible. To threaten
to have another arrested if the contract is not signed
would be duress and possibly crim inal coercion.

W H A T IS U N D U E INFLUENCE?
PROBLEM: Snow was an 84-year-old, somewhat
senile w idow lacking business experience. A fte r
investing an inheritance in a house for herself, she
accepted Jane Wyles, a middle-aged stranger, as a
boarder. Wyles lived there for two months. During^
that time, she was very attentive to Snow , who had
become bedridden. Four weeks before her death, and
mistakenly believing herself to be in need of money
for hospitalization, Snow sold the house to Wyles. The
price, paid in cash, was only ope-third of the true market
value. A fter Snow died, her children sued to have the
agreement nullified. They claimed that Wyles had used
undue influence on their mother. Will they succeed?

U ndue influ en ce occurs when one party overpowers


the free w ill o f the other, taking unfair advantage to
get the other to make a contract that is unfavorable.
It is more likely to be present when a relationship o f
trust, confidence, or authority exists between tw o parties.
Thus, undue in flu en ce is presum ed to ex ist in un­
favorable contracts between attorney and clien t, husband
and w ife, parent and child, guardian and ward, physician
and patient. When a contract is made as a result o f
undue influence, the contract is voidable by the victim .
Basic course, f.esson 10 1 149

A charge o f undue influ en ce can be overcom e by


proving that the contract is fa ir and benefits both parties.
To forestall a claim o f undue influence, the stronger
party should act w ith honesty, fu lly disclose all im portant
fa cts, and insist that the other party talk to independent
counsel before contracting.
Norm ally the relations between a landlord and a tenant
w ould not involve undue influence.

Answer to the problem: Undue influence did exist


because of Snow's physical and mental condition, and
the gross unfairness of the sales contract. Snow's
children ran sue Wyies to have the agreement nullified.

Щ Vocabulary
violence ['vaiafens] насилие boarder квартирант
coercion [kauV.Jn] принуж­ guardian l' ga.djan] опекун
дение, насилие, примене­ ward [wo:d] опекаемый; no­
ние силы
free w ill свобода воля
to be denied the exercise o f te forestall [fo:'sto:l] предот­
free w ill быть лишенным вращать
свободы выбора bedridden прикованный к
undue influence чрезмерное постели
влияние
Senile E'$i:nail] старческий; to take advantage восполь­
дряхлый senile dementia зоваться преимуществом
старческое слабоумие counsel адвокат

Answer the questions;


1. W hat is duress?
2. W hat is undue influence?
i5 f l | Практический английский для юристов

Ш TEXT 4

W H A T 1$ T H E EFFECT O F MISTAKE?
W hen there is a u n ilateral m istake, one o f the parties
has an incorrect idea about the facts o f a contract. Such
a m istake generally does not a ffect the va lid ity and
enforceability o f the contract.
F requ ently a p arty to a con tra ct has erron eou s
expectations o f high p rofits. For exam ple, suppose a
building contractor bids to do a jo b fo r $10,000. Actual
costs run up to $12,000. The mistaken contractor alone
suffers the loss. This is a unilateral mistake.
Failure to read a contract before signing, or a hurried
or careless reading o f it,- may also result in assuming
obligations that a person had no intention to do. In
m aking contracts, persons' are ordinarily bound by what
they Outwardly do and say, regardless o f what they may
inw ardly think, understand, or intend. The resulting
unilateral mistakes generally do not affect the contract.
However, if the mistake was recognized but not disclosed
b y one party alone, who apparently hoped to gain an
advantage by rem aining silent, courts may grant relief
by declaring the agreement void.

W H A T MISTAKES M AKE AGREEM ENTS V O ID


O R VOIDABLE?
PROBLEM: In the city there were two streets with
the name of «Highland.» Fisher owned the lot located
at 231 Highland Avenue. Neece, who lived in Hew
York City, wanted to buy the tot located at 231 Highland
Boulevard. He wrote to Fisher, offering «to buy your
lot on Highland» on specified terms. Fisher promptly
mailed his acceptance of the offer. Was there a
contract?
Basic course, lessor» 40 I 151

W hen there is a m utual m istake (also called a bilateral


mistake) o f m aterial fa ct, both parties are w rong about
som e im portant facts. In such a case, either party may
disaffirm .

A n s w e r to th e problem : The parties’ mutual


mistake as to the identity of the subject matter made
the contract void. Neece. in his offer, was referring to
the tot on Highland Boulevard,-Fisher, in his acceptance,
was referring to the lot on Highland Avenue. Mutual
mistake as to the existence of the subject matter has
the same effect

0 Vocabulary
lo t амер. участок земля ваясь, касающаяся содер­
to disclose раскрывать жания контракта; в этом
outwardly внешне случае контракт может
unilateral m istake одвосто- либо признаться недействи­
' ровнее заблуждение тельным, либо его условия
m utual m istake обоюдное переформулируются)
заблуждение subject m atter теш , пред­
bilateral mistake (одинаковая мет обсуждения
ошибка, допущенная обеи­ to assume obligations при­
ми сторонами, не сговари­ нимать обязательства

p l Answer the questions:


1. W hat is a unilateral m istake?
2. W hat is a bilateral m istake?
3. W hat party may disaffirm in case of unilateral mistake
(bilateral m istake)?
152 | Практический английский для юристов

M atch the follow in g :


1. personal opinion
2. undue influence
3. disaffirm ance
4. duress
5. fraud
6. genuine assent
7. m aterial fact
8. mutual mistake

a. Overpowering o f another’ s free w ill by taking unfair


advantage to induce the person to make an unfavorable
contract.
b. Refusal to com ply with the terms o f a voidable contract.
c. Personal belief or judgm ent; not a fact.
d. Deliberate false representation or concealment o f a
material fact, which is meant to and which does induce
another to make an unfavorable contract.
e. Mistake about an important fact believed by both parties
to a contract.
f . Consent or agreement not clouded by fraud, duress,
undue influence, or mistake.
g. Fact, w hich has a substantial influence on a person’s
decision to act.
h. Use o f coercion or illegal imprisonment to force another
party to make a contract.

T ran slate in to R ussian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. A n offer and its acceptance must be made with genuine
assent.
2, Fraud exists when deliberate false representation or
concealment o f a material fact is intended to and does
in flu en ce the action o f another, causing in ju ry .
Contracts induced by fraud are voidable by the victim .
Basic course. Lesson 11 S 153
F*
8. Duress consists o f either coercion or illegal im pri­
sonm ent, w hich induces the victim to make an un­
wanted contract. Such contracts are voidable by the
I victim .
4. Undue influence exists when one person, because o f
trust, confidence, or authority, uses an overpow ering
in flu en ce over an oth er, d ep riv in g the v ictim o f
freedom o f w ill in m aking a contract. The contract is
voidable by the victim .
5. Generally a unilateral mistake of fact does not affect
the validity o f a contract.
6. Generally a mutual (bilateral) mistake o f m aterial fact
(as to identity or existence o f the subject matter) makes
the agreement void . In some states, if the mistake
concerns the applicable law, the contract may be valid.

Solve the problem:


During negotiations for the sale of a salt well, Hutton said the
well was free of gypsum and that the brine was 90 percent in
Strength. In fact, the well did contain gypsum and was deficient
in strength. Curry, the purchaser, refused to pay, claiming the
f contract was void because of fraud. Was it?
L e s s o n 1 1

R ig h ts and duties
under a contract

Ш TEXT 1

CAN RIGHTS UNDER A CONTRACT


BE TRANSFERRED?
P R O B L E M : Cooke bought a car from «Midtown
Motors* for $9,250. There was a small down payment,
and the balance was due in installments over the next
48 months. Because Mid-town wanted its money
immediately, it transferred afl limits to the installment
payments to «Freed Finance Co.* Freed, in turn, gave
Mid town the full amount due less discount charges of
$350. Freed then told Cooke to make future payments
to Freed, the assignee. Must Cooke do so?

Persons frequently have contractual rights, which they


wish to transfer to others. Such a transfer o f contractual
rights is called an assignm ent. The party who makes the
assignm ent is the a ssig n or. The party to whom the
assignment is made is the assignee.
G enerally unless proh ibited by statu te or by the
contract creating the right, a party may assign any rights
to another, provided perform ance w ill not be materially
changed. P erform a n ce is the fu lfillm en t or accom p­
lishm ent o f the agreem ent. A right to collect a debt is
assignable because perform ance remains the same after
assignment.
Basic course. Ьвдсо T1 I 155

А м т * t o th * problem : WhenCooke was notified


. of the assignment, tie became obligated to> pay Freed
instead of Midtown. Retailers and restaurants assign
to issuers of credit cards the rigid to collect the
amounts due from customers.

R ig h ts m ay n ot be assign ed i f d oin g so m akes


perform ance o f the contract substantially m ore d ifficu lt.
R ights, w hich may not be transferred, include:
1. claim s to damages fo r personal injuries,
2. rights to personal services especially o f a skilled
nature, and when personal tru st and confidence
are involved.
A ssignm ent o f contractu al rig h ts is usually made
yoluntarily by the assignor. Assignm ent may also occur
automatical Iу by operation o f law , as when one o f the
contracting parties dies. Then the decedent’s (deceased
|ierson’s> rights are assigned to the executor or adm ini-
^ ira to r o f the estate. Assignm ent also occurs by operation
::{£f law when a trustee in bankruptcy receives title to a
fe to r V a s s e ts , including contractual claims against third
-persons.
O rdin arily, no particu lar form ш required fo r an
■assignm ent. It may be oral or w ritten. H owever, statutes
som etim es require certain assignm ents to be in w riting.

CAN DUTIES UNDER A CONTRACT


BE DELEGATED?
PROBLEM: Larson hired Cullen to care for her
child while Larson was at work. Could Cullen legally
delegate the chUdrcare duties to a third party?

' ■ R outine contractual duties may be delegated (turned


|over) to another party. H owever, a person cannot delegate
156 | Практический английский для юристов

to another any duty where perform ance requires unique


personal skill or special qualifications.

Answer to the problem: Cullen cannot delegate


the duties. That is because caring for children involves
special qualifications of trust and shill.

A d elegation o f duties is not an assignm ent o f the


con tract. The origin al party to the con tract is still
obligated and liable fo r proper perform ance even though
someone else may actually do the work. Thus, a general
contractor who agrees to build a house is responsible fo r
providing the finished structure as prom ised. However,
th e general contractor almost always delegates m ost o f
the work to subcontractors. Subcontractors are specialists
w h o la y fou n d a tion s and d o m ason ry, ca rp en try ,
plum bing, electrical, pain tin g, and oth er w ork. The
general contractor makes individual contracts w ith them
and pays them as agreed . The su b con tra ctors are
responsible to the general contractor fo r proper per­
form ance. But the general contractor remains responsible
to the buyer fo r the finished job. Note that the general
contractor, in a separate contract, may also assign to
bank the righ t to collect all or a percentage o f the
purchase price from the buyer. This is often done even
b efore con stru ction has begun so that the gen eral
contractor can buy materials and pay fo r labor.

E X A M P L E : Ziegler operated a letter shop. Basster


contracted with Ziegler to duplicate 12,000 letters
and to mail them to a computer-generated list of
individuals. Ziegler delegated the job to Gayle for an
agreed price. This was a valid delegation of duties,
not an assignment. Performance of the contract did
not require skill or involve any special relation of trust
Basic course. Lesson n | 157

or confidence. Ziegler, however, remained personally


liable to Bassler for proper completion of the job.
Under a separate contract Gayle was liable to Ziegler
for proper performance.

;; Sometimes a contracting party will both assign rights


and delegate duties.

' EXAMPLE: The «Pyramid Builders», a ready-mix


concrete company, received more orders than it could
fill on schedule. Therefore it arranged to have a
„ competitor, «Gibraltar Rock and Stone, Inc.», supply
certain customers. Pyramid would bill the customers
and turn over the proceeds to Gibraltar, after deducting
a commission for Pyramid’s assistance. If the concrete
delivered was faulty, Pyramid remained liable to the
customer for damages. In turn, Gibraltar would be
liable to Pyramid if Gibraltar were at fault.

It is p ossible f o r the p arty e n title d to receive


performance under a contract to release the other party
from the duty to perform and to accept a substitute
party. This is neither assignment nor delegation o f duties.
It is referred to as a n ovation; in effect, a new contract
is formed.

E X A M P L E : Revell had contracted to install a


skylight in the roof of Sinclair’s workshop. Because of
; ' difficulties on another job, Revell asked Sinclair if he'
would accept a qualified substitute carpenter named
Lowry. Lowry was willing to do the job for the same
, ,r ’ price. All three parties were agreeable. By novation,
Lowry took Revell’s place in the original contract.
tS # | Практический английский л ая ю р и сто в

W H A T ARE TH E R IG H TS O f A N ASSIGNEE?

PROBLEM: Jackson, a famous concert violinist,


purchased «a genuine Stradivarius violin» from Krone
for $150,000. Jackson paid $50,000 down. She agreed
to pay the balance in 24 equal monthly installments
along' with an annual carrying charge of 18 percent.
Krone knew the violin was not a Stradivarius. Therefore
he immediately assigned his right to collect the balance
of $100,000 to the «Continental Finance Company». In
return, Continental gave Krone $90,000 in cash. Krone
then disappeared. S h o rtly thereafter, Jackson
discovered the fraud. Can she now refuse to pay
Continental if it tries to collect?

Assignee receives exactly the same contractual righto


and duties as the assignor had — no more and no less.
To protect newly acquired rights, the assignee should
promptly notify the obligor o f the assignment. The obligor
is the debtor—the one who owes the money o r other
obligation. This notification may be done orally or in
w riting. Until notified, the obligor has no reason to
assume that the contractu al obligation s have been
changed and may continue to pay the original creditor.
A fter notification, however, the obligor is liable to the
assignee for performance.
In making an assignment, the assignor (toes not promise
to make good if the obligor fails to perform, unless this
is specifically required by the assignment. However, the
assignor does guarantee that there is a right to assign,
and that the assigned right is legally enforceable.

Answer to Bio problem: Jackson can claim fraud.


Because Continental now stands in the place of Krone,
Jackson can refuse to pay Continental. This is true
Basic course. Lesson 11 I 159

even though Continental is an innocent third party.


Also, if Krone is located, Jackson сот sue him for damages
caused by the fraud and Continental can sue him for
the $90,000. Krone may also be criminally liable.

0 Vocabulary
assignment (Vsammant] ne- obligor [,obh до;] лицо, при­
: редача врав по контрак- нявшее на себя обязатель­
ту ство
assignment o f a contract пе­ decedent [di'si:dontJ покой­
реуступка контракта ный
assignor [assi'no:r] цедент, balance остаток, остальная
сторона, передающая пра­ часть денег
ва по контракту to bill выставлять счет
assignee [.assi'ni:] сторона, to pay down давать задаток,
уплатить в счет чего-л.
- которой передаются пра­
to arrange with smb. about
ва по контракту
smth. договориться с кем-
to assign передавать (права,
л. о чем-л.
акции и т. п. в отличие
to turn over передавать
■, от недвижимости) друго­
proceeds [prou'sirdz] доход,
му лицу вырученная сумма, вы­
m aterially changed суще- ручка
: ственно изменены monthly instalments ежеме­
performance исполнение со­ сячные взносы
глашения discount charges расходы по
accomplishment исполнение дисконтированию
delegation o f duties переда- annual carrying charge го­
;; ча договорных обязанно­ довые проценты, которые
стей другой стороне клиент платит при покуп­
' novation новация; передача ке в кредит
нрав по обязательству (за­ foundation фундамент -
мена стороны, создающая masonry ['meisnn] каменная
новый контракт) кладка
o b lig a tio n обязательство, carpentry плотничные работы
обязательность (закона, plumbing сантехника
^ договора и т. н.) to make good выполнять
158 | Практический английский лая юристе®

W H A T ARE TH E R IG H TS O F A N ASSIGNEE?

PROBLEM: Jackson, a famous concert violinist,


purchased «a genuine Stradivarius violin» from Krone
for $150,000. Jackson paid $50,000 down. She agreed
to pay the balance in 24 equal monthly installments
along with an annual carrying charge of t8 percent.
Krone knew the violin was not a Stradivarius. Therefore
he immediately assigned his right to collect the balance
of $100,000 to the «Continental Finance Company». In
return, Continental gave Krone $90,000 in cash. Krone
then disappeared. S h o rtly the re a fte r, Jackson
discovered the fraud. Can she now refuse to pay
Continental if it tries to collect?

Assignee receives exactly the same contractual rights


and duties as the assignor had - no more and n o less.
To protect newly acquired rights, the assignee should
promptly notify the obligor o f the assignment. The obligor
is the debtor—the one who owes the money o r other
obligation. This notification may be done orally or in
w riting. Until notified, the obligor has no reason to
ш е й т е that the contractu al obligation s have been
changed and may continue to pay the original creditor.
A fter notification, however, the obligor is liable to the
assignee fo r performance.
In making an assignment, the assignor does not promise
to make good if the obligor fails to perform, unless this
is specifically required by the assignment. However, the
assignor does guarantee that there is a right to assign,
and that Hie assigned right is legally enforceable.

Answer to the problem: Jackson can claim fraud.


Because Continental now stands in the place of Krone,
Jackson can refuse to pay Continental. This is true
Baste course. Lesson 11 I 139

even though Continental is an innocent third party.


Also, if Krone is located, Jackson can sue him for damages
paused by the fraud and Continental can sue him for
the $90,000. Krone may also be criminally liable.

Ш Vocabulary
assignment [s'sainmant] пе­ obligor [.obh'go:] лицо, при­
редача прав no контрак- нявшее на себя обязатель­
: ту ство
assignment o f a contract пе­ decedent [di'siidant] покой­
реуступка контракта ный
assignor [sesi'nair] цедент, balance остаток, остальная
сторона, передающая пра­ часть денег
ва по контракту to bill выставлять счет
assignee [,aesi'm:] сторона, to pay down давать задаток,
которой передаются пра­ уплатить в счет чего-л.
to arrange with smb. about
ва по контракту
smth. договориться с кем-
to assign передавать (права,
л. о чем-л.
' акции и т. п. в отличие
to turn over передавать
от недвижимости) друго­
proceeds [prou'si:dz] доход,
му ляду вырученная сумма, вы­
m aterially changed суще­ ручка
ственно изменены monthly instalments ежеме­
,performance исполнение со­ сячные взносы
глашения discount charges расходы по
accomplishment исполнение дисконтированию
; delegation o f duties переда­ annual carrying charge го­
ча договорных обязанно- довые проценты, которые
сТей другой стороне клиент платит при покуп­
;xkovation новация; передача ке в кредит
прав по обязательству (за­ foundation фундамент -
мена стороны, создающая masonry fmeisnn] каменная
новый контракт) кладка
ob lig a tion обязательство, carpentry плотничные работы
л обязательность (закона, plumbing сантехника
договора и т. п.) to make good выполнять
16(0 | Практический английский для юристов

Q Answer the questions:


: 1. How is a transfer o f contractual rights called?
2. What is a performance?
3. What rights Under a contact may not be transferred?
4. What is a delegation o f duties under a contact?
5. W ho is an obligor?
6. W bo is an assignor?
7i W ho is ah assignee?
8. W hat should the assignee do to protect newly ac­
quired rights?'

f f l TEXT 2

H O W ARE CONTRACTS USUALLY DISCHARGED?


P R O B L E M : Wesley loaned Hudson $900 to be
repaid within three months. When the debt was due,
Hudson did not have the money. But he offered to give
Wesley an aquamarine ring that was worth about
$1,000. Must Wesley accept the ring instead of payment,
thus discharging Hudson from his contractual
obligations?

When a contract is made, the parties take on certain


duties or obligations. Discharge o f contract (termination
o f obligations) occurs when the parties perform the
contract as promised. Or it occurs when the parties are
released from their responsibilities by action o f the other
party or by law. Generally contracts are discharged by
perform ance; most parties do perform as they have
promised. Partial performance does not discharge thd
obligation.
Frequently, com plex contracts are discharged by
substantial perform ance. This occurs when there is only
I'-. Basic course. Lesson 11 { 161

l a jninor modification or failure to fulfill all terms o f the


u contract. The performance is incomplete but substantial.
b. A n appropriate allowance is made in the price to cover
; the deviation. If the deviation is deliberate, the victim
[ may treat it as a breach.
fc ■ ' t
f EXAMPLE: «Kitchen Konstruction Kompany, Inc.»,
[ remodeled the kitchen in the Hamlin's mid-Victorian
house. However, the new built-in cabinets were made
of top-grade plywood instead of solid w ood as
specified in the contract. (The mistake was due to an
oversight in the contractor's purchasing department.)
The substituted materials were actually more durable.
The Hamlins were not aware of the difference until a
friend whose hobby was woodworking pointed it out.
H o w e ve r, the co n tra ct had been su bstantially
performed. Therefore the Hamlins were responsible for
the full price less a deduction for the lower cost of the
plywood*

f Failure to perform in accordance with the contractual


• terms is a breach o f con tract; this gives the other party
f №e right to cancel. Sometimes a party who defaults (fails
f to perform) notifies the other party to a contract before
the time o f performance has arrived that he or she will
• » o t perform. This is called an anticipatory breach o f
I contract. The victim may wait until the promised time
| o f performance, or the victim may treat the default as a
pbreach o f contract and immediately sue for damages.

EXAM PLE: On January 5, «Graham R oofers»


contracted to remove the old roof and to install a
new one on the home of the Sterlings. The job was to be
completed «by-M arch 30, at the latest,» because of
anticipated heavy spring rains. Late in February,

273
162 | Практический английский для юристов

Graham notified the Sterlings that because of a lot of


orders, his crews could not get to the job until tate
April o r early May. This was an antid patary breach.
The Sterlings have the choice of waiting for performance
or immediately proceeding as though there were a
breach of contract.

Breach o f contract by one party may give the other


party the right to treat his or her obligation as discharged
or terminated. When one party terminates a sales contract
because o f a breach o f the oth er p a rty , the w ord
cancellation is used.
A contract that calls for payment in money requires
payment o f the exact amount on the specified date. The
one to whom the money is owed need not accept anything
else.

Answer to the problem: Wesley was under no


obligation to accept the ring. However, if she does
accept, Hudson's obligation to pay the $900 would be
discharged.

Frequently a check is given in payment o f a debt that


is payable in money. Acceptance of the check merely
suspends the debt while the check is being processed in
the banking system fo r collection. The debt is not
discharged until the check is paid by the bank on which
it was drawn.
W hen a contract states that performance must be
completed on or before a specified date, and that «time
is o f the essence,» failure to perform by that date is
generally regarded as a breach of contract. However, if
no loss is caused by a delay, time is not critical. In such
cases, the «essence* clause may be ignored by the courts.
W hen no precise date is specified, performance within a
reasonable time suffices.
Basic course. Lesson tl | 161

Vocabulary
large o f contract npe- substantial performance ис­
• крещ ение договорны х полнение всех существен­
► обязательств; исполнение
ных условий договора
Г . договора
t o su spend приостанавливать breach o f contract наруше­
allowance [Vlauans] скидка ние контракта .
proceeding преследование су- cancellation аннулирование;
дебным порядком отмена
tb default не выполнять сво­ collection получение денег
их обязательств (по кон- (по векселям); взыскание;
тракту, соглашению, долгу)
инкассирование
a ccep ta n ce 1) принятие,
признание 2) акцептиро- anticipatory breach
вание, приемка (наир., [aen'tisipeitari] наруше­
' счета или векселя ) к оп- ние договора до наступ­
V лате . ления срока исполнения

^ gA n sw er the questions;
1. W hen does the discharge o f contract occur?
2. Does partial perform ance discharge the obligation
^ under a contract?
p$. What is a substantial performance?
§4. W hat is a breach o f contract?
Щ. What is called an anticipatory breach o f contract?
j$f. What is a cancellation o f contract?
164 | Практический английский для юристов

Ш TEXT Я

IN WHAT OTHER WAYS CAN CONTRACTS


BE DISCHARGED?
PROBLEM: Diaz was the owner of a landscape service.
He contracted to maintain the yard of Reingold while the
latter sailed around the world in a 45-foot yacht. Reingold
planned to write and take photographs for a national
magazine and had no fixed programme for the journey.
When would the contract with Diaz terminate?

In addition to discharge by complete or substantial


performance, a contract may be discharged by:
1. agreement.
2. impossibility of performance, or
3. operation of law.
1. By Agreement
When the parties prepare their contract, they may
agree that it will terminate:
■ a. on a specified date or upon the expiration o f a
specified period of time;
b. upon the happening o f a specified event;
c. upon the failure of a certain event to happen; or
d. when one partner decides to retire from business
and gives the required notice.

Answer to the problem: The contract to maintain


the yard would terminate when Reingold returned home.

The parties who have made a contract may later


mutually agree to change either the terms o f the contract
or the nature of their relationship. They may do so
without any liability for breach.
By rescission the contracting parties may agree to
terminate the existing contract entirely, returning any
consideration received and placing the parties in their
original positions. Or they may agree that the present
contract is not what they want, and so they may replace
it with a new one. This is discharge by substitution.
The parties may also agree to change the obligation
required b y the original contract. An agreement to make
such a change is known as an accord. Performance of
the new obligation is called a satisfaction. A compro­
mise of a disputed claim or a com position o f creditors is
an accord. Carrying out the new agreement is the satis­
faction. ThuB, the previous obligation is discharged by
an accord and satisfaction. Also, a contract can be termi­
nated, and a new one form ed, through novation.

E X A M P L E : Vanvoor was a skilled handyman who


Had borrowed $650 from Santa. Vanvoor could not
repay the loan on schedule. The parties then agreed
that Vanvoor would work off the debt by doing 60
hours of painting, electrical, and plumbing work in Santa's
home during the next three months. The agreement to
change the required performance was an accord.
Vanvoor’s completion of the agreed-upon work was the
satisfaction. Together, this accord and satisfaction
discharged Vanvoor’s original obligation to pay $650.

2. B y Im p ossibility o f Perform ance


A s a general rule, a contract is not discharged when
some unforeseen event makes performance more costly
o r d ifficu lt fo r one o f the parties. For example, increased
prices o f needed supplies, a strike of needed workers,
difficu lty in obtaining materials or equipment, or some
natural disaster such as a flood or earthquake may delay
p erform a n ce. B u t, gen era lly, these even ts do not
discharge the contractual obligations; they should be
anticipated as possibilities when the contract is made, A
party who fails to perform because o f these events could
be held liable fo r breach of contract.
1661 | Практический английский для юристов

E X A M P L E : Sundstrum was a wholesaler. Не


contracted to supply various airplane parts to Arcadia
Airport at a price of $17,688. However, Sundstrum later
defatted. He claimed that it was impossible to deliver
at the contract price because manufacturers had
increased their prices to him by more than $8,600. The
court held him to the contract. The fact that the contract
was no longer economically profitable did not mean
that it was legally and physically impossible to perform.

However, the parties may, and commonly do, include


eescape clause» in the contract. It permits m odifica­
tion, or even termination o f performance without liability
fo r damages in the event o f inability to perform on
schedule because o f specified conditions such as foul
weather and labor strikes.
Note also that under unusual circumstances a contract
for goods may be discharged by conditions, which make
performance impracticable. Increased cost alone is not
enough. But a possibility not thought o f by the parties,
such as a surprise war or an unexpected embargo (legal
stoppage o f commerce) may suffice. Even a shutdown of
major supply sources could discharge the contract if it
prevented the seller from getting supplies or i f it caused
an extreme increase in cost beyond what could be rea­
sonably anticipated.
Other situations in which a contract is discharged by
impossibility include:
D estru ction o f th e su b ject m a tter . Som etim es
performance depends upon the continued existence o f
some sp ecific thing. The destruction o f that thing
terminates the contract if the destruction was not the
fault of the party who is sued fo r nonperformance.
The result o f destruction o f the subject matter ig
different if the seller has many sources o f supply and
the parties did not specify one and only one source as
Basic course. Lesson 11 | 167

acceptable. For example, suppose a wholesale broker of


-lumber loses one supply source, perhaps because of a
fire. However, the broker has access to other sources o f
lumber. In addition, the broker’s contract does not specify
any one source. Thus, the broker is required to perform
at no higher price to the buyer. This is true even if the
resulting cost is much higher to the broker.
Performance declared illegal. If a contract, which is
legal when made, later becomes illegal, it is discharged
Illegality might be caused by a new statute, by a court
ruling, or by an administrative decision.

E X A M P L E : Tippner contracted with Barnell to


build a warehouse on land owned by Б а те й . Before
construction begem, the city council passed a zoning
ordinance restricting the site to residential dwellings.
The contract was discharged because of this ordinance.

Death ar disability. I f the contract requires personal


services, the death or the disability o f the party who
w as to provide such services terminates the agreement.
This rule w ould n ot apply when other persons are
available to perform, as in partnerships or corporations
which continue to do business. Likewise, it would not
apply where the contract simply called for payment of
money, delivery o f goods, or transfer of title to land by
the decedent. In each such case, the decedent’s personal
representative is required, to perform.

E X A M P LE ; The Daily Press employed Bodrig for a


two-year term to supervise the installation and operation
of a computerized system for the newspaper's newsroom,
pressroom, circulation department, and business office.
Nine months after beginning work, Bodrig suffered a
nervous breakdown and was unable to continue. His
contractual obligation was discharged by impossibility.
168 f Практический английский для юристов

3. By Operation of Law
A contract may be discharged or the right to enforce
it may be barred by operation of law. This happens when
the promisor’s debts are discharged in bankruptcy. It
also happens when the statute of limitations has run
(the time allowed by statute fo r enforcem ent o f the
contract has elapsed).
A ltera tion o f a w ritten agreem ent also usually
discharges the agreement by operation of law. Alteration
is a change in the terms o f a contract without consent o f
the other party. To discharge the contract, the alteration
must be*.
a. m aterial, thus changing the obligation in an
important way;
b. made intentionally, and not by accident or mistake;
c. made by a party to the agreem ent, or by an
authorized agent; and
d. made without consent o f the other party.

EXAMPLE: « C o o p e r » s Com plete C le a n e rs»


contracted to clean all rooms and public spaces of
Dahl’s office building. A contractual clause in small
print allowed a 10 percent discount if the charges
were paid in advance in one lump sum instead of in 12
monthly installments. After the contract had been
signed by both parties, and before giving Dahl her
copy, Cooper secretly crossed out the clause referring
to the discount. This material alteration released Dahl
from the contract. Dahl could insist on reinstate­
ment of the clause or seek damages through court
action. Proof could be difficult, however, if Cooper
lied about the incident under oath.
Basic course. Lesson 111 169

0 'Vocabulary
rescission [п'вхза] аннулиро- to anticipate [an'tisipeit]
ванйе, отмена, прекраще­ ожидать, предвидеть
ние impracticable
substitution замена одного [im'prjektikabl] невоз­
; контракта другим можный, невыполнимый
accord согласие изменить court ruling судебное реше­
обязательства по кон­ ние
тракту shutdown закрытие
composition компромиссное^ lump sum единовременно
соглашение должника с выплачиваемая сумма
кредиторами monthly installments ежеме­
satisfaction исполнение но-
сячные платежи (при рас­
вых обязательств по кон­
срочке платежа)
тракту
conditional on payment при
accord and satisfaction со­
глашение о замене испол­ условии оплаты
statute o f limitations закон
нения
"handyman рабочий, нанима­ об исковой давности
емый на работы разного discount скидка
рода subject matter предмет об­
escape clause пункт догово­ суждения
ра, предусматривающий small print мелкий шрифт;
отказ от взятого обяза­ важная информация, ,
тельства напечатанная мелким
good faith добросовестность шрифтом на непримет­
alteration [.olta'reijan] изме­ ном месте (в контракте,
нение; внесение изменений полисе и т. п.)
to hold liable- обязывать to seek damages требовать
due подлежащий выплате возмещения убытков
material существенный, authorized agent уполномо­
важный ченный агент
to draw выписывать, выстав­ to elapse проходить, исте­
лять ( чек, тратту) кать (о времени)
clause [klo:z] пункт, статья,
court action судебный иск
условие договора

Ч •
170 | Практический английский для юристов

£ | Answer the questions:


1. When does a discharge o f a contract by agreement
occur?
2. What is a rescission o f a contract by the contracting
parties?
3. W hat are the situations in w hich a con tract is
discharged by impossibility?
4. What kinds of alteration discharge the contract?

M atch the follow ing:


1. accord and satisfaction
2. accord
3. alteration
4. anticipatory breach
5. assignee
6. assignment
7. assignor
8. breach of contract
9. delegation o f duties
10. discharge of contract
11. novation
12. obligor
13* performance
14. satisfaction
15. substantial performance
16. substitution

a. failure to perform the terms as agreed


b. substitution of a party, creating a new contract
c. incomplete but acceptable performance o f contractual
terms
d. replacement o f one contract with another
e. transfer o f contractual rights
f. agreement to change a contractual obligation
g. one to whom contractual rights are transferred.
Basic course. Lesson 11 I 171

^ fu lfillm e n t o f an agreement as promised


i; performance o f a new contractual obligation
j . agreement to change a contractual obligation, and the
performance o f the new obligation. •
k. end of the obligation to perform
L turning over to another party one’s routine contractual
duties
m. party who makes an assignment
n. one to whom an assignment is made
o. change in contractual terms without the consent o f
the other party
p. notification, before the time o f performance, o f refusal
to perform the contractual terms as agreed

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
l . A party may generally assign rights under a contract
as long as the perform ance w ill not thereby be
m a te ria lly ch an g ed . One is not relea sed from
contractual duties b y making an assignment. Some
duties may be delegated. They may not be delegated
when they involve personal judgment or skill, as with
artists and professional experts. W hen duties are
delegated, the original party remains liable fo r proper
performance.
2. A n assignee acquires only such rights as the assignor
has under the contract.
3. Until notification of assignment is received, the obligor
is justified in believing that performance may still be
properly made to the original contracting party.
4. Contracts are usually discharged by performance or
by substantial performance.
5. A breach o f contract generally permits the other party
t o regurd his or her o b lig a tio n to p e rfo rm as
172 f Практический английскийдля юристов

discharged. The same is true in anticipatory breach


o f contract. In either case, the victim may seek relief
in court.
6. D ischarge by agreem ent o f the parties may be
accomplished by doing any o f the following:
a. including provisions fo r termination in the contract,
b. rescinding the existing contract,
c. substituting a new contract,
d. replacing a party through novation, or
e. making an accord and satisfaction.
7. D ifficulty of performance or unforeseen high costs
generally do not relieve a promisor o f the obligation
to perform . However, contractual duties may be
discharged because o f actual impossibility when:
a. the subject matter is destroyed,
b. a change in the law makes performance illegal, or
c. either party dies or becomes disabled, if the contract
required the personal services o f the individual.
8. The obligation o f one party is discharged when a
written contract is materially and intentionally altered
by the other party without the consent o f the former.

Solve the problem:


\, Cullen purchased a Holee Donuts franchise. The contract
contained a clause, which forbade transfer of the business
without consent of the franchisor. After six years of successful
operation, Cullen wanted to sell the business to his manager.
Was he legally permitted to do this?
2. MacMahon contracted with Hidden Valley School District
to provide a bus and to serve as the driver for a five-year
period. After two years, MacMahon died and his adult son
became owner of the bus. He proposed to become the driver and
complete the remaining three years of the contract. Must Hidden
Valley accept his services?
L esson
Rights
under a contract

Ш TEXT 1

W H O HAS RIGHTS UNDER A CONTRACT?


P R O B L E M : Shortly after Royter was born, his
elderly uncle bought an endowment life insurance policy
naming Royter as the beneficiary. The policy was to
mature when Royter reached the age of 18 or when the
■ uncle died, whichever came earlier. The proceeds were
intended for Royter’s college education. Although the
insurance company and the uncle were the parties to the
endowment contract, does Royter have any legal rights
under H, which he could enforce in court?

In general, a person who benefits from something such


as an insurance policy or other contract is called a
beneficiary. Every person benefits directly from countless
contracts executed by other people over the years. The
machinery o f agriculture and industry, the warehouses
and stores of commerce, and the planes, trains, and ships
o f transport are the result o f a mass o f interrelated
contracts. All persons who use these facilities or enjoy
their products and services are incidental beneficiaries.
An incidental beneficiary is the one who benefits from
a contract (for example, from any o f the underlying con­
tracts), yet is not a party to the contract and may not
enforce it.
174 | Практический английский для юристов

As a general rule, only parties who have entered into


a contract have enforceable rights under it. This is true
even though other persons may gain some advantage by
having the contract performed. There are two important
exceptions to this rule:
1. most enforceable rights that arise under a contract
can be transferred to a third person by assignment
and can then be enforced by that person, and
2. when a contract is made with the primary intention
of benefiting a third person, that person is entitled
to enforce the agreement.
Contracts made specifically fo r the benefit o f a third
party can usually be enforced by that person. The third
party beneficiary, then, is the one for whose benefit
such a contract is made. Life insurance contracts are
the most com m on form o f th ird party b en eficiary
agreements. Parents, fo r example, in contracts with
insurance com panies, often n a m e th e ir children as
beneficiaries.

Answer to the problem: Royter was a third party


beneficiary. Therefore he could compel the insurance
company to pay him when the policy matured and the
face value became due.

0 Vocabulary
legal injury гражданский до определенного возрас­
вред та (страховая сумма вып­
insurance policy страховой лачивается застрахован­
полис ному лицу или лицам,
указанным в полисе, при
en d ow m en t [m 'daum antjдожитии д о истечения
вклад, дар срока действия договора)
endowment life insurance to matnre [тэЧркэ] насту­
policy страхование-вклад, пать, приходить (о сроке
страхование на дожитие платежа)
Basic course. Lesson 12 I 175

to benefit извлекать пользу, бочный бенефициар (тре­


выгоду тья сторона, не участник
incidental beneficiary контракта, но получаю­
[,Ьеш’fifari] бенефициар щая выищу)
без осуществления прав enforceable righ ts права,
(сторона, которая по имеющие исковую силу
условиям контракта не face value нарицательная
должна была получать) цена
third party beneficiary по- to compel заставлять

И Answer the questions;


1. W ho is a beneficiary?
2. W ho is an incidental beneficiary?
3. Give an example o f third party beneficiary agreement.

Ш TEXT 2

WHAT REMEDIES
DOES THE INJURED PARTY HAVE?

P R O B L E M : «Duncan Pools» contracted to install


an outdoor swimming poo) in Taber's yard by June
15. By that time Duncan had not even begun to
excavate. He said he would not be abie to begin for at
feast one more month, claiming problems with work
crews,with weather,and with equipment. On July 15,
Duncan s a d the pressure of bigger orders made it
impossible to begin work for at least another month,
but then he «would work with two shifts on the job
«under lights if necessary.* Taber then contracted
to have «C rysta l Clear Pools, Inc.*, do the job
immediately. However, Crystal charged an extra $5,200.
Does Taber have any enforceable claim against Duncan?
176 | Практический английский для юрйсгов

When one party to a contract refuses to perform or


fails to perform properly, the other party suffers a legal
injury. The injured party is entitled to be «made whole»
and to get «the ben efit o f the bargain» as made.
Accordingly, such a party may seek any one o f several
remedies for the breach. A rem edy is the means to enforce
a right or to compensate for an injury. Remedies vary
with the type o f contract and differ in effect or result.

Answer to the problem: Duncan failed to perform


his obligation under the contract. Taber had a choice
of remedies as discussed below.

Som etim es one party may not wish to en force a


contract or a provision in it. When one intentionally
and voluntarily gives up a contractual right, the right
is said to be waived. Reasons for waivers are many in
number: the damages may be very limited; the victim
may be glad to be free o f any obligation; the legal cost o f
suing may be prohibitive; the outcome o f a lawsuit may
be too uncertain; or the defendant may be judgment-
proof.
Remedies for breach o f contract include the following:
1. rescission o f the contract, either voluntarily or by
court order,
2. cancellation o f the contract (in cases o f sales of
goods),
3. recovery of monetary damages, and
4. specific performance or an injunction.

1* Tbe Tnjured Party Has the R ight o f R escission

PROBLEM: A certain type of doll was in such


demand that the manufacturer could not fill all orders.
Dealers therefore put their customers on waiting lists.
Basic course. Lesson 12 | 177

In October, one retailer required a $15 deposit with


every order and promised to deliver «no later than
December 1.» In fact, the supply remained inadequate
until the new year. Hundreds of depositors did not
get dolls for Christmas. Were they entitled to refunds
or must they accept late delivery?

I f one party breaches the contract by failu re to


perform , the other party may usually consider any
obligation as discharged.

Answer to the problem: Customers who received


no dolls before Christmas had a right to be restored
to their original position - as if there had been no
contract - by getting full refunds {возврат суммы).

This remedy is the right of rescission. Each party


returns any consideration received and gives credit for
what cannot be returned. The entire contract must be
rescinded, not just a part o f it. It may be done by
voluntary agreement o f the parties, or it may be done by
court order at the request o f the injured party. Neither
party gets damages.

2. T h e In ju r e d P a r ty M ay H ave th e R ig h t o f
Cancellation
C ancellation is a variation of rescission. It exists only
fo r breach o f contract fo r the sale o f goods. The injured
party — either buyer or seller — may cancel the contract
and return consideration received.
The Injured Party H as the R ig h t to D am ages
PROBLEM; Wanes contracted with Holland to '
•install some coffee machines in Holland's snack bar.
When Wanes attempted to deliver the machines, Holland
178 | Практический англииский для юристов

said he had changed his mind and canceled the con­


tract. What rights did Wanes have?

When a breach o f contract occurs, the injured party


is entitled to be put in the same position he or she would
have been in if the contract had been performed. The
parties frequently negotiate a settlement directly or with
the help o f their lawyers. If they do not reach a set­
tlement, the injured party may sue to recover damages
— money awarded by the court for loss or injury caused
by incomplete performance or failure to perform.

Answer to the problem: Wanes could sue Holland


for any injury suffered, including the loss of anticipated
reasonable profits as a result of Holland’s breach.

N ote, however, that the victim o f the breach o f


contract is required to m itigate damages. This means
that damages must be reduced by any means reasonable
under the circumstances. For a victimized buyer it might
require buying substitute goods elsewhere possible or
getting someone else to perform the service. For an
employee unfairly discharged, it could require promptly
seeking and accepting similar employment elsewhere.

3. The Injured Party May Compel S pecific P erfo


m ance or Get an Injunction

PROBLEM: Kelly contracted to buy 160 acres of


land from the McCalls. She planned to develop an
amusement park on the land. When the McCalls learned
of her plan, they refused to deliver the deed. Can
Kelly Sue the McCalls?

Sometimes money damages are not an adequate remedy


for breach of contract. Therefore a court may give the
injured party a form o f special relief termed specific
performance. Specific perform ance is the actual com­
Basic course. Lesson 12 I 1 79

pletion o f the agreement as promised. The court simply


orders the defaulting party to perform as agreed.
Generally, money damages suffice as a remedy for
breach of contract in cases involving the sale of personal
property. The victim may use the money to buy similar
property from someone else. If the property is unique,
however, so that it cannot be obtained elsewhere, specific
performance may be awarded. An example would be a
rare work o f art. This remedy is also generally available
when the contract is fo r the sale o f real property because
every parcel o f land is unique

Answer to the problem: Kelly could sue the McCalls


and require them to specifically perform by delivering
the deed.

In some cases, when m oney damages or sp ecific


performance would not be appropriate, the court may
order rescission or grant an inju n ction to prohibit
specified acts.

0 Vocabulary
recovery o f damages возме­ to mitigate уменьшать воз­
щение ущерба/убытков мещение убытков
remedy средство судебной за­ specific performance испол­
щиты нение договора в натуре
rescission [п'ызэп] аннулиро­ injunction [m'dSAiikJh] судеб­
ный запрет
вание, ликвидация, отмена
to deliver the deed передать
to rescind [ri'sind] аннулиро­ документы на право соб­
вать, расторгать, отме­ ственности
нять (договор) prohibitive cost чрезмерно,
deposit [di'pozitl залог непомерно высокая сто­
cancellation аннулирование, имость
отмена (при покупке то­ waiver отказ от права, тре­
варов) бования
180 | Практический английский для юристов

□ Answer the questions:


1. What are the remedies for breach of contract?
2. What is a rescission?
3. What is a cancellation?
4. What is a specific performance?

Ы TEXT 3

H O W ARE DAMAGES MEASURED?


P R O B LE M : In a valid contract, Hall agreed to sell
his car to Cornall for $6000. Then Hall changed his
mind. He said, «Sue me if you must, but I’m not selling.»
Cornall, seeking to mitigate damages, immediately
searched for comparable car. He found a better car
and it cost only $4500. Can he still collect damages
from Hall?

In awarding damages for breach of contract, the court


tries to place the injured party in approximately the
position that party would have been in, had the breach
not occurred. The amount awarded as com pensatory
dam ages is usually determined by the extent o f the
injury. One party is not permitted to increase the dam­
ages by continuing to perform the contract after notice
o f the other’s breach or intention to cancel. The injured
party is also required to mitigate damages if reasonably
possible.
Failure to perform a duty under a contract is a legal
wrong. Therefore courts will award nom inal dam ages -
token amount awarded when rights have been violated,
but there is no actual injury. This could happen when,
after a breach, the plaintiff finds a satisfactory product
at a low er price. Nom inal damages are granted in
recognition o f the rights that have been violated.
Basic course. Lesson 12 I 181

Answ er to the problem: Cornall may sue Hail for


nominal damages. Such damages may consist of a
few cents or a dollar. The plaintiff is usually pleased to
have proved a point, to have the defendant pay legal
costs, or to have established a precedent for the future.

A t the time o f entering into a contract, the parties


may agree upon an amount o f money that, in case o f
default, is to be paid by the person who breaches. This
sum is known as liquidated damages. This arrangement is
common when actual damages would be difficult to prove!
It is enforceable if the amount is reasonable. If damages
are not reasonable, the court will not enforce the agreement
but will award reasonable damages if proved.
Under certain circumstances, such as when a tort is
involved in a breach of contract, the courts will award
exemplary or punitive damages. Such damages are awarded
in addition to the actual damages. The purpose of exemplary
or punitive damages is to punish and to make an example
o f the defendant. This could happen, for example, when a
defendant seller defrauds a plaintiff buyer.

0 Vocabulary
legal wrong правонаруше­ liquidated damages заранее
ние; деликт оцененные убытки
arrangement соглашение punitive damages
compensatory damages ком­ ['pju:nitiv] 1) штрафные
пенсаторные, реальные, убытки 2) денежное
фактические убытки возмещение в виде
nominal damages номиналь­ наказания ответчика
но-символические убытки для примера
token amount символичес­ to enforce a contract осуще­
кая сумма ствлять, приводить в ис­
полнение контракт
182 4 Практический английский для юристов

Н Answer the questions:


1. What are compensatory damages?
2. What are nominal damages?
3. What are liquidated damages?

M atch the follow in g;


1. nominal damages
2. cancellation
3. compensatory damages
4. remedy
5. rescission
6- liquidated damages
7. third party beneficiary
8. mitigate

a. Token amount awarded when rights have been violated,


but there is no actual injury.
b* To reduce damages i f reasonably possible
c. Means used to enforce a right or compensate f o r an
injury.
d. Ending a contract by placing parties in the same
position as if there had been no contract; neither party
gets damages.
e. Damages that are agreed upon in advance o f possible
breach o f contract.
f. One who is not a party to a contract but benefits from
it and can enforce it.
g. Am ount o f money awarded to com pensate fo r a
plaintiff's loss.
h. Ending a contract for the sale o f goods because o f a
breach, and returning consideration.
Basic course. Lesson 12 I 183
?<„■
T ranslate into Russian:
!)■ Reviewing Important Points:
A s a general rule, one who is not a party to a contract
% ha3 ho rights or duties under the contract. However,
a third party beneficiary may enforce a contract made
\ fo r such party’s benefit. An assignee may also acquire
rights or assume duties under another party’s contract.
2. In case o f a breach o f contract, the injured party has
various remedies. An injured party may: a) rescind or
. cancel the contract, b) recover the amount o f loss
through damages, and c) in certain cases, require
specific performance.
3. A fter default, the injured party usually may recover
the am ount alread y spen t in c a r r y in g o u t the
obligations incurred as part o f the contract. But the
injured party should not increase the damages. Instead,
the damages should be mitigated— that is, reduced if
reasonably possible.
4. Generally a party to a contract has the option o f
; breaching it. The courts will not punish such action
> by awarding punitive or exemplary damages unless a
to r t is in v olv ed . R a th er, the co u rt w ill award
compensatory damages. Sometimes the court will award
either liquidated or nominal damages.
5. W hen the legal remedy o f damages is not adequate,
the court may grant the equitable remedy o f specific
К performance, or it may prohibit specified acts.
6. A t the time of entering into a contract, the parties
may agree to pay a specified, reasonable amount o f
£ damages if actual damages would be d ifficu lt to prove
in case o f default. Such dam ages are known as
f liquidated damages. The am ount m ust n ot be so
excessive that it would constitute a penalty.
184 | Практический английский для юристов

Solve the problem:


1. Hogliind broke his promise to sell his 1981 Camaro coupe
to Eisen. Eisen immediately went to nearby Los Angeles and
found a 1982 model with lower mileage, in better condition,
and priced $500 below Hoglund’s model. Nevertheless, Eisen
got angry because of Hoglund's conduct and was determined
to sue him «fo r all he’s g o t.» What damages, if any, is Eisen
entitled to?
2. Goodman contracted to build a house for Stein according
to Stein’s plans. After the house was completed, there were
several defects, which Goodman refused to fix. Stein then
contracted with Madden to do the necessary corrective work
for $8,000. Stein then sued Goodman for $8,000 in compensa­
tory damages plus $10,000 in exemplary damages. He sued
Goodman for the exemplary damages «to punish him and set
an example to warn others.» How much is Stein entitled to?
L esson
T y p e s of sale

Ш TEXT 1

WHAT IS A SALE?
P R O B L E M : A t the Big Department Store, the
Allertons signed a contract to buy a microwave oven.
The store expected to receive the microwave from the
wholesaler within 30 days. While shopping, the Allertons
left their car in the store's automobile service department
to have the engine's idling speed adjusted and to have
squeaks in the door eliminated. The.charge for labor
was $45; there was no charge for the' lubricant. The
service attendant recommended replacement of the
car’s tires and the Allertons agreed. The cost of the
tires was $200, plus $25 for balancing and installation.
The Allertons also bought a new battery for $59, and
it was installed free of charge. Were all of these
agreements sales?

A sale is a contract in which ownership of (also known


as title to) goods transfers immediately from the seller
to the buyer for a price. Goods are tangible, movable
personal property, such as a jet plane, clothing, growing
crops, or the unborn young o f animals. By definition
goods do not include the following:
1. money (except rare currency or rare coins),
2. intangible property (such as rights under a contract,
which, are transferred by assignment rather than
by sale),
3. patents and copyrights, and
186 I Практический английский для юристов

4. real estate (although the transfer o f title to real


property is commonly called a sale, it is technically
a conveyance).
A con tra ct to sell is a contract in which ownership
o f goods is to transfer in a sale in the future. In both
types o f transactions, the seller is known as a vendor.
The buyer is known as the vendee (also called the
purchaser). The transaction involving a vendor and a
vendee is called a «sale* by the seller and is called a
♦purchase»- by the buyer. A sales contract may be made
in any manner sufficient to show agreement, and the
contract suffices if the parties by their actions recognize
the existence o f a contract.
The price for the goods may take the form o f money,
services, or other goods. However, when the parties to a
sale exchange only goods for goods, without involving
money or services, the sale is known as a barter.
Payment occurs when the buyer delivers the agreed
price and the seller accepts it. Receipt o f goods means
that the buyer takes physical possession or control o f
them. Receipt usually involves actual delivery. However,
delivery may be constructive, as when one gets the keys
to a car or receives a warehouse receipt fo r stored goods.
Acceptance o f goods means that the buyer has agreed,
by w ord s or con d u ct, th at the g ood s received are
satisfactory. Acceptance is shown when the goods are
used, resold, or otherwise treated as if they were owned
by the buyer. Acceptance may also be indicated when a
buyer fails to reject the goods within a reasonable time,
if the buyer has had adequate opportunity to inspect
them.
The p rice fo r goods is usually fixed in the contract.
However, the parties may indicate that the price is to be
set in a certain way at a later date. This method is
especially used in long-term contracts when e n ^ i^ r a b le
i Basic course. Lesson 13 I 187
5.У '

instability o f prices is expected. Ordinarily, when nothing


is said about the price, a contract results if all other
essentials are present, and provided the parties do not
express a contrary intent. In such a case, the buyer is
required to pay the price that is reasonable at the time
o f delivery.
t- In many situations, the contract is prim arily fo r
personal services. Such contracts lire not sales because
■any goods supplied are merely incidental.
A m erch an t is a seller who deals regularly in a
particular kind o f goods or otherwise claims to have special
knowledge or skill in a certain type o f sales transaction.
A casual seller is one who sells only occasionally and
does not meet the definition o f merchant, f o r example,
you would be a casual seller if you sold your private
automobile. A used-car dealer selling the same car would
be a merchant.

Answer to the problem: The work on the car


engine and the doors was strictly a contract for
services; goods (lubricants) supplied wane incidental,
and no specific charge was made for them. The transfer
to the Allertons of title to the tires was a sale of goods,
even though a small charge was made for related
labor. The battery was acquired in a sale of goods,
with no charge for labor. The AHertons5 agreement to
buy a microwave oven at a later date was not a sale.
Instead, it was a contract to sell.

Vocabulary
intangible property немате- movable property движимое
риальное и м ущ ество, имущество
♦неосязаемое* имущество, real estate недвижимое иму-
имущество в правах щество, недвижимость
188 | Практический английский для юристов

conveyance передача право­ contract to sell договор о


вого титула продаже, в котором одна
acceptance o f goods прием­ сторона обещает продать,
лемость товара для поку­ а другая купить что-либо
пателя при определенных услови­
sale продажа ях в будущем
price цена vendor f vendo:] продавец
goods товары vendee [ven'di:] покупатель
barter бартер merchant 1) коммерсант; 2)
payment оплата, Платеж оптовик
to deal торговать casual seller ['kaesjuel] слу­
receipt [n'si:t] o f goods по­ чайный продавец
take delivery принимать
лучение товара
con stru ctive юридически
warehouse receipt квитан­ 1подразумеваемый
ция на товар, принятый incidental побочный, случай­
на хранение ный

KiAnswer the questions:


1. W hat is a sale?
2. W hat property is defined as goods and what are
exceptions in this definition?
3. What is tangible property and what is intangible
property?
4. W ho are vendor and vendee in a sale?
5. What are exchanges only goods for goods called?
6. What is acceptance o f goods?
7. Give definitions o f a casual seller and a merchant.
Basic course. Lesson 13 I 1 89

Щ TEXT 2

MUST DELIVERY
AND PAYMENT BE MADE AT THE SAME TIME?
P R O B L E M : Ross bought Christmas gifts for his
children during the Sunrise Center’s Lay-Away Sale in
October. Ross was to take delivery early in December
and agreed to pay with no charge for credit before
January 31 of the next year. Did he own the gifts in
October? -

In the basic sales transaction , payment, delivery


(transfer o f possession), and transfer of title take place
simultaneously at the seller’ s place o f business. Even if
payment or delivery, or both, take place later, title still
passes when the buyer selects and agrees to buy the
goods in the seller’s store. A t the appropriate time fixed
in the sales contract, the buyer normally has a duty to
pay, and the seller has a duty to transfer possession.
Generally neither is obligated to perform until the other
i does. Thus, unless it is otherwise agreed or is the custom
of the trade, the seller may retain the goods until the
buyer makes payment in full. Similarly, the buyer may
refuse to pay the price until the seller delivers all the
goods. The buyer is entitled to a receipt when payment
is made.
A b ill o f sale is a receipt that serves as written
evidence o f the transfer o f ownership of (title to) goods.
Neither a bill of sale nor a sales contract need identify
the parties or explain the, terms o f the transaction. If a
bill o f sale is signed by the seller, buyer, or both, it can
' satisfy the requirements of the statute of frauds for a
; signed writing.
A bill of sale makes resale o f the property easier because
| it provides the owner with written evidence o f ownership.
190 | Практический английекийлля юристов

When goods are lost, stolen, or destroyed, as in a fire,


the docum ent can be used to help prove value fo r
insurance, purposes. I f the owner borrows money and
uses the goods as security, the bill o f sale ensures the
creditor that the debtor owns the goods pledged.
To encourage business, most sellers extend credit to
qualified buyers, including other business firms. Some
retailers do most o f their business selling to customers
who use credit cards or charge accounts, or who pay by
installments. Thus, the buyer may get both title and
possession before payment.

Answer to the problem: Assuming the goods


were set aside for Ross at the time of the sale, he received
title in October, possession in December, and paid for
the goods in January.

Ш Vocabulary

sales transaction торговая creditor кредитор


сделка charge account амер. рас­
lay away откладывать (товар ходный счет
для покупателя) pay by instalments выпла­
delivery передача владения чивать частями
title правовой титул, право debtor E'deta] должник
собственности goods pledged заложенные
transfer o f title передача вещи
права собственности retailer розничный торговец
bill o f sale купчая set aside откладывать (в сто­
security обеспечение; гаран­ рону)
тия; залог custom o f trade торговый
обычай
Basic course, Lesson 13 I 191

U A m w e r the questions:
1. W hat is a bill o f sale?
2. When does a buyer become the owner o f goods in a
sale?
3. When does the title pass from the seller to the buyer?

M atch the follow ing:


1. acceptance o f goods
2. goods
3. barter
4. merchant
5. bill of sale
6. payment
7. casual seller
8. price
9. contract to sell
10. receipt o f goods
11. sale
12. vendee
13. vendor

a. C on tract in w h ich ow n ersh ip o f g o o d s passes


immediately from the seller to the buyer fo r a price.
b. Consideration in money, goods, or services, which is
given in return for the transfer of title to goods.
c. Buyer or purchaser.
d. Contract to transfer ownership o f goods at a later
date.
e. Seller who deals regularly in a particular kind o f
goods or otherwise claims to have special knowledge
or skill in a certain type o f transaction.
f . Exchange o f goods fo r goods.
g. Tangible personal property that is movable.
f 92 | Практический английский для юристов

h. Receipt serving as written evidence o f the transfer of


ownership o f goods.
i. Buyer's taking o f physical possession or control o f
goods.
j . B uyers indication that the goods received are satis­
factory.

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Neither payment nor delivery is essential fo r transfer
o f title.
2. Sales or contracts to sell may be oral, written, or
implied from the conduct o f the parties.
3. To be enforceable, a sale or contract to sell goods for a
price o f $500 or more must be evidenced by a writing.
4. The writing must specify at least a quantity o f the
goods involved and must be signed by the party who
is sued.
5. The writing is not essential when:
a. the buyer has received and accepted the goods,
b. the buyer has paid for the goods in full and the
seller has accepted payment,
c. the goods are custom-made fo r the buyer.
6. Price may consist o f anything, such as money, services,
or goods, as agreed upon by the parties as consideration.
7. Payment occurs when the buyer delivers the price
and the seller accepts it.
8. Receipt o f goods occurs when the buyer takes physical
possession or control o f the goods.
9. A cceptance o f the goods occurs when the buyer
indicates that the goods received are satisfactory.
10. A bill o f sale provides evidence o f the transfer of
ownership o f goods.
!

Basic course. Lesson 13 | 193


Solve the problem:
j - A s Brookston was examining a large Swedish glass vase
in theantique store, thevase slipped from her hands. It sma­
shed into countless pieces when it hit the floor. After the
proprietor had swept up the mess, she pointed to a sign on the
wall, which said, «Handle with Care! If You Break It, You Buy
i t » She then rang up a sales charge of $300 plus $18 sales tax.
Was Brookston the vendee in a sales contract?
2 ‘ ?V6ry tWO weeks’ Erickson held a garage sale to resell

items she had purchased at other such sales. When the city
government tried to tax her sales, Erickson^ claimed that she
tyas merely a casual seller. Therefore, she claimed, she did not
nave to pay a sales tax. Was Erickson correct?
■. ,?■ When Sou,s Ь°и9 и* a sweater for his wife, the clerk
deliberately lied to him. She said that the garment was a pure
silk and mohair, hand-knitted import from Italy. In fact, it was a
machine-made, domestic, polyester-and-wool mix. Did the clerk
violate the statute of frauds by her conduct?

| Ш TE X T 3

OTHER TYPES OF SALES TRANSACTIONS

Prom the point o f view o f ownersliip transfer and risk


o f loss, there exist the follow ing types of sales tran­
sactions:

1. Cash-and-Carry Sales
W hen the buyer in a sales contract is a consumer who
pays cash and takes immediate delivery, title passes to
the buyer at the time o f the transaction. This is the
most common type o f transaction when the goods are
groceries or footwear. Risk o f loss passes upon the buyer’s
receipt o f the goods from a merchant.

: 7. 3*t 273
194 | Практический'anгли#скии для юристов

The seller may insist on payment in legal tender .


Checks are commonly used but are not legal tender.
Acceptance o f a check by the seller is not considered
payment until the check is paid at the bank. But use o f a
check by the consumer in a cash-and-carry sale does not
affect the timing o f the transfer of title or risk o f loss.
2. Sales on Credit
The fact that a sale is made on credit does not affect
the passing o f title or risk o f loss. A credit sale is simply
a sale, which, by agreement o f the parties, calls for
payment fo r the goods at a later date. Ownership and
risk of loss may pass even though the time o f payment o r
delivery is delayed.
3. COO Sales
Goods are often shipped COD, which means, «collect
on d e liv e r y .* The ca rrie r co lle cts th e p r ic e and
transportation charges upon delivery and transmits this
amount to the seller. If the buyer does not pay, the
goods are not delivered. Thus, in effect, the seller retains
control over the possession o f the goods until the price
is paid. In a COD arrangement, the buyer loses the right
otherwise available to inspect the goods before payment.

E X A M P L E : For years Global Reach, Inc., bad sold


postage stamps to collectors by direct mail. Losses
from bad checks continued to grow and were reducing
the company’s profits. Therefore, the owners adopted
a new policy: all sales would be COD. This eliminated
bad debt losses.

4. Sale or Return
When goods are delivered to a merchant buyer in a
sale or return, the ownership and risk of loss pass to the
Basic course. Lesson J 3 | 195

upon delivery. This is true whether the sale is


Kjuade for cash or on credit. However, the buyer has a
>to return the goods to the seller; Such a. transaction
f * triie sale, but i f the buyer returns the goods within
fixed or a reasonable amount o f time, ownership and
|risk o f loss pass back to the seller. The returned goods
I# u st be in their original condition.

E X A M P L E ; On November 27,-Distributors, Inc., sold


100 pairs of ladies' shoes, each in Christmas packaging,
to Andy's Supermarket. Under the terms of the contract,
Distributors, Inc., would buy back all the shoes that the
supermarket had not sold by January 1. This agreement
would be classified as a safe or return.

5. S ale on A p p rova l (Try & Buy)


Sometimes goods are delivered to the buyer in a sale
on a p p rova l, «on trial,» or «on satisfaction.» In such a
case prospective ownership and risk o f loss do not pass
luntil the prospective buyer approves o f the goods. This
m a y be done by words, by payment, by any conduct
indicating approval, or by retention o f the goods beyond
a specified or reasonable time. W hile in possession o f
the goods, o f course, the prospective buyer is liable for
any damage to them caused by his or her negligence.
Normally the prospective buyer may reject for any reason.

E X A M P L E : Gardner filled in and mailed a magazine


coupon for a series of best-selling books. The
advertisement and descri ptive fofder both said the
subscriber would have «ten days free trial.* When the
first book was delivered Gardner carelessly placed it
on the metal cover over a steam radiator in her old
| Victorian house. She forgot about the book until she
returned tw o weeks later from a winter skiing vacation.

•7*
196 | Практический английский для юристов

By then the heat from the radiator had permanently


deformed the binding of the book. The loss was
Gardner's. Risk of loss had passed to her at the end
of ten days. Even if the damage had taken place during
the trial period, she would still be responsible because
the damage resulted from her negligence.

6. Auctions
An auction is a public sale to the highest bidder.
When an auctioneer decides that no one will bid any
higher for the goods on sale, the bidding is closed by
letting the «hammer fall» or by another appropriate
signal. In doing so, the auctioneer accepts the bid on
behalf o f the owner of the goods, and ownership passes
to the buyer at that time. Risk o f loss passes whenever
the auctioneer acknowledges the buyer’s right to possess
the goods.
Auction sales are «with reserve» unless specifically
announced in advance to be «without reserve.» «W ith
reserve» means that if nothing to the contrary is stated in
the conditions of the sale, an auctioneer may withdraw the
goods anytime before announcing completion of the sale. If
«without reserve,» the goods must be sold to the person
who makes the highest bid even if it is ridiculously low.

0 Vocabulary

risk o f loss риск потерь наличный расчет без дос­


legal tender законное пла­ тавки
тежное средство sale or return соглашение,
credit sale продажа в кредит
по которому торговец име­
COD (collect on delivery)
Продажа с оплатой при ет право вернуть непро­
доставке данные товары
arrangement договоренность sale on approval продажа с
сохранением права покупа-
cash-and-carry продажа за
Basic course. Lesson 13 | 197
К теля отказаться от товара bidder выступающий на тор­
Ei&d debt [det] безнадежный гах покупатель
долг shipment перевоза; постав
^auction ['orkjan] аукцион ка (товаров)

f P i Answer the questions:


Р , W hat are the types o f sales transactions?
\2. W hat is a cash-and-carry sale?
•3. W hat is a sale on credit?
M.' What is a COD sale?
5. W hat is a «sale or return* sale?
6. What is a «Try & Buy* sale?
i 7. W hat is an auction?

M atch the follow ing:


1. credit sale
C 2, COD
3. sale or return
^ 4. sale on approval
i 5. auction

a . sale in which, by agreement, payment for goods is


made at a later date
b. public sale to the highest bidder
c. sale in which there is no transfer o f ownership and
risk until the buyer approves o f the goods
d. completed sale in which a merchant buyer has the
right to return goods
e. shipment term, which means, «collect on delivery*

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Generally the owner o f goods is the only one who can
legally transfer title to them. Exceptions are made
fo r a party who:
19в | Практический английский для юристов

a. is authorized by the owner to sell the goods,


b. has obtained title to the goods by fraud,
c. is the holder o f a negotiable docum ent of title , o r
d. is a seller who has retained possession of sold goods,
2. Before ownership in goods can pass, goods must be
both existing and identified.
3. In cash-and-carry sales, title passes at the time o f the
transaction. I f a check is used, the paym ent is
conditional until the check is paid.
4. COD terms by a seller do not affect the time o f transfer
o f ownership or of risk o f loss. But the terms do reserve
control o f the goods to the seller until payment is
received.
5. A t an auction, title passes when the auctioneer signifies
acceptance o f the bidder’s offer.
6. Unless otherwise announced, the auctioneer may refuse
all bids and withdraw the goods.

Solve the problem:


1, After Ravrza refurbished her home, she held a yard sale of
furnitureand equipment she no longer needed. Included was a
large cross-cut saw which she sold to Sutro, not knowing that
her husband had borrowed the tool from a neighbor. Did Sutro
become the owner?
2. Smith's Bookstore handled rare books. Needing money
desperately, Smith's sold mi old edition of the Bible to Aubley, a
collector. Smith's received a deposit of half the purchase price
of $20,000. The remainder was to be paid upon delivery of the
book. Smith's then sold the same book to another collector,
James, on the same terms. Finally, Smith’s sold and delivered the
book to Salmon for the full $40,000. All three buyers acted in
good faith and without notice of the other transactions! Who
gets title to the book?
pv;-
.ESSON

Ш TEXT 1

W H O ARE DEBTORS AND CREDITORS?


PROBLEM: Dangle, a college student deposited
tier money, in checking account at the First National
Bank. As far as her checking account is concerned,
is Dangle a debtor or creditor of the bank?

A debtor is к person or a business that owes money,


goods, or services to another. W hatever is owed is
generally called the debt. The creditor is the one to
whom the debt is owed. A legally enforceable debt
normally arises out o f a contract where something of
value has been exchanged fo r a promise to provide money,
goods, or services.

A n sw e r to the problem: Dangle has transferred


her money to the bank in exchange for the bank’s
promise to keep it safe and to, return it or pay it to
someone else immediately upon Dangle’s demand.
Therefore the bank is the debtor and Dangle the creditor
in the relationship.

During the Middle A ges, charging any interest on


loans was illegal; today it is legal and borrow ing is
considered beneficial to growth and productivity in our
society. A s a consequence, the d ebtor/cred itor rela­
tionship is encouraged and protected by our laws. This
200 | Практический;английский для юристов

protection extends not only to creditors, by making them


more secure in the lending o f resources, but to debtors,
by making the system fairer and by providing bankruptcy
as a last resort. -

0 Vocabulary
debtor fdets] должник
debt [det] долг
creditor кредитор
to encourage [щ'клпс^] поощрять, поддерживать
last resort [ri'zo:t] последнее средство
resources [ri'so:siz] средства, денежные средства
loan [loun] заем, ссуда -

Q Answer thequestions:
1. W ho is a debtor?
2. W ho is a creditor? '
3. What is a debt?

Ш TEXT 2

W H A T LAWS PR OTECT TH E CREDITOR?


P R O B L E M : Bond borrowed $2,500 from North.
Bond promised to repay the money in 12 months with
interest at 9 percent per year. Bond gave North shares
of American Telephone Company, which had a market
value of $3,000, to hold as security for the payment.
The stock was to be returned to Bond when the debt
was paid. What was North's legal status?

The law provides a number o f ways in which a creditor


can be protected.
Basic course. Lesson 14 | 201

1. Laws A llow in g Secured Debts


The most important o f the laws protecting creditors
allow the creditor to acquire a legal interest in (that is,
a right in or claim to) some specific property o f the
; debtor. This interest is enforceable if the debtor defaults
(fails to pay according to the terms of the agreement)
and is called a security interest. The debt is referred to
as a secu red debt. A creditor, who holds a security
interest, is a secured creditor.

Answer to the problem: North is a secured


creditor.

When a creditor has a security interest in specific


property, there is a lien against that property. A lien
gives the creditor the right, if necessary, to sell the
property and to use the proceeds from the sale to pay the
debt.
Usually, the debtor keeps possession o f the liened
property as long as the debt is not in default. Mortgages
on homes are very common examples o f this type o f
secured debt. However, if there is a default, the creditor
is allowed to peacefully repossess the secured property if
it is movable, such as a car or TV.
Some secured debt arrangements permit the creditor
to have possession o f the property until the debt is paid.
One such lien is the pledge, which arises when personal
property is given to a creditor as security for the payment
of a debt, or fo r the performance "of an obligation. The
property may be either goods or documents representing
property rights (fo r example, corporate stock). The
pledger voluntarily gives up possession o f the property.
The pledgee receives possession.
In the pledge, the pledgee must treat the property
with reasonable care. The property may be repledged to
202 I Практический а н гли й ск и й д л я ю р и с то в

a third party on terms which d o not impedr the debtor’s


right to get the property back. In. the event o f default
by the pledger, the pledgee may sell the property after
proper notice to the pledger. The pledgee has the right
to make either a public or a private sale. However, the
pledgee must act in good faith and in a manner, which is
commercially reasonable. If the amount received, after
the deduction o f expenses and interest, is more than the
amount o f the debt, the excess must be paid to the pledger.
If the amount is less, the difference still must be paid
by the pledger. Upon performance o f the obligation, the
pledger has a right to the return o f the property.
A pawn is a pledge o f tangible personal property,
usually o f small size and high value. This type o f pledge
includes items such as jewelry, cameras, or musical
instruments. It excludes such items as stocks or bonds
or other documents of value. A paw nbroker is a person
in the business o f lending money at interest who requires
such tangible personal property as security.
Goods that are pawned must be held fo r a certain
length o f time after the loan is due before they can he
sold. In some states, this length o f time is one year. The
rights o f the parties to the proceeds of sale are usually
the same as in ordinary pledges. Sometimes ownership
passes to the pawnbroker at the end o f a specified time.
2. Laws A llow ing Garnishment o f W ages
The oth er m ethod fo r creditor protection is the
garnishm ent of wages. Once a creditor’s claim is shown
to be legally valid and fair in a court hearing, the creditor
may receive a portion o f the debtor^ wages directly from
the debtor’ s employer.
Basic course. Lessor» 14 | 203

p P Vocabulary
flfecured debt долг,обеспечен- lien (ban] право удержания;
"> ный залогом (вид долго- право наложения ареста
J вого обязательства, при на имущество должника
I котором лицо, берущее pledge закладывать, отда­
деньги взаймы, оставля­ вать в залог; залог, зало­
ет что-либо под залог, Для женная вешь
того, чтобы дающий взай­ pledger ['pledge] залогода­
мы располагал некоторой тель
гарантией непотери одол­ pledgee [,pli'dji:J залогодер­
жатель
женной суммы денег)
to. im pair [ип'реэ] умень­
legal interest признаваемый
шать; повредить
правом интерес specified time определенный
security [si'kjuanti] обесцене­ срок
ние, гарантия; залог com m ercia lly reason able
"security interest право кре­ справедливый с коммер­
дитора вступить во вла­ ческой точки зрения
дение собственностью , pawn [ рэ:п] ломбардный за­
предложенной в качестве лог
обеспечения pawn broker ['brouke] ростов­
secured creditor кредитор, щик, ссужающий деньги
получивший обеспечение под залог
в веде залога garnishment o f wages нало­
legal status ['frgsl'steitss] жение ареста на заработ­
правовой статус ную плату

Ц Answer the questions;


1. What is a security interest?
2. W ho is a secured creditor?
3. What right gives a lien to the creditor?
4. How long can the debtor keep possession o f the liened
property?
5. Give a common example o f secured debt.
6. W hat is a pledge?
7. W hat can the pledgee do with the property in case o f
default by the pledger?
8. W hat is a pawn?
9. W ho is a pawnbroker?
10. W hat is a garnishment o f wages?
204 | П р а к т и ч е с к и й а н гл и й с к и й для ю р и с т о в

Щ TEXT 3

W H A T LAWS PR OTECT TH E DEBTOR?


PROBLEM: The Saunters decided to rent an
unfurnished apartment. Reliable Finance Company was
among the sources they used for funds to buy the
furniture they needed. Reliable gave them a copy of the
loan contract showing only the amount to be paid per
installment and the number of payments. Could they
demand further information?

Generally, laws protecting debtors are:


1. Laws Setting M axim um Interest R ates
Laws that set maximum interest rates are called usury
laws. Usually such laws apply only to transactions
involving the lending o f money, not the buying of goods
on credit. Also, the usury laws do not protect corporations
because they are considered to be adequately protected
by the abilities of their professional managers.
2. Laws Requiring Clear and Complete D isclosure
o f Loan Terms
A consum er loan arises when a person borrows money
primarily for personal, family, household, or agricultural
purposes. It is often called a personal loan to distinguish
it from a business or commercial loan.
The creditor must make a full report of interest and
finance charges. The finance charge is the total added
cost when one pays in installments for goods or services.
The creditor must also declare the true equivalent annual
interest rate.

Answer to the problem: Reliable Finance is


obligated to tell the Saunters the total cost of their
loan expressed in dollars and cents, and to show the
actual annual percentage rate.
Basic course. Lesson 14 | 205

Й;r A credit rating is an evaluation of one’ s ability to pay


ts. I f credit is denied because o f information in a
Credit report, the company denying credit must tell the
applicant. The applicant may then demand that the
reporting agency disclose the general nature o f the
contents o f its file (except medical information) and the
names of parties who were given this information. Names
o f those who provided the inform ation need not be
disclosed, however. If there is any error, the credit
reporting agency must correct the record.

0 Vocabulary
,v.>. •
; interest rates ссудный про- всех элементов кредита;
% ■ цент финансовый расход
annual percentage rate usury law закон против ро­
фактическая стоимость стовщичества
Ш кредита, выраженная-в credit rating оценка креди­
форме процентной тоспособности

!
ставки; Годовая процен­ to deny credit отказывать в
тная ставка кредите
discharge прекращение обя­
зательств по долгу вслед­
ствие банкротства
consumer loan потребитель­
ский кредит
finance
|Answercharge стоимость
the questions:
What is a consumer loan?
What is a credit rating?
What laws protect the debtor?
296 | Практический английский для юристов

Ш TEX T 4

C R ED IT CARDS A N D TH EIR USE


P R O B L E M : Tomlinson applied for and received a
gasoline credit card. A fter using it several times,
Tomlinson sold the automobile, bought a bicycle, and
laid the card aside. Several weeks later, she received
a bill for $79 from the oil company for purchases
made by someone else. Tomlinson realized that the
card had been lost o r stolen and so notified the
company. Must she pay the $79?

Instead o f carrying large sums o f cash or checks that


may not be honored by a retailer, many o f today's
consumers buy goods and services by using credit cards.
A eredit card identifies the holder as entitled to obtain
goods or services on credit. Usually a credit card is made
o f plastic, is embossed with the holder’ s name and
identification number, and has a place for the holder’s
signature. Credit cards are used to make billions of dollars
o f credit purchases annually. Credit cards may be good
f o r certa in types o f expenses. (F or exam ple, the
AMERICAN EXPRESS®, Carte Blanche®, and Diners Club
International® cards are commonly used for travel and
entertainment.) Some cards are limited in use to a certain
retail store or chain (cards for a local department store
or a national oil company). Some are all-purpose cards,
which cover any type of purchase from any cooperating
seller authorized to honor them. (Banks are generally
the issuers of this type, which includes such cards as
MasterCard™ and VISA®.)
A credit card is usually issued in response to a
consumer’s written application. W hen the consumer signs
Basic c o m e . Lesson 14 I 2H 7

p tjie card, he or she is bound in a contractual relation


| With the issuer. Generally the cardholder is liable for
hll purchases made with the card by the holder or by
others with the holder’s permission.
■ Under federal law, the cardholder is also liable for
unauthorized use o f the credit card by any other person,
. such as a thief or a dishonest finder. This liability is
limited, however, to $50.
The loss or theft o f a credit card should be reported
immediately to the card issuer .

Answer to the problem: Tomlinson would probably


be liable for $50 of the charges. The thief would, of
course, be criminally liable for forgery and larceny.

Although credit cards may offer convenience and


protection for the consumer, they can add greatly to the
cost o f the goods that the consumer purchases. The seller
m ust pay the credit card com pany fo r its service.
Generally this charge is between 3 and 6 percent of the
sale. Such amounts paid to the credit card company are
usually passed on to both cash and credit customers
through higher prices fo r the goods.
In addition, credit cards have a great potential for
overuse by owners and misuse by thieves or finders o f
lost cards. Some consumers fail to plan and save fo r their
purchases. Instead, they impulsively use their credit cards
to purchase more and more goods and services.

iZf Vocabulary банковской кредитной


credit card кредитная кар­ карточки
точка to honour акцептовать или
оплатить
cardholder владелец кредит­
ной карточки embossed тисненый
card issuer fiju a ] эмитент misuse неправильное приме­
нение; злоупотребление
208 | Практический английский для юристов

Q A n s w e r the questions:
1. What are the types of credit cards?
2. W hat is the charge o f a credit card company for its
service?
3. What has a cardholder to do when his credit card is
lost or stolen?

M atch the follow ing:


1. debtor
2. debt
3. creditor
4. secured debt
5. lien
6. pledge
7. pledger
8. pledgee
9. pawn
10. pawnbroker
11. consumer loan
12. finance charge
13. credit rating
14. discharge
15. credit card

a. pledge o f tangible personal property


b. small plastic form which identifies the holder as
entitled to obtain goods or services on credit
c. creditor who receives possession o f personal property
from a pledger
d. release from debt obligations through bankruptcy
e. evaluation of ore's ability to pay debts
f . one who owes a debt
g. debtor who voluntarily gives up possession o f personal
Basic course. Lesson 14 | 209

property to a pledgee
li. added cost fo r the payment in installments fo r goods
or services
i. money borrowed fo r personal, family, household, or
agricultural purposes
j. that which is owed
k. situation in which personal property is given to a
creditor as security
l. a security interest giving the creditor the right to
force the sale o f the property to recover the debt
amount
m. person licensed to loan money on the security of
tangible personal property
n. one to whom a debt is owed
o. debt in which a promise to pay is reinforced by a
direct claim against some property ,

Translate into R ussian:


R eview ing Im po rtan t P o in ts:

1* When one °wes money another, a relationship o f


debtor and creditor exists.
2. A debt may be secured or unsecured. I f it is secured,
the debtor gives the creditor a lien against specified
property until the obligation is performed. I f it is
unsecured, the creditor does not have a lien against
specified property.
3. A lien gives the creditor the right to sell specified
property o f the debtor to pay the debt. A n y excess
m oney received goes to the debtor. I f there is a
deficiency or shortage, the creditor normally may sue
for the balance due.
4. Goods or documents representing property rights may
be delivered to the creditor as security fo r a loan.
This creates a pledge and gives the creditor the right
210 f Практический английский для юристов

to sell the goods or the documents in case o f default.


Upon performance o f the obligation, the pledger has a
right to the return o f the property.
5. Creditors may proceed against the general assets o f
the debtor in the following two cases:
a) when secured debts are in default and are not paid
in full by proceeds from sale o f the property pledged,
and
b) when unsecured debts are not paid.
6. Debtors are protected by usury laws, laws requiring
disclosure o f loan terms, laws providing equal credit
op p ortu n ities, laws requ irin g fa ir b illin g , laws
controlling the collection o f debts, laws regulating
, fair reporting o f credit standing, and laws allowing
debt discharge through bankruptcy.
7. A signed credit card binds the cardholder and the
issuer in a contractual relationship. In case o f loss or
theft o f a card, the cardholder generally is liable for
unauthorized purchases up to a limit o f $50 unless
the issuer had been notified previously.

Solve the problems:


1. When Dodrill started her own copying and duplicating
business, she entered into a number of contractual arrangements.
First, she benight $900 worth of paper from Springfield Business
Supply, promising to pay the money within the next 30 days.
Then, using her bank credit card, she purchased a computer and
word processing software. Next, Dodrill leased a large copying
machine from its manufacturer, in addition, she bought several
desktop copying units from the same manufacturer on a 24-
month installment purchase plan. The plan permitted the seller
to repossess the machines if Dodrill defaulted on payments.
Finally, Dodrill borrowed $2,000 from the Ozark Region National
Bank to meet current expenses giving a United States Treasury
p Basic course. Lesson 15 | 211

& o n d as security for repayment, (a f Which of the transactions


^entered into by Dodrill involved a debtor/creditor rdation-
«» ship? (b) Which relationships weresecured? Which were
unsecured?
| 2. Buckley owed $1,750 for furniture purchased from Taylor’s
store. When Buckley fafled to pay, Taylor asked Buckley to
p get a surety (поручитель) to stand good for the debt. Young
j readily agreed to act as surety. However, when Buckle defaulted
| and Taylor demanded payment from Young, Young refused,
p Could Taylor compel Young to pay for Buckley’s debt?
ESSON

transactions

ffl TEXT 1

WHAT IS A SECURED TRANSACTION?


P R O B L E M : Andrus loaned a friend, O'Shea, $300
cash for a down payment bn a new type of videodisc
player that would also play compact audio discs.
O ’Shea financed the remaining $900 of the purchase
price through the seller, giving the seller a security
interest in the goods. Later, O ’Shea stopped making
payments while she still owed Andrus the $300 and the
retailer $500. The retailer repossessed the player and
resold it for $480. Would Andrus get a share of the
$480 to help pay back the $300 O ’Shea borrowed
from him?

All purchases are made either by cash or by credit.


No debt is involved in a cash transaction. In a credit
purchase, however, payment is delayed and a debt, owed
by the buyer to the seller, is created.
In a credit transaction, the buyer may agree to allow
the creditor to have a superior position over other
creditors o f the buyer. This normally is done by giving
the seller (creditor) a security interest in the goods sold.
When a security interest is granted, the -transaction is
referred to as a secured transaction. Security interest
may allow the creditor, upon the debtor's default, to sell
the goods and use the proceeds o f the sale to pay the
Basic course. Lesson 15 t 213

ibt. I f there is any money left oyer, it goes to the other


(btor’s creditors or to the debtor. This is true even if
lih e debtor goes through the legal steps o f bankruptcy.
: Therefore, the secured creditors, because o f the priority
o f their claims brought about by the security interest,
are much more likely to be paid.
In contrast, a creditor with an unpaid, unsecured claim
; must bring suit, get a court judgment, and then execute
(P «t in to force) that judgm ent against the debtor’ s
' property. Other creditors o f the debtor may have equal
%rights in that property.

A n sw e r to the problem : The retailer could keep


the full $480 because of its security interest in the
player. It could also sue O ’Shea for the remaining $20
of the $500 owed, for which it would have the right of
an unsecured creditor such as Andrus.
1

H O W ARE SECURITY INTERESTS CREATED?


P R O B L E M : Troup needed to pay medical bills.
She borrowed from her brother and gave him an IOU
for the amount. Was the IOU a pledge, making the loan
a secured transaction?

Secured transactions ate the only legal means o f giving


a creditor a security interest in another’s property. The
creditor in such a transaction is the secured party, and
the personal property subject to the security interest is
the collateral. Only personal property can be a collateral.
Contracts involving real property as security, such as
mortgages and deeds o f trust, are still governed by other
laws.
A secu rity in terest can be created only w ith the
agreement of the debtor. This agreement can be expressed
214 | Практический английский для юристов

either orally or in writing, depending upon which one


o f two basic types o f secured transactions is being used.
1. W hen the Creditor R etains P ossession o f the
Collateral
In the first type, the creditor retains possession of
the collateral. This transaction, which may be based upon
an oral or written agreement, is called a pledge. The
debtor may be buying the property, or the property may
already be owned by the debtor but is now being put up
as security for a loan o f money.

Answer to the problem: No pledge was created


b y Tro u p because an 10U is m erely a w ritten
acknowledgment of a debt. It is not security given to
ensure payment. Therefore the agreement was not a
secured transaction.

Upon default o f the debtor in a pledge, the creditor


has a right to sell the property. The creditor applies the
proceeds o f the sale to the debt. A ny surplus is returned
to the debtor. Any deficit remains an obligation o f the
debtor and may be collected through a lawsuit.
2. W h en the D ebtor R eta in s P ossession o f the
Collateral
In the second type o f secured transaction, the debtor
retains possession o f the Collateral. In such cases, the
secured party enters into a written contract with the
debtor. This contract creates or provides fo r the security
interest. Such a contract is called a security agreem ent.
In addition to being in writing, the security agreement
must be signed by the debtor and contain sufficient
information to identify the collateral reasonably.
Basic course. Lesson 15 1 215

«. К is this second type o f secured transaction, which


• enables a consumer to buy an automobile, major kitchen
appliances, or other costly items on credit. The debtor
| gets immediate possession and use of the goods. But the
t seller or finance company has the right to take them
| back i f a payment is missed or i f the contract is breached
| in any manner.
f ' In a similar way, a merchant can buy goods on credit
and sell them to customers. The merchant gets money to
Pay the debt. The creditor-seller is protected by retaining
a security interest in the unsold goods.
This type o f secured transaction is not lim ited to
v.buying on credit. It is also used in borrowing money.
Suppose one wants to borrow funds from a bank. By
f giving the bank a security interest in a car, the debtor’s
promise to repay is strengthened by the car’s value. If
the bank approves the loan, which it is very likely to do
with this added security, the borrower obtains the desired
money and still has the use o f the car.

OZf Vocabulary
secured transaction [si'kjuad женной в качестве
trsenz'ajkjgn] обеспечен­ обеспечения
ная сделка
unsecured creditor необес­
to repossess изымать за не­
печенный кредитор
платеж
secured party кредитор в
pledge залог (syn. bail, bond,
c o lla t e r a l, gu aran tee, обеспеченной сделке
security) Collateral [ko'laetaral] гаран­
security обеспечение, гаран­ тия, обеспечение в виде
тия; залог личного имущества
security interest обеспече­ default [di'fodt] невыполне­
ние; право кредитора ние обязательств, отказ
вступить во владение выплачивать долги, де­
собственностью, предло­ фолт
216 I Практический английский для юристов

security agreement письмен­ излишек, остаток, при­


ный договор обеспечения бавочная стоимость
to put up выставлять на про­ deed o f trust акт передачи
дажу на хранение
legal step правовая мера to file обращаться (с заяв­
to bring about осуществлять лением, прошением), по­
surplus ['sa:plas] избыток, давать какой-л. документ

Ц Answer the questions:


1. What is a secured transaction?
2. What is a collateral?
3. W hat can he a collateral?
4. What are the two types of secured transactions? ■

Ш TEXT 2

HO W DOES A CREDITOR PERFECT


A SECURITY INTEREST?

PROBLEM : The Old Salt Fishing Supply sold a newly


developed fish-locating sonar on an installment plan
to Abernathy, who used it on commercial fishing boat.
The seller retained a security interest in the sonar and
filed a financing statement. Before the sonar was paid
for, Abernathy sold it to Thornton. Thornton was a
purchaser in good faith who knew nothing about Old
Salt’s security interest and who purchased the sonar
for her own fishing boat. Can Old Salt enforce against
Thornton its security interest in the radio?

It is possible for a debtor to agree to give many different


creditors, each unaware o f the others, a security interest
in the same goods. Nevertheless, the first creditor to
Basic course. Lesson 1 5 I 217

perfect a security interest has priority over all the


others. Such priority generally allows the first creditor
to take as much o f the proceeds from the sale o f the
collateral as necessary to completely satisfy the amount
owed to him by the debtor. A perfected security interest
results when the creditor gives proper notice o f the
existence o f the security interest to all other potential
creditors. Such notice may be given in a number o f ways.
For example, a creditor in possession o f the collateral, as
in a pledge, needs to take no additional steps fo r
protection. Possession alone is notice to any possible
subsequent buyer or creditor o f the debtor that a security
interest may exist. The creditor who has possession has a
perfected security interest. Note that if a creditor is
able to repossess, collateral upon default, the act o f
retaking possession also perfects the security interest
even th ou g h the in terest had not been p e rfe cte d
previously.
When the debtor has the goods, it may be necessary
for the creditor to file a financing statement to perfect
the creditor's interest.
A financing statement is a brief, written notice o f
the existence o f a security agreement. It must include
,the following:
1. the names and addresses of both the debtor and the
creditor,
2. the signature o f the debtor (although the creditor
may also sign and commonly does), and
3. a statement describing the items o f collateral.
If crops or property attached to buildings or land are
involved, the land where such property is located must
also be described. If the security agreement extends to
products to be derived from the original collateral, such
as the calves o f cows, or proceeds from the resale o f such
collateral, these facts must be stated. The security
218 | Практический английский для юристов

agreement itself may be filed instead o f the financing


statement if it meets these same requirements.
O a the financing statement» any description that
reasonably identifies the property is su fficien t even
though it might be necessary to ask questions to determine
just what property was intended. It is not essential to
have a detailed description or to include serial numbers.
However, confusion and disputes often may be avoided
by giving greater detail than is required.
Filing gives constructive notice to the world that a
security interest in specific property exists. Constructive
notice means that the law presumes one has knowledge
o f the facts on file even if one actually does not. Anyone
sufficiently concerned may get actual notice by checking
the public records. The place o f filing o f constructive
notice depends upon the nature o f the collateral.
1. Tangible Property
W hen tangible property te used as collateral, the
procedure for perfecting the creditor’s security interest
depends on whether the goods are:
a) consumer goods — used primarily fo r personal,
family, or household purposes,
b) farm products —crops, livestock, unmanufactured
products of the farm and farm supplies,
c) inventory - business goods that are intended for
sale or lease, or
d) equipment —goods used by a business in performing
its function, such as a computer used by a secretary
fo r word processing.
Goods can be in only one o f these four classes at a
given time. Their classification may change, however, if
their use changes. F or example, a television set is
classified as inventory if it is held by a dealer fo r resale.
I f the television set is used as a closed circuit system in
the store for security, it is equipment. If the set is
HasK course. Lesson 15 f 249

purchasedand taken home by you, it is classified as


consumer goods.
Consumer goods . Filing is not required to protect
the seller’s security interest in consumer goods against
other creditors o f the buyer. This rule relieves retail
m erchants, who sell many thousands o f articles on
installment plans, o f what would be a heavy burden in
paperwork and in payment of filin g fees. In case o f
default, the creditor may, nevertheless, repossess the
goods from the original buyer.
Filing would be required fo r consumer goods if the
consum er already ow ned the goods and was sim ply
borrow in g against them as secu rity. F ilin g is also
necessary, even in initial purchases, if the seller wants
protection against a third person who might innocently
buy the good fo r personal, family, or household use from
a dishonest debtor. Such a buyer o f consumer goods,
who gives value and does not know o f the security
interest, acquiree clear title if there is no filing. On the
other hand, if there is a filing, the third person is bound
by the security interest even if that person is unaware
o f its existence.

EXAMPLE: Ale bought a household refrigerator


for $750 from Shandon in a secured transaction.
Shandon did not file a financing statement. When $500
was still due, Ale sold the refrigerator to a neighbor,
Hard, who paid $600, assuming that Ale had dear title.
Shandon may not repossess the refrigerator from Hard
if Ale fails to make any payment. Instead, Shandon
must sue Afe. Hard obtained clear title because Shandon
had not filed a financing statement.

Answer to the problem: Thornton did not get


good title because Old Salt had filed a financing
statement. Thus, Old Salt can enforce its security
220 | Практический английский для юристов

interest by repossessing the sonar, it may do so


without compensating Thornton, who must pursue
Abernathy for money lost in the deal. In contrast, if
Old Salt had not filed the financing statement, Thornton
would have acquired dear title. In that case, Old Salt
would have to sue Abernathy for damages.

For motor vehicles, most states provide that instead


o f filin g as above described, a secu rity interest is
perfected by noting its existence on the certificate o f
title to the vehicle. An exception to the filin g require­
ment is also made when fixtures are sold on credit.
Fixtures are items o f personal property attached to real
property in a manner that makes the law treat them like
real property. A filing to protect a security interest in
fixtu res must include in the financing statem ent a
description o f the real property involved.
Farm Products. A security interest in farm products
is perfected by filin g or by taking possession o f the
products upon default. This applies both to farm products
bought on credit and those put up as security for loans.
Most states require the filing of the financing statement
for farm products to be made at the county courthouse.
Inventory. A security interest in inventory is perfected
by filing or by taking possession o f the inventory upon
default. This is true whether the inventory is bought on
credit or is put up as security for a loan. However, since
inventory generally is purchased by business firms for
the very purpose of reselling, a person buying from ‘such
a debtor in the ordinary course o f business will get clear
title even when aware o f the secu rity interest. For
example, if you buy a stove at the appliance store, you
get title to it free o f the security interest held by the
Basic course. Lesson 15 | 221

unpaid manufacturer who originally sold it to the store


: on credit.
Equipment. A secu rity interest in equipm ent is
p erfected by filin g or by taking possession o f the
equipm ent upon d efa u lt. This applies w hether the
equipment is bought on credit or is put up as security
for a loan. If the equipment is a motor vehicle, a notation
on the certificate o f title may "substitute fo r filin g in
perfecting the interest. As with inventory, perfection
o f a security interest in equipment requires filin g with
the state government, usually with the Secretary o f State.
2. Intangible P roperty
The second major classification o f collateral, intangible
property, represents real value in rights to money, goods,
or contractual performance. Intangible property generally
is evidenced by documents or writings. It includes the
a cco u n ts receiv a b le o f a bu sin ess, the r ig h ts to
performance under a contract, bills o f lading or airbills,
warehouse receipts, com mercial paper, and bonds or
stocks.
As with tangible property, the procedure used in
p erfecting a security interest in intangible property
varies with the classification of that property. A security
interest in accounts receivable or contractual rights
which cannot be possessed in a physical sense must be
perfected by filing unless the transaction does not cover
a significant part o f the debtor’s accounts or contractual
rights. For documents, such as bills o f lading, air bills,
and warehouse receipts, the creditor may either file a
financing statement or take possession o f the goods upon
default.
222 | Практическим английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
to perfect security interest prom issory note простой
приобрести право удержа­ вексель
ния имущества за долги warehouse receipt квитан­
priority [prai'oriti] первен­ ция на товар, принятый
ство, преимущество, при­ на хранение; складская
оритет расписка
proceeds [prou'sirdz] доход,
bill o f lading накладная, ко­
вырученная сумма
perfected security interest носамент
защищенное имуществен­ filing of the security interest
ное право (когда кредитор подача заявки о наличии
владеет залогом) собственности, предло­
to perfect выполнять, завер­ женной в качестве обес­
шать печения
financing statement пись­ stock certificate акция
менное заявление о нали­ bonds (stocks) ценные бума­
чии обеспеченного дого­ ги, облигации
вора tangible property матери­
constructive notice предпо­ альное имущество
лагаемое уведомление intangible property немате­
installment plan система оп­
риальное имущество, иму­
латы товаров в рассроч­
щество в правах
ку
consumer goods потребитель­ to give value оплачивать
ские товары стоимость
farm products сельскохозяй­ clear title свободный пра­
ственные продукты вовой титул
inventory товарно-матери­ good title действительный
альные запасы правовой титул, законное
equipment оборудование право собственности

Н Answer the questions;


1. Who has priority over all other creditors?
2. What is a financing statement?
3. What must a financing statement include?
4. What is a constructive notice?
5. What can be used as collateral?
6. When filing is necessary?
Basic course. Lesson 15 I 223

Ш TTEXT 3

H O W ARE SECURED
TRANSACTIONS TERMINATED?
P R O B L E M : The Normans bought a new flat-screen
wall TV for their recreation room for $2,000. They
paid $400 down and agreed to pay the balance in $200
monthly installments. The seller, Silitech, Inc., retained a
security interest in the TV . After making six payments,
the Normans defaulted. Silitech repossessed the TV.
What must Silitech do to be able to legally keep the
set in settlement of the unpaid $400 balance?

Most secured transactions are terminated by the


debtor’s paying the debt in full and the creditor’s then
releasing the security interest in the collateral. If the
creditor has filed a financing statement, this release is
jnade when the creditor files an acknowledgment of the
full payment, called a term ination statem ent, with the
governmental body that has the financing statement,
filing the termination statement is a way to inform the
potential buyers and creditors that the property is no
longer collateral. In the case of a security interest in
consumer goods, the termination statement must be filed
within 30 days of the payoff or within 10 days of a
written request by the debtor, or the creditor must pay
5 1 0 0 plus damages to the debtor.
When the debtor fails to pay as promised, the secured
creditor who does not have possession of the collateral
play take possession of it. Then the creditor may sell,
jease, or otherwise dispose of the collateral. (Note that
this right of sale also applies to the secured creditor who
pas retained possession o f the property.)
The proceeds from sale are applied to the reasonable
^Kpenses of retaking, holding, preparing for resale, and
224 | Практический английский для юристов

? еу т лappUed aIso t0 № m » n t o f reasonable


attorney s fees and other legal expenses incurred. What
remains of the proceeds then goes to pay o f f the secured
debt. In some cases, other creditors may have subordinate
(o r secondary) security interests in the collateral, and
these are now paid of* i f proper claims have been made.
Finally, i f any surplus remains, it goes to the debtor. If
there is any deficiency , the debtor is obligated to pay it
unless otherwise agreed.
Even when in d e fa u lt as to paym ent o r oth er
performance o f the security agreement, the debtor does
not forfeit all rights. For example, the debtor may pay
the balance due and the expenses o f the creditor, and
redeem the collateral any time before the creditor has
disposed of it or contracted for its disposal.
As an alternative to resale, the secured creditor may
the colIater&l in fu ll settlem ent o f the debt
W ritten notice o f the creditor’s intention to keep the
collateral must be given to the debtor. I f the debtor (or
any other person entitled to receive notice) objects in
writing within 21 days, the creditor must dispose o f the
collateral in a commercially reasonable manner by a public
or private sale,
л i ? ti0nal pr °tection is given to consumers who have
paid 60 percent or more o f the debt. In these situations,
the creator may not keep the collateral in satisfaction of
the debt unless the consumer agrees in writing. In the
absence of such a written agreement, the creditor must
sell the collateral within 90 days after the repossession.
This law seeks to protect consumers in situations where
the value o f the goods exceeds the amount o f the debt.

A n sw e r to the problem : The Normans paid $400


down and $1,200 in monthly installments. The total
($1,600) was far more than the 60 percent ($1,200).
Sasic course. Lesson 15 | 225

Therefore Sititech must obtain the Normans' written


consent before Silitech can keep the T V . Without that
consent, the T V must be resold in a commercially
reasonable manner.

W hen the creditor sells the collateral, reasonable


potice must be given to the debtor unless the goods (1)
fcre perishable, (2) threaten to decline speedily in value,
br {8 ) are o f a type usually sold on a recognized market
where prices are determ ined openly and fa irly . The
lecured creditor may be the highest bidder and get title.
Ef the proceeds fail to equal the balance due, including
111 costs o f repossession and resale, the debtor is liable
tor the deficiency unless otherwise agreed. In the unlikely
event that a surplus exists, it belongs to the debtor.

Ш Vocabulary

termination statement заяв­ payoff выплата; время вып­


ление О Признании в м т т т т а . латы
ты обеспеченного долга to forfeit rights t'fo:ftt] ли­
to release the security шаться права, потерять
interest отказываться от право
; права на обеспечение to redeem выкупать зало­
pttlement расчет, уплата женные вещи
Woceeds from sale доход от to dispose o f распоряжать­
продажи ся имуществом
•lance due недостающая satisfaction o f debt уплата
сумма долга
ubordinate interests второ­ the highest bidder лицо,
степенные интересы предложившее наивыс­
leficiency [di'fijansi] недо­ шую цену на торгах
статок repossession изъятие за не­
Ddecline снижаться платеж

, 1Ж.27Э
224 I Практический английский для юристов

reselling. They are applied also to payment o f reasonable


attorney’ s fees and other legal expenses incurred. What
remains o f the proceeds then goes to pay o f f the secured
debt. In some cases, other creditors may have subordinate
(or secondary) security interests in the collateral, and
these are now paid o ff if proper claims have been made.
Finally, if any surplus remains, it goes to the debtor. If
there is any deficiency, the debtor is obligated to pay it
unless otherwise agreed.
Even when in d e fa u lt as to paym ent o r oth er
performance o f the security agreement, the debtor does
not forfeit ali rights. For example, the debtor may pay
the balance due and the expenses o f the creditor, and
redeem the collateral any time before the creditor has
disposed of it or contracted fo r its disposal.
As an alternative to resale, the secured creditor may
retain the collateral in fu ll settlem ent o f the debt.
W ritten notice o f the creditor’s intention to keep the
collateral must be given to the debtor. If the debtor (or
any other person entitled to receive notice) objects in
writing within 21 days, the creditor must dispose o f the
collateral in a commercially reasonable manner by a public
or private sale.
Additional protection is given to consumers who have
paid 60 percent or more o f the debt. In these situations,
the creditor may not keep the collateral in satisfaction of
the debt unless the consumer agrees in writing. In the
absence o f such a written agreement, the creditor must
sell the collateral within 90 days after the repossession.
This law seeks to protect consumers in situations where
the value o f the goods exceeds the amount o f the debt.

Answer to the problem: The Normans paid $400


down and $1,200 in monthly installments. The total
($1,600) was tar more than the 60 percent ($1,200).
' Basic course. Lesson 15 I 225

Therefore Silitech must obtain the Normans' written


consent before, Silitech can keep the T V . Without that
consent, the T V must be resold in a commercially
reasonable manner.

W hen the creditor soils the collateral, reasonable


notice must be given to the debtor unless the goods (1)
are perishable, (2) threaten to decline speedily in value,
or (3) are o f a type usually sold on a recognized market
where prices are determ ined openly and fairly. The
secured creditor may be the highest bidder and get title.
I f the proceeds fall to equal the balance due, including
all costs o f repossession and resale, the debtor is liable
for the deficiency unless otherwise agreed. In the unlikely
event that a surplus exists, it belongs to the debtor.

0 Vocabulary

termination statement заяв­ payoff выплата; время вып­


ление о признании выпла­ латы
ты обеспеченного долга to forfeit rights f'tbiit] ли­
to release the security шаться права, потерять
interest отказываться от право
права на обеспечение to redeem выкупать зало­
settlement расчет, уплата женные вещи
proceeds from sale доход от to dispose o f распоряжать­
продажи ся имуществом
balance due недостающая satisfaction o f debt уплата
сумма долга
subordinate interests второ the highest bidder лицо,
степенные интересы предложившее наивыс­
deficiency [di'fijansi] недо шую цену на торгах
статок repossession изъятие за не­
to decline снижаться платеж

8 . Знк.273
226 | П ракти чески й английский для ю р и ст о в

Q Answer the questions:


1. What is the usual way o f termination o f secured
transactions?
2. What is a termination statement?
3. What happens when the debtor fails to pay as promised
in a secured transaction?
4. How are the proceeds from the sale o f collateral applied?
5. Must the debtor be given a notice when the creditor
sells tiie collateral?

Match the following:


1. collateral
2. constructive notice
3. consumer goods
4. equipment
5. farm products
6. financing statement
7. intangible property
8. inventory
9. perfected security interest
10. secured party
11. secured transaction
12. security agreement
13. termination statement

a. publicly filed acknowledgment that a secured debt


has been paid o ff
b. p rotected interest resu ltin g from the c r e d ito r ’ s
possession of personal property subject to a security
interest
c. goods used primarily for personal, family, or household
purposes
d. brief, written notice o f the existence of a security
agreement
Basic course. Lesson 15 | 227

e. business goods that are intended fo rs a le or lease


!. f, written contract which creates a security interest
g. collateral or the cred itor’ s filin g o f a financing
statement
h. business deal in which a creditor gets a security
interest in personal property
i. creditor in a secured transaction
j. knowledge, presumed by law, o f facts on file
fc. real value in rights to money, goods, or contractual
performance; generally evidenced by documents
l. goods used by a business in performing its function
m. crops, livestock, unmanufactured farm products* and
farm supplies -

T ranslate into R ussian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Secured transactions are of two types: (a) those in
which the creditor has possession o f the collateral
(ceded pledges) and (b) those in which the debtor has
possession.
2. Property used as collateral is classified as either
tangible property (called goods) or intangible property.
Goods are further classified as (a) consumer goods, (b)
farm products, (c) inventory, or (d) equipment. In
perfecting a security interest, proper classification of
the property must be known. Intangible property
includes such things as accounts receivable, bills of
v lading, airbills, warehouse receipts, notes, bonds, and
я. other contractual rights.
3. A security interest may be perfected fay the creditor
having or taking possession o f the collateral or by the
filing o f a financing statement.
4. The financing statement is used to give notice that a
secu rity interest in sp ecific property exists. The
V'
- e*
228 | Практический английский для юристов

statement identifies the parties and the collateral.


Usually the financing statement and the security
agreement are separate writings. However, the
security agreement may be filed in place of the
financing statement if it meets the proper require­
ments.
5. After default in a secured transaction, the debtor has
the following rights:
(a) To pay all that is owed and to redeem the collateral
held or repossessed by the creditor at any time
before the creditor arranges to dispose, or actually
does dispose, of it.
(b) Under certain specified circumstances, to demand
that the collateral be sold and the proceeds applied
to the payment of the debt.
6. Upon the debtor’s default, the secured creditor has
the following rights:
(a) To sell or otherwise dispose of the property. If the
creditor does not have the property, he or she may
repossess it.
(b) Under certain specified circumstances, to retain
the property in settlement of the debt.
7. When the debtor has fully paid the obligation in
accordance with the security agreement, the secured
party has the responsibility for clearing the official
records by filing a termination statement.

Solve the problem:

Taft borrowed $50 from a friend, agreeing to repay $5 each


week. Although the agreement was informal and oral, Taft gave
the friend her gold ring to hold until the debt was paid in full.
Did the friend have a perfected security interest in the ring?
L esson

papers
(documents)

Ш TEXT 1

WHAT IS COMMERCIAL PAPER?


Com m ercial paper is an unconditional written order
or promise to pay money. The most common form of
commercial paper is the personal cheque ( A m . check). It
was developed hundreds of years ago to serve as a safe
substitute for money.
Instead of carrying their gold and silver with them,
merchants left their money at the bankers. Then, when
merchants wanted to pay a seller for goods they were
buying, they wrote an order addressed to their bank.
The order directed the bank to deliver a specified amount
to the person or the place of the seller’s choice. The
bank compared the merchant’s signature (and perhaps a
seal) on the order with the signature left at the bank.
The bank would comply with such written orders because,
once the merchant had made a deposit, the bank was
legally indebted to the depositor for that amount. Conse­
quently, if the merchant demanded return of the deposit,
the bank had to give it back.
The same is still true today. Banks still are debtors of
their depositors. Also, cheques are still known as demand
instruments because they allow depositors to get their
money out of banks or have it paid in accordance with
the depositor’s order.
230 | Практический английский для

0 Vocabulary
commercial paper 1) вексе­ to comply (with) исполнять,
ля 2) оборотные кредит­ подчиняться
но-денежные документы deposit [di'pozit] депозит,
unconditional безусловный, вклад (в банк)
не ограниченный услови­ depositor [di'pozito] вклад­
ями, безоговорочный чик, депозитор, депонент
order приказ, распоряжение debtor должник, дебитор
promise обещание, обяза­ demand [di'mcund] требование
тельство instrum ent 1) документ
substitute ['sAbstitju:t] заме­ 2) средство
на, заменитель in accordance with согласу­
to deliver представлять ясь с (чем-л.), в соответ­
amount сумма ствии с (чем-л.)

В Answer the questions:


1. Who is a depositor?
2. What is the most common form of commercial paper?

Ш TTX T 2

W H A T ARE TH E TYPES O F C O M M E R C IA L PAPERS?


Today commercial papers can be grouped into two broad
categories.
The first is composed of unconditional orders to pay
money. In this category are the d r a ft and the c h e q u e . A
cheque is a special kind of draft.
The second category is composed of unconditional
promises to pay money. In this category are the p r o ­
m i s s o r y n o t e and the c e r tific a te o f d e p o s it (COD).
The word u n con d ition a l means that the legal effec­
tiveness of the order or promise is not dependent upon
any other event. IOU is not a commercial paper.
Basic course. Lesson 16 I 231

1. D rafts
A draft is an unconditional written order by which
one party directs a second party to pay to the order of a
third party or to the bearer a certain sum of money on
demand or at a definite time A draft is also known as a
bill o f exchange (B/O).

$ 5 1 0 .0 0 N a s h v ille . T e n n e s s e e lanuarv 20. POOP

Thirty davs a fte r date


Pav to O r d e r o f Morrison C. Chase
Five hundred and ten . _ . . d o lla r s

V a lu e r e c e iv e d ; C h a r g e to A c c o u n t o f
To Maraaret H. Sandford

No 15 Knoxville. Tennesse r Carry A. Minton

The usual purpose of a draft is to collect money owed.


A draft initially involves three parties — the drawer,
the drawee, and the payee. The drawer (Garry A. Minton)
is the person who executes or draws the draft and orders
that payment be made. The drawee (Margaret H.
Sandford) is the person directed to pay the draft. The
payee (Morrison G. Chase) is the party to whom this
commercial paper is made payable.
(Sanford most probably owes Minton $510 as a result
of a previous transaction. Therefore Sanford is likely to
honor the draft by paying Chase and in that way to pay
her debt to Minton.)
Drafts are sometimes described in terms of the time
of payment. If the draft is payable at sight or on demand
— that is, when it is presented to the drawee by the one
holding the draft - it is a sight draft. The drawee is
expected to pay when the draft is presented.
232 I Практический английский для юристов

If a draft is payable at a specified time, dr i f it is


payable at the end o f a specified period after sight or
after the date o f the draft, it is a tim e d raft, as is
illustrated in the example.
When a time draft is payable a number o f days or
months after sight, it must be presented to the drawee
fo r acceptance in order to start the running of the
specified time. Acceptance is the drawee’s promise to
pay the draft when due. When the draft states it is
payable a number o f days or months «after date,» the
time starts running immediately from the date o f the
draft.

EZI Vocabulary
draft ['d raft] платежное вексель, переводная трат­
поручение, тратта (сино­ та
ним переводного векселя; to charge to account поста­
этот термин употребляет­ вить на счет
ся в определенных контек­ pay to order платить no при­
стах, связанных, к при­ казу (надпись на чеке или
меру, с долговыми требо­ векселе)
ваниями) to owe [ou] 1) быть долж­
prom issory note простой ным, быть в долгу перед
вексель, долговое обяза­ кем -л . 2) задолж ать
тельство (деньги)
certificate o f deposit (COD) d raw er ['dr.o:a] трассант
депозитный сертификат (лицо, выставившее трат-
IOU (сокр. от I owe you Я ту)
вам должен) долговая рас­ draw ee [d ro:'i;] трассат
писка (лицо, на которое выстав-
bearer ['Ьеэгэ] 1) податель, - лена тратта)
предъявитель 2) держа­ payee [pei'i:] 1) получатель
тель, владелец (денег) 2) предъявитель
on demand по запросу, по чека/векселя
требованию to execute a document со­
bill o f exchange переводной ставлять документ
Basic course.' Lesson 16 1 233

| to honour the draft 1) опла- time draft срочная тратта .


м тить (Чек, тратту) 2) ак- acceptance 1) акцептирова­
' цептяровать ние, приемка (напр., сче­
f payable at sight с оплатой та или векселя) к оплате
- по предъявлении 2) акцепт (принятие пла­
sight draft вексель на тельщиком обязательства
: предъявителя оплатить вексель или счет)

p i Answer the Questions:


1, What is a draft? W hat is another name o f a draft?
% What does the word unconditional mean?
3, W hat is the aim o f a draft?
4. W ho is a drawer?
5- W ho is a drawee?
6. W hat is a time draft?
7. What is the acceptance?

2.CHE0UES
A cheque is a special type of draft by which a bank
depositor orders the bank to pay money, usually to a
third party. Cheques are usually written on special form s
provided by bank fo r a fee. The forms provided by the
bank usually are magnetically encoded to make cheque
processing easier fo r the banking system. H owever,
cheques may be written on blank sheets o f paper, form s
provided by the depositor, or other materials and still be
legally effective. The drawee, though, must always be a
. bank for the instrument to qualify as a cheque,
v Here is an example o f a cheque:

P B P r o g r o ts iv e B a n k & T r u st C o . N o. U S.
P r o v id e n c e ) , R h o d e I s l a n d 5 7 -7 3 2 5 /2 1 15 ..
i':.
P av to the order o f Wrlaht S 1 0 5 .7 5
One bundre# five a n d sev tn tv fiv e c e « t £ _ ___ dollars____

Robert. U. Mahlon-------
234 | Практический английский для юристов

Неге, Progressive Bank & Trust Со. is the drawee,


John B. Wright is the payee, and Robert. M, Mahlon is
the drawer of this cheque.
The bank, according to the contracts with its
depositors, agrees to honor (pay when due) each cheque
as long as sufficient funds remain in the depositor’s
account. As a debtor of the depositor, the bank must
honor the cheques in return for the right to use the
depositor’ s funds until the depositor demands their
return. Of course, the bank must retain a sizable
percentage of all funds deposited so that it can pay
cheques when they are presented. The remainder of the
deposited funds is loaned at interest to pay for the bank’s
operations and to earn for the bank’s owners.
A person, who deliberately issues a cheque with the
knowledge that the funds in the account will be
insufficient to pay the cheque when it is presented at
the drawee bank, is guilty of a crime. The bank will
dishonor (refuse to pay when due) the instrument and
the payee or current owner of the cheque will not get
any money for it from that source. In addition, if a
cheque is issued to pay a debt, the payoff is not effective
until the cheque is presented to the drawee bank and
honored.
When a cheque has been lost or stolen, the drawer
should direct the bank not to pay it. Such an instruction
is called a stop payment order. Banks usually charge a
small fee to stop payment on a cheque. If, by mistake,
the drawee bank disregards the stop payment order and
pays the cheque, the bank must recredit the account.
The bank - not the depositor - must bear any loss. Oral
stop payment orders are good only for two weeks unless
they are confirmed in writing. Written stop payment
orders are good for six months and lapse at the end of
that time unless renewed.
Basic course. Lesson 16 I 235

Care must be taken when writing or accepting cheques.


When you write a cheque, be sure not to leave room for
someone to insert figures and words to change the amount
of the instrument. Never sign a blank cheque.

0 Vocabulary
form бланк issue a cheque выставлять
to provide (with) 1) обеспе­ чек
чивать что-л. (for) 2) пре­ to dishonor 1) отказывать в
доставлять, давать снаб­ акцепте (векселя) 2) от­
жать казывать в платеже (по
fee плата, сбор векселю)
to encode кодировать stop payment order распоря­
processing обработка жение о прекращении
blank пустой, чистый платежей
account счет payoff выплата
to retain удерживать effective действительный,
sizeable значительный, су­ эффективный
щественный to disregard 1) не обращать
remainder остаток внимание 2) не прини­
to loan at interest ссужать мать во внимание, игно­
под проценты рировать
earn a profit зарабатывать, to lapse 1) истекать (о сро­
получать доход/прибыль ке) 2) терять силу
deliberately сознательно room пространство, место

Q Answer the questions:


1. What are cheques usually written on?
2. What does it mean to h o n ou r th e c h e q u e ?
3. What does it mean to d ish o n o u r th e chequed
4. What is a stop payment order?
5. Who bears the loss when a cheque was stolen and no
stop payment order was made?
236 | Практическим английским для юристов

Ш TEXT 3

3. Prom issory Notes


A promissory note is an unconditional written promise
by one person to pay to the order of another person or to
the bearer a certain sum of money on demand or at a
definite time

$ 3 .0 0 0 Las Vegas, Nevada February 20 2002


Four years after date / p romise to pay to
the order of Monica A. Soto _________
Three thousand__________________________ dollars
Payable a t ____City Bank. Las Veaas. Nevada....... ......
with interest at 9 % a year
No. 6 Due February 20. 2006 Catherine L. Talbot

Promissory notes initially involve only two parties —


the maker and the payee. The m aker (Catherine L.
Talbot) is the one who executes or makes a promissory
note (or a certificate of deposit) and promises to pay.
The payee is Monica A. Soto. If two or more parties join
in executing the note, they are comakers and are equally
liable for payment.
Personal p rop erty may be pledged to secure
performance - that is, to ensure payment — of a note.
When this fact, together with a description of the
property, is stated on the face of the note, the paper is a
collateral note. The property pledged in collateral notes
is usually in the form of documents of title, such as
bonds, a warehouse receipt, or a life insurance policy. A
collateral note typically provides for the sale of the
security by the payee if the note is not paid when due.
If real property is the security for the payment, the
note is a m ortgage note. If the payment is not made
Basic course. Lesson 16 I 237

when due, however, the payee can force a sale of the


real property and use the proceeds for payment.

4. Certificates o f Deposit
A certificate o f deposit is a written acknowledgment
by a bank of receipt of money, with an unconditional
promise to repay it. The stated amount is payable with
interest at a definite future time, normally ranging from
several months to several years. A certificate of deposit
is often called a CD.

T H E B A N K O F L E W IS A N D C L A R K 30431
St. Louis, Missouri
March 1520 02
Owen R. Kennedy__________ has deposited in this bank
Ten thousand and OOt____________Dollars $ 10.000.00
and this sum will be repaid to said depositor or order
one year from date with interest at seven (7) percent per year

By: M.B.Brown. c ashier


THE BANK OF LEWIS AND CLARK
CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSIT

Here, Owen R. Kennedy is the payee.


Banks do not pay out CD’s or other long-term deposits
before maturity. Usually the penalty is a sharp reduction
in the amount of interest payable on the funds. This
inhibits depositors from withdrawing funds prematurely
and leaves the banks free to lend the funds to others on
a long-term basis. As a consequence, interest rates on
CD’s are usually significantly higher than on savings or
chequeing accounts, where the depositor is far more likely
to withdraw from an account.
238 \ Гностический английский для юристов

Ш Vocabulary
interest Проценты (на капи­ to pledge отдавать в залог,
тал) закладывать
due срок платежа to force заставлять, принуж­
comakers совместные вексе- дать
. ледатели documents o f title титуль­
execute the note оформлять ные документы
(документ) bond облигация
equally равно, в равной сте­ warehouse receipt квитан­
пени; одинаково ция на товар, принятый
на хранение
liable 1) ответственный 2)
life insurance policy полис
обязанный
страхования жизни
collateral note обеспеченный
security обеспечение, гаран­
вексель тия
prem aturely, [,prems'tjucli] receipt o f money получение
преждевременно денег
m ortgage note ипотечное long-term долгосрочный
обязательство; письменное before maturity до наступ­
обязательство возвраще­ ления срока
ния долга (обязательство, to inhibit сдерживать
обеспеченное залогом соб­ to withdraw from an account
ственности, является до­ снять со счета
казательством. займа и to withdraw 1) аннулировать;
оговаривает условия его снимать 2) отзывать, от­
возврата) менять 3) изымать

В Answer the questions:


.1. What is a promissory note?
2. What is a collateral note?
3. W hat is a mortgage note?
4. What is a certificate o f deposit?
Is ■ Basic course. Lesson 16 I 239

||Ш TEXT 4 ■
tT -
I WHAT ARE SOME OF THE SPECIALIZED FORMS
OF COMMERCIAL PAPER IN USE?

Certain variations o f the forms of commercial paper


are available for specialized needs. These include:
1. Certified Cheques
A person to whom a personal cheque is offered as
payment may fear the bank will not honor the cheque
because o f insufficient funds in the drawer’s account.
However, accepting a cheque is much safer if the bank
has already agreed to pay the cheque, because only the
unlikely event o f the bank’s failure will prevent "the
payee or current owner o f the cheque from receiving
fe e money due. A personal cheque that has been accepted
.fey a bank in advance o f payment is known as a certified
cheque. A t the time o f certification, the bank draws
sufficient funds from the depositor’s account and sets
them aside in a special account to pay the cheque when
it is presented. In addition, the bank marks the fron t of
the cheque with « accepted » or ncertified,* the date,
and the bank’s signature.
2. "Cashier’ s Cheques
A cheque that a bank draws on itself and which is
(issued by an authorized bank officer is a cashier’s cheque.
Such cheques are used by banks to pay th eir own
obligations. They also may be purchased from a bank by
jpersons who wish to send remittances (payments) but
%rtio either have ho personal chequeing account or do
hot wish to use their personal cheques.
240 I Практический английский для юристов

1203/45Q
Middle S tate B ank
Little Rock, Arkansas ____ ^December tS 2002
Pav to the order of Barrows Paper Company $ 375.50
The sumof S375 and 50 cts___________dollars
C A S H IER 'S c h e c k ________ Martha C. Todd___
A S S IS T A N T M AN AGER

3. Bank Drafts
A draft drawn by a bank on funds that it has on
deposit with another bank is a bank draft. Thus, such a
document is a draft drawn by one bank on a second bank.
Banks use these d rafts in their own transaction s.
Sometimes a person or a business firm wishes to make an
initial purchase for a big sum. The seller refuses to accept
cheques o f customers whose credit is not established.
Therefore such customers may use bank drafts purchased
from a bank.
4. Money Orders
Money orders are often used by persons who do not
have chequeing accounts. A money order is a draft issued
by a post office, bank, express company, or telegraph
company for use in making payment or transferring funds
upon the credit o f the issuer. Money orders serve the
same purpose as cheques. For example, a money order is
purchased from one post office, which orders payment
by another post office in the hometown o f the payee
designated by the purchaser.
5. Traveller’s Cheques
Hotels and retailers around the world understandably
prefer to take cheques only from persons they know and
can trust. At the same time, travellers do not want to
carry cash on journeys. To meet the needs o f both the
■ Basic course. Lesson 16 I 241

traveller and the merchant, traveller's cheques have been


devised. A traveller’s cheque is a ehequedrawn by a reliable
fin an cial in stitu tion (such as Bank o f Am erica or
American Express Company) on itse lf or its agent.
Traveller’s cheques may be purchased from banks and
other institutions. A t the time they are purchased, each
cheque is signed by the buyer. When cashing one o f the
cheques the traveller writes in the name o f the payee and
again signs her or his name as originally written on the
cheque. This is done in the presence o f the payee who can
compare the signatures. The payee, who knows and trusts
the drawee bank or issuing company, is usually willing to
take the traveller’ s cheque. Thereafter, the payee may
deposit and collect the traveller’s cheque in the same
manner as other cheques. Although traveller’s cheques
are still used, the greatly expanded use o f credit cards
throughout the world has reduced the need for them.

Ш Vocabulary
chequeing account специ- cashier’s cheque банковский
альный счет, с которого чек
снимаются деньги по че- bank draft 1) банковский
кам клиента; счет, позво- счет 2) тратта, выстав­
ляющий в любой момент ленная банком на другой
вносить и снимать деньги банк
(до востребования) money order денежный no-
remittance денежный перевод чтовый перевод
certified cheque удостове- traveller’s cheque туристс-
ренный чек кий чек

В Answer the questions:


1. W hat is a certified cheque?
2. W hat does the bank mark on the fron t o f certified
cheques?
242 | Практический английский для юристов

Зг What is a cashier’s cheque?


4. What are bask drafts used for?
5. What is a money order?
6. When are money orders used?
7. What is the procedure o f cashing traveller’s cheques?

M atch the follow ing:


1. acceptance
2. hank draft
3. cashier’s cheque
4. certificate o f deposit
5. certified cheque
6. cheque
7. collateral note
8. comakers
9t dishonor
10. draft
11. drawee
12. drawer.
13. maker
14. money order
15. mortgage note
16. payee
17. promissory note
18. sight draft
19. time draft
20. to honor
-21. traveller’s cheque

a. personal cheque accepted by the bank in advance o f


payment
b. cheque drawn by a bank on itself and then sold to a
traveler who signs it at the time o f issue and o f use
c . one who executes a draft
d. note secured by real property
Bask: course, lesson 16 | 243

e. party to whom a promissory note or other commercial


paper is payable.
i . draft used to transfer money using the credit o f the
issuer o f this money order
g. draft payable at a specified time or after a specified
period
h. drawee’s promise to pay a draft when due.
i. unconditional written promise o f a bank to repay with
interest a deposit o f money at a certain future date
j. draft drawn by one bank as a depositor in a second
bank
k. special form o f draft by which a depositor orders his
or her bank to pay money to a third party.
1; two or more makers o f a promissory note
m. cheque drawn by a financial institution on itself and
then sold to a person who signs it at the tim e o f issue
and again at the time o f use.
n. party directed by the drawer to pay a draft.
o. to pay an instrument when due.
p. draft payable on sight
q. an unconditional written order or promise to pay money
r. unconditional written order by one party to a second
party to pay a third party a certain sum on demand or
at a definite time
s. one who executes a promissory note or a certificate of
deposit
t. note secured by personal property
u. to refuse to pay an instrument when due

T ranslate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. There are fou r important types o f commercial paper:
(a) drafts, (b) cheques (a special type o f draft), (e)
promissory notes, and <d) certificates o f deposit.
244 | Практический английский для юристов

2. In general, drafts are unconditional orders to another


party to pay a certain sum o f money on demand- or at a
definite future time. Cheques are unconditional orders
to a bank to pay a certain sum o f money on demand.
Initially three parties are involved in drafts and
cheques: the drawer, who gives the order to pay; the
drawee, who gets the order; and the payee, to whom
payment is to be made.
3. A cheque differs from other types of drafts in that:
a. the drawee o f a cheque is always a bank,
b. a cheque is drawn against funds the drawer has on
deposit in the bank, and
, c. a cheque is always payable on demand.
4. Prom issory notes and certificates o f deposit are
unconditional promises to pay a certain sum o f money
on demand or at a definite future time. Initially two
parties are involved; the maker, who promises to pay;
and the payee, to whom payment is promised.
5. Various forms o f cheques and drafts have been devised
for special purposes. These forms include (a) certified
cheques, (b) cashier’s cheques, (c) bank drafts, (d)
money orders, and (e) traveler’s cheques.

Solve the problems:


1. Joseph McReynolds gave the following signed instrument
to Helen Harrison after borrowing $5,000 from her:

«This will acknowledge my legal duty to pay


Helen Harrison $5,000.»
It was dated and signed by McReynolds. Is this instrument
a commercial paper?
2. Mr Grier executed the following commercial paper.
Identify the paper as to type and identify the parties.
Basic course. Lesson 16 | 245

ir'.-
Portland, Maine
June 1, 20—
On September 1, 20—, I promise to pay to
the order of J. Cameron Curtis one thousand
dollars ($1)000)..
Z] Anna C. Grier
3. Nelson executed the following commercial paper.
a ) Identify the paper as to type and parties,
b ) Under what circumstances would Campbell be legally
obligated to pay the amount as ordered?

Chattanooga, Tennessee
January 15, 2002
Thirty days iafter date, pay to the order of
Corita G. Clifford the sum of fifteen hundred
dollars ($1500) with interest at the rate of seven
(7) percent per year.

To: j . c . b . C am pbell A r th u r Q. NeUon/


15 Mountain View Road, Arthur G. Nelson
Asheville,
North Carolina

4. Catron executed the following paper.


a) Identify the paper as to type and parties,
b) What could happen if Catron had started the words
«Three hundred» farther to the right, near the middle of the
cheque?

- - A IA S K A S A V IN G S BANK No.816
Fairbanks, Alaska N ovem ber 15 2 0 0 2
t Pay to the order o f _____ :__ lohn G. B arbours. 3 0 0 .0 0
; Three hundredand00€___ :____________ D o lla rs
— — -------------- ---------------------------- Louise L Catron

f.- 5. Sutherland wanted to Order some jewelry which she saw


| Advertised in a national magazine. The advertisement said; «Send
jji bo cash or personal cheques. No C O D orders accepted.»
' How should Sutherland pay? '
.ESSON 17 Я **

Г orms of business
organizations
SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS AND PARTNERSHIPS

Ш TEXT 1

WHAT IS A SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP?


P R O B L E M : Simon wants to open a sporting goods
store. She hesitates because she thinks the expenses
would be prohibitive. She lists the costs of renting or
buying a store, hiring help, buying a computer to keep
records, buying a large inventory, obtaining a charter
from the state, and paying for licenses and legal fees.
Are her fears justified?

There are three principal forms of business organi­


zation:
1) the sole proprietorship,
2) the partnership, and
3) the corporation.
Of the three, the simplest, most flexible, and easiest
to start is the sole proprietorship, which is owned by
one person. The owner has relatively unlimited control
over the business and keeps all the profits. However,
the sole proprietor (owner) also has unlimited personal
responsibility for the losses, debts, and liabilities that
the business may incur. In case o f breach o f contract or
tort, nonexempt personal property as well as the business
property o f the owner may be taken to pay judgments
for damages awarded by courts.
Basic course. Lesson 17 | 247

Sole proprietorships are the most numerous form of


business organization. Although corporations are fewer
in number, they have a much larger sales volume and
^ employ more workers.
; There are no p a rticu la r legal requirem ents fo r
■ organizing or conducting a sole proprietorship. When
: started, many sole proprietorships are conducted out of
the owner’s home, garage, or van. No help need be hired,
no computer is required fo r the simple records, and
inventory may be limited and may often be purchased on
credit. No charter is needed from the state, although a
local business license, and perhaps a permit to collect
sales taxes for transmittal to the state, may be required.
Some types o f businesses, such as those selling food or
securities, are subject to special government regulations
regardless o f the legal form o f organization.

Answer to the problem: Simon's fears are not


justified. She should, of course, make a simple survey
of the market and be satisfied that she has the ability,
energy, capital, and other requisites for success.
Usually it is desirable to have experience as an employee
in a similar business.

0 Vocabulary
. sole proprietorship едино* разрешающий создание
личное владение бизне­ компании
сом nonexempt personal property
proprietor [pra'praista] хозя- неизымаемое личное иму-
ин, владелец предприятия щество
inventory [m' ventan] матери- securities ценные бумаги
алъно-производственные permit ['pa:mrt] разрешение
survey ['sa:vei] анализ, ис-

/
248 I Практический английский для юристов 1

Q Answer the questions:


1. What are the three principal forms of business organi­
zation?
2. What is a sole proprietorship?
3. W hat are the benefits and drawbacks o f sole pro-,
prietorship?

Ш TEXT 2

WHAT IS A PARTNERSHIP?
PROBLEM : W ard and Chang organized and
operated the Cinema Theater. They agreed to share
profits and losses equally after paying all expenses.
The land was leased from Alien for rent which was to
be 6 percent of the'gross revenue. Chalmer was hired
as manager for $1,000 a month plus 3 percent of the
net profits. Are all four partners in the business?'

A partnership is an association of two or more persons


to carry on, as co-owners, a business fo r p ro fit. A
partnership is based upon a voluntary agreement o f the
persons, who are called general partners and who are
liable for all debts of their firm.

Answer to the problem: Ward and Chang were


partners,, but the others were not. Neither Alien nor
Chalmer owned part of the business. Their sharing of
the gross revenue or net profits was merely a method
of paying them rent and salary.

The agreement of the partners need not be in writing


unless required by the statute o f frauds. The statute of
frauds requires a w ritin g i f a con tract cannot be
Basic course. Lesson 17 I 249

performed within one year from the time it is made.


Therefore if the partners agree at the time they form
the partnership that the firm is to last longer than one
year, the partnership agreement must be in w riting to
be enforceable. If the partners do not agree on a specific
length o f time the partnership is to continue, the firm
may continue for more than one year based on a verbal
agreement. It is always desirable to put the partnership
agreement in writing.
The document containing terms of the agreement is
called the p a r tn e r s h ip a g re e m e n t (o r a rticle s o f
partnership).
Partnerships can combine and control the capital,
labor, skill, and knowledge o f two or more persons.
Partnerships are more flexible and are subject to fewer
regulations than corporations.
.. In a partnership, there is a close relationship and a
necessarily heavy reliance o f each partner on the others.
M oreover, any partner can bind the partnership by
contract or incur liability by torts, and all general
partners are liable without limit for firm debts.
A partnership is considered to be an entity, a single
unit that:
1. may take title to, and transfer property in its own
name;
2. is regarded as a principal, for which each partner
may act as agent, making contracts in the firm
name; and
3. must use its own assets to pay its creditors before
any individual partner’s assets may be seized.
For most purposes, a partnership is considered to be a
group of individual partners. Thus:
1. each partner m ust pay income taxes on his or her
share o f the net p rofit even if it is not distributed;
250 | Практический английский для юристов

2. the firm must sue and be sued in the name o f all


the partners;
3. all debts o f the firm not paid out o f firm assets are
chargeable to every partner;
4> when any partner drops out o f the firm fo r any
reason, the partnership is dissolved.
Persons often join together fo r social, p olitica l,
charitable, educational, or general welfare purposes. They
do not conduct business for profit, although they may
raise money for their activities. Examples are churches,
private schools, clubs, labor unions, and volunteer fire
departments. Such groups may be nonprofit associations.
Participating members generally are not liable for debts
o f the organization. O fficers and individual members
may voluntarily guarantee its debts. Sometimes such
groups organize as nonprofit corporations.

0 Vocabulary
partnership товарищество, assets ['eesets] средства, фон­
партнерство (некорпори­ ды, авуары, имущество
рованная фирма, которой to take title to приобретать
владеют и которой управ­ право собственности
ляют два лица или более) nonprofit association неком­
general partners главные мерческое объединение
партнеры с неограничен­ labor union профсоюз
ной (имущественной) от­ charitable благотворитель­
ветственностью ный
gross revenue ['grous principal принципал (лицо,
'revmju:] валовый доход уполномочивающее другое
net profit чистая прибыль лицо действовать^ каче­
income tax подоходный на­ стве агента; глава, хозя­
лог ин)
entity организация raise money занимать день-
partnership agreement па, получить ссуду на что-
договор/соглашение о либо
сотрудничестве
general welfare всеобщее officer чиновник, должно­
благосостояние
стное лицо; служащий;
drop oat больше не участво­
вать, выйти из~дела член правления

Ц Answer the questions:


1. W hat is the aim o f a partnership?
2. W hat is a partnership agreement?
3. W hat are nonprofit associations?
4. Are all general partners liable without lim it fo r firm
debts?

f f l TEXT 3

WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF PARTNERSHIPS


AND PARTNERS?
P R O B L E M : Avery invested $100,000 as a limited
partner in a partnership organized to operate an
amusement park. On opening day, an accident severely
injured 17 people. The damages awarded to the accident
victims totaled nearly $7 million. That amount far
exceeded the value of the partnership’s assets and
insurance coverage. Will Avery be held liable for unpaid
liability claims against the partnership?

Partnerships may be classified according to their


purpose and according to the extent o f the liability o f
the partners. Classified by purpose, partnerships are
either trading or nontrading and are either general or
special. A trading partnership buys and sells goods and
se rv ice s com m ercially. A p o n t r a d in g p a r tn e r s h ip
provides professional and noncommercial assistance, such
as legal, m edical, or accounting advice. A g e n e ra l
252 | Практическим английский для юристов

partnership conducts a general business such as a retail


store; a special partnership may be formed for a single
transaction, such as the purchase and resale o f a farm.
Sometimes a construction project (for example, a large
dam, bridge, or office building) is too big for a single
firm . Two or more firm s may then associate, combining
their resources in a joint venture to complete one complex
project only. Because the joint venture is so similar to a
partnership, which also may be formed to complete a
single job, many courts treat it as such. Another example
o f a joint venture is a group of individual investors
combining their capital and time to acquire a large tract
of land to develop for homes. Death of a member does
not dissolve the venture; the venture normally continues
until the intended project is finished.
Classified by extent o f liability of partners, part­
nerships are either general or limited. In a general
partnership, all the partners assume full personal liability
for debts o f the firm , as does a sole proprietor. In a
lim ited partnership, at least one partner must be a
general partner, with unlimited liability. However, one
or more partners may be limited partners who are liable
only to the extent o f their investment in the business.
Unlike a general partnership, a limited partnership
can be created only by proper execution, recording, and
publication of a certificate stating essential facts about
the agreement and identifying the partners. Limited
partners contribute capital and share profits and losses
with general partners. Because limited partners do not
share in the managerial control of the business, their
liability for firm debts and losses is limited to the amount
o f capital they invest. Limited partners who participate
in management lose'their status and become liable without
limit as general partners.
Basic course. Lesson 17 | 253

Answ i to the problem: Presuming that the limited


partnershi p had been properly formed and that Avery
had not partici pated in themanagement of thebusiness,
she would be liable only to the extent of her $100,000
investment.

General partners may be further classified as silent,


secret, or dormant. A silent partner may be known to
the public as a partner but takes no active part in
management. A secret partner is not known to the public
as a partner yet participates in management. A dormant
partner is neither known to the public as a partner nor
active in management. A ll such partners are liable
without limit for partnership debts. A nominal partner
is not a partner. However, such persons hold themselves
out as partners, or let others do so. Consequently, if a
partnership liability arises, they are liable as partners.
A third party, acting in good faith, may rely on the
nominal partner and extend credit to the firm . If so, all
partners who consented to the misrepresentation are fully
liable, on the legal theory of estoppel. If all members
consent, the firm is liable. Parents sometimes become
nominal partners to assist children who have taken over
the family business.

0 Vocabulary
trading partnership торговая join t venture совместное
компания предприятие
nontrading partnership не­ extend credit предоставлять
коммерческая, консал­ кредит
тинговая компания general partnership компа­
special partnership специ­ ния с неограниченной от­
альная компания (со­ ветственностью
зданная для проведения limited partnership компа­
одной сделки) ния с ограниченной иму-
254 ] Практический английский для юристов

тдаггадципй ответственно- но активный в ведении


стью Деи
Hwitad partner партнер с or- dormant partner пассивный
раниченной имуществен- партнер (компаньон, не
ной ответственностью представляющий фирму, и
silent partner компаньон, не активный в ведении дел)
представляющий фирму, nominal partner лзЩо, не яв­
н о активно не участвую- ляющееся партнером, во
т т т и й в ведении дел представляющееся тако-
secret partner компаньон, не вым
щюдставлякшщй фирму, tract земельный массив

В Answer the questions:


1. What is a trading partnership?
2. 'W hat is a nontrading partnership?
3. W hat is a special partnership?
4. W hat is a joint venture?
5. W hat is the difference between a general partnership
and limited partnership?
6. Give definitions to silent partner, secret partner, dor­
mant partner and nominal partner ,

Ш TEX T 4

WHAT RIGHTS DO THE PARTNERS


HAVE AS OWNERS?
P R O B L E M : Palm, a partner in the Bobbin’ Cork
Bait Shops, normally purchased the inventory for the
business. Unknown to her, the other three partners
voted to no longer deal with Tro ut Attractions, Inc.,
one of their main suppliers. Before finding out about
their decision, Palm contracted for $1,000 worth of
lures from Trout. Is the partnership bound by the
contract?
Basiccourse. lesson 17 t 255

Id the absence o f contrary agreement, legal right® of


partners are shared equally. Partners may, however,
agree as to who shall have particular rights and duties.
< The prmtdpal rights are:
1. R ig h t to P articipate in M anagem ent
Every partner, as a co-owner o f the business, has an
equal right to participate in its management. A cting
alone, a partner may buy, sell, hire, fire, and make other
routine decisions ha carrying on the ordinary day-to-day
activities o f the firm . In effect, each partner acts as an
agent for the firm and for the other partners. A ll are
bound unless, o f course, the partner lacked the neeessary
authority, and the person with whom the contract was
made knew this.

A n s w e r to th e problem : The $1,000 contract


resulted from a routine decision by Palm, a partner
w ith apparent authority. A s a consequence, the
partnership is bound.

In addition to routine decisions, each partner may do


the things normally done by managers in similar firm s.
This includes the right to inspect the partnership books
at all times, unless otherwise agreed. W hen a difference
o f opinion arises as to ordinary matters connected with
the business, a m ajority vote o f the partners decides the
issue. Unless otherwise agreed, each partner has one
vote regardless o f the amount o f capital contributed. If
: there is an even number o f partners and they split equally
on a question, no action can be taken.

E X A M P L E : For several years, Morgan and Bridle


had been partners in a bicycle retail and repair
business. Morgan wanted to hire two well-qualified
it- ' ' ■ v ■
256 | Практический английский для юристов

mechanics in order to divide the shop work and to give


the partners more time for sales promotion. Bridle
objected, saying «if you hire; i’ll fire ... W e can't afford
- it now.» With the partners deadlocked, no one was
hired.

Unanimous agreement o f all the partners is required


to make any change, however minor, in the written
partnership agreement. АЦ partners must also agree to
any fundamental change that affects the very nature o f
the business, for example, changing its principal activity
or location. In addition unanimous agreement is required
for decisions to:
a. assign partnership property to creditors,
b. confess judgment (allow a plaintiff to obtain a
judgment against the firm without a trial),
c. submit a partnership claim or liability to arbitration,
and
d. do any act which would make it impossible to carry
on the business.
The p reced in g ru les, w h ich gov ern th e use o f
managerial authority, may be changed by agreement,
Often it is agreed that certain partners will have exclusive
control over specific activities, such as selling and
purchasing or accounting and finance. By specializing
according to talents and interests, work is divided and
efficiency is increased.

2. R ight to P rofits

P R OBLEM ; Laird and Bail were partners in an indoor


tennis center. Laird, a wealthy surgeon, contributed all
the capital. Ball, a former tennis champion with an
international reputation, contributed her name and
agreed to work full time at the center. They agreed to
Basic course. Lesson 17 | 257

split the profits equally. The losses, however, were all to


be charged to Laird. Can the partners legally receive
different proportions of the fosses than the profits?

Partners are entitled to all profits earned. In the ab­


sence o f contrary agreement, both profits and losses are
shared equally regardless o f different amounts o f capital
contributed or time spent. However, the partners may
agree to divide the profits an d /or the losses in any
percentages desired.

""Answer to the problem: Profits will be shared


equally, but a partner with a large amount of outside
income may agree, for tax purposes, to take all the losses.

Outsiders, however, are not bound by such internal


agreements and may hold any or all general partners
liable without limit for all partnership debts.

3. R ight in Partnership Property

PROBLEM: Adams, Starnes, and Williams were


partners in a burglar and fire alarm service. Adams
would mount his own camper cabin on the back of one
of the company’s pickup trucks every weekend and
drive it into the country on overnight fishing trips.
Starnes would take the company1s computer home every
weekend to work on her «n o v e l.» On weekends,
Williams used the company’s xerox to make copies of
the weekly bulletins for his church. No partner was
aware of any other partner’s action. Did each have a
legal right to borrow the firm’s equipment?'

Partnership property consists o f all cash and other


property originally contributed by the partners as well
9 . Sac. 273
258 | Практический английский для юристов

as ail property later acquired for the firm o r with the


firm ’s funds. Such property is held in a special form o f
co-ownership called tenancy in partnership. In such a
tenancy, each partner is a co-ow n er o f th e entire
partnership property and is not the sole owner o f any
part o f it. For example, if a firm o f two partners owns
two identical trucks, one partner may not claim exclusive
ownership o f either one o f the vehicles. Therefore a
partner has no saleable or assignable interest in may
particular item o f property belonging to the partnership.
However, the interest o f a partner in the firm may be
sold or assigned to another party. The buyer or assignee
is not a partner but is entitled to the partner's share o f
the profits, and o f the assets upon dissolution.
Each partner has an equal right to use firm property
fo r partnership purposes, but no partner may use firm
property fo r personal purposes unless all other partners
consent.

A n s w e r to the problem : Aff three partners were


violating their dirties to the firm. The breach of one did
not excuse the breach of any other.

4. Right to Extra Compensation

P R O B L E M : Hudson, De Soto, and Auburn .were


partners in an advertising agency. Hudson, who spent
days playing golf and tennis with prospective clients
and friends, brought in most of the firm’s accounts. De
Soto did most of the actual production and often
worked ten-hour days as well as weekends. Auburn,
who had no creative talent and little energy, spent
most of his time delivering and picking up copy and
layouts. Are Hudson and De Soto entitled to a larger
share of the profits than Auburn?
Basic course. Lesson 17 I 259

A partner who invests more capital, brings in more


business, or works longer and harder than associates is
entitled to no extra pay or share o f the .profits— unless
All the partners so agree.

Answer to the problem: Hudson and De Soto


get no more than Auburn, unless ай so agree. Common
sense and fairness often dictate that a partner who
gives more should receive more, but this must be agreed
to by alt.

0 Vocabulary
confess judgment разреше- tenancy in partnership совме­
; вне истпу получить реше* стное владение имуще­
5 ние без суда ством в товариществе
to hire нанимать layout макет (книги, газеты
■to fire увольнять и т. п.), разработка
deadlock тупик, безвыходное common sense здравый
положение смысл

Я Answer the questions:


v 1. What rights do partners have? Name these rights.
f/ 2. W hat is tenancy in partnership?
3. What is the right to extra compensation?
260 | Практический английский дли юристов

Ш TEXT 5

WHAT AUTHORITY DOES A PARTNER HAVE?


PROBLEM: Aki, Degas, arid Kline were partners in
an air-conditioning business. They Obtained a $275,000
contract to install units in a candy factory. Long
before the job was finished, Kline accepted the final
payment of $100,000 and absconded with the money.
Must Aki and Degas absorb the loss and complete the
job for the $175,000 already paid to them, without
being paid an additional $100,000 by the candy
factory? "

Unless otherwise agreed, each partner has an equal


right to participate in management and act as an agent
fo r the firm. Generally the law implies to each member
the authority necessary to carry on the business. This
includes the right to:
1. Make Binding Contracts fo r the Firm
Acting within the scope of the particular business,
each partner can make b in d in g con tracts deem ed
necessary or desirable, regardless of the possible folly o f
the deals. Any internal agreement limiting powers of a
partner is binding on the partners, but not on third
parties who do not know about the limitation. However,
a partner who violates such internal agreement is liable
to the other partners for any resulting loss.
2. Receive Money Owed to the Firm and Settle Claims
against the Firm Щ
All partners are bound by payments received, even if
the recipient steals the money. Also, each partner may
adjust debts of the firm by agreement with creditors.
Each may compromise firm claims against debtors,
Baste course. Lesson 17 \ 261

sttling fo r less than is due. Understandably, however,


partner may not discharge a personal debt by agreeing
&to offset it against a debt owed to the partnership.

Answer to the problem: The partnership claim


against the factory owners ended when Kline accepted
the final payment. Aki and Degas must complete the
job. Their claim is against Ktine if he can be found.

' - 3. B orrow M oney in the Firm. Name


In a trading partnership, any partner can borrow for
partnership purposes. In such borrowing, the partner
can execute promissory notes binding the firm and can
ledge or mortgage partnership property as security.

f
artners in a nontrading partnership generally do not
have such power.
4. S ell
A partner can sell in the regular course o f business
any o f the firm ’s goods and give customary warranties.
A ctin g alone, however, a partner may not sell the entire
inventory in a bulk transfer because this could end the
business.
5, Buy
A ny partner can buy for cash or credit any property
within the scope o f the business.
6, D raw and Cash Checks and D rafts
A partner can draw checks and drafts for partnership
purposes and indorse and cash checks payable to the firm .
7, H ire and Fire Employees and Agents
Each partner has the authority to hire and fire
-employees and agents to help carry on the business.
262 I Практический английский для юристов

8, R eceive N otices o f M atters A ffectin g the Partner-


ship
W hen one partner is served with a summons and
com plaint against the firm , all are deemed to have
received the notice, even i f not informed. Likewise, one
partner's declarations and actions in carrying on the
business bind all partners even when contrary to the
best interests o f the firm.

E3 Vocabulary
to give a warranty давать га­ folly непредусмотритель­
рантию ность; ту п ость
within the scope o f the to deem полагать, считать
business в рамках to offset возмещать, компен­
бизнеса сировать
to abscond скрываться to compromise пойти на ком­
(обыкн. с чужими промисс (на основе взаим­
деньгами) ных уступок)

М Answer the questions:


1. How are the authorities divided among partners?
2. In what way are money questions settled among part­
ners?
3. May a partner discharge a personal debt using the
assets o f a partnership?
Basi-c course, lesson 17 I 263

|Ш ПХТ6 .

\ WHAT ARE A PARTNER'S LIABILITIES?


PROBLEM: Parnell and Cotter were m the business
of buying and selling used farm equipment. They had
privately agreed that Cotter would do all the buying
because he was a better judge of value: Nevertheless,
one day Parnell had a golden opportunity to buy.all
theequipment of an elderly farmer who was retiring.
Parnell and the farmer agreed on a price and completed
the sale. 1$ the firm bound?

Am ong themselves, partners may make any agreement


they so choose with regard to authority in running the
business. Others, however, may not be aware o f such
paternal agreem ents. I f so, the partnership and all
partners are liable without limit for all obligations o f
the firm , which arise out o f contracts, made by any
: partner within the scope of the firm ’s business.

Answer to the problem: The firm and both


partners are bound. И a loss results, Cotter could
seek recovery from Parnell because Parnell violated
their agreement.

:<■ The partnership and all partners are liable when any
partner commits a tort (for example, negligence or fraud)
| while acting within the ordinary course o f the business.
» The wrongdoer would be obligated to indemnify the
| partnership for any damages it had to pay to the injured
!Oparty. Of course, if the other partners had authorized or
| participated in the tort, all would share the blame and
| s o indemnity would be payable. Liability fo r certain
; crimes committed in the course o f business, such as selling
I alcoholic beverages to minors, is also imposed on the
£ partnership and all the partners.
264 | Практический английский лля юристов

When a judgment is obtained against a partnership,


and the partnership assets are exhausted, the individually
owned property o f the general partners may be seized
and sold under process o f law for the satisfaction o f the
debt. Creditors o f the individual partners, however, have
first claim to such property. A ny partner who pays an
obligation o f the firm with personal assets is entitled to
recover a proportionate share from each o f the other
partners. -
A partner cannot escape responsibility for firm debts
by withdrawing from the partnership. After withdrawing,
one remains liable fo r all debts incurred while a member.
A new partner who joins the firm is liable fo r both
e x istin g and new debts o f the business. H ow ever,
creditors with claims, which arose before the new partner
jo in e d the fir m , can n ot seize the new p a r tn e r ’ s
nonbusiness property. Such creditors are limited to action
against the new partner’s share o f partnership property.

0 Vocabulary
indemnity компенсация
satisfaction o f debt уплата долга ,
to exhaust израсходовать

H Answer the questions:


1. W ho is liable without limit for all obligations o f the
partnership?
2. What can be done for the satisfaction o f the partner­
ship’s debt?
3. Is a new partner who joins the firm liable fo r existing
debts of the partnership?
Sasic course. Lesson 17 I 265

Ш TEXT 7

H O W IS A PARTNERSHIP ENDED?
P R O B L E M : Jameson is a partner in a highly
successful partnershi p. She becomes liable for very
heavy damages as the result of an automobile accident
while vacationing. She therefore files for bankruptcy
and has these and other debts discharged. What
effect will this haveon the partnership?

W hen any partner ceases to be associated in the


ordinary carrying on o f the business, dissolution occurs.
Dissolution is normally followed by a winding-up period
which Concludes with the actual term ination or ending
o f the partnership. During the winding-up period, all
partnership business in process at the time o f dissolution
is finished, creditors o f the business are satisfied if
possible, and each partner’ s share is accounted for and
distributed. When the winding-up process is completed,
termination o f the legal existence o f the partnership
actually occurs.
Probably the most common reasons for dissolution are
the death or withdrawal o f a partner. Often the business
is thriving and the remaining partner(s) would prefer to
continue without interruption. Therefore partnership
agreements, especially in large professional firm s, often
provide that there shall be no dissolution under such
circumstances. This is permitted by statute in a number
o f states. The survivors continue as partners and simply
pay a previously agreed sum to the former partner or
that partner’s estate fo r his or her share o f the net
assets.
Dissolution also often occurs because the agreed term
o f the partnership’s life has ended. W hatever the cause
o f dissolution, surviving partners may agree to continue
266 | Практический английский для юристов

as a new partnership without going through the costly


formalities o f winding up the old one. Dissolution o f a
partnership may be caused by any o f the following;
1. A ction o f One or M ore o f the Partners
A partnership may be dissolved by agreement o f the
parties. For example, if the original agreement is for
one year, the partnership concludes at the end o f that
year. Sometimes a firm is organized for a specific purpose,
such as the development o f a large tract o f farm land
into a subdivision for houses. Sale o f the last lot and
house would end the partnership. Also, as in any contract,
the parties may unanim ously agree at any tim e to
terminate their relationship.
Withdrawal of any partner dissolves the partnership.
If the agreement permits such withdrawal, possibly after
some reasonable notice, the withdrawing partner would
not be liable to those who remain. I f withdrawal violates
the agreement, however, the withdrawing partner is liable
to the others in damages for any injury resulting from
the breach. If the organization is a partnership at will,
a partner normally may withdraw at any time without
liability to associates. Under unusual circumstances, the
partner could be liable if the sudden withdrawal was
unreasonable and did irreparable damage to the firm.
2. Operation o f Law
Death o f any partner dissolves the partnership. This
is a serious disadvantage o f the partnership form of
organization. Prudent partners anticipate this event and
agree upon steps to take when it happens. For example,
they may agree that the su rvivin g partner(s) w ill
continue with a new firm and pay for the decedent’s
share over a period o f years.
Basic course, lesson 17 | 267

Answer to the problem: Bankruptcy, a kind of


financial death, also automatically dissolves the
partnership. This is true whether the bankruptcy is
suffered by any qf the partners (such as iameson in
the problem) o r by the firm itself.

Although uncommon, subsequent illegality also dis­


solves the partnership. For example a professional
partnership o f doctors would be dissolved if any member
lost the license to practice.
3. Court Decree
Partners, if living, usually arrange fo r dissolution
p rivately. I f neeessary, h ow ever, one partner may
petition a court to order dissolution if another partner
has become insane, is otherwise incapacitated, or is guilty
o f serious misconduct affecting the business. Also a court
may act if continuation is impracticable, or if the firm
is continuously losing money and there is little or no
prospect o f success. This could happen, for example, when
there are irreconcilable differences between the partners.

0 Vocabulary
associate [a'soufnt] компань­ irreparable damage
он, партнер [i терэгэЫ] непоправи­
to file for bankruptcy объя­ мый ущерб
вить о банкротстве termination законное пре­
partnership at will товари­ кращение деятельности
щество по желанию (то­ компании
варищество; в котором to dissolve аннулировать,
1 партнер может уйти в расторгать, прекращать
любое время без ответ­ деятельность, распускать
ственности) dissolution роспуск -
unanimously [ju’ naenimasli] incapacitated неспособный,
единогласно непригодный
268 | Практический английский для юристов

impracticable невозможный, winding-up period период


невыполнимый, неосуще­ ликвидации фирмы
ствимый operation o f law действие за­
misconduct плохое исполне­ кона '
ние своих обязанностей court decree судебное поста­
w ithdraw al [wi3' dro.al] новление
уход prudent благоразумный, пре­
дусмотрительный
irreconcilable [I'reksnsaibbJ] decedent [di'scdent] покой­
несовместимый ный

E l Answer the questions:


1- What is dissolution?
2. What can be the reasons o f dissolution?

M atch the follow ing:


1. confess judgment
2. dissolution
3. dormant partner *
4. general partners
5. general partnership
6. joint venture
7. limited partner
8. limited partnership
9. nominal partner
10. nontrading partnership
11. partnership agreement
12. trading partnership
13. partnership at will
14. partnership
15. secret partner
16. silent partner
17. sole proprietorship
18. special partnership
19. tenancy in partnership
20. termination
21. winding-up period
Basic course. Lesson 17 I 269

a. partnership formed to carry out a single transaction


b. actual legal ending o f a partnership
c. co-ownership of firm ’s property by partner
d. association o f two or more persons to carry on, as co­
owners, a business for profit
e. time during which all business affairs o f a partner­
ship are concluded
f. business which is owned and controlled by one person
g. partnership formed to buy and to sell commercially
h. partnership in which a partner may withdraw at any
time without liability
i. to allow a plaintiff to obtain a judgment without a
trial
j. partner who may be known to the public but is not
active in. management
k. partner who is not known to the public but is active
in management
l. when any partner ceases association in carrying on
the business
m. partnership in which certain partners have limited
liability
n. partner who is not active in management and who has
limited liability
o. association o f two or more firm s or persons to do a
single project
p. partnership formed for a professional and noncom­
mercial purpose
q. persons associated as co-owners to carry on a business
for profit, and who are liable for all firm debts
r. partnership in which all partners are fu lly liable;
also, a partnership formed to conduct a general busi­
ness
s. person who is held out as a partner but is not one
t. partner who is neither known to the public nor active
in management
;u. document containing the terms and conditions o f the
’ partnership
270 | Практический английский для юристов

Translate into Russian:


Reviewing Important Points
1. Sole proprietorships are the simplest and most numerous
form o f business organization. The owner тпякеи ail
decisions, keeps all the profits, and is liable without
limit for all losses,
2. A partnership is an association of two or more persons
to ca n y on, as co-owners, a business for profit. Profits
and losses are shared equally unless otherwise agreed.
Every general partner is liable w ith ou t lim it to
creditors for debts o f the business,
. 3, Unless otherwise agreed, all partners have a right to
participate in management with equal authority.
4. Any partner, acting alone, may normally make routine
business decisions for the firm, A majority must resolve
disputes about ordinary matters.
5. In dealings with one another, partners are bound to
act with the highest integrity and good faith. They
must keep one another informed about the business,
maintain accurate records, and.take no secret profits.
6. Partners own firm property as tenants in partnership.
Each may use the property for company business but
' not for personal purposes without consent o f the other
partners.
7. Limited partnership is a special form in which one or
more lim ited partners contribute capital but not
managerial services. The financial liability o f a limited
partner for debts o f the firm cannot exceed the amount
o f capital such a partner has invested.
8. There must be at least one general partner {with,
unlimited liability) in a limited partnership,
9. Partnerships may be terminated by:
a. action o f the partners,
b. operation of law, or
c. decree o f court.
Basic course, Lesson 17 I 271

Solve the problem:


1. Brinkley, Chapman, and Dodge orally agreed to become
partners in a road-paving company. Nothing was said about
profits or fosses. Brinkley contributed $100,000 in working
capital. Chapman contributed used construction equipment
with a resale value of $200,000. Dodge, a brilliant civil engineer,
contributed no capital. By agreement, Brinkley did no work for
. the firm, but Chapman and Dodge devoted full-time to the business,
a) A profit of $120,000 was earned during the first year.
How should the profit be divided?
b) A fte r ten years, business declines and the firm is
dissolved. During the winding-up period, all assets are
liquidated. Before the return of invested capital
{$300,000) there is only $210,000 in cash. How is the
$00,000 loss divided?
2. Freeman and Bingham were partners in a wholesale drug „
company. Their agreement required arbitration of all disputes
between the partners. While Freeman was away on a cruise,
Stuart, a creditor of the firm, threatened to sue over a disputed
supply contract. To save time and money for all concerned,
Stuart proposed to avoid litigation by submitting the claim to
arbitration. Can Bingham agree to arbitrate without Freeman's
approval?
2. Jones and Schmidt entered into a partnership for five
years to conduct a catering business. It proved to be very
successful. However, after two years, Schmidt's husband was
prom oted and transferred by his employer to corporate
headquarters in Los Angeles, 2,000 miles away. Schmidt therefore
wanted to move,
a) Could she sell out to Topper, a trustworthy, well-qualified
assistant, transferring all duties and assigning all her
rights, title, and interest in the firm?
b) Could she simply assign her interest to Topper?
272 | Практический английский для юристов

4, The written agreement of a professional partnership


stated that, during the first year of operations, no partner could
draw more than $100 earnings per week, and that no partner
could take a vacation. AH members would have to rely on
personal savings and credit if they needed more funds. The
business prospered beyond expectations. After six months,
four of the five partners agreed to increase the permitted draw
to $200 a week, and three of the five voted to permit up to one
week of vacation without pay. Are these modifications legal
and binding?
ESSON 18
C o rp o ra tio n s

m text i

WHAT IS ACORPORATION?
P R O B L E M : Krug, a prosperous banker, was willing
to go into a promising fiberglass boat manufacturing
business with Erikson, an engineer. Krug could not
devote any time to the business, but she wanted to have
some voice on major decisions. Yet she did not want
to have unlimited liability if the business should fail.
W hat form of business o rganization would be
appropriate?
/
A corporation is a legal entity that is created by
government grant. Courts speak o f the corporation as an
artificial person with an. existence separate from the
persons who organize, own, and run it. However, a
corporation is created by people and can do nothing
without the aid of people who act for it.
Although corporations are far outnumbered by sole
proprietorships and partnerships, corporations do most
o f the business in this country. This is because the
corporation has the follow in g attributes, which are
essential for large-scale enterprises:
1. Perpetual Life
Unlike the sole proprietorship and the partnership, a
corporation is a legal entity separate and distinct from
its owners and managers. Therefore it may continue
274 | Практический английский для юристов

in d e fin ite ly i f gran ted a perpetual ch a rter. M any


American corporations are more than 100 years old.
2. Lim ited Liability
Creditors normally cannot collect claims against the
co rp o ra tio n fro m persons' w ho ow n shares in the
corporation. Of course, the corporation itself is liable
without limit for its debts; all o f its assets may be seized
under court order to pay delinquent claims. But the
individual stockholders have limited liability and can
lose only the amount they have invested.
3 . Transferability of Ownership Interests
A m ajor advantage o f the corporate form over the
partnership form is the ease o f transferring ownership
interests. Normally, individual owners can sell their
interests in the corporation w ithout disturbing the
company’s operations or getting the consent o f other
owners. The stock of most large corporations is traded
(bought and sold) on the New York Stock Exchange or
th e A m erica n S tock E x ch a n g e. By c o n t a c t in g a
stockbroker, any person may buy or sell a reasonable
number o f shares o f any listed stock within minutes
when the exchanges are open.
4. A bility to A ttract Large Sums o f Capital
Because liability is limited to investment, and because
owners buy and sell their interests with comparative
ease, many persons invest in corporations. Thus, great
sums of money are raised. Small and large investments
by thousands o f persons and institutions are combined
to fund the giant corporations.
5. Professional Management
W ith substantial capital, efficient corporations gene­
rally have greater financial strength than do other forms
Basic course. Lessor} 16 I 275

M business organization. This enables corporations to


attract superior workers by offering big salaries and
frin ge benefits. Moreover, because the corporation is not
Automatically dissolved by the death o f any owner, it
usually provides better assurance of continued employ-
Hient.

Answer to the problem: Corporation is an appro­


priate form of business organization for Krug and
Erickson because of limited liability. This advantage
would appeal to Erikson, who would probably become
a salaried m anager. Nevertheless, K ru g could
participate in major policy decisions as a voting
shareholder, and possibly as a director elected by
shareholders to oversee the corporation.

Vocabulary
corporation корпорация (ак­ stockholder акционер
ционерное общество) ownership interests доля во
legal entity (artificial person) владении
юридическое лицо interest доля (в чем-л.); уча­
government grants прави­ стие в прибылях
тельственные субсидии New York Stock Exchange
limited liability ограничен­ Нью-Йоркская фондовая
ная ответственность биржа
fringe benefits дополнитель­ American Stock Exchange
ные льготы (пенсия, оп­ Американская фондовая
лаченные отпуска и т. п.) биржа (вторая по величи­
attribute свойство; отл не после Нью-Йоркской
* тельная черта фондовая биржа в США)
listed stock амер. акции, до­
shares JJeaz] акции
пущенные к обращению
delinquent claims на бирже; акции, котиру­
[di'hgkw ont] иски о ющиеся на бирже
невыполнении своих stockbroker биржевой мак­
обязательств лер
276 | Практический английский для юристов

flA n s w e r the questions:


1. W hat are the main features o f a corporation?
2. W hat are the benefits o f corporative business?
3. W hat is the stock?

ffl TEXT 2

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF


CORPORATIONS?
In terms o f purpose, a corporation is either public or
private. A public corporation is established f o r a
governmental purpose. State hospitals, and state uni­
versities are public corporations. A private corporation
is established by private citizens fo r a business or
charitable purpose. Sometimes a private corporation is
called public because its stock is broadly owned by the
general public. This differentiates it from a private
corporation where the stock is owned by only one or a
small number o f shareholders. The latter type is also
known as a close or closely-held corporation.
Private corporations are further classified as profit­
making, nonprofit, and public service corporations. A
p ro fit-m a k in g co rp o ra tio n is a private corporation
organized to produce a financial profit fo r its owners.
Examples abound: banks, manufacturing and merchandis­
ing companies, and airlines. A nonprofit corporation is
organized for a social, charitable, or educational purpose..
It may have revenues, which exceed expenses, but iti:
does not distribute any earnings to members as profits.
If a nonprofit corporation engages in business for profit,
it must - like any other business - pay income taxes.
Churches, colleges, fraternal societies are typically orga­
nized as nonprofit corporations. Finally, a pu blic service
Basic course. Lesson 1в I 277

corporation (also called a public utility) is generally a


private com pany that furnishes an essential public
service. Electric, gas, and water companies are examples.
These companies are closely regulated as to prices they
can charge. However, they are often given monopolistic
franchises and special powers such as em inent domain.

0 Vocabulary

underprivileged бедный, не­ nonprofit corporation неком­


имущий мерческая корпорация
private corporation частная, revenue ['revmju:] доход
частно-правовая корпора­ to engage in business амер.
ция (не имеющая права
на публичную продажу заниматься коммерцией
акций) public service corporation
closely-held corporation ча­ амер, корпорация
стная корпорация, где ос­ общественного обслужи­
новной капитал принад­ вания
лежит одному или не­ to furnish доставлять, пре­
скольким лицам доставлять
profit-m aking corporation
eminent domain суверенное
частная корп орац и я,
организованная для полу­ право государства на при­
чения финансовой прибы­ нудительное отчуждение
ли для ее владельцев частной собственности

Ц Answer the questions:


1. W hat is a private corporation?
2. W hat is a closely-held corporation?
3. W hat are profit-making and nonprofit corporations?
4. W hat is a public service corporation?
278 | Практический английский для юристов

штехтз

H O W IS A CORPORATION FORMED?
PROBLEM: Delatronics, Inc., a Delaware corporation,
wants to incorporate a subsidiary corporation in
another state. The subsidiary will make electronic
component parts for Delatronlcs’s products. Could
Delatronics serve as an incorporator of another
corporation?

Typically, a corporation is formed as a result o f the


efforts o f one or more persons called prom oters. These
individuals bring together interested persons and take
the preliminary steps to form a corporation. Regardless
o f the p rom oters’ e ffo r t s , h ow ever, the resu ltin g
corporation is not liable on any contract made on its
behalf. The promoters cannot bind an organization that
is still to be created. Usually, though, once it comes into
being, the corporation adopts the contracts and is bound
by them.
A r tic le s o f in corp ora tion are drafted, and when
subm itted to the proper state o ffic ia l (usu ally the
Secretary o f State) they are a plan that serves as an
application fo r incorporation. In most states, when the
articles are properly filed, the corporate existence begins.
The articles are signed and submitted by one or more
persons called in c o r p o r a to r s . A t least one o f the
incorporators must have legal capacity to enter into a
binding contract. Thus, the incorporators cannot all be
minors. ■

Answ er to the problem: E ith er a foreign


corporation, such as Delatronics, or a domestic,
corporation in a state may be an incorporator.
|| Basfc course. Lesson l8 I 279

|ff The articles o f incorporation are a plan filed by the


? incorporators and they generally contain:
Si; 1, the name o f the corporation;,
p 1'. 2. the period o f duration, which may be indefinite
and everlasting;
3. the purpose, or purposes, for which the corporation
is organized. This may be stated broadly, fo r
example: «any purposes legal fo r a corporation in
this state»;
4. the number and kinds o f shares o f capital stock to
be authorized, fo r issuance;
5. the location o f the proposed corporation’s principal
office and the name o f its agent to whom legal
notices may be given;
6. the number o f directors or the names and addresses
o f the persons who are to serve as directors until
the first annual meeting o f shareholders or until
their successors are elected (in some states, the
incorporators serve as directors until the share­
holders elect their replacements);
7. the name and address o f each incorporator; and
8. any other provision consistent with the law.
In some states, the incorporators file a certificate o f
incorporation instead o f articles o f incorporation, but
with the same result. Many years ago, when a corporation
h was created by a special act o f the legislature, a charter
' was issued. Today the word charter refers broadly to the
' articles (or certificate) o f incorporation taken in con-
• nection with the governing statutory law. It also may
j; refer to the contract that exists between the state and
, the corporation.
i

b
280 | Практический английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary;
subsidiary corporation incorporators учредители
[sab'sidjan] дочерняя корпорации
корпорация (находится shareholders акционеры;
под контролем головной владельцы акций
корпорации) certificate o f incorporation
promoter учредитель, осно­ разрешение государ­
ватель корпорации ственного органа на
a rticles o f in corp ora tion создание корпорации
официальный акт о реги­ charter документ, разрешаю­
страции корпорации щий создание корпорации

Q Answer the questions:


1. W hat is necessary to form a corporation?
2. W hat do articles o f incorporation include?
3. What is a charter?

Ш TEXT 4

WHAT ARE SHARES OF STOCK?


P R O B L E M ; A is an incorporator of the newly
formed Galaxy Space Research Corporation, В is a
director. C is the president. D, E, and F are shareholders
who own most of the stock. If the corporation buys
an electronic microscope, who owns it?

. Corporations issue small units of ownership known as


shares o f stock. A person who owns one or more shares
o f stock is a shareholder (also called a stockholder).
The corporation uses the money received from the
initial sale of stock to buy equipment, supplies, and
inventory; to hire labor; and to pay other expenses. As
Basie course. Lesson 18 | 281

^goods and services are produced and sold, m ore incom e


flow s into the business. O ften earnings are reinvested.
M oney is borrow ed to provide fo r fu rth er expansion,
and sometimes m ore shares o f stock are sold.
A shareholder is issued a stock certificate, w hich is
w ritten evidence o f ownership and rights in the business.
S tock ow nership does n ot tran sfer title to s p e cific
corporate property to the holder. The corporation, as a
legal person, remains the owner o f all corporate property.

Answer to the problem: Galaxy Corporation owns


the electronic microscope.

Stock may have a p ar valu e, w hich is the face value


printed on the certificate. If it does not lutve a par value,
it is n o-par stock and is originally sold at a price set by
the board o f directors o f the corporation. W hen either
par or no-par stock changes hands in later transfers, the
price may be much higher or lower. This m arket price
w ill be determ ined by many factors, including econom ic
conditions o f the country, the industry, and the company
— especially its past p rofits and future prospects.
Corporations may have one or more types o f stock.
Those found m ost frequently are com m on stock and
preferred stock . Common stock is the basic type and
generally the only kind that allows its owners voting
rights in corporate elections. One Vote per share may be
ca st. Com m on sh a reh old ers receiv e a ll d iv id en d s
(distributions o f corporate profits) unless preferred stock
has been issued.
' J Preferred stock usually lacks voting power but does
have priority claim on corporate dividends. For example,
by contract w ith the corporation, the preferred share­
holder may be entitled to receive $ 7 per share each year
before any distribution o f profits is made to the common
282 | Практический английский для юристов

shareholders. If p rofits are h igh , the com m on share­


holders may get m ore money than the preferred share­
holders. Preferred stock may also have a priority claim
on funds generated by a corporate liquidation (sale o f all
assets) if and when the business is terminated.
Preferred stock may be cum ulative. This means that
if the dividend is not paid in a given year, it remains
due and payable in the future. Each year the unpaid
dividends cumulate (add up) and must be paid in fu ll
before the common shareholders receive any dividends.
In some cases, the preferred stock is also participating.
For example, in a given year, the fu lly participating
preferred shareholder w ill receive the contracted amount
o f dividend per share, and the common shareholder w ill
receive an amount per share equal to that received by a
preferred shareholder. Beyond that, any balance o f profits
distributed is divided equally or in some other specified
ratio between the preferred and com mon shareholders.
M ost corporation's issue little or no preferred stock.

0 Vocabulary
shares o f stock акции основ ежегодно между акционе­
ного капитала (единица рами)
собственности в акцио­ preferred stock амер, приви­
нерном обществе) легированные акции
stock certificate амер. акция, to cast a vote подавать, от­
свидетельство на акцию давать голос при голосо­
par value (face value) номи­ вании
нальная стоимость
priority claim приоритетное
по-par stock акция без фик­
требование, преимуще­
сированного номинала
com mon stock обычные, не­ ственное требование
привилегированные ак­ liquidation ликвидация (про­
ции (без нрава голоса) дажа активов корпорации)
dividends дивиденд (часть cum ulative stock акции (по
прибыли? распределяемая которым дивиденды не
Basic course. Lesson 18 I 283

были выплачены) подле­ ций, владельцы которых


жащие выплате прежде, имеют право ие только на
чем обычные акционеры получение дивидендов, но
получат что-либо и на часть прибыли, по­
p a rticip a tin g stock класс лучаемой с продажи всех
привилегированных ак- обычных акций

Q Answer the questions;


1. W hat is a par value stock?
2. W hat is a no-par stock?
3. W hat are common stock and preferred stock?
4. W hat is a cum ulative stock?

eqtcxts

W H O ACTUALLY CONDUCTS
THE BUSINESS OF THE CORPORATION?
P R O B L E M : Penny was the majority shareholder of
the Hoarse Lion, In c Recording Studios. Penny was
neither an agent nor an employee of the firm .
Supposedly on behalf of Hoarse Lion, Inc., Penny
contracted with Bryant for the installation of a new
intercom system in hie company headquarters- Did
Penny have authority to do this as the majority share­
holder?

A lthough a corporation is a person in the eyes o f the


law, it must act through human agents elected by the
shareholders, appointed by the directors, or hired by
the officers, No shareholder, not even one who owns
m ost or all the stock, can act fo r the corporation or bind
it by contract merely because o f such ownership.
: 284 | Практический английский для юристов

Answer to the problem: Penny had no authority


to represent the corporation.

Shareholders in d ire ctly con trol the a ffa irs o f a


corporation by electing the directors. They also have the
power to vote on m ajor issues such as changing the
corporate articles, m erging with another com pany, or
selling out in a firm take over. A ntitrust laws do not
forbid acquisitions or mergers of dissim ilar companies.
Large size in itself is not illegal. .
The directors, elected by the shareholders, form a
corporation's board o f directors. The directors oversee
the corporation and form ulate general policies. They must
not act fraudulently or illegally.
The board o f directors may enter into any contract to
prom ote the business fo r w hich the corporation was
form ed. W hile the board’s powers are very broad, they
may be limited by statute, by the articles o f incorporation,
or by its own corporate rules.
The number o f directors varies among corporations.
M ost states allow the shareholders to determ ine the
number. Some states require at least three. Other states
require only one director, who can also be the sole officer
and sole shareholder. This gives the corporation the
attributes o f a sole proprietorship plus the advantage of
lim ited liability for its owner. Statutes sometimes require
that directors be shareholders. A few states require that
directors be adults. Some states require that the president
o f the com pany serve as a d irector, w hile in m any
corporations all the directors are officers. This is called
an inside board, and is not considered ideal because the
directors naturally tend to approve their conduct as
officers. Better results are sometimes obtained from an
ou tside board which has no officers in its membership,
and w hich scru tin izes corporate perform an ce m ore
Basic course. Lesson 18 I 2®5

objectively and critically. Probably the best form is a


m ixed board , w ith some officers to provide inform ation
and detailed understanding, and some outsiders «to ask
the em barrassing questions.*

И Vocabulary
m ajority shareholder акци­ директора не явл. дол­
онер, владеющий боль­ жностными лицами
шей частью акций (более m ixed b o a rd смеш анное
50% ) .. правление директоров
board o f directors правление to oversee надзирать, наблю­
директоров (акционерно­ дать
го общества), совет дирек­ sell out ликвидировать
торов (фирму)
inside board правление ди­ take over a firm присоеди­
ректоров, в котором все
нять фирму
директора явл. должно­
to scrutinize внимательно
стнымилицами
outside board правление ди­ изучать, пристально рас­
ректоров, в котором все сматривать

Q Answer the questions:


1. W hat powers do shareholders have?
2. W hat is an inside board?
3. W hat is an outside board?
4. W hat is a m ixed board?
236 I Практический английский для ю р и ст о в

Ш 1ЕХТ6

W H A T ARE TH E POWERS
O F TH E C O R P O R A TIO N ?
PROBLEM: Reeves organized a corporation in
which he owned all the stock. His wife and two
daughters were directors with him, and they served
as vice president, treasurer, and secretary, respectively,
under his direction as president, if Reeves died, could
the business continue indefinitely because it is a
corporation?

In general, a corporation can be form ed fo r any lawful


purpose. The corporation is then allowed to exercise all
powers that are necessary, convenient, and law ful in
achieving that purpose.
Powers vary among corporations, but some are inherent
in almost every corporation. These powers include:
1. Perpetual Succession
In most jurisdictions, the corporation is the only form
o f business organization, which may be granted the power
o f perpetual succession. Perpetual succession means that
regardless o f changes in the shareholders (owners), the
corporation, may continue indefinitely, or .for whatever
period originally requested by the incorporators. During
this time, the death or withdrawal o f a director, manager,
or shareholder has no legal effect on the corporation’s life.

Answer to the problem: Reeve's business could


continue. Of course, even a corporate business may
end when a majority of its owners decide to end it or
upon the death o r retirement of an officer whose
services were essential.
2. Corporate Name
Л corporation can select any name to id en tify itself
unless that name is identical or deceptively sim ilar to
the name o f another business already operating. M ost
states require that the name selected indicate that the
business is a corporation, to alert the public o f the lim ited
liability o f its owners. This can be done by including a
descriptive w ord in the nam e, such as C orporation;
Incorporated, or Lim ited, or their abbreviations (Corp.,
In c., Ltd.).
Note that any form o f business organization (not just
the corporate form ) can use a fictitious name to iden tify
itself. M ost states require that these fictitiou s names be
registered.
The power to have a seal, w hich shows the company
name, is inherent in corporate existence. H owever, this
power is insignificant because o f the declining im portance
Of seals.
3. Bylaws
A corporation can make its own rules and regulations
fo r the internal management o f its affairs. Called bylaws,
these rules specify tim es fo r m eetings o f shareholders
and directors, for exam ple, and define duties o f officers.
4. Pow er to C onduct Its Business
In achieving its purpose(s), a corporation may use any
legal means to conduct authorized business. Thus, the
corporation has the pow er, in its own name, to:
a. make contracts and incur liabilities; -
b. borrow and loan m oney;
л c. make, indorse, and accept com mercial paper;
d. issue various types o f stock and bonds (long-term
notes issued in return fo r m oney borrow ed and
usually secured by a m ortgage or deposit o f colla­
teral). Unsecured bonds are called debentures;
288 | Практический английский для юристов

e. m ortgage, pledge, lease, sell, or assign its property;


f . buy its own stock unless th is w ould m ake it
impossible fo r the corporation to pay its debts or to
pay o ff any superior class o f stock;
g. acquire and hold stock in other corporations if such
action is not in violation o f antitrust laws;
h. make reasonable donations or g ifts fo r civ ic or
charitable purposes;
i. hire agents, independent contractors, and ordinary
employees;
j. esta blish p en sion , p r o fit sh a rin g, and oth er
incentive plans fo r employees; and
k. sue and be sued .

ЩVocabulary
to exercise power использо­ bonds облигации; боны
вать права, полномочия fictitiou s name вымышлен­
contractor подрядчик ное имя
perpetual succession непре­ incentive plan система по­
рывная преемственность ощрительных вознаграж­
bylaws устав корпорации дений
debenture необеспеченная to pay o ff расплачиваться
облигация компании сполна

Ц Answer the questions:


1. W hat is a perpetual succession?
2. W hat do the abbreviations Corp., Inc., Ltd . mean?
3. W hat are bylaws?
4. W hat are the powers o f a corporation?
Basic course. Lesson 18 | 289

H i TEX T 7

WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS OF SHAREHOLDERS?


P R O B L E M : Bright owns 400 shares of stock in a
corporation that has 1,000 voting shares. Niles and
Piper, who together own the remaining 600 shares,
decide to keep Bright from electing any one of the
three directors. Can they do so?

Status as a shareholder does not give one the right to


possess any corporate property or to participate directly
in management. However, shareholder status gives the
follow in g im portant rights:
1. The R igh t to a S tock C ertificate
A sh areh old er has the rig h t to receiv e a stock
certificate as evidence o f ownership o f shares in the
corporation. One certificate may represent one or more
shares.
2. The R ig h t to T ran sfer Shares
A shareholder generally has the right to sell or to
give away any shares owned. H ow ever, this righ t is
som etim es lim ited in closely held corporations, where
the owners may want to lim it ownership to employees or
to m em bers o f a g iv e n fa m ily . A c c o r d in g ly , th e
corporation’s charter may provide that an owner who
w ants to sell shares m ust fir s t o ffe r them to the
corporation or to other stockholders.
3. T he R ig h t to A tten d Shareholder M eetings and,
in Som e Cases, to V ote
A shareholder may attend shareholder m eetings and
vote shares owned in any class o f stock w hich has the
righ t to vote. Regular m eetings are usually held annually
at the place and tim e designated in the articles or bylaws.
10.3ait.273
290 | Практический английский для юристов

N otice o f the regular m eetings usually is not required.


Reasonable notice is required fa r special m eetings.
In a corporate election, a shareholder usually is entitled
to the number o f votes that equals the number o f shares
o f votin g stock held. H aving a minority position (being
a m in ority shareholder) means ow ning less than 50
percent o f the voting shares. To safeguard the interests
o f such shareholders, many states provide for cu m u lative
v otin g in the election o f directors. Under this plan, each
shareholder has the right to cast as many votes as the
number o f shares o f stock held m ultiplied by the number
o f directors to be elected. The shareholder may cast all
available votes fo r one candidate or distribute them among
two or more candidates.

Answer to the problem: If three directors are to


be elected by cumulative voting, Bright could concentrate
his 1,200 votes on one candidate (400 shares x three
positions). Niles and Piper have a combined voting
power of 1,800 votes (600 x three positions). They
can elect two directors by dividing their votes and
casting 900 for each. If cumulative voting were not in
effect, Niles and Piper could Keep Bright from electing
anyone to the board because, with only 400 votes for
each position, he would be outvoted each time.

A shareholder who does not wish to attend m eetings


and to vote personally ordinarily has the righ t to vote
by p rox y . M illions o f persons who in d ivid u ally own
com paratively few shares o f stock in various corporations
cast their votes in this manner. The management m ails
the necessary proxy form s to all shareholders and solic­
its their votes. The shareholders may then sign and return
the form s. H ow ever, i f they ате sa tisfied w ith the
corporation's perform ance, the shareholders usually give
Basic course. Lesson 17 I 291

th e ir p rox ies to incum bent d irectors, g iv in g them


authority to cast the votes. Federal law requires that
the proxy form give the shareholder an opportunity to
sp ecify by bailot approval o r rejection o f particular
proposals. Proxy votin g , especially when there is no right
o f cumulative voting, usually enables present directors
aad officers o f large corporations to remain in control
^ d efin itely and then to name their successors.
4. The R igh t to In crease the C apital S tock
Shareholders alone have the righ t to increase the
capital stock (total shares' o f stock) o f the corporation.
T h is is u s u a lly d on e b y m a jo r ity v o t e , on th e
recom m endation o f the board o f d irectors. In som e
corporations, when the capital stock is increased, each
shareholder may have a lig h t to purchase addition*! shares
to m aintain the percentage o f interest in the corporation
owned before the increase. This is called the preem ptive
It enables shareholders to protect their:
a. proportionate interest possessed in past and future
p rofits, and
b. proportionate votin g power.
P ractically, i f there is no preem ptive pow er little
d u a lly is lost. M ost individual shareholders in larger
corporations own too few shares to be concerned about
their votin g power. The sale o f new shares to outsiders
brings in new capital, w hich should increase the total
p rofits, thus benefiting all shareholders. Sometimes large
blocks o f unissued shares are needed by the directors to
. purchase w hole com panies; the preem ptive right could
prevent such action.
5, The R ight to a Share o f th e P rofits
Each shareholder is entitled to a proportionate share
o f the p rofits, which are distributed on the class o f stock
ow ned. These dividends are usually paid in m oney, but

: W
292 | Практический английский для юристов

they may be in the form o f stock shares or other property


such as products o f the company. Even when profits are
earned, the board o f directors may decide to retain them
in the business fo r future needs o f the firm . In effect,
the stockholders are thus forced to make an additional'
investm ent in the business. Ideally, this should cause
the price o f stock to go up, and the stockholders can sell
out if they so choose. Under unusual circum stances*
courts w ill intervene to com pel distribution o f dividends
at the request o f shareholders who claim that there is an
unreasonably large surplus o f retained and unused or
underutilized earnings. - .
6. The R ight to Share in D istributions o f the C apital
If a corporation is dissolved, its creditors have first
claim upon the assets o f the business. A fter their claim s
have been satisfied, any rem aining assets or proceeds
from the sale o f assets (liquidation funds) are distributed
to the shareholders. Preferred stockholders generally
are given priority over the common stockholders in such
a distribution.
7. The R ight to Inspect C orporate B ooks o f A ccou n t
A shareholder has the right to inspect and to make
appropriate records o f the accou n tin g books o f the
corporation. However, this inspection may generally be
denied if it is not made at a reasonable tim e and place,
in good faith, and w ith proper m otive. This is in contrast
to the open inspection perm itted to partners. Yet this
restriction is understandable when one realizes that many
thousands o f persons own shares in large corporations.
I f the books were open to all w ith ou t re strictio n ,
com petitors could buy a few shares sim ply to gain an
unfair advantage by such inspection.
Basic course. Lesson 18 I 293

; 0 Vocabulary
cum ulative voting метод го­ incumbent directors
лосования акционеров [ш'клтЬэпЕ] директора,
путем сложения голосов занимающие должность
но акциям preemptive power преимуще­
to outvote иметь перевес го­ ственное право
лосов, забаллотировать preemptive right преимуще­
proxy письменная доверен­ ственное право на покуп­
ность на голосование ку акций
proxy voting голосование по capital stock основной капи­
доверенности тал
vote by proxy голос, подан­ preferred stockholder владе­
ный по доверенности лец/держатель привиле­
m ajority vote решение боль­ гированной акции
шинством голосов com mon stockholder владе­
to solicit требовать; запра­ лец обычных акций
шивать underutilization неполное
successor преемник использование

| § Answer the questions:


1. Name the rights o f a shareholder.
2. W hat is cum ulative voting?
| 3. W hat is proxy?
4. W hat is preem ptive right?
294 | Практический английский;для юристов

Ш TEXT 8

UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES


IS CORPORATE EXISTENCE ENDED?
PROBLEM: A c c o r d in g to its a rtic le s o f
incorporation, Fun Foods, Inc., was created to operate
restaurants and food stands at the fair for the duration
of the event. When the fair ended, how was the corporate
existence terminated?

A variety o f reasons may cause the dissolution or


term ination o f a corporation. These include:
1. Agreement o f the Shareholders
A corporation terminates upon expiration o f the agreed
period o f its existence.

Answer to the problem: Fun Foods, Inc., was


automatically terminated when the fair ended, as
specified in the articles of incorporation.

A corporation may end before the agreed upon tim e if


the shareholders (usually those w ith a m ajority o f the
voting power) voluntarily vote to do so.
2. F orfeitu re o f the Charter
The state may brin g ju d icia l proceedings fo r the
forfeiture o f the charter o f a corporation that has been
gu ilty o f certain acts. Examples o f such acts would be:
1) fraudulent submission o f articles o f incorporation,
2) flagrant misuse o f corporate powers, and
3) repeated violation o f the law.
Forfeiture is rare because the state does not m onitor
corporate affairs, and aggrieved persons can seek other
private relief in court.
Г 3. C onsolidation or M erger
ft . . .

fe A con solid a tion o f corporations can occur w ith the


F approval o f the boards o f directors and a m ajority o f the
; shareholders in each o f the corporations involved. The
two corporations cease to exist and a new corporation is
, form ed.
In a m erger one corporation absorbs the other. The
surviving corporation retains its charter and identity;
the other disappears. A gain, approval must be given by
the directors and by the shareholders o f the m erging
corporations.
; A com bination through either consolidation or m erger
must not violate antitrust laws by in terfering unrea­
sonably w ith free com petition. A n illegal m onopoly is
where one company controls the supply o f goods, excludes
com petitors, and sets prices.
4. Bankruptcy
L The bankruptcy o f a corporation does not in itself
cause dissolution. However, the bankruptcy proceeding
[ typically leaves the corporation w ithout assets with which
ё to do business. In addition, some state statutes provide
f*that when a corporation is insolvent, its creditors may
t force dissolution.
5. C ourt Order
Г

In some states, if a corporation^ assets are seriously


|threatened w ith irreparable harm because an internal
p tliep u te ca n n ot be re so lv e d by th e b oa rd or th e
Ifhareh olders, a court can order dissolution i f interested
^parties petition fo r dissolution.
296 | Практический английский для юристов

0 Vocabulary
flagrant misuse ['fleigrent] consolidation слияние ком-
грубое злоупотребление паний А + В = С
forfeiture ['fe fitjs] конфис- m erger поглощение компа-
кация ний А + В = А (или В)
subm ission представление, surviving corporation кор-
подача (документов и т. п.) порация, продолжающая
irreparable harm непоправи- существовать
мый ущерб

B A n sw ^ r the questions:
1. W hat is a consolidation?
2. W hat is a m erger?
3. W hat is the forfeiture o f the charter o f a corpora­
tion?

M atch the follow in g :


1. bonds
2. bylaws
3. closely-held corporation
4. common stock
5. consolidation
6. corporation
7. cum ulative stock
8. cum ulative voting
9. debentures
10. inside board
■ 11. merger
12. mixed board
13. nonprofit corporation
14. no-par stock
15. outside board
16. par value
17. participating stock
Basic course. Lesson 1И | 297

18. perpetual succession


19. preemptive right
20. preferred stock
21. proxy
22. public service corporation
23. shareholder
24. shares o f stock
a 5. stock certificate

a. w ritten authorization designating some person to vote


in place o f the signer in a corporate election
b. w ritten evidence o f ownership and rights in a cor­
poration
c. pow er by w hich a corp ora tion con tin u es despite
changes in its shareholder membership
d. private corporation that provides an essential public
service
e. shareholder’s right to buy a proportionate number o f
shares in a new issue o f capital stock
f. one who owns corporate stock
g. units o f ownership in a corporation
h* when one corporation absorbs another corporation
i . 'unsecured bonds
j. board o f directors com posed o f b oth o ffice rs and
outsiders
k. share w ith no face value specified
l. long-term secured notes
m. basic type of stock, w ith votin g right
n. rules fo r the internal management o f a corporation
o. shares where dividends, if not paid, remain due and
payable before common shareholders get anything
p. legal entity, created by governm ent grant, existing
separate from its owners
q. when a new corporation is form ed from tw o separate
corporations
298 | Практический английский для юристов

г. board o f directors with no corporate officers


s. shares where after regular dividends are received,
preferred stockholders share in further distribution
o f profits w ith common stockholders
t. face value printed on a stock certificate
u. shares with priority claims to dividends and liquidation
funds; usually nonvoting
v . board o f directors in which all the directors are officers
w. private corporation organized for a social, charitable,
or educational purpose; does not return a financial
p rofit to its members
x. private corporation whose stock is held by one or a
few persons
y. plan w hich gives m inority shareholders representation
on the board of directors

T ran slate into R ussian:


Reviewing important Points
T . A corporation can be created only by government grant
— available routinely under incorporation statutes in
all states.
2. In most states, corporate existence begins when properly
prepared articles o f incorporation are filed in the office
o f the Secretary o f State. (In some states, certificates
o f incorporation are issued.)
3. C orporations are favored as a form o f business
organization because o f advantages of
a) perpetual life,
b) lim ited liability,
c) transferability of shares,
d) access to capital, and
e) professional management.
4 . -Shareholders have a lig h t to:
a. receive a properly executed stock certificate (share),
Bask: course. Lesson 18 | 299

b. transfer their shares,


e. attend shareholder m eetings, and vote if they hold
votin g stock,
d. maintain their ownership percentage by buying an
appropriate portion o f new stock issues, if there is
a preem ptive right,
e. receive a proportionate share o f the p rofits,
f. share in distributions o f capital, and
g- inspect the corporate books, subject to reasonable
restrictions.
5. Certain classes of shares m aybe nonvoting. If preferred,
they have priority in the distribution o f dividends,
and capital upon term ination.
6. The directors can enter into any contract necessary to
prom ote the business fo r which the corporation was
form ed. They are liable only for w illful or negligent
acts, w hich inju re the corporation. They m ust act
w ith a high degree o f good faith and in the best
interests o f the corporation.
7. O fficers o f a corporation must also act w ith good faith
for the best interests o f the corporation. They, too,
are liable only fo r w illfu l or negligent acts, which
injure the corporation, and are not liable fo r honest
mistakes o f judgm ent.
8. The powers o f a corporation include those granted by
law, and those incidental to corporate existence, as
; well as those listed in the articles o f incorporation.
9. A corporation’s existence may be ended by
a) agreement (i.e ., vote) o f the shareholders,
b) forfeitu re of the charter,
c) consolidation or m erger,
d) bankruptcy, or
e) court order.
300 | Практический английский для юристов

Solve the problems:


1. Hull organized a corporation to manufacture antibiotics
for cattle. She Owned most of the capita! stock. Ail went well
until a faulty batch of drugs caused the serious illness or
death of more than 3,000 cows. After a series of lawsuits, the
corporation was forced into bankruptcy with some $200,000 in
debts unpaid. Could Hull be held personally liable for these
debts?
2. In a discussion with friends, Forsythe insisted that a
director of a corporation could not also serve as an officer
because this would be «a conflict of interest.* «Directors select
officers,» she argued, «and could keep themselves on the payroll
as officers this w ay.» Was Forsythe right?
3. Plush Play Products, Ltd., produced toy animals and dolls.
A new doll called «Tootsie Tw ins» proved to be so popular
that the factory could not meet the demand. The dolls were
commanding premium prices in toy stores. Shortly before
Christmas, the board of directors of Plush Play Products voted
a dividend which was to include one pair of the «Tw ins* —
valued at the low $10 cost of production — fbr each
stockholder. All shareholders with more than one share would
receive the balance of their dividends in cash. Lane, a stockholder,
sued the directors to prohibit the doll distribution. He claimed
that the corporation could earn more by selling the dolls. Should
the injunction be issued?
4. Cox and Cook had an idea for a natural aqua park. They
planned to build a small dam and then to release water for the
slide as needed. Keeping their plans secret to be certain that
the needed stream would be available, they bought a 2,000-acre
tract of land for their corporation soon to be formed,
a. A t this time, are Cox and Cook liable on the contract?
b. Tw o months later they organized the corporation. Is the
corporation now liable on the contract?
EVISION COURSE
[ПОВТОРИТЕЛЬНЫЙ КУРС]

Lesson
I am a student now

^ Прочитайте новые слова, пользуясь транскрипцион­


ными знаками:
foreign ['form] иностранный to prepare [рп'реэ] готовить-
language ['iamgwitfc] язык (ся)
knowledge ['noliclj] знания science ['saians] наука
appearance [э'ргэгэш] внеш­ qu ite ['kwait] вполне, до­
ность вольно, совсем
to in trod u ce [mtra'djm s] rest [rest] 1) остаток {с ар­
представлять, знакомить, to тиклем the), 2) отдых
carry out ['kasri'aut] вы­
вводить полнять, проводить
few [fju:] мало, немного research [ri'ss:tj] научное ис­
a lot o f много следование
usually ['ju:3uoli] обычно course ['ko:s] курс (обуче­
enough [I'nAf] достаточно ния), направление
rather ['т :3 э ] довольно various ['veariasj различ­
to last [least] продолжаться, ный, разный
длиться to connect [ks'nekt] соеди­
quarter ['kwads] четверть нять, связывать
subject ['sAbefeikt] предмет,
to miss ['mis] пропускать дисциплина
to prefer [pri'fa:] предпочи­ equipment [ik'wjpment] о б о -
тать рудование
during [ djuarir)] в течение, h a lf (м н.ч. halves) [ha:f])
во время половина
several ['seyral] несколько term ['tsrm j термин, се­
while ['wail] пока, в то вре­ местр, срок, продолжи­
мя как тельность
302 | Практический английский для юристов

Задание 1.1. Заполните пропуски новыми словами:


1. W hat... do you learn? 2 .... 1 get up at seven o’clock in
the morning. 3. He has g o t ... money to buy new books. 4. ...
students in our group can speak English well. 6. Our library
baa ... books. 6. He has a good _ o f Mathematics. 7. The ...
is very important for the actors. 8. She ... me to her parents.
9. Knowledge of ... languages is necessary today. 1 0 .1 ... to
read English authors in the original. 11. We speak English
... the lesson. 12. He was reading a newspaper... waiting for
a bus. 18. W e have enough time t o ... for the examinations.
14. It i s h o t in summer in the south. 15. Students’ summer
vacations usually ... two months. 16. Students pass ...
examinations at the end o f the term. 17. Biology is a ... ,
studying plants, animals, fish, birds and insects. 18. The
patient feels ... well after the operation. 19. If you are tired
you should have a __20. Twenty-five cents is a .... o f a
dollar. 21. Students can ... experiments at the laboratory.
22. His scientific ... were successful. 23. The University offers
... in various subjects. 24. The climate conditions in Russia
are ... in d ifferent parts of the country. 25. W e ... an antenna
to a TV set. 26, Senior students study special.... 27. Computers
are used as o ffic e ... nowadays. 28. She cut the apple in two
.... 29. Special are often used in professional language.
30. He never ... his classes.

Ш TEXTI
ABOUT MYSELF
Hello, friends. Let me first introduce myself. My name is
Tatiana or Tanya for my friends. My surname or last name is
Lavrova. I was born on the 19th o f October in 1985 in
Moscow. Now I am a first-year student at the Law Faculty o f
the University. In five years Г11 he a lawyer.
Now let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and
have fair hair and bine eyes. My friends say that I am pretty.
I think I am just good-looking. I love sports and music. I
love to listen to modern music and dance. I dance a lot and I
hope I am good at it. I also love swimming.
Revision course | 303

Now a few words about my fam ily. There are five people
in our fam ily. My father’s name is Piotr Ivanovich. He is a
mathematician by education and businessman by profession.
My m other’s name is Nadezhda Dmitriyevna. She is a
housewife. She has much work about the house because I
have a younger sister. She is a pupil. My sister Natasha is in
the fifth form . My grandmother lives with us. She is very
kind and helps us a lot.
This year I have left (finished) school. A t school I did well
in all the subjects but my favourite subjects were English and
Computer Science. I am very interested in learning English
because I think that knowledge of foreign languages helps a
lot in everyday life and career.
' Last year my parents and I travelled much around Europe
as tourists. We have visited France, Germany, Belgium, the
Netherlands and the United Kingdom. There the knowledge
o f English helped me a lot.
As you see, my biography isn’t very long yet. But we’ll
meet again and I’ll tell you more about myself. See you later...

CU Д о п о лн и тель н ы й словарь :

a first-year student сту­ to do well зд. успевать


дентка) первого курса maybe ['meibi:] может быть
slim [slim] стройная chance [tfams] случай,
fair [feaj светлый шанс
hair [hea] волосы kind [kaind] добрый.
blue [blu:] синий, голубой Europe ['juarap] Европа
eyes [aizj глаза France ['frams] Франция
io listen ['lisn] слушать Germany ['ф э:тэш ] Герма­
everyday ['evridei] повсед­ ния
невный, обычный Belgium ['beldtjam] Бельгия
m athem atician the Netherlands ['neSalondz]
['тэгвгтэ.й/эп] матема­ Нидерланды (Голландия)
тик the United Kingdom
housewife ['hauswaif] [ju'naitid 'kirjdam] Соеди­
домохозяйка ненное Королевство
(Великобритания)
304 | Практический английский для юристов

Задание 1.2 Напишите рассказ о себе и о своей


семье, ответив на следующие вопросы:
1. What is your name?
2. Where and when were you bom ?
3. How old are you?
5. Have you got a family?
6. How many people are there in your family?
7; Do you have brothers, sisters, grandparents in your
family?
8. Where do you live?
9. Did you study well at school?
10. What was your favourite subject at school?
11. Did you finish a specialized school?
12. Did your teachers at school help you to choose your
future profession?
13. What do you like to read?
14. What sport do you go in for?
15. What are you going to he?

Задание 1.3 Напишите рассказ о внешности и ха­


рактере какого-нибудь человека, знакомого вам
(acquaintance [o'kweintons] —знакомый).

Транслитерация
Транслитерация - это передача букв одного явыка бук­
вами и буквосочетаниями другого языка. Русские имена
пишутся по-английски путем транслитерации, т.е. пере­
дачи их буквами и буквосочетаниями английского языка.
Ниже приводятся соответствия русских звуков и английс­
ких букв:
Русские Английские :
звуки буквы
е, ё , е, уо Klenov, Klyonov
ж zh . Zhilin
*з г или s K ozlov, Kuz’min
и i S ilin :
Revision course | 305

Й ei, a i или iy Leikin, Maikov, Vyazemskiy


X kh или h Khokhlov
Ц ts Tsiolkovsky
4 ch , tch Chernov, Tchaikovsky
Ш sh Shishkin
Щ sch Schepkin
Ы У Krylov
b 9
Mal’kov
Ю in или yu Yudin
я !а или ya Petrosian, Yakovlev

5Й1 Задание 1.4 Напишите по-английски свое имя и


фамилию, а также имена и отчества всех членов ва­
шей семьи.

Интернаиионализмы
В английском языке, как и в других языках, есть до­
вольно большое количество слов, которые имеют, в основ­
ном, латинские и греческие корни и понятны без перево­
да. Например: radio, telephone, com puter и т.д. Такие
слова называются интернационализмами. Они часто ис­
пользуются как термины, т.е. слова, обозначающие опре­
деленные понятия в науке, технике, искусстве. Сами на­
звания наук также являются интернационализмами. На­
пример: Physics, M athem atics, B iology и т.д. Знание ин-
теряационализмов облегчает чтение, понимание и перевод
научных я технических Текстов. Однако, не все интерна-
ционализмыимеют, одинаковое значение в английском и в
русском языках. Например:
cabinet шкафчик, корпус прибора (и кабинет),
accurate правильный, точный (и аккуратный),
fabric ткань,
m ixture смесь (мед. микстура) и т.д.

Задание 1.5 Прочитайте следующие слова, пользуясь зна­


ками транскрипции, и найдите ихрусские эквиваленты:
student fstjuidnt] sport [spo:t]
music ['mjiKzik] Academy O'kaedami]
306 | Лракгоческмй английский для юристов

engineer ['еш &'ш э] comedy {'komedi]


professor ['prafesa] park ['pctk]
cafe J'kaefei] sphere ['sfiaj
coffee [ loft] experiment [iks'perimant]
visit t'vizit] diploma [di'plouma]

Задание 1.6 Найдите пары слов, имеющих проти­


воположные зкачения.
1. to close a. to finish
2. after b. north
3, here c. last
4. first d. before
5. evening e. yesterday
6. much f. to give
7. tomorrow g . old
8. bad b, there
9. to begin i. morning
10. to take j. good
11. south k. many
12. white 1. little
13. to ask m. to open
14. few n. black
15. new o. to answer

Задание 1.7 Найдите в каждом ряду слово, не


подходящее по смыслу.
1. driver, doctor, teacher, corner, engineer
2. train, car, river, tram, bus
3. week, year, yesterday, month, day
4. man, woman, girl, postman, boy
5. student, professor, lecture, hospital, examination
6. wide, green, brcwn, white, black
7. February, November, March, Monday, July
8. winter, summer, year, autumn, spring
10. band, head, leg* arm, foot, shoe
11. Tuesday, Thursday, Wednesday, August, Sunday
12. Moscow, Tver’, P u is, Samara, Novosibirsk
Revision course f 307

Ф ГРАММАТИКА

Местоимения (The pronouns)


Местоимения употребляются в предложении вместо име­
ни существительного или имени прилагательного. Место­
имения называют людей, предметы или признаки уже упо­
мянутые ранее.
Слова, обозначающие мужчин, заменяются местоиме­
нием Ъе (он).
Слова, обозначающие женщин, заменяются местоиме­
нием she (она).
Слова, обозначающие неодушевленные предметы, заме­
няются местоимением it:
Местоимение they (они) относится ко всем трем родам
They are boys. They are engineers. They are apples.

Личные местоимения (Persona) pronouns)


Личные местоимения в английском имеют два падежа:
1) именительный падеж (the nominative case)
2) объектный надеж (the objective case), заменяющий
собой все падежи русского.

И м е н и те л ь н ы й
Ч исло Л ицо О б ъ е ктн ы й п а д е ж
падеж
ЕД- 1 1 (я ) т е (м не, м еня)

2 у р а (ты ) y o u (те б е , тебя)

h a (о н ) h im (ем у, а га )
3 a h a (он а ) h e r (ей, ее)
It (он о ) it (ем у) неодуш .
М н. 1 we (м ы ) u s (нам , нас)

2 y o u (вы ) y o u (вам , вас)

-------------- - 3 б И У (О Ш 0 *■"1 (ИМ,ИХ)


308 | Практический английский для юристов

Притяжательные местоимения
(Possessive pronouns)
Единственное число Множественное
ч число
1 лицо т у (мой, моя, мое, мои) our (наш, наша,
наше, наши)
2 лицо your (твой, твоя, твое, your (ваш, ваша,
твои) ваше, ваши)
3 лицо his (его), her (ее), their (их)
its (его)

Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопрос чей?,


в имеют две формы: основную и абсолютную.
Основная форма употребляется в тех случаях, когда за
притяжательным местоимением стоит существительное.
This is ту book and that is your book. Это моя книга, a
то твоя книга.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений упот­
ребляется в тех случаях, когда за местоимением не стоит
существительное.
This is ту book and that is yours. Это моя книга, а то
твоя. It is not mine. Она не моя. *

Абсолютные формы притяжательных местоимений


Единственное число Множественное число

1 лицо mine (мой, м оя, м ое, мои) ours (наш , наш а, наш е,
2 лицо наш и)
yours (твой, твоя, твое, y o u rs (ваш , ваш а, ваш е,
Злицо твои) ваш и)
his (его), hers (ее), its (его) th e irs (их)

Указательные местоимения
(Demonstrative pronouns)
Указательные местоимения this и that имеют единствен­
ное и множественное число.
Revision course I 309

Единственное число Множественное число


this [3is] (этот, эта, это) these [9i^] (эти)
that [3set] (тот, та, то) those [3ouz] (те)
■\ ■

This is my house and that is yours. Это мой дом, а то —


Твой.
These are my books. Take those books. Эти книги мои.
Возьми те книги.

Указательное местоимение such имеет одну неизменяе­


мую форму.
I like such books. Мне нравятся такие книги.

(S t Задание 1.8. Замените выделенные слова личными


местоимениями.
- 1. Peter helped the pupils to translate the text. 2. M o­
ther asked Mary to wash the plates. 3. M y friend writes a
letter to his sister. 4. Jan e took 3 books from Jim .
5. H is cousins live in Moscow. 6. Their grandfather and
grandm other will come tomorrow. 7. Mary works in a shop.

<& Задание 1.9. Выберите правильные притяжатель­


ные местоимения.
1. ' Is this (your / yours) book?
2. It’s (their / theirs) door, not (our / ours).
3. They’re new pupils and I don’t know (their / theirs)
names.
4. (My / Mine) flat is bigger than (her / hers), but (her /
hers) is nicer.
5. That’s not (my / mine) book. (My / Mine) is new.
6. They took (our / ours) books and we took (their /
theirs).
7. Are these pencils (her / hers)?
8. Is this (your / yours) house or (their / theirs)?
308 | Практический английский для юрисгов

Притяжательные местоимения
(Possessive pronouns)
Единственное число Множественное
ч число
1 лицо т у (мой, моя, мое, мои) our (наш, наша,
наше, наши)
2 лицо your (твой, твоя, твое, your (ваш, ваша,
твоя) ваше, ваши)
3 лицо his (его), her (ее), their (их)
its (его)

Притяжательные местоимения отвечают на вопрос чей?,


и имеют две формы: основную и абсолютную.
Основная форма употребляется в тех случаях, когда за
Притяжательным местоимением стоит существительное.
This is ту book and that is your book. Это моя книга, a
то твоя книга.
Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений упот­
ребляется в тех случаях, когда за местоимением не стоит
существительное.
This is ту book and that is yours. Это моя книга, а то
твоя. I tis not mine. Она не моя.

Абсолютные формы притяжательных местоимений


Единственное число Множественное число

1 ЛИЦО mine (мой, м оя, мое, мои) ours (наш , наш а, наш е,
2 лицо наш и)
your* (твой, тво я, твое, yours (ваш , ваш а, ваш е,
3 лицо твои) ваш и)
Ms (его), hers (ее), its (его) theirs (их)

Указательные местоимения
(Demonstrative pronouns)
Указательные местоимения this и that имеют единствен­
ное и множественное число.
Revision course I 309

Единственное число - Множественное число


this [3i$J (этот, эта, это) these fSfcz] (эти)
that [3aet] (тот, та, то) those [3ouz] (те)
\

This is ту house and that is yours. Это мой дом, а то —


Твой.
These are my books. Take those books. Эти книги мои.
Возьми те книги.

Указательное местоимение such имеет одну неизменяе­


мую форму.
I like such books. Мне нравятся такие книги.

Задание 1.8. Замените выделенные слова личными


местоимениями.
1. Peter helped the pupils to translate the text. 2. M o­
ther asked Mary to wash the plates. 3. My friend writes a
letter to h is sister. 4. Jan e took 3 books from Jim .
5. H is cousins live in Moscow. 6. Their grandfather яиН
grandm other will come tomorrow. 7. M ary works in a shop.*

* Задание 1.9. Выберите правильные притяжатель­


ные местоимения.
1. 'Is this (your / yours) book?
2. It’s (their / theirs) door, not (our / ours).
3. They’re new pupils and I don’t know (their / theirs)
names.
4. (My / Mine) flat is bigger than (her / hers), but (her /
hers) is nicer.
5. That’s not (my / mine) book. (My / Mine) is new.
6. They took (our / ours) books and we took (their /
theirs).
7. Are these pencils.(her / hers)?
8. Is this (your / yours) house or (their / theirs)?
3 * 0 | Практический английский для юристов

Вопросительные местоимения
Эти местоимения употребляются для построения воп­
росительного предложения.
W hat (что, какой, какая, какое, какие)
What is it? Что это такое? What book if? ТГякясг это
книга?
W ho (кто)
Who is this man? Кто этот человек?
W hose (чей)
Whose pencil is it? Чей это карандаш?
W hich (который)
- Which o f these books is yours? Которая из этих книг
твоя?
W hen (когда)
When does the lesson begin? Когда начинается урок?
W hy (почему, зачем)
W hy did you come here? Почему вы пришли сюда?
How (как)
How a re you ? Как поживаете?
H ow many (much) (сколько)
Вопросительное местоимение what относится к
обозначающим вещи, предметы, явления.
Вопросительное местоимение who относится к словам,
обозначающим людей.
Однако, обратите внимание;
Who ishe? Кто oh? (как его зовут) Не is Mr, Johnson.
What is he? Кто он? (по профессии) Не is an engineer,
Местоимение who имеет два «п>;ужа:
1. Именительный падеж who
2. Объектный падеж whom (ком у, кого).
W ho is here? Кто здесь?
Whom do you see there? Кого ты там видишь?
W hom did you give mg book? Кому ты дал мою книгу?

Задание 1.10. Переведите на английский язык:


1. Чье это письмо? — Это наше письмо.
2. Чей это компьютер? —Это ее.
Revision course 1 31 f
3. Кто ЭТО» человек? — Этот и я (Ш ^ Д 1«м и у .
4. Какие это книги? —Это хорошие книги.
5. Которые из этих книг наши? - Они все ваши.
6. Кого вы встречаете сегодня?
7. Почему вы пришли рано?
8. Когда вы идете на работу?

Возвратные местоимения
Возвратные местоимения употребляются в ттр^яипжстгмтт
для того, чтобы сказать, что предмет, названный подле­
жащим предшшения,
(а) сайг совершает действие нли,
(б) сам совершает действие и испытывает его на себе.
Как правило, они переводятся глаголом с частицей -еь
(-ся), которая присоединяется к глаголам.
Например:
Do it yourself. Сделайте это сами.
Do not cut yourself' He порежьтесь! "

В английском языке возвратные местоимения образу­


ются от личных :
1 ~ myself we —ourselves
you - yourself you —yourselves
he —himself they —themselves
she —herself
it - itself

A Задание 1,11. Употребите нужное возвратное мес-


тоилшше.
1. I shall ask him ... . 2. They want to do i t ... . 3. She
washed . . . . 4. You will answer the letter ... . 5 . 1 looked at
...in the mirror. 6. We shall teH her . .. . 7. They have done
the task ... . 8. She doesn’t like to speak about ... , 9. The
story ... is very good, but not the translation. 10. Children,
do it ... .
312 | Практический английский для юристов

Местоимения little и few и местоименные


выражения a little и a few
Местоимение little и местоименное выражение a little
употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными.
Местоимение few и местоименное выражение a few
употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными:
Give те a little water, please.
There is little milk in the bottle.
I have a few friends in Minsk.
There are only few pencils in the box.
■ Местоимения few и little означают «мало*, а место­
именные выражения a few и a little - «немного*.
Much (много) употребляется с неисчисляемыми суще­
ствительными, many (много) - с исчисляемыми.

Йк Задание 1.12. Вставьте much, many, little, few, a


Utile, a few.
1 . 1 haven’t g o t ... free time on weekdays. 2. The students
had ... time* to prepare for the examination. 3. He had ...
English books at home, so he went to the library. 4. After the
lesson everybody f e l t ... tired. 5. This textbook is good, but
that one .is ... better. 6. There were ... new words in the text
' mid we spent ... time translating them. 7. There was ...
sugar in the bowl, and we had to put ... sugar there. 8. I
know French ... and I can help you with the translation of
this text. 9. When we walked... farther we met our friends.
10. ... Englishmen can speak Russian well.

Задание 1.13. Переведите на английский язык сле­


дующие пары слов.
Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней,
много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много
кар'йш, много музыки, много сахара, много чая, много
лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, мно­
го работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.

(А Задание 1.14. Вставьте muck или many.


1. Please, don’ t ask me ... questions. 2. How ... mone
have you got? 3 . 1 never e a t ... bread with soup. 4. Why did
Revision course [ 313

you eat so ... ice-cream? S. She wrote us ... letters from the
country. 6. ... students don’t like to look up words in the
dictionary. 7 .... in this work was too difficult for me. 8. He
spent... time writing his composition in Literature. 9. There
were ... plates on the table. 10. Thank you very ...! 11. ... of
my friends are preparing for their examinations now. i2 .1
don’t like ... sugar in my tea.

Задание 1.16. Переведите на английский язык.


1. В стакане есть немного молока. 2. В тетради осталось
мало чистых страниц. 3. У тебя много кофе? - Нет, очень
мало. 4. Немногие из англичан хорошо говорят по-русски.
5. У них здесь очень мало друзей. 6. У него очень мало
времени для чтения. 7. У Петра много русских книг я мало
английских книг. 8. У меня есть немного времени вечером,
чтобы закончить эту работу. 9. Я провожу много времени в
библиотеке, потому что я готовлюсь i экзаменам.

Неопределенные местоимения some, any,


отрицательное местоимение по.
Употребление some и any, а также их производных оп­
ределяется типом предложения.
В утвердительном предложении употребляются, как
правило, местоимение some н его производные*..
Give те something to read, please. Дайте мне что-ни­
будь почитать, пожалуйста.
I met him somewhere before. Я встречал его где-то рань­
ше.
В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях обыч­
но используются местоимение any и его производные:
Have you seen him anywhere? Вы видели его где-ни­
будь?
Is there anything I can do for you? Могу ли я что-
нибудь для вас сделать?
В отрицательных предложениях используется либо
местоимение any и его производные,
314 | Практический английский для юристов

1 cannot find this book anywhere, Я ие магу нигде найти


эту книгу.
либо отрицательное местоимение по
There is nobody in that поим. В той комнате никого вег.
There isn’t anybody in that room. В той комнате никого
нет. ■
Различия между местоимениями any и some —в сте­
пени неопределенности, поэтому иногда местоимение any
можно встретить и в утвердительных предложениях:
You can find this book anywhere. - Эту книгу вы може­
те найти где угодно.

Задания 1.16. Образуйте производные местоимения


и. переведите цх.
Образец: some + body = somebody - кто-то, кто-нибудь
some body
any one
no ’thing
every where

Зрдяття 1.17 Вставьте somebody, anybody, nobody


или everybody.
1. The question is so difficult th at... can answer it. 2.
left his bag in our classroom yesterday. 3. Has ... in this
group got a dictionary? 4 . It is to© late. I think there i s ... in
the office now. 5. ... knows that plants like water. 6. Is
there ... here who knows English? 7. You must find ... who
can help you. 8. ... knew anything about our home task. 9,
The question is very easy. ... can answer this question. 10.
There is ... in the next room. I don’ t know him. 11. Please,
tell us the story .... knows it. 12. Is there ... you want to tell
me? 13. Has ... here got a red pencil?
Revision coarse | 3iS

Ш texts
MY UNIVERSITY
Hello again! Now let me tell you about my University. l am
really glad that I study here. It is one o f the finest country’s
higher educational institutions. Studying at our University
gives a solid background in all spheres o f knowledge and
prepares for practical w ort. '
Our University is quite large and old. It is a large school
when more than 5,000 students are currently enrolled. About
3,000 of them are full-time students, like me, and the rest
are part time-students. There are also about 150 graduate
students. They c a r r y out independent research work and have
pedagogical practice.
The course of study in my academy lasts five years. The
academic year is divided into two terms. A t the end o f each
term students pass examinations.
There are many faculties in my University academy. Here
are some o f them: the faculty o f Law, the faculty o f
Journalism, the faculty o f Physics and Mathematics and the
faculty of History.
' Our University is large and many faculties have their own
buildings. Our faculty o f Law occupies one of the buildings.
The faculty of Physics and Mathematics has two laboratory
buildings which are equipped with up-to-date equipment and
students can carry out lab works and various experiments
there. Our University has a large gymnasium with all necessary
sport equipment. Many students from my group are members
of different sport teams.
There are also several dormitories or hostel buildings on
the campus where students from other cities live.

Задайте 1.18. Напишит е рассказ о своем учебном


заведении, используя данные ниже слова:
Academy академия
University университет
Institute институт
classroom класс, аудитория
316 ] Практический английский, для ористов

lecture hall лекционный зал


laboratory лаборатория
gym (gymnasium) спортзал
semester (term) семестр
academic year учебный год
course o f studies курс обучения
faculty, college, department факультет (for example: College
of physics - факультет физики)
department, chair o f ... кафедра
head o f the department, chief o f the department, (chairman,
chairwoman) зав. кафедрой
teaching instructor (Tl) преподаватель
professor профессор
Dean [dim] декан
Rector ['rekta] ректор
teaching staff, faculty members преподавательский со­
став
full-tim e student студент(ка) дневного отделений
part-time student студентика)-*вечерник »
student o f distant (extra-mural) education студент «за­
очник*
student o f preparatory courses слушатель подготовитель­
ных курсов
undergraduate student студент 1-4(5) курсов
graduate student магистрант, аспирант

Задание 1.19. Ответьте на вопросы:


Do you know:
1. When was your University founded?
2. How many people are currently enrolled?
3. What are the faculties in your University?
4; What subjects are taught at your University?
5. What professions will the future graduates get?
Revision course 1 317

m TE X T 4
MOSCOW STATE UNIVERSITY
Moscow State University is the oldest higher educational
institution in Russia. It was founded in 1755 by the great
Russian scientist Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.
The University is located in Moscow and has the faculties
o f biology, chemistry, computational mathematics and
cybernetics, economics, foreign languages, fundamental
medicine, geography, geology, history, journalism, law,
mechanics said mathematics, physics, psychology and sociology.
Moscow University is connected with several museums, colleges
and a number of Institutes. A preparatory faculty teaches
Russian language and other subjects to foreign students.
Except for the science faculties and some of the arts faculties
- which are situated in south-western Moscow - the rest of
the faculties are located in the older university buildings in
the centre of the city. A diploma in a given field of study is
awarded after five or five and a half years of study. After
three additional years and the completion of a thesis, the
«Candidate of Sciences» degree is awarded. The highest degree,
the «Doctor of Sciences», may be attained after the compW.inn
o f a thesis based on independent диссертация research.

A Задание 1.20. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. Who founded Moscow State University? ‘
2. Where is the University located?
3. What faculties are there in the University?
4. How long does the course of study at the University
last?
5. What scientific degrees are awarded at the University?

^О СН О ВН Ы Е ПОНЯТИЯ В ГРАММАТИКЕ

Части речи (Parts of Speech)


Все слова, входящие в язык, делятся на разряды, на­
зываемые частями речи.
3 f8 I Лрастмескмй английский для юристов

Различаются следующие части речи:


1. существительное (ш ип, я)
2. прилагательное (adjective, а)
Z- числительное (numeral, пит)
4. местоимение (pronotm, ргоп)
5. глагол (verb, о)
6. наречие (adverb, ado)
Ч. предлог (preposition, prep)
8. союз (conjunction, cj)
3. междометие (interjection, inter})

1. Существительным называется часть речи, обознача­


ющая предметы. Предметами в грамматике называют ж »
то, о чем можно спросить: кто это? или что его?
Н а п р и м е р Кто это? — a doctor, a man, a girl
Что это? — a tree, a house, freedom
Существительные имеют два артикля: а (ап) —неопре­
деленный и the - определенный.
Существительные имеют два числа: единственное — а
boy, a tree и множественное - boys, trees.
Существительные имеют два падежа: общий —ту sister
и притяжательный - ту sister’s. Притяжательный падеж,
как правило, имеют одушевленные существительные.
2. Прилагательным называется часть речи, обознача­
ющая признаки предметов и отвечающие на вопрос: ка­
кой? Например: red, interesting, Russian и т.д.
Прилагательные не изменяются по родам, числам и па­
дежам.
Прилагательные имеют три степени сравнения: положи­
тельную, сравнительную и превосходную.
3. Числительным называется часть речи, обозначающая
количество или порядок предметов при счете. Числительные
делятся ва количественные и порядковые.
4. Местоимением называется часть речи, которая
употребляется вместо имени существительного прила­
гательного.
5. Глаголом называется часть речи, которая обознача­
ет действие или состояние, представленное в виде действия.
Revision course | « 9

Глаголы в английском языкежмеют четыре основные


формы:
1. Инфинитив (неопределенная форма)
2. Прошедшее время (Past Indefinite)
3. Причастно прошедшего времени (Past Participle)
4. Причастие настоящего времени (Present Participle)
С помощью этих форм образуются все сложные времен­
ные формы действительного и страдательного залога.
6. Наречием называется часть речи, указывающая на
признак действия или на различные обстоятельства, при
которых протекает действие (как, где, когда и т .д .)..
Существительное, прилагательное, числительное,
местоимение, глагол и наречие являются самостоятельны­
ми частями речи. Они обозначают предметы, их качества,
действия и т.п. и являются членами предложения.
Предлоги и союзы являются служебными частями речи.
Они показывают различные отношения между членами
предложения или предложениями.

Члены предложения (Parts of Sentence)


Предложением называется сочетание слов, выражаю­
щее законченную мысль:
Слова, входящие в состав предложения и отвечающие
на какой-нибудь вопрос, называются членами предложе­
ния. Члены предложения делятся на главные и второсте­
пенные.
Главные члены предложения: подлежащее и сказуе­
мое; второстепенные члены предложения: дополнение, оп­
ределение и обстоятельства.
Подлежащим называется член предложения, обозна­
чающий предмет или лицо, о котором что-либо говорится
в предложении. Подлежащее отвечает на вопрос кто? или
что?
Сказуемым называется член предложения, обозначаю­
щий то, что говорится о подлежащем. Сказуемое отвечает
на вопросы: что делает подлежащее?, что делается с
подлежащим?, кем или чем является подлежащее?
320 | Практический английский для юристов
Дополнением называется второстепенный член предло­
жения, который обозначает пред мет и отвечает на вопро­
сы, соответствующие в русском языке вопросам косвен­
ных падежей как с предлогом, так и без него: кого? чего?,
что?, кону?, чему?, кем?, чем?, о Ном?, о чем?
Обстоятельствами называются второстепенные члены
предложения, которые обозначают, как? или при каких
обстоятельствах? (т.е. где, когда, почему, зачем и т.п.)
совершается действие.
Обстоятельства могут обозначать:
1) время;
2) место;
3) образ действия;
4) причину;
5) цель;
6 ) степень.
Определения могут иметь все члены предложения. Оп­
ределение может быть выражено как одним словом, так и
словосочетанием, может стоять перед определяемым сло­
вом и после него.
Например:
a good book ~ хорошая книга;
a textbook for law students — учебник для студентов-
юристов,

Е&Ь Заданна 1.13 Проанализируйте следующие предло­


жения, назовите главные и второстепенные члены.
1. Не is one of the best students.
2. Our University is quite large and old.
3. The course of study lasts five years.
4. The academic year is divided into two terms.
5. Students pass examinations twice a year.
6. University has a large gymnasium.
7. Many students go in for sports.
Revision course I 321

Lesson
Education

Прочитайте новые слова, . пользуясь транскрипцион-


нам и знаками:
to enter ['ents] входить, usually ['ju:3uoU] обычно,
поступать как правило
to continue [kaiftmju:] to include [in'klu:d] вклю­
продолжаться) чать в себя
number ['плтЪэ] число, (to) aim [eim] цель, стре­
цифра, номер миться
deep fdi:p] глубокий certain ['sa:tnf точный,
to appear [з рю] появляться определенный, уверен­
to receive [rr'siiv] получать, ный
приобретать Whole ['houlj весь,
to develop [dt'vebp] разви­ целый; полный
вать, разрабатывать, drawing ['droiiri] рисование;
. конструировать черчение
to attend [э tend] посещать, exact [ig'zaekt] точный
присутствовать especially [rs'pe/ah] особен­
(to) charge [tfcccfe] заряд, но
оплата, заряжать (акку­ major [meidtja] главный,
мулятор) больший, более важный
to involve [in'valv] вклю­ means [mi:nz] средство
чать в себя, содержать efficient [l'fifsnt] эффек­
to enrol [in'roul] вносить в тивный
список, зачислять area [ сэпэ] площадь,
to complete [kom'plid] за­ область, сфера деятель­
вершать, заканчивать ности ■
grade t'greid] класс, уро­ necessary ['nesisari] необхо­
вень димый

Задание 2.1 Заполните пропуски новыми словами:


1. First-year students ... the University this year. 2, She is
a pupil of the eleventh .... 3,... we have three or four lectures
every day. 4. School programme ... physical training. 5. It
was our ... to complete the work before the end of the month.
6. Students can choose a ... number of subjects to study. 7. It1
1 1 . Зак. 273
322 f Практический английский для юристов

was raining the ... day, 8. Knowledge of Englishisahsolutely


... nowadays. 9. We have ... your letter o f the 10th o f October.
10. The scientists have ... a new theory of Universe. 11.
Students m ust... all lectures. 12. State schools are free o f .„
in Russia. 13. She will ... her education at the University.
14. Our library has a great ... o f books. 15. The well was
forty feet .... 16. Russia has the largest ... of land in the
world. 17. Students were ... after entrance examinations. 18.
The work was ... yesterday. 19. It is hot in summer,... in the
south. 20. The article will '.. in the next issue of newspaper.
21. Children are ... a picture now. 22. Mathematics is an
science. 23. The 4th of July is the ... holiday in USA. 24.
Telephone is a ... of oommunicatioir.

Задание 2.2 Прочитайте следующие слова, пользу­


ясь знаками транскрипции, и найдите их русские эк­
виваленты:

problem ['problem] gymnasium [i^mi'neizjam]


information [jnfo'meifan] technical [teknikal]
planet fplaenit] professional [pre'fejsnl]
official [a'ftjel] system ['sistim]
colony I'koloar] technician [tek'm/an]
technology [tek'notetfci] programme ['prougraem]
organisation [oganai'zeijon] million ['milfan]
literature ['litentfe] equivalent (YkwrvolentJ
tourism ['tuanzm] stipend ['staipend]
process ['prouses] candidate ['kaendidit]
specialist fspejelist] dissertation £,dise'teijen]
culture ['kAltfa] discipline ['disiphn]
certificate [sa'tiftkit]
Revision course 1 323
ШШСТ1
EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
Primary and secondary education. A t the age of six,
children in Russia enter a primary school where they study
four years. Intermediate education begins with grade five
and continues through grade nine. There are thousands of
schools of different types in Russia. There are state schools
o f general education, where pupils study Russian (or a na­
tive language), Literature, Mathematics, History, Biology,
Geography, Music, Arts and foreign languages. There are
also a number of specialised* schools, where pupils can get
deep knowledge of certain subjects - foreign languages, Math­
ematics, Physics etc. Besides state schools (where education is
free of charge) there appeared lately many private schools,
lyceums, gymnasiums, colleges and special courses where tu­
ition is paid by the parents. After 9 years of schooling chil­
dren can study for three years more and receive a secondary
school certificate or enter vocational-technical schools.
Special secondary education. Russia’s system of special
secondary education is well developed. There are more than
two thousand special secondary schools in Russia. They train
skilled and semi-professional workers such as technicians,
nurses, primary school teachers, and other specialists. The
specialized secondary school programme lasts up to four years,
and graduates receive the equivalent of a general secondary
education as well as specialized technical training. Vocational-
technical schools offer one- to three-year programmes of
training.
Higher education. There are more than five hundred
establishments of higher education with more than two million
students in Russia. A large percentage of students take
correspondence courses or attend classes on a part-time basis.
Tuition is free and students receive a monthly stipend, but
som e u niversities now charge students f o r tu ition .
Undergraduate training in higher educational institutions
usually involves a four- or five-year course o f study, after
which students can enrol for graduate training for a one- to
11
324 | Практический английский для юристов

three-year term. Graduate students who successfully complete


their courses of study, comprehensive examinations, and the
defence of their dissertations receive degrees «Candidate of
Sciences». A higher degree, «Doctor of Sciences» is awarded
to scholars who have made outstanding contributions to their
disciplines.
The country’s most well-known universities include Mos­
cow M. V. Lomonosov State University founded in 1755, St
Petersburg State University founded in 1819, Kazan’ State
University founded in 1804, and Novosibirsk State Universi­
ty founded in 1959. Other important universities are located
in Rostov-na-Donu, Nizhny Novgorod, Tomsk, Vladivostok,
and Voronezh.

IV J Д о п о лн и тель н ы й словарь ;

besides [bi'saidz] кроме graduate school, postgra­


того, помимо duate school, graduate
lately ['leitli] в последнее training аспирантура
■время graduate students аспиран­
general ['dfjeneralJ общий, ты
обычный, главный, tuition [tjm'ijan] обучение
основной tuition fee плата за обучение
private ['prarvit] частный etc. (лат, et cetera) и так
далее
lyceum [lai'siam] лицей
skilled [skald] квалифициро­
gymnasium [djim'neizjam] ванный, умелый, опытный
1} гимнастический зал; semi-professional ['semi
2) гимназия pra'fefanl] полупрофесси­
college ['kolid3] колледж ональный
schooling ['skudiri] обуче­ nurse [na;s] медицинская
ние, образование сестра, няня
comprehensive school training {'treiniri] 1) воспи­
[ kompn'hensiv] общеоб­ тание 2) обучение
разовательная школа establishment
comprehensive всесторон­ [is'taeblijinsnt] учрежде­
ний, полный ние, организация
scholar ['skola] ученый
higher school ['ham] выс­ defence [di'fens] защита
шая школа to award [o'wo:d] присуж­
correspondence courses дать что-л.; награждать
заочные курсы чем-л.
.Revision course I 325

(d&t Задание 2.3- Ответьте на вопросы:


1. When do children in Russia enter a primary school?
2. How long do they study at the primary school?
8. What kinds of secondary schools are there in Russia?
47 What subjects do pupils study in secondary schools?
6. Is education in Russia free of charge?
6. What are the possible ways to continue education after
finishing the secondary school?
7. What are the most well known Universities in Russia?

Задание 2.4 Найдите пары слов, имеющие проти­


воположные значения.
1. absent a. closed
2. cheap b. cold
3. deep c. dull
4. difficult d. easy
5. high e. expensive
6. hot f. far
7. interesting g. huge
8. long h. last
9. near i. low
10. next j. narrow
11. open k. old
12. rich l. poor
13. small m. present
14. wide n. shallow
15. young o. short

Задание 2.5 Найдите в каждом ряду слово, общее


по смыслу.
1. wall, roof, floor, house, door
2. teacher, lesson, exercise, pupil, school
3. meals, supper, dinner, lunch, breakfast
4. car, bus, tram, vehicle, lorry
5. summer, season, winter, spring, autumn
6. seven, eleven, niumber, one, eight
7. chair, bed, sofa, table, furniture
8. monitor, mouse, computer, programme, scanner
326 | Практический английский для юристов

9. snow , ice, water, rain, fog


10. second, minute, hour, time, day
11. daughter, son, family, father, mother
12. school, education, institute, college, university

^ ‘ ГР А М М А ТИ К А
Спряжение глагола to be
Утвердительная Вопросител ьная О трицательная
Ч исло форма форм а
Форма
Настоящее время
{Present Indefinite)

la m . A m i? la m n o t
Ед, ч. You are. Are you? You are n o t
Н е (she, it) is. te h e (she, it)? H e (she, it) is n o t.

W e (you, they) are


М н. ч. W e (you, they) a re . Are w e (you, th e y)?
not.
Прошедшее время
{Past Indefinite)
1(he, sh e , IQ w as
1 (he, sh e ; it) was. |Was 1 (he, she, it)?
Ед.ч not.
You were. (Were you?
Y ou were not.

W e (y o u , they) L/e re w e (you, they)? W e (you, they) were


М н.ч
W vio . 1 not.

Будущее время
(Future indefinite)
1shell be. Shan l be? 1shall not be.
Ед.ч You (he, sh e , It) will Will you (he, she, it) You (he, she, it) will
be. be? not be.
W e sh e » not be.
W e shell be. Shall w e be?
М н.ч You (th e y) will not
You (they) will be. WIH you (they) be?
b & ________________

Спряжение глагола to have


утверждение вопрос
I haw I have no... have I?
he has he has no... has he?
she has* she has no... has she?
Revision course I 327

it h a s it has no... has it?


we have we have no... have we?
you have you have no. have you?
they have they have no. have they?

Глагол to have означает «иметь», «обладать» и перево­


дится на русский язык «у меня (тебя и т. д.) есть».
Вопросительная форма образуется постановкой глаго­
ла-сказуемого перед подлежащим.
В отрицательных предложениях ставится отрицатель­
ное местоимение no: I have по watch. Не has по books.
В кратких отрицательных ответах после глагола следу­
ет отрицание not: / have not или (в разговорной речи) I
haven’t, he has not или he hasn’ t .

Задание 2.6 Вставьте глагол to be в нужной форме:


1. Не ... born in 1985. 2. We ... students now. 3. We ...
good friends in our class. 4. It ... an interesting book, 5.
Who ... absent today? 6. He ... a student. 7. What ... he? 8.
... he a doctor ? 9. These ... my pencils. 10. Where this
hook? I t ... on the table. 11. W h a t... their names? 12. Mary
... a girl. 13. Who ... he? 14. What ... you? 15. This man
... in the room. 16. How ... she? 17. How ... you? I ... fine.
18. How ... your friend? 19. ... he your son? 20. Tomorrow
we ... at home. 21, ... you a sportsman? 22. There ... no
book on the table. 23. It ... my parents’ car. 24. There ... 25
pupils in our class now.

О б о р о т there is/there are


Оборот th ere is / th ere a re служит для выражения на­
личия (отсутствия) какого-либо предмета в определенном
месте или в определенное время. Перевод предложения с
таким оборотом нужно начинать с обстоятельства места, а
если его нет, то со сказуемого.
Present Indefinite
There is a picture on th e wall. На стене картина.
Is there a p ictu re on the wall? На стене есть картина?
328 | Практический английский для юристов

There are pictures on the wail. На стене картины.


Are there pictures on the wall? На стене есть картины?
Past Indefinite
There was a picture on the wall. На стене была картина.
Was there a picture on the wall? На стене была картина?
There were pictures on the wall. На стене были картины.
Were there pictures on the wall? На стене были картины?
Future Indefinite
There will be pictures on the wall. На стене будут картины.
Will there bepictures on the wall? На стене будут картины?
Выбор формы глаголало be зависит от числа существи­
тельного, следующего сразу за ним:
There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.
There are two armchairs and a chair in the room.
Вопросительные предложения с оборотом there is / there
are строятся следующим образом
Общий вопрос: Is there anything in the bag? Will there
be lessons tomorrow?
Специальный вопрос: What is there in the bag?
Разделительный вопрос. There are some pupils in the
classroom, aren’t there?

Задание 2.7 В ставьте to be в нужной форме:


1.There ... a telegram on the table. 2.... there any telegrams
from Moscow? Yes, there ... some . 3. ... there ... a flight for
Moscow tomorrow? Yes, there......... 4. There ... much snow
last winter. 5. There ... a lot of stars and planets in space. 6.
... there ... a lift in your future house? Yes, th ere..........7.
Some years ago there ... many old houses in our street. 8, ...
there any lectures yesterday? No, there ... 9. ... there a lamp
over the table? Yes, there ... . 10. ... there any interesting
stories in this book? 11__ there a test last lesson? No, there
... . 12, Soon there....... a new film on.

Задание 2.8 Поставьте вопросы к следующим пред­


ложениям:
l.There are some new books in our library. 2. There is no
book on the table, 3. There were many old houses in our
, Revision course | 329

street* 4. There are 4 seasons in a year. 5. There will be a


conference next week. 6. There are many large cities in our
country- 7. There was nobody in the room. 8. There are 7
days in a week. 9. There is something on the shelf. 10, There
are many places o f interest in London. 11. There are many
beautiful flowers in our garden. 12. There was much woik
last week.

Задание 2.9 Напишите следующие предложения ъ


прошедшем и будущем временах:
1. There is much snow in winter. 2. There are many theatres
in our city. 3. There is no lift in our house. 4. There are
many new books in our library. 5. There is little milk in the
bottle. 6. There are three rooms in our flat. 7. There is a map
on the wall.

A Задание 2.10 Переведите на английский язык, упот­


ребляя неопределенные (или отрицательные) место­
имения и их производные.
1. Есть кто-нибудь здесь? 2. В саду никого нет. 3. В
нашей комнате есть кто-нибудь? 4. В классе есть кто-то.
5. В саду есть кто-нибудь? - Там никого нет. 6. На столе
есть что-нибудь? —Нет, там ничего нет. 7. В сумке что-то
есть. 8. В этой книге есть что-нибудь интересное? 9. На
стене ееть какие-нибудь картины? - Да, там есть несколь­
ко. 10. В комнате есть кто-нибудь? - Нет, там никого нет.
11. В нашей библиотеке есть какие-то книги на английс­
ком языке. 12. В вашей библиотеке есть какие-нибудь книги
на английском языке? 13, Мой друг не хочет мне ничего
сказать. 14. Возьмите что-нибудь почитать для меня в
библиотеке.
330 | П ра к ти ческ и й английский для ю р и с т о в

Ш TEXT 2
EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN
The system of education in any country is aimed at
developing a personality for the good of the individual and
society as a whole. There are three main types o f educational
institutions in England: primary schools, secondary schools
and universities.
Pre-school education in England begins at the age of 3 or
4. Around half of the children at this age attend nursery schools.
Children of this age need care as well as education. That’s why
kids play a lot, learn to listen attentively and to behave.
Primary education begins at the age of five in England,
Wales and Scotland and at four in Northern Ireland. The
education is compulsory and schooling is free of charge.
Children start their school career in an infant school. Lessons
start at 9 a. m. and are over at 4 p.m. Children are taught
*3 R ’s»: reading, writing and arithmetic. Pupils have a lot
of fun at school, drawing, reading, dancing or singing.
When they are 7 pupils move to a junior school, which
lasts four years till they are 11. They study a lot of subjects:
English, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography along with
Technology, Music, Art and Physical education.
Most of children go to state schools where education is
free. Only a small proportion of them attend private (Public)
or independent schools. Parents haye to pay for the
education at these schools. The fees are high and only
some families can afford it. The most notable Public schools
are Eton, Harrow, Winchester and Rugby.
Secondary education begins at the age of 11. The majority
of secondary schools are Comprehensive schools where boys
and girls study together. Besides, parents can take their sons
and daughters to Grammar schools or Secondary Modem
Schools.
Grammar schools provide an academic course from 11 Ш
18. They prepare pupils for Colleges and Universities.
Many children of working class families go to Modern
schools. They give a very limited education. Pupils get
Revision course | 331

instruction in woodwork, metalwork, sewing, shorthand,


typing and cooking. After finishing such a school a pupil
becomes an unskilled worker.
The Comprehensive Schools have their own «Grammar
school* classes and «Modern school* classes.
Every pupil has to choose a set o f subjects to learn. If he
takes up A rt he will study English Literature, Music, Art,
Drama and foreign languages. If he is good at exact and
natural sciences, he will learn Mathematics, Physics, Chemis­
try. Biology, Geography, Economics and Technical Drawing.
Higher education. Education after 16 is voluntary in the
United Kingdom. Students must take at the age of 16 the
examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Educa­
tion (GCSE). After these exams students can choose to stay
on in school or to enter colleges of Universities for further
education.
British universities are self-governing and are guaranteed
academie independence. Many of the colleges of Oxford and
Cambridge universities were founded in the 12th and 13th
centuries. All other universities in Britain were founded in
the 19th and 20th centuries.

b_J Д ополнительный словагь :

personality [,pa:sa'naeliti] junior school ['(feu:nja]


личность младшая школа
care [кеэ] забота; уход science fsaians] естествен­
to have fun веселиться ные науки
individual [^indi'vidjiial] cooking, ['kukirj] кулинария
лицо, личность, особа, notable ['noutsbl] извест­
человек ный
to be aimed to преследо­ to afford [a'fo:d] позволить
вать цель себе
compulsory [кэт'рлкэп] instruction [ins'trAkJsn]
обязательный обучение, преподавание
pre-school дошкольное limited ['limitid] ограничен­
nursery school ['naissn] ный
детский сад sewing ['souiri] шитье
infant school ['infant] shorthand ['/o:thaend]
подготовительная школа стенография
> 32 | Практический английский для Аристов

advanced [od'vaenst] про­ graduation ceremony выпус­


двинутый;1повышенного кной экзамен
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)
типа бакалавр естественный
typing ['taipiq] машинопись наук
unskilled ['Ati'skdd] неква­ Bachelor of Art (B.A.) бака­
лифицированный лавр гуманитарных наук
Voluntary ['volantari] Master o f A rt (M .A.) ма­
добровольны й гистр искусств
Master of Science (M.Sc.)
self-governing самоуправ­ магистр естественных
ляемый наук
high-school diploma школь­ Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
ный аттестат доктор философии

Задание 2.11. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What is a system of education aimed to?
2. When does the pre-school education begin in England,
Wales and North Ireland?
3. When does the compulsory education begin in England?
4. What subjects do children learn in
5. What are «3E’s» of the infant school?
6. What are the most famous Public schools in England?
7. What are Grammar and Comprehensive schools?
8. What are Modern schools?
9. Are there any compulsory subjects in UK schools?
,10 What exams take young people to enter colleges of
Universities for further education?

т Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий


Прилагательные обозначают признаки предметов и от­
вечают на вопрос какой?
A wide road. Широкая дорога.
A tall tree. Высокое дерево.
An interesting book. Интересная книга.
Наречия отвечают на вопрос как?
Не speaks English well. Он говорит по-английски хорошо.
Revision course | 333-

Прилагательные и наречия имеют три формы степеней


Сравнения:
положительную (positive degree),
сравнительную (comparative degree),
превосходную (superlative degree).
Формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней образу­
ются двумя способами:
Способ 1. Если прилагательное односложное, форма
его сравнительной степени образуется при помощи суф­
фикса -ег, а форма превосходной степени — при помощи
суффикса-est.
П олож . с т е п е н ь С равн . ст е п е н ь П р е в о сх . ст е п е н ь
strong сильный stronger сильнее the strongest сильнейший
cold холодный colder холоднее the coldest самый холодный

Некоторые двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающи­


еся на -у, -er, -ow образуют степени сравнения так же, как
и односложные, с помощью суффиксов -ег и -est.
easy легкий
easier более легкий, легче
the easiest самый легкий, легчайший

clever умный
cleverer более умный, умнее
the cleverest самый умный, умнейший

narrow узкий
narrower более узкий, уже
the narrowest самый узкий
Способ 2. От двусложных прилагательных и прилага­
тельных состоящих из трех или более слогов, сравнитель­
ная степень образуется при помощи слова more (less), а
превосходная степень — при помощи слова most (least).
famous знаменитый
more(less) famous более (менее) знаменитый
the most famous самый знаменитый, знаменитейший

interesting интересный
334 | Практический английский для юристов

more( less) interesting более (менееУинтербСКЫЕЙ,


интереснее
the most interesting самый интересный,
интереснейший

Исключения при образовании


степеней сравнения прилагательных
П олож и тел ьн ая С р а вн и тел ь н а я П р е в о сх о д н а я ст е п е н ь
сте п е н ь ст е п е н ь
g o o d (хороший) better (лучше) the best (самый лучший
лучше всего)
bad (плохой) w orse (б о л е е плохой, the w orst (сам ы й плохой,
хуже) худший)
little (маленький) le ss (меньш е, меньший) the least (самый
маленький)
many, much (много) more (бол ьш е) m ost (бол ьш е всего,
самый больш ой)
far (далекий) farther (б о л е е далекий) the farthest (самый

further (дальш е) tiie furthest (дальш е


far (далеко)
всего)

Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в пре­


восходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль the.
В предложениях со степенями сравнения прилагатель­
ных и наречий используются следующие союзы и способы.
выражения сравнения:
a s ... as такой же ... , как
not s o ... as не такой ... , как
not such ( a ) ... as не такой j,. , как
twice as much as в два раза больше
three times as long as в три раза длиннее, чем
three times as high as в три раза выше, чем
ten times as much as в десять раз больше
h alf as mueh/many вдвое меньше
half the size/the weight в два раза меньше .1;
но размеру/по весу
half the length в два раза меньше по длинен
much bet ter/worse намного лучше/хуже
much more/Iess гораздо болыпе/меныпе
t h e ... the чем ... тем
Revision course i 335

Задание 2.12. Образуйте сравнительную и превос­


ходную степень от следующих прилагательных и на­
речий.
1. large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong,
short, wide, good, happy, high, low, busy, well, little, many,
far.
2. wonderful, necessary, quickly, interesting, comfortable,
popular, active, famous, pleasant, beautiful, slowly, clearly,

Задание 2.13. Переведите предложения на русский


язык.
1. This book is not so interesting as that one. 2. The
Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 3. The more you
read, the more you know. 4. My brother is not as tall as you
are. 5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do. 6. Today
the wind is as strong as it was yesterday. 7. Your room is as
light as mine. 8. John knows Russian as well as English. 9.
Mary is not so lazy as her brother. 10. The longer the night
is, the shorter the day.

Ok Задание 2.14. Раскройте скобки, употребив нуж­


ную степень сравнения прилагательного( наречия.
1. Winter is (cold) season o f the year. 2, Moscow is (large
than St.Petersburg. 3. Which is (long) day o f the year? 4.
The Alps are (high) mountains in Europe. 5. Even (long) day
has an end. 6. It is one of (important) questions of our
conference. 7. Your English is (good) now. 8. Who knows
him (well) than you? 9. W e have (little) interest in this work
than you. 10. Health is (good) than wealth. 11. He worked
(well) of all. 12. Today he worked (slowly) than usually.

Задание 2.15. Поставьте прилагательные в скоб­


ках в нужную форму;
1. Winter is (cold) season.
2. Moscow is (old) than St. Petersburg. _
3. What is (short) month in the year?
334 I Практический английский для юристов

morefless) interesting более (менее) интересный,


интереснее
the most interesting самый интересный,
интереснейший

Исключения при образовании


степеней сравнения прилагательных
П олож ите пьн ая С р а вн и тел ь н а я П р е в о сх о д н а я с т е п е н ь
сте п е н ь ст е п е н ь
g o o d (хороший) better (лучше) the best (самый лучший
лучш е всего)
bad (плохой) w orse (б о л е е плохой, the worst (сам ы й плохой,
хуже) худший)
little (маленький) less (меньш е, меньший) the least (самый
■!
Ш Щ ) VUI I D n lW I j

marry, much (много) m ore (бол ьш е) m ost (бол ьш е всего,


самый больш ой!
tar (далекий) farther (б о л е е далекий) the farthest (самый
далекий)

far (далеко) further (дальш е) the furthest (дальш е


всего)

Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в пре­


восходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль the.
В предложениях со степенями сравнения прилагатель­
ных и наречий используются следующие союзы и способы
выражения сравнения:
as ... as такой же ... , как
not s o ... as не такой ... , как
not such ( a ) ... as не такой J.. , как
twice as much as в два раза больше
three times as long as в три раза длиннее, чем
three times as high as в три раза выше, чем
ten times as much as в десять раз больше
h alf as much/many вдвое меньше
half the size/the weight в два роза меньше 4.1
по размеру/по весу
h alf the length в два раза меньше по длине
much better/worse намного лучше/хуже
much more/less гораздо больше/мевьше
. the ... the чем ... тем
Revision course I 335

Задание 2.12. Образуйте сравнительную и превос-


- ходную степень от следующих прилагательных и на­
речий.
1. large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong,
; short, wide, good, happy, high, low, busy, well, little, many,
; far.
2. wonderful, necessary, quickly, interesting, comfortable,
popular, active, famous, pleasant, beautiful, slowly, clearly,

Задание 2.13. Переведите предложения на русский


&3bLtCm

1. This book is not so interesting as that one. 2. Th


Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea. 3. The more you
read, the more you know. 4. My brother is not as tall as you
are. 5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do. 6. Today
the wind is as strong as it was yesterday. 7. Your room is as
light as mine. 8. John knows Russian as well as English. 9.
Mary is not so lazy as her brother. 10. The longer the night
is, the shorter the day.

Задание 2.14. Раскройте скобки, употребив нуж­


ную степень сравнения прилагательного/наречия,
1. Winter is (cold) season of the year. 2. Moscow is (large
than St.Petersburg. 3. Which is (long) day of the year? 4.
The Alps are (high) mountains in Europe. 5. Even (long) day
has an end. 6. It is one o f (important) questions of our
conference. 7. Your English is (good) now. 8. Who knows
him (well) than you? 9. We have (little) interest in this work
than you. 10. Health is (good) than wealth. 11. He worked
(well) of all. 12. Today he worked (slowly) than usually.

0^ Задание 2.15. Поставьте прилагательные в скоб­


ках в нужную форму:
1. Winter is (cold) season.
2. Moscow is (old) than St. Petersburg.
3. What is (short) month in the year?
336 | Практический английский для юристов

4. It was (bad) mistake I’ve ever made.


5. In summer the days are (long) than in winter.
6. It is (cold) today than it was yesterday.
7. The Russian grammar is (difficult) than the English one.
8. It was (good) film I’ve ever'seen.
9. Steel is (strong) than wood.
10. Your house is not so (new) as mine.

'* Наречия и прилагательные, часто употребляемые в


юридических и деловых документах (так называе­
мые канцеляризмы):

aforecited вышеприведенный
aforenamed вышеназванный
aforesaid вышеизложенный
hence поэтому, следовательно
henceforth с этого времени, впредь
henceforward с этого времени, впредь
herein в этом; здесь, при сем
hereinabove вышеупомянутый, вышеназванный
hereinafter referred to as в дальнейшем именуемый
hereinbefore выше
hereinto сюда, в это место
hereof сего; этого; об этом; отсюда, из этого
hereon на этой основе
thereby таким образом
therefore поэтому, следовательно
therein здесь, там, в этом, в том
thereinafter ниже (в документе)
thereof из этого, из того

Предлоги
Предлоги, обозначающие место
above —над There is a lamp above the table.
across - через I live across the street.
around —вокруг We are sitting around the table.
Revision course I 337

at — у, в, возле, рядом W e are sittin g at the table.


I s tu d y at the U n iv ersity.
T h e pupils are a t the lesson.
behind —за, позади, сзади There is a garden
behind the house.
between —между B etw een the tables.
down - вниз D ow n the river.
in — в H e is in th e office.
on - на T h e book is on the desk.
under —под T he book is under the table.
in front o f —впереди, перед T here is a telephone
in fro n t o f him.
near —вблизи, около, S h e is sitting near the table.
рядом с, возле
over - над, через, сверх T h ere is a bridge over
the river.
up — вверх Up the river.

Предлоги направления
to — к C om e to me.
from - от, из, со T a k e this book from the table.
I com e fro m R ussia.
into - в, внутрь P u t the book into the bag.
out o f - из T ake the book out o f the bag.
on(to) / onto —на S n ow fell onto the ground.
through —через, сквозь H e cam e in through the
door.
Предлоги времени
in in A pril, in 2 0 0 0
in —через in an hour, in two d a ys
at — в at 5 o’clock, at m idnight
on —в on M o n d a y , on the 10th o f F eb ru a ry
by - к
from ... till ... - от... до from 5 to 6 o’ clock
from... to... - от... до from 5 till 6 o’clock
for —в течение fo r an hour
during —во время during the lesson
338 | Практический английский для юристов

after - после after work


before —перед before the lesson
w thin —в течение within a month

Прочие предлоги
by - посредством
with —вместе с
for - для

Задание 2.16. Заполните пропуски предлогами.


1.There is a picture ... the wall. 2. What street do you live
...? 3. ... Sunday we often swim ... the river. 4. Last week
he went... Moscow. 6. They will g o ... the college tomorrow.
6. She goes ... work ... bus. 7. My brother stayed ... home
... the evening. 8. Many people travel... train. 9 . 1 see many
books ... the table and ...the bookcase. 10. I was born ... the
fir s t... October. 11. Our lessons begin ... nine o’clock ... the
morning. 12. He took some books ... the table and put them
... his bag. 13. We went ... home ... foot. 14. They often go
... a walk ... the park. 15. My father works ... the plant. 16.
I don t like to s it ... the window. 17. She stood ... and went
... the room. 18. Usually I get up ... 7 o’clock , put ... my
dress and go ... the kitchen. 19. My friend g o e s ........sports
and I am fond ... music. 2 0 .... summer we spend much time
... the open.

Неопределенный и определенный артикли


Неопределенный артикль а (ап) происходит от числи­
тельного one (одни), определенный — от указательного
местоимения that (тот).
Артикль употребляется: перед каждым нарицательным
существительным.
Упоминая предмет впервые, мы употребляем перед ним
неопределенный артикль а(ап). Упоминая этот же пред­
мет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль
the. Например: This is a book. The book is interesting.
Revision course I 339

Неопределенный артикль a (an) употребляется перед


единичным, отдельным предметом, который мы не выде­
ляем из класса ему подобных. Неопределенный артикль
ап обычно стоит перед существительным, которое начина­
ется с гласного звука: an apple, an egg.
Например:
I bought a book yesterday. Я купил вчера книгу (одну
из многих ей подобных). I have an apple. У меня есть
яблоко (одно, какое-то).
Неопределенный артикль а (ап) может употребляться
только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в
единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существитель­
ными или существительными во множественном числе нео­
пределенный артикль опускается.
Неопределенный артикль не употребляется:
а) с неисчисляемыми и «абстрактными* существитель­
ными:
I like coffee and tea. Friendship is very important in our
life.
б) с существительными во множественном числе:
The books are on the table.
в) с именами собственными:
I told Jane about that.
г) с существительными, перед которыми стоят притя­
жательные или указательные местоимения:
This car is better than that.
That bike is old.
д) с существительными, за которыми следует количе­
ственное числительное, обозначающее номер:
Read the text on page eight.*I

Неопределенный артикль а необходим в конструк­


циях:
I have a... This is a... I am a— What a fine day!
I see a... There is a... He is a_. W hat a good boy!
340 | Практический английский, для юристов

Определенный артикль the


Определенный артикль the выделяет предмет или пред­
меты из класса им подобных:
The booh I bought yesterday was interesting - Книга,
которую я купил вчера, была интересной (это — конкрет­
ная книга, которую говорящий выделяет из класса ей по­
добных).
Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляе­
мыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с един­
ственным, так и с множественным числом.
Например:
This is a book. The book is interesting, (исчисляемое в
единственном числе)
This is meat. The meat is fresh, (неисчисляемое)
These are books. The books are good, (множественное
число)
Определенный артикль употребляется:
а) когда известно (из контекста, из окружающей обста­
новки) о каком предмете (предметах, явлениях) идет речь:
Take the booh, please.
б) когда речь идет о единственном в своем роде предме­
те или явлении: The Sun is in the centre of the solar system.
в) когда существительное имеет ограничивающее опре­
деление, чаще всего с предлогом of.
We don't know the properties of this substance.
г) в словосочетаниях типа in the north, to the west, at
the cinema, the same, in the country, the rest of the ...
д) если перед существительным стоит прилагательное в
превосходной степени '
This is the most interesting book.
С географическими названиями и с именами собствен­
ными, артикль, как правило, не употребляется, кроме
следующих случаев:
а) с названиями морей, рек, океанов, горных хребтов,
групп островов используется определенный артикль: the
Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the British Isles.,
б) определенный артикль используется с несколькими 1
названиями стран, областей и городов: the Ukraine, the
Crimea, the Caucasus, the Netherlands, the Hague, the
Riviera, the Congo, the West Indies
Revision course I 341

в) определенный артикль используется с названиями


стран, состоящими из 2 и более слов:
the Russian Federation, the United States o f America,
the United Kingdom.
г) перед собирательным именем семьи The Petrovs —
Петровы
Артикль не нужен в сочетаниях со словами next и last
типа:
next week, next year, last month, last Tuesday

Задание 2.17 Вставьте артикли a, an, the где они


необходимы.
1. Last week I met m y ... friend. He was w ith... young girl.
... girl was a student o f our ... University. 2. This is ... pencil.
... pencil is red. 3. She is ... teacher. She is our ... teacher of
English. 4. It is ... lake. ... lake is deep. It’s one of ... deepest
lakes in ... world. 5. There are ... many flowers in your
garden. ... flowers are beautiful. 6. Did you write ... plan?
Give me your ... plan, please. 7. ... Black Sea is in ... South of
Russia. 8. This is ...Nick. He works as ... engineer. He is ...
good engineer. 9. There are ... some schools in our street. ...
schools are new. 10. Yury Gagarin was ... first cosmonaut of
the world. 11. In summer ... sky is blue and ... sun shines
brightly. 12. ... Petrovs are very friendly. 13.This is ... Ann’s
book. 14.... winter begins in December. 15. W h a t.. fine day
it is today! 16.... History and ... Computer Science were ... my
favourite subjects a t ... school. 1 7 .1 don’t know ... way to ...
station. 18, He is ... engineer by ... profession. 19. Usually I
get up at ... 7 o’clock in ... morning. 20. Will you have ...
cup of ... tea? 21.... Warsaw is ... capital of Poland. 22. This
is b o o k ,... book is very interesting. 23. Do you see ... sun
in ... sky today? 24. He is ... engineer by ... profession. 2 5 .1
went to ... Smirnovs, but they were not a t ... home.

Задание 2.18 Вставьте, артикль the, где он необходим.


1. Do you live near school?
2. What is largest city in world?
JJ. This street is longest in town.
М2 | Практический английский дли юристов

4. Next year we’ll go to ШаекSea coast.


5. Who was first; man to fly into space?
8. What city is capital of United States?
7. What did you have for lunch?
S. Take pen and make exercise in m itten form.
9. In spring sky is blue and sun is shining.
10. Peter is tallest in cfoea
11. Dictionaries cannot be used at examination.
12. We came into nearest shop.
13. Spring is best time for planting.
14. Rostov is situated on right ЬяЫг of Don.
15. What do you usually have for breakfast?
16. Who is man at table? - He is teacher.

Множественное число существительных


Множественное число существительных, кроме тех, ос­
нова которых оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также
существительных, имеющих окончание -о, образуется пу­
тем прибавления к основе окончания -s:
a h o y - boys, a book - books,
a pen -p en s, a g i r l - girls.
Множественное число существительных, основа которых
оканчивается на -eh, -s, -ss, -sh, -x, а также имеющих окон­
чание -о, образуется путем прибавления окончания -esi
a bench скамейка - benches
a bus автобус - buses
a glass стакан - glasses
a box коробка - boxes
a potato картошка - potatoes
Существительные, оканчивающиеся на-у Гпосле соглас­
ной) во множественном числе имеют окончание -ies:
a baby младенец —babies
a fly муха - flies
a lady леди— ladies
Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -у (после глас­
ной) во множественном числе имеют окончание -я:
a boy - boys a t o y - toys *
Revision course 1 343

Ёсли слово оканчивается на f (-fe), то во множествеп-


ном числе f меняется на т и добавляется -(ее)
о life жизнь — lives a knife нож —knives
fit shelf полка —shelves a wife жена — wives
(исключение; roof крыша - roofs).
Как читаются окончания существительных
во множественном числе?
-s читается как [s] после глухих согласных: books, cats
-s читается как [z] после звонких согласных и гласных:
pens, boys
-es читается как [iz] после s, ss, sh, ch, x, z: boxes,
у после согласных переходит в i+es; city - cities, ladv -
ladies
Ряд существительных образует множественное число
не по общим правилам:
а) изменяется корневая гласная:
a man мужчина —теп мужчина
a woman женщина - women женщины
a foot нога ~ feet ноги
a tooth зуб — teeth зубы
a goose гусь - geese гуси
a mouse мышь —mice мыши
б) добавляется окончание -еп:
ап о х бык —o xen быки
a child ребенок - children дети
в) заимствуются формы единственного и множественно­
го числа из латинского и греческого языков:
a formula —formulae (formulas)
a crisis —crises
a criterion ~ criteria
an index —indices
a bacterium - bacteria
В английском языке есть существительные, которые
имеют одну (общую) форму для единственного и множе­
ственного числа:
a deer олень —deer олени
a sheep овца — sheep овцы
344 | Практический английский для юристов

a fish рыба - fish рыбы


a swine свинья —swine свиньи
Некоторые существительные могут употребляться в фор­
ме только единственного либо множественного числа.
Употребляются только в единственном числе
money — деньги
sugar - сахар
hair — волосы
business — дело
information — информация, сведения
fruit — фрукты
progress — прогресс, успехи
news — новость, новости
peace — мир
love — любовь
knowledge — знание, знания
advice - советы
furniture —мебель
luggage —багаж
Только во множественном числе:
clothes — одежда
goods — товары
riches — богатства
thanks —благодарности
manners - манеры
money-деньги
Только во множественном числе употребляются обозна­
чения предметов, состоящих из двух и более частей:
trousers — брюки glasses — очки
scissors — ножницы shorts — шорты
pliers - плоскогубцы

Задание 2.19 Выберите правильный вариант, обра­


щая внимание на исчисляемые и неис^шсляемые суще­
ствительные. I '
1. I'm going to buy new sunglass / sunglasses.
2. He’s going to buy some new trouser / trousers.
Revision course I 345

3. They are going to buy some new furniture / furnitures.


4. His hair_Zhairs is fair.
5. He’s got much information / informations about his travel.
6. They gave us some advice / advices.

Задание 2.20. Перепишите исчисляемые и неисчисля­


емые существительные в 2 столбика и переведите их.
Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money,
idea, family, knowledge, sea, hour, tree, silver, meat,
happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, friend,
milk, student, pen, paper, clothes, picture, air.

Задание 2.21. Напишите следующие существитель­


ные во множественном числе.
Box, sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glasses,
bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge,
month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city,
man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, fish, woman,
money, information.

Задание 2.22. Поставьте существительные в сле­


дующих предложениях во множественное число ( обра­
тите внимание на изменения в местоимениях и фор­
мах глагола to be).
1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very
interesting. 3. A woman, a man, a boy and a girl are the
room. 4 Put this knife on that table.. 5. What is your name?
6. He keeps his toy in a box, 7. This man works at our
office. 8. He has a new suit. 9. The plate was on the table.
10. This town is very large. 11. Is that girl your sister? 12.
I’ll give you my book. 13. This story is good, 14. Is this a
good match? 15. The student put his book on the desk. 16.
That house is new 17. Is this a good student?
346 | Практический английский для юристов

А Задание 2£3. О бразуйт е слож ные сущ ест вит ель­


ны е и переведит е их.
Образец: English, я man —Englishman —англичанин

1) a school, a girl 9) an air, a craft


2) a week, an end 10) a text, a book
3) a bed, a room 11) a house, a wife
4) a birth, a day 12) rain, a coat
5) news, paper 13) a rail, a way
6) a class, a room 14) a sea, a man
7) a tape, a recorder 15) a post, a man
8) a chair, a man 16) a class, a ma

Lesson
O u r country
Ф* Прочитайте новые слова, пользуясь транскрипцион­
ными знаками:

to occupy ['akjupai] зани­ population [ papju'leifan]


мать население
surface [’ safis] поверхность branch Ветвь, отрасль,
area {'еэпэ] площадь отделение
various [ vearias] различ­ to consist (of) состоять,
ный, разный составлять из
numerous ['lymmaras] total f'toutl] весь, целый;
многочисленный общий
condition [kan'difanz] assumption [э'ялтр/эп}
условие, состояние предположение, допуще­
to comprise [kam'prai] ние
включать, заключать в to cover t'kava) накрывать,
себе, содержать закрывать, покрывать,-,-,
to belong [bi'lorjJ принадле­ square [ skwca) квадрат, ,,,
жать квадратный, площадь
power ['paua] сила, мощ­ triangle ['traiaspgl] треу­
ность; власть гольник
Revision course | 347
structure {'яглк$э] конст­ (to) point [’paint] точка,
рукция, здание, сооруже­ место, пункт; указывать
ние circle [sa:ki] круг, окруж­
mainly [ meinli] главным ность
образом, в основном product ['prodAkt] продукт,
addition [a'dr/эп J добавле­ продукция, изделие,
ние, прибавление, товары
to surround [sa'raand] ок­ quality [ kwolrti] качество
ружать quantity ffewontm] количе­
side [said] сторона; край ство

А Задание 3 .L Заполните пропуски новыми словами:


1. A football team ... o f eleven players. 2. The ... area o f
the Earth surface is about 500 million square kilometers. 3.
W e never see the other of the Moon from the Earth. 4. In
winter the sky is often ... with clouds. 5. Legislative ...
belongs to State Duma. 6. The motor is small but it has
large .... 7. The ... o f China is the largest in the world. 8.
Large banks have... abroad. 8. Moscow University ... several
buildings. 10. There were small waves on the ... o f the lake.
11. The arrow of compass always ... to the North. 12. The
orbits of planets are either ... or ellipses. 13. Britain imports
a lot o f food .... 14. ... experiments were made to confirm
the new theory. 15. The sound of this stereo player Ьяя
high .... 16. Oil is exported from the country in large ....
17. Knowledge of English is a necessary ... o f employment.
18. School subjects ... physical training. 19. Alaska ... to
the United States of America. 20. Plane geometrical figure
with three sides is called a ,... 21. There is a fountain in the
cen tral... of the town. 22. Russia has the largest „ in the
world. 23. We study ... subjects at the University. 24.
Ostankino TV tower is the highest ... in Moscow. 25. The
rain in Spain falls ... in the plains. 2 6 . _, subtraction,
multiplication and division are the four rules of Arithmetic.
27. The Earth is .„ by atmosphere. 28. The experiment
showed that the ... was right.
348 I Практический английский для юристов

Задание 3.2 П рочит айт е сл едую щ и е слова, п ол ьзу­


я сь знакам и т ранскрипции, и найдит е и х р у сск и е эк ­
вивалент ы:
address [a'dres] autonomous [o: tonemas]
association [a.sousi'eijn] political [po'litikol]
attack [s'taek] cultural ['kAltfaral]
banana [Ьэ'патэ] official [a'ftjalj
platform fplastfo:m] electrical [iTektrikal]
tropical ['tropikal] ■ constitutional [,konsti'tju:/anI]
territory ['teritanj national ['neejbnl]
flora ['fb:raj symbol ['simbal]
fauna [Ъ:пэ] federation [,feda'reifon]
zone [zoun] cooperation (kou.opa'reijan]
climate ['klatmit] mineral ['mineral]
arctic ['a:ktik] architecture ['cukitektfa]
continent t'kontment] architect ['mkitekt]
subtropical ['sAb'tropikol] monument/ ' monjumant]
metal ['metl] ocean t'oujan]
orbit ['o:bit] textile ['tekstail]

ЕЙ TEXT 1
THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The Russian Federation is my Homeland. It is the largest
country in the world. It occupies about 1/7 (one-seventh) of
the Earth surface. The country is situated in Eastern Europe,
Northern and Central Asia. Its total area is over 17 million
square kilometres.
Our land is washed by 12 seas, most o f which are the seas
of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. In
the south and in the west the country borders on fourteen
countries. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There are no countries in the world where such a great'
variety of flora and fauna can be found as in our land. Oup
country has numerous forests, plains and steppes, taiga and
tundra, highlands and deserts. The highest mountains in our
land are thp Altai, the Urals and the Caucasus. There are
over two thousand rivers in the Russian Federation. The
Revision course 1 349

longest of them are the Volga, the Ob’, the Yenisei, the Lena
and the Amur. Our land is also rich in lakes with the deepest
lake in the world, the Baikal, included. .
On the Russian territory there are 1 1 'time zones. The
climate conditions are rather different: from arctic and
moderate to continental and subtropical. Our country is one
o f the richest in natural resources countries in the world: oil,
natural gas, coal, different ores, ferrous and non-ferrous
metals and other minerals.
The Russian Federation is a multinational state. It comprises
many national districts, several autonomous republics and
regions. The population o f the country is about 140 million
people.
Moscow is the capital of our Homeland, It is the largest
political, scientific, cultural and industrial center of the country
and one of the most beautiful cities on the globe, Russian is
the official language of the state. The national symbols of the
Russian Federation are a white-blue-red banner and a double­
headed eagle.
The Russian Federation is a constitutional republic headed
by the President. The country government consists of three
branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The President
controls only the executive branch of power —the government,
but not the Supreme Court and Federal Assembly.
The legislative power belongs to the Federal Assembly
comprising two chambers: the Council of Federation (upper
Chamber) and the State Duma (lower Chamber). Each chamber
is headed by the Speaker. The executive power belongs to the
government (the Cabinet o f Ministers) headed by the Prime
Minister. The judicial power belongs to the system o f Courts
comprising the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and
federal courts. Our country has a multiparty system.
; The foreign policy of the Russian Federation is that o f
international cooperation, peace and friendship with all na­
tions irrespective of their political and social systems.
350 1 Орджтмчесжий английский для юристов
Г *> т»

Ш ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ СЛОВАПь

Eastern t'bstsn] восточный ferrons and non-ferrous me­


Northern ['пз;йзи] северный tals черные й цветные ме­
to bonier о » [Ttoida} грани­ таллы
чить с banner [Ьаепэ] знамя, флаг
plain f'plem] равнина legislative t'ledjislativ] зако­
steppes степи нодательный
taiga ['taiga:] тайга executive [ig'zekjutw] испол­
нительная
highlands горные возвышен­
judicial [tfpr'dijl] судебный
ности Federal Assembly Федераль­
desert f'dezat] пустыня ное Собрание
the Urals ['juaralz} Уральс­ die Council [ kaunsl] o f
кие горы Federation Совет Феде­
the Caucasus ['kahasas] Кав­ рации
каз State Duma ['djuima] Госу­
moderate ['modontj умерен­ дарственная Дума
ный Supreme Court [sja:'pri:m
natural resources [ri'srxsiz] kcct] Верховный суд
природные богатства foreign ['form] policy между­
Coal ['koul] (каменный) уголь народная политика
ore [з:] руда irrespective o f [yiris'pektiv]
state ['steit] государство независимо от

& Задание 3.3. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. Is Russia the largest country in the world?
2. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation?
8. How many countries have borders with Russia?
4. Are Russian flora And fauna various?
5. What are the highest mountains in Russia?
6. What is Baikal famous for?
7. What is the climate in Russia like?
8. What is the national symbol of Russia?
What does the Federal Assembly consist of?
IQ. Who is the head of each Chamber of the Federal Assembly?

0 ^ Задание 3.4. Переведите на английский язык:


-1. Общая площадь Российской Федерации составляет бо­
лее 17 миллионов километров.
Revision course } 351

2. В мире »е т стран с такой разнообразной флорой и фау­


ной.
3. Озеро - самое глубокое озеро на земном пире.
4. На территории Российской Федерации 11 часовых по­
ясов.
б. Россия является конституционной республикой, с пре­
зидентом во главе.
6. Законодательная власть принадлежит Федеральному
Собранию, состоящему из двух палат.
7. Президент контролирует только исполнительную ветвь
власти.

0 ^ Задание 3.5. Ответьте на вопросы:


What is (are)?
•the biggest lake on the territory of Russia?
•the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts
of the Russian Federation)?
• a city with subtropical climate?
• cities with arctic climate?
• agricultural regions?
•old historical cities?
•places of recreation and tourism?

^Безличны е и неопределенно-личные предложения


Английские предложения отличаются от русских тем, что
в них всегда есть подлежащее и сказуемое. Поэтому в без­
личных предложениях, когда нет подлежащего, использует­
ся в качестве формального подлежащего местоимение it.
It is cold today. Сегодня холодно.
It rains. Идет дождь
Как видим, безличные предложения такого типа состо­
ят из местоимения Н, которое не переводится, глагола-
связки в нужном по смыслу времени и и—виной части ска­
зуемого, выраженного чаше всего именем прилагательным.
Именная часть может быть также выражена именем суще­
ствительным или именем числительных.
352 | Практический английский для юристов

It’s nice to meet you. Приятно познакомиться,


ft is nine o’clock now. Сейчас девять часов.
Очень часто безличные предложения описывают явле­
ние природы, состояние погоды, обозначают время, рас­
стояние.
Вопросительная и отрицательная формы безличных
предложений образуются по тем же правилам, что и воп­
росительные и отрицательные формы предложений с имен­
ным составным сказуемым.
Is it cold? —Холодно?
Wasn’t it interesting? - Разве это не было интересно?
Isn’t it funny? —Разве это не смешно?
Частица not ставится после первого вспомогательного
глагола.

QjSfc Задание 3.6. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Сегодня холодно. 2. Идет снег целый день. 3. Сейч
утро. 4. Выло приятно познакомиться с вашим другом, б.
Поздно. Пора спать. 6. Разве это не смешно? 7. Сейчас
уже 10 часов утра. 8. На улице холодно? 9. Сейчас ран­
няя весна, но уже тепло. 10. Это далеко отсюда?

Основные типы вопросов в английском языке


1. Общий вопрос.
Общий вопрос относится ко всему предложению в це­
лом, и ответом на него будут слова yes или по:
Do you like ice-cream? - Yes, I do.
Can you speak English? —Yes, 1 can.
Are you a schoolboy? — No, I am not.
Have you bought a text book? — Yes, I have.
Порядок слов в общем вопросе.
1) вспомогательный (модальный, глагол-связка) глагол,
2) подлежащее (существительное или местоимение),
3) Смысловой глагол (или дополнение).
2. Специальный вопрос.
Специальный вопрос относится к какому-нибудь члену
предложения или их группе и требует конкретного ответа:
What is your name? —My name is Peter.
Revision course I 353

Where do you live? —I live in Rostov.


Специальный вопрос всегда начинается со специально­
го вопросительного слова:
who (кто) where (где)
whom (кого) why (почему)
what (что) how long (как долго)
which (который) how many (сколько)
whose (чей) how much (сколько)
when (когда) how (как)
Порядок слов в специальном вопросе.
1) вопросительное слово (what, where, who, when, how
и т. д.),
2) вспомогательный (модальный, глагол-связка) глагол.
3) подлежащее,
4) смысловой глагол,
5 ) дополнения,
6) обстоятельства (места, времени, образа действия и
т.Д.)
В специальных вопросах, обращенных к подлежа-щему
в формах Present и Past Indefinite, не употребляется вспо­
могательный глагол to do ( did) и сохраняется прямой по­
рядок слов:
Who wants to go to the cinema?
Whose pen is it?
Who lives here?
3. Альтернативный вопрос.
Альтернативный вопрос предполагает выбор из двух
возможностей:
Do you like coffee or tea? - Вы любите кофе или чай?
Альтернативный вопрос начинается как общий вопрос,
затем следует разделительный союз or и вторая часть воп­
роса.
4. Разделительный вопрос
Разделительный вопрос состоит из двух частей. Первая
часть —это повествовательное предложение (утвердитель­
ное или отрицательное), вторая, отделенная занятой от
первой, - краткий вопрос, который на русский перево­
дится не правда ли? не так ли?

12, Зак Я73


354 | Практический английский для юристов

You are an engineer, aren't you? - Вы инженер, не прав­


да ли?
You aren't an engineer, are you? - Вы не инженер, не
так ли?
В кратком вопросе повторяется вспомогательный, мо­
дальный или связочный глагол предложения, содержаще­
го заявление. Если сказуемое предложения выражено гла­
голами to be или to have, то повторяются эти глаголы.
Не is reading, isn’ t he? Он читает, не так ли? (Повторя­
ется вспомогательный глагол.)
Не can read, can't he? Он умеет читать, не так ли?
(Повторяется модальный глагол сап.)
Не is a good specialist, isn’t he? Он хороший специа­
лист, не так ли? (Повторяется связочный глагол to be.)
Не has a book, hasn’t he? У него есть книга, не так ли?
(Повторяется глагол to have, употребляемый как смысло­
вой глагол.)
Если в повествовательной части разделительного вопроса
содержится утверждение, то во второй - отрицание.
Если в повествовательной части —отрицание, то во вто­
рой части, как правило, - утверждение:
Не is there, isn’t he? Ои там, не так ли?
Не isn’t there, is he? Он не там, не так ли?

Задание 3,7. Прочтите и переведите нарусский язык.


Поставьте к каждому предложению разделительный
вопрос.
1. She is a student.
—Is she a student?
“ Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t.
2. He speaks English well.
—Does he speak English well?
—Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.
3. They have many books.
—Have they many books?
—Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t.
4. The weather was fine yesterday.
—Was the weather fine yesterday?
—Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t.
Revision course | 355

5. We saw a new film yesterday.


— Did we see a new film yesterday?
— Yes, we did. / No, we didn’t.
6. You can read well.
—Can you read well?
—Yes, you can. / No, you can’t.
7. There will be five lessons tomorrow.
—W ill there be five lessons tomorrow?
—Yes, there will. / No, there will not (won’t).

Задание 3.8. Поставьте к следующим предложени­


ям вопросы:
1. Общие
2. Специальные
3. Разделительные
l.There is a book on the table. 2. He must work hard
; today. 3. We are leaving for Moscow next week. 4. We were
reading the whole evening. 5. They don’t go to work on
■Sunday. 6. It is not cold today. 7. Ann has already begun to
read a new book. 8. We learned German at school. 9. They
will show you how to get there.

Задание 3.9. Составьте письменно общие вопросы


к следующим предложениям:
1. Our teacher knows several foreign languages, 2. He
has graduated from our University last year. 3. We shall go
to Samara next week. 4. they are working in the garden. 5.
I have just read this book. 6. I took this book from my
friend. 7. He likes reading books. 8. She has many relatives
abroad. 9. They were in many countries. 10. Russia is the
largest country in the world.

12'
356 | Практический .английский для юристов

Числительные обозначают количество предметов или


порядок предметоВ'При счете.
Числительные делятся на количественные, отвечающие
на вопрос «сколько?» и порядковые, отвечающие на воп­
рос «который?».
Количественные числительные от 13 до 19 образуются
прибавлением суффикса -teen к основе.
Числительные, обозначающие дееятки, имеют суффикс
-ty. Порядковые числительные кроме первых трех (first,
second, thirds образуются прибавлением суффикса -th или
-eth к соответствующим количественным числительным.
Существительные с порядковыми числительными всегда
употребляются с определенным артиклем.

Количественные Порядковые
СКОЛЬКО? КАКОЙ ПО СЧЕТУ?
1 one — один the first первый
2 two —два the second второй
3 three —три the third третий
4 four —четыре the fourth четвертый
5 five the fifth
6 six the sixth
7 eeven the seventh
8 eight the eighth
9 nine the ninth
10 ten the tenth
11 eleven the eleventh
12 twelve the twelfth
13 thirteen the thirteenth
14 fourteen the fourteenth
15 fifteen the fifteenth
16 sixteen the sixteenth
17 seventeen the seventeenth
18 eighteen the eighteenth
19 nineteen the nineteenth
20 twenty the twentieth
Revision course I 357

Десятки: Составные числительные:


20 twenty-the twentieth twenty-one —
the twenty-ferst
30 thirty —the thirtieth twenty-two —
40 forty —the fortieth the twenty-second
60 fifty - the fiftieth thirty-three —the thirty-third
60 sixty —the sixtieth forty-four —the forty-fourth
70seventy-the seventieth fifty-five —the fifty-fifth
80 eighty - the eightieth sixty-six - the sixty-sixth
90 ninety - the ninetieth
Числительные от 100 и больше:
100 — a (one) hundred 100th —the hundredth
101 — a (one) hundred 101st - the one hundred
and one . and first
200 — two hundred 200th —the two hundredth
1000 — (one) thousand 1000th - the thousandth
1001 — a (one) thousand and one
5,550 —five thousand five hundred and fifty
5,000,000 — five million
1500 —fifteen hundred
Числительные hundred, thousand, million не имеют окон­
чания -а, когда перед ними стоит другое числительное.
Когда числительные обозначают неопределенное количе­
ство, они употребляются во множественном числе с окон­
чанием -s, за которым следует предлог of.
hundreds of books two hundred books
thousands of books five thousand books
millions of people 2 million people
Номера страниц, домов, квартир, транспорта, обознача­
ются не порядковыми, а количественными числительными.
В этих случаях существительные употребляются без артик­
ля: page 15, house 40, flat 13, bus 72.

Задание 3.10. Прочтите по-английски:


1. Количественные числительные:
3, 5, 11, 12, 13, 24, 69, 325, 1005, 530425, 1.745.033.
2. Порядковые числительные:
1,- 2, 15, 23, 84, 149, 150, 208, 1000, 2.000.000,
358 | Практический английский для юристов

Как читаются математические выражения?


(х) —multiply, times
(:) - divide, divided by
(+) - add, sum up, plus
(—) —subtract, minim
(“ ) —equals, is equal, makes
2s —two in the second power
Как читаются даты?
Числительное, обозначающее год, делится на две части
—число сотен, а затем —число десятков и «у п т т т
1900 - nineteen hundred, in (the year) nineteen hundred
2000 —two thousand, in (the year) two thousand
1905 - nineteen five, in (the year) nineteen five
Даты можно читать так:
April 12, 2001
1) on the twelfth of April, two thousand one
2) on April the twelfth, two thousand one

A Задание 3.11. Напишите цифрами следующие даты:


a) The first of March nineteen seventy-six,
b) The fifth of December two thousand.
c) The sixteenth o f May nineteen five.
d) The third of July nineteen hundred.

Задание 3.12. Напишите по-английски:


1) 7 марта 1999 года; 2) 1 сентября 1974 года; 3) 22
апреля 1911 года; 4) 11 марта 1951 года; 5) 12 декабря
2024 года.

Как читаются дробные числительные?


Простые Дееятнчиые
1 /2 -а (one) half; 0.1 -0[ou] point one

1/4 —a (one) quarter 2.45 — two point four five


2/3 —two thirds 85.25 —three five
(или thirty- five) point
two five
1 .5 - one mid a half
Revision course 1 359

r
УР. Ш TEXT 2

p. -
MOSCOW
Moscow was founded in 1147 by the prince Yuri Dolgoruky.
, Moscow is the capital and the largest city of Russia. It is also
the capital of Moscow region. It stands on the banks of the
Moskva River. More than nine million people live in the city.
Moscow is the economic, political and cultural centre of Russia,
Railways and numerous airlines link the city with all parts of
-Russia. Moscow Canal, the Moskva River, and Volga-Don
Canal link Moscow with the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, the
; Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov.
Moscow covers the area o f about 880 square kilometres,
й Concentric boulevards divide the city into several sections.
к A t the centre of the concentric circles are the fortress Kremlin
£ and the Red Square.
The K re mlin has the shape o f a triangle with one side
;; along the north bank of the Moskva River. A stone wall, up
to 21 metres in height with 19 towers, surrounds this
P triangular complex of former palaces, cathedrals, and other
: monuments. The Great Kremlin Palace, completed in 1849,
; is the most impressive structure inside the Kremlin. Other
famous Kremlin palaces are the Granovitaya Palace (built in
;? 1491) and the Terem (built in 1636).
£ Among many cathedrals, now used mainly as museums,
: are the Cathedral o f the Assumption (Успения) and the
Archangel [,ш к'етф э1] Cathedral, each with five gilded
domes, and the Cathedral of the Annunciation [,эплпл81'е1|п]
f (Благовещения) (built in 13th—14th century), with nine gilded
P domes. The bell tower of Ivan the Great has the height of 98
metres. On a nearby pedestal is the Tsar Bell (nearly 200
|£ tons); one of the largest in the world. A recent addition to
£ the Kremlin is the Palace of Congresses, completed in 1961.
£ St. Basil’s Cathedral, a masterpiece of Russian architecture
£ with coloured domes, stands at one end of Red Square and at
£.■ the other end there is Historical Museum -
I Other points of interest in Moscow include the Central
f Lenin Stadium, comprising about 130 buildings for various
360 | Практический английский для юристов

sports and the tall Ostankino TV tow-er, which contains a


revolving restaurant and an observation platform. Moscow
has a modern railway underground system (Metro) famous
for its marble-walled stations.
Moscow is a scientific and cultural center with a lot of
institutes, universities, libraries and museums. The city leads
a vast cultural life. It has a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert
halls, more than 40 drama and musical theatres, including
the Bolshoi Theatre, the Art Theatre, the Maly Theatre, the
Vakhtangov Theatre.
Muscovites are proud of their museums: the Tretyakov
Art Gallery, the A. S. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the
State Historical Museum. Crowds o f people visit Tretyakov
Gallery to see beautiful pictures of Russian painters.
There are a lot of big plants and factories in Moscow.
Among the products are aircraft, high-quality steel, ball
bearings, cars and other motor vehicles, machine tools, electrical
equipment, precision instruments, radios, chemicals, textiles,
shoes, paper, furniture. Food processing, printing, and the
repair of rail equipment are important industries.

E 2 Д о п о лн и тель н ы й словарь :

airline ['eslainj авиалиния vast [va:st] обширный


capital ['k®pitl] столица printing [ printiq] печата­
prince [pnns] князь ние, печать
bank [bsepk] берег (реки) machine tool [ma'Ji:n'tu;l]
cathedral [ks'Shdral] кафед­ станок
ральный собор precision instruments
masterpiece ftmnstapis] [рп'язэп] точные приборы
шедевр repair [п'реэ] ремонт
palace ['pairs] дворец observation [.obzsi'vei/sn]
fortress ['foitnsj крепость наблюдение
bell tower [Чаиэ] колоколь­ rail ['reil] рельс, железно­
ня дорожный путь
dome ['doom] купол ball bearing ['bcsrrq]
crowd ['kraud] толпа шарикоподшипник
scientific [saian'tifik] processing ['prousesip]
научный обработка
marble ['ma:bl] мрамор furniture ['famitfo] мебель
Revision course I 361

'iglKt ~Задание 3.13, Ответьте на вопросы:


1. When was Moscow founded?
2. Who founded Moscow?
3. Where is Moscow located?
4. Is Moscow a port city?
5. What is known about Moscow Metro?
6. What are the places of interest in Moscow?
7. Why the Kremlin is the most important place of interest
for tourists?
3 , What cathedrals are situated inside the Kremlin?
9. What is Palace of Congresses used for at present time?

% ВРЕМЕНА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ГЛАГОЛА


Таблица временных форм глагола
П ростое
Длительное Заверш енное
Время Indefinite
Continuous P erfect
(Sim ple)
1 w rite
Н астоящ ее [ am writing 1 have written
Я пашу (вообщ е,
P resen t Я пишу (сейчас) Я (уже) написал
обы чно)

1 w rote 1 w a s writing 1 h ad written


Прошедш.
Я (на) писал Я писал (в тот Я написал (уже
P ast
(вчера) ■момент) к том у моменту)
1 shall/wfll 1 shall/will 1 shall/w ill
Б уд ущ ее write b e writing h a v e written
Future Я напишу, буду Я б уд у писать (в Я напишу (уже
писать (завтра) тот момент) к том у моменту)

Группа временных форм INDEFINITE (SIMPLE)


Формы глагола в Present Indefinite
Утвердительная Вопросительная О тридательная
Ч исло
форма ф орм а форма .

1(you) do not flsk.


1 (you) ask. Do 1(you) ask?
ЕД. He (she, It) does
Не (she, Н) asks. D oss he (she, it) ask?
not ask.
Do we (you, they) W e (you, they) d o
Мн. We (you, they) ask.
ask? notask.
362 | Практический английский для юристов

Глаголы в формах Ь и М вН е (Simple) описывают обыч­


ные, повторяющиеся действия как факт —безотносительно
к их длительности или к результату действия:
J go to school every day.
Для указания на повторный характер действия часто
употребляются слова
every day / week, month, year (каждый день / каждую
неделю, месяц, год), often (часто), seldom (редко), always
(всегда),usually (обычно), never (никогда).
Наречия often, seldom, always, never, usually обычно
ставятся перед глаголом.
В предложениях с глаголом to be эти наречия обычно
ставятся после глагола.
Не is never late for his work. —Он никогда не опаздыва­
ет на работу.

Формы глагола в Past Indefinite


Утвердительная Вопросительная О трицательная
Ч и сл о
форма форма Ф орш

1{you, he, she, it, we, 1(you, i » , she, it,


Е д . и мм. Did 1{you, he. she, ft,
we, they) d id not
they) asked. we, they) ask?
ask.

Отрицательная и вопросительная формы в Indefinite об­


разуются при помощи вспомогательных глаголов do, does,
did с частицей not, краткая форма: don’ t, doesn’t, didn’t.
Порядок слов прямой- Вопросительные предложения обра­
зуются, как правило, простой перестановкой подлежащего
и вспомогательного глагола. Вопросительные местоимения
при этом стоят всегда впереди.
Не is a student. —Is he a student?
We do not write much, - Do we write much?
You have a computer. —Have you a computer? - What
do you have?
She does not live in Moscow. — Does she Hoe in Moscow?
He didn’t like the film. - Did he like the film? - What
film he didn’ t like?
Revision cotHse I 363

| Лравмлы ш е и неправильные глаголы


p R cg u la r and Irregular verbs)
XIo способу образования прошедшего времени все глаголы
в английском языке можно разделить на две группы: пра­
вильные и неправильные. У правильных глаголов вторая и
;; третья формы (Past Indefinite Tense и Past Participle - про-
■ стое прошедшее время и причастие прошедшего дремеид)
совпадают между собой и образуются путем прибавления к
основе глагола окончания -ed (-d):
to ask —asked to change —changed
to receive —received to work— worked
При этом существует ряд особенностей:
а) если глагол оканчивается на -у е предшествующей
согласной, то буква у меняется на i и добавляется оконча­
ние -ed
to supply —supplied to apply — applied
если глагол оканчивается на -у с предшествующей глас­
ной, то буква у не меняется и добавляется окончание -ed
to stay — stayed to play —played
б) если глагол оканчивается на согласную с предше­
ствующим кратким гласным звуком, то согласная на кон­
це удваивается:
to stop — stopped
: После звонких согласных и гласных звуков окончание -
ed или -d произносится как [d] loved, said, а после глухих
согласных как [t] looked.
После звуков [d] и [t] на конце слова окончание -ed (-d)
произносится как [id ] landed, started .
Неправильные глаголы образуют вторую и третью фор­
мы различными способами, без четких правил. Это наибо­
лее часто употребляемые глаголы. В конце книга приве­
ден список часто встречающихся неправильных глаголов.
Формы глагола в Future Indefinite

Ч исло Утвердительная Вопросительная О трицательная


форма' форма форма
lahHaak. Shall task? 1«h a lt not ask.
ЕД- You (he, she, й) « и ; W M yo u (h e , she, It) You {he, she, it) will
aak ask? not ask.
364 J Практический английский для юристов

У тверди тел ьн ая В о п р о си те л ь н а я О три ц а тел ьн а я :


Ч и сл о ф орм а
ф орм а ф орм а
W e shall n o ta s k .
W e shall ask. Shall w e a s k ? .
Мн. You (th e y) will n ot
You (they) w ill ask. Will yo u (they) a sk ?
ask.

Группа временных форм C O N T IN U O U S


Формы глагола в Present Continuous
Ч и сп о У тверд и тел ьн а я В о п р о си те л ь н а я О три ц а тел ьн а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а

Ед. 1 am asking. Am 1 a sk in g? 1 am n o t a sking.


You are asking. A re you a sk in g? You are n o t a sk in g.
He (she, tt) is Is he (sh e, it) a sk in g? H e (sh e, it) Is n ot
asking. . a sking.
Мн, W e (you, they) are A re we (you, they) W e (you, they) are
asking. asking? n o t asking.

Present Continuous употребляется для выражения дей­


ствия, длящегося в настоящий момент или период. Указа­
ние на время типа now (сейчас), at the moment (в данный
момент) может быть либо выражено, либо подразумеваться.
С глаголами, которые обозначают не действие, а состоя­
ние, Present Continuous обычно не употребляется:
to feel (чувствовать) to be (быть, находиться)
to live (жить) to stay (оставаться)
to hear (слышать) to see (видеть)
to know (звать) to remember (помнить)
to think (думать) to want (хотеть)
to like (любить, нравиться) to love (любить)
Формы глагола в Past Continuous
Ч и сл о У тверди тельн ая В ол р о с и т е л ьная О три ц а тел ьн а я
ф орм а ф орм а' ф ерм а ,

ЕД. 1 am asking. Am 1a sk in g? 1 am n o t asking.


Y ou are a sk ing. A re yo u a sk in g? Y ou a re n o t a sk in g.
He (she, It) Is Is he (she, it) a sk in g? H e (she, it) is not
asking. asking-
Revision course I 365

Ч и сл о У тв е р д и те л ь н а я В о п р о си те л ь н а я О тр и ц а тел ь н а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а

Мы. W e (you, they) w e re W ere w e (you, they) W e (you, they) w ere


a sk ing. a s k in g ? n o t a sk in g.

Past Continuous обычно употребляется для выражения


конкретного действия, длившегося в точно указанный мо­
мент или период в прошлом.

Формы глагола в Future Continuous

Ч и сл о У тв е р д и те л ь н а я В о п р о си те л ь к а я О три ц а тел ьн а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а

Ед. I shall b e a sk in g. Shalt l b e a sk in g? 1 shall n ot b e


You (he, she, ft) will Will you (he, she, it) a sking.
b e a sk in g. b e a sk in g? You (he, she, it) will
n o t b e a sk in g,

Mu. W e sh all b e Shall w e b e a sk in g? W e sh all n ot b e


a s k in g . Will you (they) b e . a sk in g.
You (they) w ill b e a s k in g ? You (they) will not
a sk ing. b o asking.

Future Continuous употребляется для выражения дей­


ствия, которое будет длиться в точно указанный момент
или период в будущем.
Глаголы в формах Continuous описывают действие как
процесс, как длительность — в определенный момент в
прошлом, настоящем или будущем:
/ am going to school ( now). —Я иду в школу (сейчас, в
настоящий момент).
/ was reading a book yesterday at 5 o’clock. — Я читал
книгу вчера в 5 часов.
/ will be watching TV tomorrow at 7 o’clock. — Я буду
(смотреть телевизор завтра в семь часов.
■ Помимо этой функции, глаголы в Present Continuous
^выражают действие, отнесенное в ближайшее будущее:
We are leaving for Moscow in July. — Мы уезжаем в
Москву в июле.
366 | Практически» английский для юристов

Группа временных ф орм PERFECT


Present Perfect
Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательно-
го глагола to have в настоящем времени (have, has) и тре­
тьей формы смыслового глагола. В вопросительном предло­
жении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим.
В отрицательном предложении после вспомогательного гла­
гола ставится отрицание not.
Формы глагола в Present Perfect
Ч и сл о У тверд и тел ьн а я В о п р о си те л ь н а я О тр и ц а тел ь н а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а

Ед. ) (you) h a w asked. H ave t (you) a s k e d ? t (yo u ) h a v e n ot


Не (she, it) has asked. Has he (she, It) a sk ed .
asked? He (she, 8) h a s n ot
a sk ed .
Мн. W e (you, they) have H ave w e {you, they) W e (yo u , th e y) h av e
asked. a sk ed ? n o t a sk ed .

Past Perfect
Формы глагола в Past Perfect
Ч и сл о У тверди тел ьн ая В оп р оси тел ь н а я О тр и ц а тел ь н а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а
и I (у о ц h e, she, it, H ad I (you, he, she, it, 1 (you, he, sh e , it, w e,
ЫН. we, they) had w e, they) a s k e d ? they) h ad n o t a sk ed .
asked.

Past Perfect употребляется:


а) для выражения действия, завершившегося до како­
го-либо момента или другого действия в прошлом: Не had
read the book by 10 o’clock yesterday. Он прочел книгу до
десяти часов (к десяти часам) вечера.
When we came to the airport the plane had already
landed. Когда мы приехали в аэропорт, самолет уже при­
землился.
б) в предложениях, в которых одно Действие заверши^
лось до другого действия, длящегося в прошлом: Н е had
read the book and wa$ watching TV when I came. Когда я
пришел, он уже прочитал книгу и смотрел телевизор. '
Revision couree j 367
Future Perfect
Формы глагола в Future Perfect
Ч и сл о У тв ер д и тел ь н а я В о п р о си т е л ь н а я О три ц а тел ьн а я
ф орм а ф орм а ф орм а
-Е д . 1 shat) h a v e a sk e d . Shaft 1 h a v e a s k e d ? I shafl n o t h a v e
Y ou (he, s h e , it) wHI WIN you (h e, s h e, it) a sk ed .
h a v e a sk ed. have ask ed? Y ou (he, s h e, it) will
n ot have ask ed.
Мн. W e shall h av e Shall w e h a v e W e sh a ll n o t h av e
a sk ed. asked? a sk ed.
You (they) w ill h av e Will you (they) h a v e You (they) will not
a sk e d . asked? h a v e a sk ed .

Future Perfect употребляется для выражения действия,


которое будет происходить до определенного момента или
другого действия в будущем, и завершится или прекра­
тится до него.
Глаголы в формах Perfect выражают действие завершен­
ное, приведшее к определенному результату (или к отсут­
ствию результата). Можно сказать, что с помощью форм
Perfect мы подводим итоги определенному периоду време­
ни, определенных действий. Время подведения итогов —либо
настоящий момент Present Perfect, либо момент в про­
шлом Past P e rfe ct, либо - в будущем Future Perfect.
I have written the letter. (Present Perfect) - Я (только
что) написал письмо (передо мной письмо как результат).
I had written the letter when he came. (Past Perfect) - Я
написал письмо, когда он пришел. (2 действия, одно за­
вершилось раньше другого)
J will have written the letter by 10 o'clock tomorrow.
(Future Perfect) - Я напишу письмо к 10 часам завтра,
(действие завершится к определенному моменту времени в
оудущем).

Задание 3.14. Вставьте to write в нужной форме:


1. We often ... letters to our parents.
2. What ... you ... now?
368 | Практический английский для юристов

3. Yesterday th ey ....... tests from 10 till 12 o’ clock.


4. W h o .......this letter?
5 . 1 ....... some letters last week.
6, W h a t... you ... tomorrow at 10?
7. When I came to her, s h e ....... a letter.
8.... you ... letters tomorrow?
9. I ...n o t ... this letter now. I ....... it in some days.
10. ... he ... his hometask now?
11. W h a t... she ... in the evening yesterday?
12. As a rule, he ... tests well.

^ Задание 3.15. Раскройте скобки, укажите время


глагола:
I. Не (know) several foreign languages.
2 . 1 (learn) English at school.
3. Usually the classes (begin) at 9 o’clock.
4. Our grandparents (live) now in Moscow.
5. He often (visit) them last year.
6. As a rule I (go) to my school by bus.
7. She (work) abroad next year.
8. She (not like) loud music.
9. Your children usually (ask) many questions.
10. At present he (not work) at school.
II . My brother (like) music.
12. What you (do) yesterday?
13. His sister (not go) to the seaside next July.

(Оч Задание 3.16. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скоб­


ках, в нужную форму:
1. Peter and Ann (go) away five minutes ago. 2 . 1 (write)
the letter but I (not send) it. 3. He just (go) away. 4. She
already (answer) the letter. 5. She (answer) it on Tuesday. 6.
I just (tell) you the answer. 7. I (read) that book in my
summer holidays. 8. I (not see) him for three years. I (be)
glad to see him again some time. 11. What you (do)? I (copy)
the text from the text-book now. 12. He (go) to Moscow next
week? 13. When he (arrive)? - He (arrive) at 2.00. 14. You
(switch off) the light before you left the house? 1 5 .1 can’t go
Revision course I 369

out because I (not finish) my work. 16. I already (tell) you


the answer yesterday. 17. What you (do) tomorrow In the
morning?

Задание 3.17. Переведите предложения ни английс­


кий язык, обраиюя внимание на форму глагола сказу­
емого:
1. Я никогда об этом не слышал. 2. Я уже прочитал
в а т е письмо. 3. Вы уже купили новую квартиру? 4. Вы
сделали много ошибок в диктанте, б. Вы когда-нибудь
видели этого человека? 6. В этом месяце я прочитал две
новых книги. 7. Мой друг уехал в Москву неделю назад и
етту не писал мне. 8. Я не видел новых фильмов за после­
днее время (lately). 9. Вы читали сегодня в газете о нашем
новом театре? 10. Вы были когда-нибудь в Лондоне? -
Нет, я поеду туда в этом году. 11. Вы уже прочитали эту
книгу? 12. Я хотел посмотреть этот фильм на прошлой
неделе, но смог посмотреть его только вчера. 13. В буду­
щем году я собираюсь поступать в институт. 14, Ваш сын
уже окончил институт?

Задание 3.18. Переделайте следующие предложения


в вопросительно-отрицательные и дайте краткие от­
веты:
О б р а з е ц : They are at home. —Aren’t they at home? —Yes, they
are. - No, they aren’ t.
Они дома. - Разве они не дома? —Да, они дома. —Нет, они не
дома.

They left for Moscow.


1. He has finished his work.
2. She will visit us on Sunday.
3. She has many relatives,
j \4. His father works here.
5. You know his address.
6. We shall go home together.
7. He can play chess.
8. His friends were playing football.
9. You have done the task.
ЗЯ* I ^М К Ш Ч В С Ш ! английский для юристов

Задацк»с 3.19. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в одно


изпрошедшихбремен:
1. When I (came) the lecture already (start). 2 They {go)
to Moscow some days ago. .3. When I came he (leave), so we
only had time for a few words. 4, When we {come) to (he
airport, the plane already {land). 5. He suddenly (understand)
that he (travel) in the wrong direction. 6. Our teacher (speak)
many foreign languages. 7. Who (speak) now? 3. Where is
Bob? He (play) tennis. 9. I (go) home when we met. 10,
listen, my son (play) the piano, 11. They already (translate)
this text last lesson. 12. You (do) this Упражнение next
week- IS, We (discuss) your plan tomorrow at IQ o ’clock.
14. It (rain) when I went for a walk. 15. What you (do)
here? Ж £ (not, write) at the moment.

Задание 3,30. Приведены способы образования ут­


вердительных и отрицательных форм кратких отве­
тов типа * Я тоже*.
А. Прочтите и переведите предложения.
1. She can swim well. - So, can I.
2. You like to read. - So do I.
3. He is lucky. - So am I.
4. I didn’t see this film. - Neither did he.
5. They haven’t had breakfast. - Neither have I.
€. I don’t work at the office. - Neither does he.
7. He doesn’t understand anything. - Neither do I.
Б. Переведите предложения па английский язык.
1. Я живу в большом городе. —Я тоже.
2. Она - первокурсница. - Он тоже.
3. Я уже сдал экзамен. ~ Я тоже.
4. Мне не понравился этот фильм. - &Гия тоже.
5. Я пойду завтра в университет. ~ Я тоже.
Revision course } 371

Страдательный залог PASSIVE VOICE


Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов об­
разуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to Ье в
соответствующем времени, лице и числе и Причастия II
(Participle Щ смыслового глагола:
Present Indefinite: The letter is written.
Past Indefinite: The letterwits written.
Fnture Indefinite: The letter will be written.

Present Continuous: The letter is being written.


Past Continuous: The letter was being written.
Future Continuous: The letter will be being written.

Present Perfect: The letter has been written.


Past Perfect: The letter had! been written.
Future Perfect: The letter w ill h are been written.
Глагол-сказуемое в страдательно** залоге показывает,
что подлежащее предложения является объектом действия
со етороны другого лица или предмета.
Сравните:
I bought a book. - Я купил книгу.
The book was bought (by me}. - Книга была куплена
(мной).
Глаголы в страдательном залоге на русский язык пере­
водятся
1. глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия страда­
тельного залога:
The letter was sent yesterday. Письмо было послано
вчера*
1. глаголом с частицей -ся (-сь):
This problem was discussed last week. Эта проблема об­
суждалась на прошлой неделе.
, 3. неопределенно-личным оборотом, т.е. глаголом в дей­
ствительном залоге 3 лица множественного числа, типа
«говорят», «сказали»:
English is spoken in many countries. На английском языке
говорят во многих странах.
372 | Практический английский для юристов

4. глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии ис­


полнителя действия):
Pupils are taught at school by the teachers. Учеников
учат в школе учителя.

Задание 3.21. Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаго­


лы в нужные формы страдательного залога:
1. Those books (return) to the library yesterday. 2. The '
paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. 3. Why your
hohie task (not do)? 4. The patient (take) to the hospital
today, and (operate) tomorrow morning. 5. This room (use)
only on special occasions. 6. Litter must not (leave) here. 7.
This newspaper (not read) because the pages (not cut). 8.
Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination. 9. Usually the
experiments (carry out) every day, but they (not carry out)
yesterday. 10. These methods (use) in production. 11.
Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 12. This room
(not use) for a long time.

Задание 3.22. Переведите предложения на английс­


кий язык:
1. Эта книга была прочитана всеми. 2. Письмо будет
отправлено завтра. 3. Ее часто спрашивают? 4. На ваш
вопрос ответят завтра. 5. Текст переводился вчера с двух
до трех. 6. Работа только что закончена нами. 7. Эти
книги будут использоваться до конца года. 8. Телеграмма
уже получена? 9. Мне предложили очень интересную ра­
боту. 10. В нашем городе сейчас строится много новых
зданий. 11. Ключи были утеряны вчера. 12. Делегацию
нужно встретить завтра в 9 часов утра в аэропорту. 13.
Вам сказали об этом? 14. Сотни новых домов будут пост­
роены к концу этого года. 15. Этот текст будет переведен
к 10 часам завтра.
Revision count* I •

Словообразование WORDBUILDING
В английском языке существуют следующие способы
словообразования: словосложение, словопроизводство с
помощью суффиксов и префиксов, и конверсия —переход
слов из одной части речи в другую без изменения формы
слова.
1. Словосложение - это соединение двух слов в одно с
образованием нового слова:
Примеры сложных существительных:
schoolchildren школьники
postman почтальон
newspaper газета
Примеры сложных прилагательных:
waterproof водонепроницаемый
red-hot накаленный докрасна
firstclass первоклассный
Примеры сложных местоимений:
something что-нибудь
anywhere везде
somehow как-нибудь
2. Словопроизводство —это образование нового слова
с помощью суффиксов и префиксов.

Наиболее употребительные
суффиксы и префиксы существительных
Суффиксы
-ег/ог —teacher преподаватель, writer писатель, actor ак­
тер, doctor доктор
-ist —scientist ученый, artist художник
-ment — movement движение, development развитие,
government правительство
-ance —distance расстояние appearance внешность
-(t)ion —revolution революция, translation перевод, operation
действие
-ity/-ty —popularity популярность; honesty честность, ability
способность
3 7 4 I Практачесжия английский для юристов

-hood —childhood детство, neighbourhood окрестность


'Ship —friendship дружба, leadership лидерство
'•ве passage проход, breakage пшюмка
-весе - conference конференция, difference разлячяе
-Лот— freedom «победа,wisdom мудрость
-awm/s»©a —revision пересмотр, diaciMwaon обсуждение
-ness “ happiness счастье, illness болезнь, darkness темнота
Префиксы
re - reconstruction —реконструкция,
со —cooperation сотрудничество, coexistence сосуществова­
ние
die —disadvantage неудобство, discomfort
in - inaccuracy неточность, independence неаа&неимость
mis - misunderstanding, misinformation - Hfyy'paяутдстлтс,
дезинформация
im —impossibility невозможность, impatience нетерпение
on - unemployment безработица, unreality недействитель­
ность
il —illegality незаконность, illiteracy неграмотность.
Наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы глаголов
Суффиксы
en —deepen углубить, lighten осветить, strengthen усилить
fy — classify классифицировать, electrify электризовать,
specify определить
ize —organize организовать, characterize характеризовать,
mechanize механизировать
ate - indicate указать, activate активизировать
Префиксы
со - cooperate сотрудничать
de - decode расшифровать, decompose разложиться
dis —disappear исчезнуть
in ~ input вводить
inter —interact взаимодействовать, interchange взанмоза-
менять
over - overheat перегревать, overhear подслушивать
re —reconstruct восстановить, rewnte переписать
Revises course I 37S

Наибояее^дао*рей«те*>ные
суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных
Суффиксы
-able - comfortable удобный
-al —natural естественный, cultural культурный, territorial
территориальный
-ant —rHgfatrefc №Д8ышнный, resistant стойкий
-ent —dependent зависимый, different различный
.ful —careful осторожный, useful полезный, powerful мощ­
ный
-ible - possible возможный, visible видимый
-ic - atomic атомный, historic исторический
-ive —inventive изобретательный, effective эффективный
-less —hopeless безнадежный, useless бесполезный, homeless
бездомный
-оця - famous известный, dangerous опасный, various раз­
личный
-у —rainy дождливый, unny солнечный, dirty грязный
Префиксы
nil — unhappy несчастный, unable неспособный, uncom­
fortable неудобный
in —independent ч ^ я т и м м , indirect косвенный, invisible
невидимый - _
im —impossible невозможный, imperfect несовершенный
ir —irregular нерегулярный, irrational иррациональный
il —illegal незаконный, illimitable неограниченный
non —non-ferrous цветной
3. Конверсия
Конверсией называется совладение формы и произно­
шения слов, относящихся к различным частям речи:
water — вода (существительное) to water — поливать
(глагол)
limit - предел (существительное) to limit —ограничи­
вать (глагол)
band —рука (существительное) to hand ~ вручать (гла­
гол^ н т.д-
376 | Практический английский для юристов

Задание 3.23. Образуйте новые слова с помощью


суффиксов и префиксов переведите их:
-ег/ог
to teach обучать —teacher учитель
to write -
to weld —
-sion/ssiou/tion
to produce производить —production производство
to discuss-
to include -
-ment
to move двигаться) - movement движение
to develop —
to replace —
-ing
to build строить —building здание
to meet -
to write-

happy счастливый - happiness счастье


ill-
dark —

Задание 3.24. Прочитайте следующие существа•


тельные, укажите, от каких слов они образованы, оп­
ределите суффиксы.
pressure, construction, direction, concentration, collection,
necessity, agreement, difference, drawing

f&k Задание 3.23. Используя известные вам суффиксы


и префиксы, образуйте существительные от следую­
щих слов и переведите их нерусский язык.
1) to sail, to connect, to educate, to build, to create
2) friend, leader, fellow
3) dark, weak, cold, bright, free

Задание 3.26. Образуйте прилагательные от сле­


дующих слов, используя суффиксы и префиксы, и пере­
ведите их на русский язык.
hope, truth, beauty, rain, peace, help, colour, power, joy,
care, use
Revision course I 377

Задание 3.27. Найдите определения следу ющих пре­


фиксов:
1) inter- 2) post- 3) bi- 4) pre- 5) multi- 6) ex-
a) more than one; many
b) later than; after
c) before; in preparation
d) former and still living
e) between; among a group
f) two; twice; double

Задание 3.28. Образуйте новые слова и переведите их:


1) inter- 2) post- 3) bi- 4) pre- 5) multi- 6) ex-
a) ...lingual
b) ...date
c) ...arranged
d) ...national
e) ...director
f) ...graduate
g) ...personal
h) ...husband
i) ...annual
j) ...date

Lesson Д
English-speaking countries

V Пропитайте новые слова, пользуясь транскрипцион


ными знаками;
frequency ['frhkwansi] current ['karantj поток,
частота течение, электр. ток
length Г1ег|0] длина rare [res] редкий, нечастый
width [ wide] ширина mean [mr.n] середина,
density [ densiti] плот­ средний
ность, удельный вес level [ levl] уровень
mild ['maild] мягкий, average ['seventh] обычный,
умеренный средний
Э78 | Практический английский для юристов

approximate [a'praksmut] на, количество, объем,


приблизительный, размер, степень, сумма
примерный to exist [ig'zist] существо­
machinery [ma'jhnari] обо­ вать; жить
рудование; машины to expand [iks'paend] расши­
trade f'treid] занятие, ряться) увеличиваться)
профессия, торговля в объеме, в размерах
peak [pi:k] пик, максимум; mode [moud] метод, способ,
вершина (кривой) состояние, режим
development [di'velapment] item [’aitsm] пункт, отделы
развитие, расширение, ный предмет, изделие
рост, разработка, созда- value ['vselju:] величина,
■ ние значение, ценность
(to) gain [gem] получать, to raise [reiz] поднимать,
приобретать прибыль, повышать
выигрыш, усиление to lower I'loua] снижать,
amount [a'maunt] величи­ уменьшать

( Щ Задание 4.1. Заполните пропуски новыми словами:


1. The ... of the rivers in Great Britain is not very large.
2. The ... of this river is one hundred metres- 3. The ... of
population in Great Britain is very high. 4. The climate of
Great Britain is .... 5. Gulf Stream is a warm ... in the Atlantic
Ocean. 6. Bains are very ... in deserts. 7. Greenwich ... Time
is the standard of time in the world. 8. W ater... at the shore
rises during tide. 0. The ... temperatures in winters in Great
Britain are not very low. 10. The ... radius o f the Earth is
6,300 km. 11. The goods are produced on new .... 12.
Christopher Columbus was a sailor by 13. Chomolungma
is the highest mountain ... on the Earth. 14. The ... of transport
is very important in large cities. 15.. He ... the largest prize
in a lottery. 16. A large ... of work was made with the help of
computer. 17. Man cannot... without water. 18. When air is
warmed it ... and becomes lighter. 19. Air transport is the
fastest... of travel. 20. Automatic lines can produce different?
.... 21. Hie ... o f education grows every year. 22. N e#
methods of work ... the productivity of labour. 23. The usS
o f safety belts in a car „ the danger of heavy road accidents.
- Revision course I 379

% f з « у и 4.2. Прочитайте следую щ ие сл ова, пользу-


я сь знаками транскрипции, и найдит е и х р усск и е эк ­
вивалент ы:
monarchy ['monski] automatic ^bita'maetik]
temperature f'tempn^a] cyelone ['saiklounj
partner ['pa.tna] equator {l'kweita]
continent E'k^Htment] export ['ekspo:tJ
import ['imp3:t] automobile ['оЛэтэиЫ:!]
electronics [ilek'tronrks] business [ biznis]
finance [fai'naens] automatic [.aita'maetik]
gas {g«s] continental [,k.onti'nentl]
commerce ['koma:s] commercial [ko'matjalj

Ш TEXT 1
THEUNITEDKINGDOM
The United Kingdom, officially named the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is an island nation
and constitutional monarchy in north-western Europe. The
пятая «United Kingdom», «Great Britain», and «England»
are often used interchangeably.
Great Britain is the largest o f the British Isles. The island
o f Great Britain has the length o f 974 kilometres and the
width o f 531 kilometres. It comprises England, Scotland and
Wales. Northern Ireland, also known as Ulster, occupies th e .
north-eastern part of the island of Ireland. The total area o f
the United Kingdom is 242,000 square kilometres. Great
Britain is one of the most densely populated countries in
Europe. The population of the United Kingdom is more than
59 million people. The capital and the largest city is London.
The climate of the United Kingdom is mild. The mildness
is an effect o f the warm Gulf Stream. This current brings
warm south-west winds that raise winter temperatures, lower
summer temperatures and bring the cyclones with rains. The
western side of the United Kingdom is warmer than the
eastern; the south is warmer than the north. The mean annual
temperature is 6°C in the far north of Scotland; 1T*C in the
south-west of England. Winter temperatures are seldom below
380 | Практический английский для юристов

-10'С and summer temperatures rarely higher than 32°fe


The sea winds also. Rains fall frequently turning to snow in
the winter. The western side of Britain is much wetter than
the eastern.
Great Britain is one of the world’s leading commercial and
industrialized nations. In terms of gross national product
(GNF) it ranks fifth in the world, with Italy, after the United
States, Japan, Germany, and France.

0 Д о п о лн и тель н ы й словарь :

island nation островное moderate fmadarit] умерен­


государство ный
constitutional monarchy in terms of говора (о чем-
t'maneki] конституцион- либо)
, ная монархия to rank ['raerjk] занимать
interchangeably какое-л. место
[.mta'tfeintfeabli] взаимо­ GNP (Gross National
заменяемо Product) валовой нацио­
prevailing [pn'veihg] нальный продукт.
преобладающий

Задание 4.3. Translate into English.


1. Официальное название Великобритании - Соединенное
Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландия.
2. Британия является конституционной монархией.
3. Северная Ирландия занимает северо-восточную часть
острова Ирландия.
4. Пролив Ла-Манш (English Channel) отделяет Соединен­
ное Королевство от континентальной Европы.
5. Остров имеет длину 974 километров и ширину 531 ки­
лометр.
6. Лондон - столица и самый большой город Англии.
7. Климат Великобритании умеренный. Зимы не холод­
ные, а лето не жаркое.
8. Великобритания - одна из ведущих промышленно-раз-i
витых стран в мире.
Revision course t 381

Задание 4.4. Составьте свой рассказ о Великобри­


тании, используя приводимую ниже информацию, по
следующему плану:
1) Land 2) Climate 3) Population 4) Ethnic groups
5) Economy

LA N D
A r e a - 2 4 1 ,7 5 2 s q km
H ighest Point — Ben N evis 1,343 m a b o v e s e a level
L o w e s t Point — H olm e Fen 3 m b e lo w s e a level

CLIMATE
A v e r a g e Tem peratures
L on don — January 4 T , July 18°C
Edinburgh — January 3 ’ C, July 15°C
A v e r a g e Annual P recip ita tion
L on d o n 590 (rim
Edinburgh 6 8 0 mm

PO PU LATIO N
P opulation — 5 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 {ap p rox im a te figure)
P opulation D ensity — 2 4 2 p e r s o n s / s q km
U rb a n /R u ra l population
9 2 % Urban
8 % Rural
L a rg e s t C itie s
L on don (G reater) 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 (ap p rox im a te figure)
Birmingham 1 ,017,000
■ L eed s 72 4 ,5 0 0
G la s g o w 6 8 1 ,0 0 0
E t h n ic G r o u p s
9 4 ,5 % English, S cottish , W elsh, or Irisn
5 ,5 % Other
Languages
O fficia l L anguage — English
O th er Languages - W elsh , S co ts -G a e lic, oth er m inority lan gu ages
R e lig io n s
5 4 % Anglicanism

1 3 % Roman Catholicism
3 3 % O th er including oth e r P rotesta n t denom inations, Islam, Judaism,
Hinduism and Sikhism

ECONOM Y
G r o s s D om e stic P roduct — US $ 1 ,0 2 3 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
382 | Практический английский для юристов

Agriculture
W h e a t , barley, p o ta to e s , sugar b e e ts , livestock , animal p rod u cts.
Fishing
Mackerel, herring, co d , plaice
Mining
C oai, lim estone, petroleum and natural g a s .
industry
Machinery and transport eqlii p m e n t,fo o d prod u cts,
chem ical p ro d u cts, minerals and metal p rod u cts.
Em p loym e nt S ta tis tic s
5& % T rade and S e rv ice s
2 3 % Industry
1 6 % Business and Finance
2 % Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing
1 % Military and D efen se
M a jo r E x p o rts
in d u stria l a n d e le c t r ic a l m a ch in e ry , a u t o m a t ic d a t a p r o c e s s i n g
eq u ip m en t, roa d veh icles,petroleum .
M a jo r Im p o rts
R o a d v e h icle s , industrial and electrica l m achinery, a u tom a tic d a ta
p ro ce ssin g _equi pment,
petroleum , p a p er and p a p erb oa rd , textiles, f o o d .
M a jo r T ra d in g Partne rs
Germany, the United States, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan

vV
'¥ Функции и перевод слова ONE

1. Слово one, если оно стоит перед личной формой гла­


гола, является формальным подлежащим неопределенно-
личного предложения. В таких предложениях one на рус­
ский язык ие переводится:
One must know for certain what to do.
Нужно точно знать, что делать.
2. Слово one (мн. ч. ones) может употребляться как
заменитель ранее упомянутого исчисляемого существитель­
ного. В этом случае one переводится словом, которое заме­
няет, или совсем не переводится:
I have lost ту реп, I must buy one.
Я потерял ручку, Я должен купить ручку.
Here are some pens. Which ones would you like to buy?
Вот несколько ручек. Какие (ручки) вы хотели бы ку­
пить?
Revision course I 383

Перед one (ones) может стоять артикль the one или


определяющие местоимения this one, another one, the blue
ones. В этом случае на русский язык one обычно не пере­
водится:
J don’t like this pen, show me another one.
Мне не нравится эта ручка, покажите мне другую.
What pens will you buy? ~ The blue ones.
Какие ручки вы купите? - Синие ручки.
Слово one в притяжательном падеже переводится на
русский язык местоимением свой, своя, свое.
One should always keep one's word. Надо всегда дер­
жать свое слово,
One часто употребляется в сочетании с модальными
глаголами:
Оле should be careful when working with chemical
substances.
Нужно быть осторожным при работе с химическими
веществами.
One may work in this laboratory only observing certain
rules.
В этой лаборатории можно работать только при соблюде­
нии определенных правил.

Функции и перевод местоимения that


1 That (those) является указательным местоимением и
переводится тот, та, то, те или этот, эта, это, эти:
That book was published long ago.
Та книга была опубликована давно.
2. That в функции подлежащего или дополнения пере­
водится это:
That is not right. We understood that.
Это не правильно. Мы повяли это.
3. That (those) как заместитель ранее упомянутого су
ществительного либо переводится этим существительным,
либо совсем не переводится:
The height of this new house is larger than that of the
old one.
Высота этого нового дома больше, чем (высота) старого.
384 | Практическим английский для юристов

4. That в качестве относительного местоимения при­


соединяет определительные придаточные предложения, за­
меняет which, who, whom и переводится который, кото­
рая, которое, которые:
The man that is sitting at the table is our teacher.
Человек, который сидит за столом, наш учитель. \
The parts that are used in this machine must be hardened.
Детали, которые используются в этой машине, должны
быть закалены.
5. That в качестве союза присоединяет дополнительные
придаточные предложения и переводится что:
Не said that he would finish his report tomorrow.
Он сказал, что закончит свой доклад завтра.
6. В качестве союза, присоединяющего придаточные
предложения подлежащие и сказуемые, that переводится
то, что:
That he refused any help didn’t surprise anybody.
To, что он отказался от любой помощи, никого не уди­
вило.
7. That в качестве союза, вводящего обстоятельствен­
ное придаточное предложение цели, обычно в сочетаний с
so или in order, переводится для того чтобы или чтобы:
Enough time was given so that (in order that) everyone
could get ready for the examination.
Было дано достаточно времени для того, чтобы все смог­
ли подготовиться к экзамену.
9. That в сочетании с наречием now, переводится те
перь, когда:
Now, that 1 have passed my examinations, Г m free.
Теперь, когда я сдал экзамены, я свободен,

{& Задание 4.5. Переведите следующие предложения,


обращая внимание на значения слов one (ones).
1. These shoes are too large; show me smaller ones, please,
2. One should be very attentive when crossing the street.
3. One never knows the result of the experiment.
4. This computer is more powerful than the one we need.
Revision course I 385

5. This antenna allows one to receive very weak signals.


6- One can expect better weather in two days.
7. We want to buy a big TV for the sitting room and a
smaller one for the kitchen.
8. One must study hard to pass the examinations.
9. That is clear without explanation.
10. The methods they use are not the ones that lead to
success. ,
11. The more one reads, the more one knows,
121. This dictionary is too small; I’ll need a bigger one.

Задание 4.6. Переведите следующие предложения,


обращая внимание на значения слов that (those).
1. They knew that the new film was a failure.
2. That was the work that they continued to do.
3. That he wanted to stay at his friends a little more
wasn’t a news.
4. She said that she wouldn’t buy the dress that she liked.
5. The question that was discussed at the meeting yesterday
is very important.
6. Those buildings belong to our University.
7. We didn’t expect that all those things were so important.
8. What was that he wanted?
9. The advice that you gave me is very important.

Ш TEXT 2
LONDON
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic
and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the
world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about
8 million.
London is situated on the^river Thames. The city is very
old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally
it is divided into several parts, the City, Westminster, the
West End and the East. End. They are very different from
each other.

13 . 3* 1.273
386 | Практический английский для юристов

The City is the oldest part o f London, its financial and


business centre. N um erous banks, o ffice s and firm s are
concentrated here. Few people live in the City but over a
m illion come to work here. There are two places o f interest in
the City: St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower o f London. St.
Paul’s Cathedral was built in the 17th century by the architect
Christopher W ren. The Tower o f London was built in the
15th century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison.
N ow it’s a museum.
W estm inster is the aristocratic o fficia l part o f London.
There are Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the
Houses o f Parliament along the north bank o f the Thames.
The clock tower o f the Houses o f Parliament is fam ous fo r
its b ig hour bell known as «B ig B en ». W estm inster A bbey is
the place where the coronation o f nearly all k ings and queens
has taken place. Many o f them are buried here as well as
some other fam ous people o f the country.
The W est End is the richest and most beautiful part o f
London. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks
and houses are situated there. There are many tourists there
from differen t countries o f the world.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre o f London, it
was named in the memory o f A dm iral N elson’s v ictory in the
battle o f Trafalgar in 1805. The tall N elson’s Column stands
in the middle o f the square.
The East End is an industrial district o f London. There
are many factories there. It is densely populated by w orking
class families.

Задание 4,7. О т вет ьт е на воп р осы :

1. W hat is the capital o f Great Britain?


2. W hat is London’s population?
3. On what river does London stand?
4. Into what parts is London divided?
5. W h y is the City called the business centre o f L ondon?
6. W hat places o f interest does W estm inster include?
7. W h o was buried in W estm inster Abbey?
8. W hat is the W est End fam ous fo r ?
Revision course | 387

9. Why is the central square in London named Trafalgar


Square?
10. Who lives in the East End?

V*v #

'♦“Сложное дополнение Complex object


Сложное дополнение —это сочетание существительного
или местоимения в объектном падеже (напр. me, him, us,
them) с инфинитивом или причастием I. Существует в трех
основных вариантах:
1. С инфинитивом без частицы to или с причастием I
после глаголов восприятия:
see I saw him drive the car. I saw them working in
the lab.
hear I didn’t hear you come into the room. I heard
her playing the piano.
watch We watched the plane land. We watched the
children playing in the yard.
notice Nobody noticed him go out. He didn’t notice
that happen.
feel She felt somebody touch her hand. They didn’t
feel the train start.

I saw him enter the house. —Я видел, как он вошел в дом.


I saw him entering the house. — Я видел, как он входил
в дом.
В первом случае (вышеперечисленные глаголы с инфи­
нитивом без частицы fo) подчеркивается факт действия,
во втором (эти же глаголы с причастием I) —процесс дей­
ствия.

2. С инфинитивом с частицей to после глаголов


to believe верить, I believe her to be a very good
считать teacher.
to know знать I know him to be a good student.
to want хотеть I want you to help me.
to expect ожидать I expect you to come in time.

13'
388 | Практический английский для юристов

to advise советовать 1 advise you to enter the institute.


to consider считать English climate is considered to be
mild.
to order приказывать He is ordered not to be late.
to allow разрешать They allow to use dictionaries at
the exam.
to find находить I find your story to be very interesting.
would like хотеть, I like you to finish your work.
желать
3. С инфинитивом без чаетицы to после глаголов:
to let Don't let them play in the street.
to make Don’t make me laugh.

Задание 4.8. Раскройте скобки.


1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. Her father mad
her (learn) the lessons. 3. If you want us (make) the work
quickly you should let-us (start) at once. 4. Would you like
me (read) now? 5. They won’t let us (leave) the classroom till
our control work has been checked, 6. He wouldn’t let the
children (play) in his study. 7. Please let me (know) the
results of your exam as soon as possible. 8. He made us
(wait) for two hours. 9. I let him (go) early as he had done
his task. 10. I’d like him (enter) the university but I can’t
make him (do) it. 1 1 .1 want her (learn) English. 1 2 .1 heard
the door (open) and saw my friend (come) into the room. 13.
I heard her (play) the piano. 14. I saw him (go out) of the
house. 15. The teacher advised us (use) dictionaries. 16. Her
father doesn’t allow her (go) to the cinema alone. 17. We
expect oiir basketball team (win) next game. 18. We don’t
want you (tell) anything. 1 9 .1 saw them (open) the window.
20. That is too difficult for you to do, let me (help) you.

A Задание 4.9. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Вы ожидаете, работа будет сделана скоро? 2. Вы
хотите, чтобы мы встретились сегодня? 3. Вы хотите, что­
бы дети играли здесь? 4. Мы ожидаем, что они хорошо
проведут у нас время. 5. Я хочу, чтобы он закончил эту
работу, б. Мы слышали, что она знает, когда мы сдаем
Revision course I 389

экзамен. 7. Вы хотите, чтобы мы обсудили этот воцрос


сегодня? 8. Мы ожидаем, что на этом месте будет достроен
новый дом. 9. Вы хотели бы, чтобы работа была сделана
сегодня?

■V Субъектный инфинитивный оборот


COMPLEX SUBJECT

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот (сложное подлежа­


щее) состоит из
1. существительного в общем падеже или местоимения
в именительном падеже и
2. глагола (обычно в страдательном залоге) + инфинитив.
Оборот переводится на русский язык придаточными
предложениями.
Не is known to be a good engineer. Известно, что он
хороший инженер.
Не is said to have graduated from the University. Гово­
рят, что он закончил университет.
The experiments were reported to be successful. Сообщи­
ли, что эксперименты были успешны.
В субъектном инфинитивном обороте могут употреблять­
ся глаголы:
to see видеть
to hear слышать
to say сказать
to expect ожидать, полагать
to think думать, полагать, считать
to report сообщать
to suppose предполагать
to believe полагать
to consider считать, полагать
to assume допускать
to know знать
которые могут стоять в любом времени в страдатель-
ном залоге.
396 Г Практический английский для юристов

Неопределенно-личным предложениям русского языка


в английском языке чаще всего соответствуют ттяссяди^а
обороты, как например: -
Jt is reported that... Сообщается, что
It was supposed that... Предполагали, что ...
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется так­
же в сочетании с некоторыми глаголами, которые могут
стоять в действительном залоге, а именно с глаголами:
to prove, to appear, to seem казаться
to turn dot оказаться
to happen случаться
This picture turned out to be very expensive. Оказалось
что эта картина очень дорогая. ’
The weather appeared to have improved. Казалось, что
погода улучшилась.

Задание 4.10. Переведите на русский язык:


1. The Hammuraby’s Code is considered to be the oldest
written Jaw in the world.
2. The fine appears to be the easiest punishment for
delinquencies.
3. Napoleon is believed to be the author of Napoleon Code.
4. He was seen to come to work early.
5. You are supposed to be able to read English texts without
a dictionary.
6. The punishment is assumed not to exceed a standard one.

Ш TEXT 3
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The United States of America is the 4th largest country in
the world after Russia, Canada and China. The country
consists of 3 parts1
, the continental part is in the center of the
North American continent. The outlying territories are Hawaii
and Alaska. The total area of the United States is over 9 min
sq. km. The country borders on Canada in the north and on
Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.
Revision course 1 391

The country is washed by 3 oceans: The Arctic, the Atlantic


and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, including the
Great lakes and many rivers, the longest of which are the
Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia and others. The highest
mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian, the
Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount
McKinley, is in Alaska.
The climate conditions are rather various. The country is
rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal
and various metals.
The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural
country. The main industrial branches are aircraft, rocket,
automobile, electronics, radio engineering and others. -
Americans are matte up from nearly all races and nations.
The country population is over 250 min. The official language
of the state is English. The national symbol of the USA is the
national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and
13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolizing the number
of the original and present day states.
Officially the country comprises 50tstates and 1 District
of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic
development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of
the USA is Washington. It is situated in .the District of
Columbia on the banks of the Potomac River and is named
after the I е* US President — George Washington, There are
many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles,
Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco, Boston and
some others.
Tim United States of America is a federal state, headed by
the President. According to the US Constitution the powers
of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative,
executive and judicial.
The legislative power belongs to the Congress consisting
of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate
represents the states while the House o f Representatives —
population. The executive power belongs to the President and
his Administration (Vice-President and Cahinet of Ministers).
392 I Практический английский для юристов

The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the


system of federal courts.
There are several political parties in the USA. The largest
of them are the Republican (symbolized by a donkey) and the
Democratic (symbolized by an elephant).
Nowadays the USA is one of the leading powers of the
world due to its economic, political and military influence.

0 Д о п о лн и тель н ы й словарь :

outlying areas внешние тер­ lowlands низины


риторий military военный
aircraft воздушное судно named after названный в
Appalachian Аппалачи честь
Great Lakes Великие озера original первоначальный
Rocky Mountains Скалистые peak возвышенность
горы rich богатый
Sierra Nevada Сьерра-Невада Senate Сенат
Cordillera Кордильеры stars and stripes звезды и
climate conditions климати­ полосы
ческие условия Supreme Court Верховный
District of Columbia округ суд
Колумбия to be located располагаться
donkey осел to be made up from быть со­
elephant ['elifant] слон ставленным, состоять из
frontier граница to belong принадлежать
government правительство to border граничить
House o f Representatives to divide делить
палата представителей to head возглавлять
influence влияние to pass проходить через
leading ведущий to represent представлять
legislative power законода­ to symbolize символизиро­
тельная власть вать

Задание 4.11. Прочтите и переведите следующие пред­


ложения. Согласитесь или не согласитесь с приведен­
ными в них утверждениями.1
1. The USA is the largest English speaking country. (Yes,
it’s right.)
Revision course 1 393

2. It occupies the whole North American continent. (No, it’s


wrong.)
3. The country borders on Russia, Canada and Mexico.
4. The US territory is over 9 min. sq. km. ^
5. There are many lakes and rivers on the territory of the
country.
6. The country climate is rather different.
7. The US is one of the highly developed industrial powers of
the world.
8. There are 2 official languages in the country - English and
French.
9. The national symbol of the USA is the donkey.
10. The capital of the USA is New York.
11. The head of the state is the President.
12. The legislative branch of the US Government is the
Congress consisting of 2 chambers: the House of Lords
and the House of Commons.
13. The President controls all the government branches.

Задание 4.12. Переведите на английский язык:


1. крупнейшая англоязычная страна
2. иметь морские границы
3. занимать центральную часть континента
4. омываться тремя океанами
5. страна рек и озер
6. различные климатические условия
7. богата различными минеральными ресурсами
8. высокоразвитая промышленная держава
9. разные расы и нации
10. официальный язык государства
11. звездно-полосатый флаг
12. назвать в честь первого президента страны
13. исполнительная / законодательная / судебная власть
14. Сенат / палата представителей
15. система федеральных судов,
16. вице-президент / кабинет министров
17. ведущая держава
394 | l арактиче. кий англий'.кий для юристов

0^1 Задание 4.13. Переведите вопросы на английский


язык и ответьте на них:
1. США — одна из крупнейших стран мира, не так ли?
2. Где расположена эта страна?
3. С кем граничат США?
4. Какова территория США?
5. Какими океанами омывается США?
6. Назовите столицу США, Где она расположена? В честь
кого она названа?
7. В США много рек и озер? Какие из них вы знаете?
8. Являются ли США высокоразвитой промышленной дер-
жэвой?
,9. Какие отрасли промышленности США основные?
10. Население США больше, чем население России?
11. Какие крупные города есть в США?
12. Сколько штатов в США?
13. Кому принадлежит законодательная / исполнитель-
- нал / судебная власть в США?
14. Кто является главой государства?

^ ‘ М О Д АЛЬН Ы Е ГЛ А ГО Л Ы И И Х З А М Е Н И ТЕ Л И
Модальные глаголы показывают отношение говоряще­
го к действию, выраженному инфинитивом. Например,
сравните:
You can speak English. Вы можете (умеете) говорить по-
английски.
You must speak English. Вы должны говорить по-анг­
лийски.
You may speak English. Вы можете говорить по-анг­
лийски. (Вас поймут.)
Как видим, в одном и том же предложении изменение
модального глагола меняет смысл всего предложения, т е.
меняется отношение к действию, выраженному инфинити­
вом.
Модальные глаголы не имеют форм во всех временах,
для этого употребляются их эквиваленты (заменители).
Reviston course | 395

Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с мо­


дальными глаголами строятся без вспомогательных глаго­
лов: Can you help те? - Yes, I c a n - No, I can’t. Вы можете
помочь мне? - Да. —Нет.
К основным модальным глаголам относятся:
Модальный глагол сап
сап — мочь, быть в состоянии,
could —прошедшее время
предполагает наличие физической, умственной и про­
чих возможностей, позволяющих сделать что-либо:
I can swim. —Я могу (я умею) плавать.
I could translate this text. - (Я мог, был в состоянии)
перевести этот текст.
Вежливую просьбу можно начинать с модального гла­
гола could:
Could you help me, please! - He могли бы вы помочь
мне, пожалуйста!
В будущем времени у глагола сап есть заменитель —
конструкция to be able to (быть в состоянии что-либо
сделать): I shall be able to kelp you when 1 dm free. — Я
смогу помочь тебе, когда освобожусь.
М о дальн ы й гла го л may
may — иметь возможность, получить разрешение (де­
лать что-либо),
May I help you? - Можно вам помочь? - Yes, you may.
—Да, можно.
Форма прошедшего времени might употребляется для
выражения предположения:
Не might know about it. - Он, вероятно, знал об этом.
В будущем времени у модального глагола may есть за­
менитель - конструкция to be allowed to (получить раз­
решение сделать что-либо).
Не ц>Щ be allowed to take the booh. Ему разрешат взять
книгу.
396 I Практике' кии ажлийс«ии ,v\ .j юристов

Модальный глагол m ust


must —должен, обязан.
You must write it down now. —Вы должны написать это
сейчас. . ;
Заменителями глагола must являются глаголы to have
to и to be to, которые имеют некоторые до-полнительные
оттенки значения. Глагол have to означает долженствова­
ние, вызванное обстоятельствами, вынужденную необхо­
димость, в то время как глагол to be to - долженствова­
ние, связанное с расписанием, планом или заранее сде­
ланной договоренностью.
She had to stay at home, - Она вынуждена была (ей
пришлось) остаться дома.
The train was to arrive at 8 in the evening. — Поезд
Должен был прибыть в 8 вечера. (По расписанию).
После модальных глаголов и некоторых их эквивален­
тов инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.
Заменителями модального глагола must являются так­
же модальные глаголы ought to, should (в значении сове­
та, рекомендации, упрека).
Children ought to obey their parents. - Дети должны
слушать своих родителей.
You should enter the Institute. Вам следует поступить в
институт (рекомендация, совет),
В сочетании с перфектным инфинитивом глагол should
выражает сожаление о невыполненном действии и перево­
дится «следовало бы».
You should have helped them. Вам следовало бы помочь
им. (Но вы не сделали этого).
Модальный глагол should
Модальный глагол should в сочетании с перфектным
инфинитивом should hove done выражает действия, кото­
рые должны были произойти в прошлом, но по каким-то
причинам не произошли, переводится на русский язык
«следовало», «нужно было».
You should have helped, them.
Вам следовало помочь им.
Revision course I 39/

You should have done this.


Вам следовало это сделать, (упрек)
This work should have been done yesterday.
Эту работу нужно было сделать вчера.
Модальный глагол would
Модальный глагол would может иметь следующие зна­
чения:
1) Вежливая просьба. Would you help те? Не поможете
ли вы мне?
2) Повторяемость действия в прошлом. Не would often
help те. Он, бывало, часто помогал мне.
3) Стойкое нежелание совершать какие-либо действия.
Не wouldn’t listen to me. Он никак не хотел слушать меня.
Модальный глагол need
Модальный глагол need - «нужно, надо» употребляет­
ся, в основном, в отрицательных предложениях. You
needn’ t do it now. Вам не нужно делать это сейчас.
Модальный глагол shall
Моттятгьньтй глагол shall употребляется в тех случаях,
когда испрашивается разрешение на совершение какого-
либо действия, и является иногда заменителем модально­
го глагола must. Shall I help you? Вам помочь? Shall we
translate the text? Нам переводить текст?

Задание 4.14. Переведите предложения. Проанали­


зируйте употребление модальных глаголов в следую­
щих предложениях:
1. Who is to answer my question?
2. Nobody could translate this text.
3. He has to do this task at once.
4. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn’t.
5. You should have shown your notes to the teacher.
6 . 1 asked him, but he wouldn’t listen to me.
7. They should have visited her, she was in the hospital.
8. Last summer we would often go to the country.
39$ J Практический английский для юристов

9. Your son could do this work himself.


10. Would you tell me the way to the station?
ll* Your friend might have informed us.
12. May I leave for a while? - Yes, you may.
13. She should be more attentive to her parents.
You needn't come so early,

I * * " ™ 4 1 5' Переедите предложения на русский

. . . W,e 8*аУ at home. 2. He was allowed to take


this book. 3. Who is able to do this work? 4. He had to leave
for Moscow earlier. 5. We are to take exams in June. 6. Are
they allowed to visit you? 7. They were able to do this work
ш time. 8 . 1 11 be able to pass my examinations. 9. She’ll be
allowed to watch TV. 10. I have to come in time. 11 The
tram is to come soon. 12; Will you be able to drive a car?

^ Задание 4.16. Замените модальные глаголы соот­


ветствующими эквивалентами:
1. Не couldn’t explain anything. 2. You must not stay
TW « y0U T ? ml 4‘ You “ “ У teke these books. 5.
They can run quickly. 6. She might work in our room. 7.
Who^an read this text? 8. They must go there tomorrow. 9.
May I go to the cinema? 10. We must meet at 7 o ’clock.

Задание 4.17. Вставьте необходимые модальные


8 Л & З О Л Ы *

“я Ш ‘ оивЫ *°■ to- пеЫп% сап-


1. I ... not go to the theatre with them last night, I ..
revise the grammar rules and the words for the test. 2 My
fnend lives a long way from his office and ... get up early.
1,0 ш time for classes. 4. When my friend has
his English, he ... stay at the office after work. He (not) ...
stay at the office on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday and ...
E j i K y j iarly* 5* "Л you ;** hard to do well in your
English? 6. «... we discuss this question now?» «No, we . . . .
Revision •oursr I ******

We ... do it tomorrow afternoon.» 7. I’m glad you ... come.


8. «... you ... come and have dinner with us"tomorrow?»
«I’d love to.» 9. «Please send them this article.» «Oh, ... I
do it now? »

Задание 4.18. Заполнит с пропуски с о о т в е т с т в у ю ­


щими модальными глаголами:
(m u st, should, would, ought to, h a ve to, needn’ t, can,
could, m a y )
1. They...*, not do this work themselves
2. You ... take my dictionary.
3. You don’t look well, you ... consult the doctor.
4. Why ... I give you my money? .
5. She ... not speak any foreign language.
6. He ... to help them, they need his help.
7. ... you tell me the time?
8. ... I go with you? No, you ... .
9. Your daughter ... have told about it.
10. In winter we ... often skate.
11. You ... hot miss your classes.
10. ... you play the piano before?

Задание 4.19. П ереведит е предлож ения:


1. This building should have been constructed a year
ago.
2. The letter should have been sent long ago.
3. The tests of materials should have been conducted
before their use.
4. We should not have used that sort of steel.
5. This phenomenon should be explained by thermal
expansion.
400 | П ракти чески й английский дли юристов

^ПРИЧАСТИЯ (Participles)

Причастие настоящего времени Participle I


Причастие I (причастие настоящего времени), образо­
ванное при помощи окончания -ing, имеет активную и
пассивную (страдательную) формы:
несоверш енны й вид соверш енны й вид
Active активная asking having asked
Passive
страдательная
being asked having been asked

Причастие I употребляется в функции:


1. Определения: 1
The man sitting at the table is our teacher. - Человек,
сидящий за столом —наш учитель.
The houses being built in our town are not very high, ~
Дбма, строящиеся в'нашем городе, невысоки.
2. Обстоятельства:
Going home I met an old friend. - Идя домой, я встре­
тил старого друга.
Saving finished work I went home. —Закончив работу,
я пошел домой.
Причастие прошедшего времени
(Причастие Н или Participlell)
Причастие П (причастие прошедшего времени) всегда
пассивно. Образуется оно прибавлением суффикса -ed к
ОСВОВ6 ПРАВИЛЬНОГО ГЛАГОЛА ИЛИ ДуТвМ ЧбрбДОВАНЙЯ ЗВУ­
КОВ в корне неправильного глагола.
Причастие II употребляется в функции:
1. Определения.
The book translated from English is very interesting. —
Книга, переведенная с английского языка, интересная.
2. Обстоятельства (причины и времени):
Given the task he began to work. — Когда ему дали
задание, он начал работать.
Revision course I 401

If summoned-, the witness must appearin court.— Если


свидетеля вызвали повесткой, он должен появиться в суде,
Если перед причастием прошедшего времени в функции
обстоятельства стоят союзы if, when, то оно переводится
на русский язык обстоятельственным придаточным пред­
ложением. ,
When signed this paper becomes a document - Эта бума­
га станет документом, когда ее подпишут.
Если причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени стоят
перед определяемыми существительными, то они, утрачи­
вая в значительной степени свое отглагольное значение,
выражают качество и приближаются по значению к обыч­
ному прилагательному: ■
sold goods —проданный товар
Если причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени стоят
после определяемого существительного, то они не выра­
жают качества, а имеют лишь глагольное значение. Такие
причастия могут быть заменены определительным прида­
точным предложением.
instructions received — полученные инструкции (инст­
рукции, которые были получены)

& Задание 4.21. Переведите предложения:


1. We answered all letters received yesterday.
2. The materials used were not of good quality.
3. The witness summoned to the court has been questioned
by the judge.
■ 4. We hope the amount transferred to your bank will be
duly (своевременно) received. _

Герундии (The Gerund)


Герундий - это неличная форма глагола, которая выра­
жает действие как процесс, и образуется прибавлением окон­
чания -ing к основе глагола. Герундий является промежу-
^2 | Практический английский для юристов

точной формой между глаголом и существительным и по­


этому обладает свойствами и глагола й существительного.

Свойства глагола у герундия


1- Герундий имеет следующие формы времени и залога:
Active ° Passive
Indefinite writing b e in g w ritten
Perfect h aving written h av in g b e e n written

Indefinite Gerund выражает процесс в наиболее общем


виде а действие, одновременное с действием глагола в лич­
ной форме.
We prefer using new metods of work.
Мы предпочитаем использовать новые методы рабщ-ч-
We prefer new metods of work being used.
Мы предпочитаем, чтобы использовались новые методы
работы.
Perfect Gerund выражает действие, которое обычно
предшествует действию, выраженному глаголом в личной
форме.
I remember having given this instruction.
Я помню, что дал (давал) это указание.
I remember having been given this instruction.
Я помню, что мне давали это указание.
Чаце всего формы пассивного герундия на русский язык
переводятся придаточными предложениями.
2. Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение:
. We are interested in improving working conditions.
Мы заинтересованы в том, чтобы улучшить условия рабо­
ты (в улучшении условий работы).
3. Герундий может определяться наречием:
We have to insist on your replying promptly. Мы вынужде­
ны настаивать, чтобы вы ответили немедленно.

. Свойства существительного у герундия


1- Герундий может определяться притяжательным место­
имением или существительным в притяжательном падеже:
Revision course I 403

I insist on his (the inspector’s) coming as s o o n as p o s s i b l e .

Я настаиваю на том, чтобы он (инспектор) приехал как


моакно скорее.
2. Перед герундием может стоять предлог:
On receiving a letter we shall immediately take action.
По получений письма мы немедленно примем меры.

Употребление герундия
1. После следующих глаголов без предлогов:
a) to begin, to start, to finish, to stop, to continue, to
keep (продолжать) и др.
Please keep sending us letters at this address. Пожалуй­
ста, продолжайте посылать нам письма по этому адресу. -,
b) to like, to enjoy, to prefer, to mind, to excuse, to
remember, to forget, to suggest, to avoid, to need, to
want, to require и др.
The results need being checked. Результаты необходимо
проверить.
2. После глагола с предлогами:
to apologize for, to thank for, to look forward to; to
congratulate on, to insist on, to depend on, to object to, to
be interested in, to be responsible for и др.
We insised on continunuing the experiment. Мы настаи­
вали на продолжении эксперимента.
3. После сущ ествительного с предлогом: w ay of,
programme of, reason for, process o f и др.
The way of using is indicated in the instructions.
Способ использования указан в инструкциях.
4. После составных предлогов и словосочетаний:
on account o f —ввиду, из-за
because o f — из-за
due to — благодаря, из-за
with a view to — с целью (для того чтобы)
despite — несмотря на
W e could not continue the work because of no rau)
materials being supplied.
Мы смогли продолжать работу из-за отсутствия постав­
ки сырья.
404 | Практический английский для юристов

Герундий употребляется:
1. В качестве подлежащего:
R eadin g is useful. Чтение полезно.
2. Как часть сказуемого после глаголов io finish, to
start, to continue, to go on, to keep и др.
H e sta rted reading the book. Он начал читать книгу
3. Как предложное дополнение:
I am fond o f reading. Я люблю читать
4. Как прямое дополнение:
D o you mind т у reading here? Вы не против моего чте­
ния здесь?
5. Как обстоятельство времени:
A ft e r reading he closed the book. После чтения он зак­
рыл книгу. I
6. Как обстоятельство образа действия:
In stea d o f reading he went to the m ovies. Вместо чтения
он пошел в кино.

Перевод герундия на русский язык


Герундий может переводиться на русский язык:
1. Существительным
W e are interested in b u y in g th ese goods. Мы заинтересо­
ваны в покупке этих товаров.
2. Инфинитивом
E v eryb o d y went on w ork in g . Все продолжали работать.
3. Деепричастием
On c o m in g to the la b o ra to r y he g o t dow n to w ork.
Придя в лабораторию, он принялся за работу.
4. Придаточным предложением
W e reg retted having done it. Мы сожалели о том, что
сделали это.

Ч Задание 4.22. Н ай ди т е
в предлож ениях гер ун ди й и
определите врем я, залог и его ф ункцию . П ер еведи т е
предложения:

1. Would you please stop writing to us at this address?


2. Please, excuse us for waiting too long.
Revision i ourse I 405

3. Some time was lost because of necessary preparing.


4. We are interested in getting the answer.
5. What is the purpose of his going there?
6. I am grateful for his helping me. I am grateful for his
having helped me.
7. We thank you for sending us your letter.

.л,
* Условные предложения
Условные предложения могут быть следующими:
1. Предложения реального условия;
2. Предложения нереального условия. Употребление
глагольных форм в этих предложениях зависит от степени
реальности и времени действия, выраженного глаголом.

Придаточные предложения реального условия


и времени, действие которых отнесено к будущему
В придаточных предложениях условия и времени с со­
юзами
if (если),
when (когда),
after (после),
before (перед тем, как),
as soon as (как только),
unless (если не),
until (до тех пор, пока не),
будущее время заменяется формой настоящего време­
ни, но на русский язык переводится будущим, например:
[ f you help те (придаточное предл. условия), I shall do
this work on tim e (главное предл.) . —Если ты поможешь
мне, я сделаю эту работу вовремя.
As soon as I am free, I ’ll com e to y o u . — Как только я
освобожусь, я приду к тебе.
W e shall not begin until yo h com e. - Мы не начнем,
пока ты не придешь.
406 } Практический английский для юристов

Предложения нереального условия:


сослагательное наклонение
Сослагательное наклонение выражает возможность, не­
реальность, предположительность действия.
Предложения нереального условия:
а) действие относится к настоящему или будущему:
I f I knew his address I would write to him. - Если бы я
знал его адрес (сейчас), я написал бы ему (сейчас или в
ближайшем будущем).
I f the weather were fine he would go to the country.
Если бы погода (сейчас) была хорошей, он бы поехал за
город.
Глагол в придаточном предложении — в форме Past
Indefinite, в главном — в форме Future in the Past.
б) действие относится к прошлому: > ■
I f the weather had been fine yesterday he would have
gone to the country. Если бы погода была вчера хорошей,
он бы поехал за город.
В случае, если действие, описываемое сослагательным
наклонением, относится к прошедшему времени, в глав­
ном предложении используется форма будущего совершен­
ного с точки зрения прошедшего Future Perfect in the
Past, а в придаточном - прошедшее совершенное Past
Perfect.
I f I had known his address I would have written to him.
—Если бы я знал его адрес (в прошлом), я написал бы ему
(в прошлом же).
I wish I lived not far from here, (настоящее время). —
Жаль, что я не живу поблизости. '
I wish I had lived not far from here (прошедшее время).
—Жаль, что я не жил поблизости.

Сослагательное наклонение после глагола wish


Для выражения сожаления, относящегося к будущему,
употребляются сочетания с глаголом could; для выраже­
ния пожелания на будущее, а также жалобы, просьбы или
раздражения, употребляется would.
Примеры:
I wish it were spring now. Мне бы хотелось, чтобы сей­
час была весна. '
Revision course 1 407

I wish I knew her address. Мне бы хотелось знать ее


адрес.
I wish I had made decision yesterday. Жаль, что я не
принял решение вчера.
I wish they would stop tke noise. Мне бы хотелось, что­
бы они прекратили этот шум.

А Задание 4.23. Раскройте скобки.


1. We (plant) the trees when the weather (get) wanner. 2.
I (wait) for you until you (come) back. 3. I’m afraid the train
(start) before we (come) to the station. 4, We (go) to the
concert tomorrow if I (get) the tickets. 5. You (not pass) the
examination if you not (work) much harder. 6. If you (not
drive) more carefully you (have) an accident. 7. You (be) late
if you (not take) a taxi. 8 . 1 (finish) reading this book before
I (go) to bed. Э. You have to (call) me as soon as you (arrive).
10. We (have) a picnic tomorrow if it (be) a fine day- I I . We
(go) out when it (stop) raining. 12. We (not to have) dinner
until you (come). 13. I’m sure they (write) to us when they
(know) our new address.

Задание 4.24. Переведите на русский язык.


1 . I wish you were not late as usual.
2 . I wish the letter hadn’t been so long.
3. I wish you wouldn’t be slow.
4. I wish I could go to my work by car.
5. I wish it would stop raining.

СГЧ Задание 4.25, Переведите на русский язык следую­


щие предложения:
1. If I came later I would be late for the lesson. 2. If he
had known the time-table he wouldn’t have missed the train.
3. It would be better if you learned to drive a car. 3 . 1 wish I
"had known this before. 4 . 1 would have sent a letter to you if
I had known your address. 5. If I had met you yesterday I
would have told you about it. 6. If I were in your place I
wouldn’t buy the tickets beforehand. 7. If I had known that
you needed help I would have helped you.
одержание
От автора........................................................................................... 3

B A S IC CO U R SE [О С Н О В Н О Й К У Р С ]........ .......................... 4
L E S S O N 1. History of the L a v ».......... .......................................4
TEXT 1 ..................................................................................................4
TEXT 2. LAW IN ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME............................7
TEXT 3. HOW DID THE BRITISH LAW DEVELOP?...................... 9
TEXT 4. THE MAGNA CARTA ........................................................ 12

L E S S O N 2. Kinds of L a w ...... .................................................. . 15


TEXT 1. KINDS O F LAW IN THE UNITED S T A TE S ....................... 15
TEXT 2. HOW DO CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS DIFFER?........... 20

L E S S O N 3. Law enforcement and the co u rts ...................... 23


TEXT 1. HOW CAN DISPUTES BE RESOLVED PRIVATELY?......23
TEX T 2. HOW IS THE LAW ENFORCED?..................................... 25
TEXT 3. W HAT IS A COURT?..................................... 28
TEX T 4. W HAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN A CRIMINAL ACTION? . 30
TEX T 5. W HAT IS THE PROCEDURE IN A CIVIL ACTIO N ?.......... 35

L E S S O N A. Criminal prosecution..................................... ....... 39


TEX T 1. HOW IS A CRIMINAL CASE TRIED?......... ...................... 39
TEX T 2. WHO GIVES THE JUDGM ENT?....... ............. ..................42

L E S S O N 5. Classification! of crimes......................................48
TEX T 1. W HAT ARE CRIMES?........................................................ 48
TEX T 2. HOW ARE CRIMES CLASSIFIED?............... ........... ....... 51

LES S O N 6. Punishment for crimes........................................... 62


TEXT 1. W HAT IS THE PUNISHMENT FOR CRIMES?................. 62
TEX T 2. HOW DO CRIMES AND TORTS DIFFER?.......................64
TEXT 3. W HAT ARE SOME COMMON INTENTIONAL TORTS? ... 66
TEXT 4. W HAT IS NEGLIGENCE?...................................................73
TEX T 5. W HAT IS STRICT LIABI L ITY ? ................................ ........ 75
TEX T 6. WHEN IS A PERSON RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE TORTS OF ANOTHER?.....................................76

L E S S O N 7. Business la w ............................. .............................. 80


TEXT 1. WHAT IS BUSINESS LA W ?............................................ 80
TEX T 2. W HAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN OFFER?........82
TEXT 3. HOW IS AN OFFER ENDED?.................... :............. ........ 87
TEX T 4. HOW CAN AN OFFER BE KEPT OPEN?.................. ....... 91
TEX T 5. W HAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS
OF AN ACCEPTANCE?.................. 93
Содержание I 409

TEXT б. W HAT IS THE EFFECT OF ACCEPTANCE?.........•........ -97

LESSON 8. Legality of agreements...................... ........... . 10?


TEXT 1. W HAT IS CONSIDERATION?.......................................... 102
TEXT 2. ILLEGAL AGREEMENTS.................................................

LESSON 9. Types of contracts ............... ...................... 114


TEXT 1. M U ST C O N T R A C T S BE IN A N Y S P E C IA L F O R M ? 114
TEXT 2. H O W A R E C O N T R A C T S C L A S S IF IE D ? ........................ 116
TEXT 3. W H A T IS TH E S T A T U T E O F F R A U D S ? ...................... -12Q
TE X T 4. W H A T T Y P E O F W RITING IS REQUIRED
IN C O N T R A C T S ? .................................... ................................ - 130
TE X T 5. H O W A R E W RITTEN C O N T R A C T S INTERPRETED? 133

LESSON 10. Void or voidable agreements........................ 140


T E X T 1. W H A T M A K E S A N A G REEM E N T VO ID
O R V O ID A B L E ?.............................................................................. 140
T E X T 2 . W H A T IS F R A U D ? ................................................. 142
TE X T 3 . W H A T IS D U R E S S ? ............................................................................1 4 7
TE X T 4 . W H A T IS THE EFFECT O F M IS T A K E ? ........................ -........1 5 0

LESSON 11. Rights and duties under a contract............ 154


T E X T 1. C A N RIG H TS UNDER A C O N T R A C T
BE T R A N S F E R R E D ? ........................ ............................................... 1 5 4
T E X T 2 . H O W A R E C O N T R A C T S U S U A L L Y D IS C H A R G E D ? ... 1 6 0
T E X T 3 . IN W H A T O TH E R W A Y S C A N C O N T R A C T S
BE D IS C H A R G E D ?............................ ............................................... 1 6 4

LESSON 12. Rights under a contract..... .......... 173


TEXT 1. WHO HAS RIGHTS UNDER A CONTRACT? 173
TEXT 2. W HAT REMEDIES
DOES THE INJURED PARTY HAVE?............ 175
TEXT 3. HOW ARE DAMAGES MEASURED?............ 180

LESSON 13. Types of sale..................... ............. -........ 185


TEX T 1. W HAT IS A SALE?..................................•................ 185
TEXT 2. MUST DELIVERY
AND PAYMENT BE MADE A T THE SAME TIME? 189
TEXT 3. OTHER TYPES OF SALES TRANSACTION S........ 193

LESSON 14. Credits................................................. - .......... 1»9


TEXT 1. WHO ARE DEBTORS AND CREDITORS?................ . 199
TEXT 2. W HAT LAWS PROTECT THE CREDITOR? ............. 200
TEX T 3. W HAT LAWS PROTECT THE DEBTOR?.......................204
TEX T 4. CREDIT CARDS AND THEIR U S E ................................. 206
410 | Практический англий' кий для юристов

LESSON 15. Secured transactions.,.;.________ 212


TEXT 1. WHAT IS A SECURED TRANSACTION?.... 212
TEXT 2. HOW DOES A CREDITOR PERFECT
A SECURITY INTEREST?.............................. 216
TEXT 3. HOW ARE SECURED
TRANSACTIONS TERMINATED?.................. 223

LESSON 16. Commercial papers (docum ents)........ . 229


TEXT 1. WHAT IS COMMERCIAL PAPER?........ 229
TEXT 2. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF COMMERCIAL PAPERS? 230
TEXT 3 .............................................. ........................................ 236
TEXT 4. W HAT ARE SOME OF THE SPECIALISED FORMS
OF COMMERCIAL PAPER IN USE?.... ............... ........... 239

LESSON 17. Forms of business: Organizations.


Sole Proprietorships and Partnerships.......... 246
TEXT 1. WHAT IS A SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP? . . 246
TEXT 2. WHAT IS A PARTNERSHIP?........................... 248
TEXT 3. WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF PARTNERSHIPS
AND PARTNERS?................................. 251
TEXT 4. WHAT RIGHTS DO THE PARTNERS
HAVE AS OWNERS? ---------------------------------------------- 254
TEXT 5. W HAT AUTHORITY DOES A PARTNER HAVE? 260
TEXT 6. W HAT ARE A PARTNER’S LIABILITIES?............ 263
TEXT 7. HOW IS A PARTNERSHIP ENDED?.... , 265

LESSON 18. Corporations ............... ........................ 273


TEXT 1. W HAT IS A CORPORATION?............................. .... 273
TEXT 2. W HAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CORPORA­
TIONS? ........................................... 276
TEXT 3. HOW IS A CORPORATION FORMED?""........................278
TEXT 4. W HAT ARE SHARES OF STOCK?.................. "*280
TEXT 5. WHO ACTUALLY CONDUCTS
THE BUSINESS OF THE CORPORATION?.................. 283
TEXT 6. W HAT ARE THE POWERS OF THE CORPORATION?. 286
TEXT 7. W HAT ARE THE RIGHTS OF SHAREHOLDERS?........289
TEXT 8. UNDER W HAT CIRCUMSTANCES
IS CORPORATE EXISTENCE ENDED?,... 294

REVISION COURSE [ПОВТОРИТЕЛЬНЫЙ К У Р С ]___ ..... 301


Lesson 1. I am a student now .................... .......................... . 301
Lesson 2. Education ..................... ................... ............... 321
Lesson 3. Our country..... ..................... ........................... .........34 g
Lesson 4. English-Speaking countries.................. ....................377
Серия
«Учебники и учебные пособия»

Игорь Петрович Агабекян

П РАКТИ ЧЕСКИ Й А Н Г Л И Й С К И Й
Д Л Я Ю Р И С ТО В

Ответственный
за выпуск: Баранчикова Е.
Редактор: Летов И.
Корректор: Агабекян И.
Художник: Лойкова И.
Верстка: Латулова А.

С д а н о в н а б о р 3 0 .0 4 .2 0 0 3 г. П о д п и с а н о В п е ч а т ь 2 5 ..0 5 .2 0 0 3
Ф о р м а т 8 4 x 1 0 8 7 И. Б ум а га ти п огр а ф ск а я .
Г а р н и тур а Ш кольная.
Т и раж 5 0 0 0 . Зак. 2 7 3 .

Издательство «Феникс»
344007, Г. Ростов-на-Дону,
пер. Соборный, 17

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