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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

ДОНЕЦКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ГОРЛОВСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ»

Кафедра зарубежной филологии, теории


и практики перевода

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ И ПРИКЛАДНЫЕ
АСПЕКТЫ ЛИНГВИСТИКИ

Учебное пособие

Горловка
2018
УДК 81’42(075) СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
ББК 81
Т33
Введение .......................................................................................5
Рекомендовано к изданию на заседании Учёного совета Учебно-тематический план дисциплины...................................7
ОО ВПО «Горловский институт иностранных языков»
(протокол № 5 от 28.12.2017)
Конспект лекций ..........................................................................9
Lecture 1. Linguistics as a science. Theoretical and applied
linguistics ..................................................................................9
Рецензенты: Lecture 2. Cognitive linguistics. Language and worldview.
М. Б. Красикова – кандидат филологических наук, доцент, доцент Linguistic aspects of intercultural communication .................18
кафедры иностранных языков №1 Института фундаментальных
наук ФГБОУ ВО «Кубанский государственный технологический
Lectures 3-4. Psycholinguistics ..............................................31
университет»; Lecture 5. Sociolinguistics. Language and gender .................57
М. Н. Ивахненко – кандидат филологических наук, доцент Lecture 6. Pragmatics and discourse analysis .........................71
кафедры зарубежной филологии, теории и практики перевода ОО Lecture 7. Corpus and computational linguistics....................83
ВПО «Горловский институт иностранных языков» Lecture 8. The fundamentals of lexicography ........................95
Lecture 9. Second-language acquisition ...............................102
Lecture 10. Constructed languages .......................................111
Планы семинарских занятий ...................................................129
Seminar 1. Linguistics as a science. Theoretical and applied
linguistics ..............................................................................129
Seminar 2. Cognitive linguistics. Language and worldview.
Linguistic aspects of intercultural communication ...............132
Seminar 3. Psycholinguistics ................................................134
Теоретические и прикладные аспекты лингвистики : Seminar 4. Sociolinguistics. Language and gender ..............136
Т33 учеб. пособие / сост. Н. А. Ясинецкая. – Горловка : Изд-во Seminar 5. Pragmatics and discourse analysis......................140
ОО ВПО «ГИИЯ», 2018. – 212 с. – Текст : англ., рус. Seminar 6. Corpus and computational linguistics ................144
Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов языковых
вузов, которые готовят магистров направления подготовки 37.04.01 Seminar 7. Second-language acquisition ..............................148
Психология. Содержит лекционные материалы, планы семинарских Seminar 8. The fundamentals of lexicography.
занятий, содержание самостоятельной работы студентов, задания для
текущего контроля, критерии оценивания, а также глоссарий терминов
Constructed languages ..........................................................150
по дисциплине. Структура и содержание самостоятельной работы по
УДК 81’42(075) дисциплине ...............................................................................154
ББК 81 Individual work 1. Theoretical and applied linguistics.........156
Individual work 2. Cognitive linguistics. Language
and worldview. Linguistic aspects of intercultural
communication .....................................................................159
Individual work 3. Psycholinguistics ....................................161
Individual work 4. Sociolinguistics. Language
and gender .............................................................................163
Individual work 5. Pragmatics and discourse analysis
© Оформление. Изд-во ОО ВПО «ГИИЯ», 2018 (Part 1) ..................................................................................165
3
Individual work 6. Pragmatics and discourse analysis ВВЕДЕНИЕ
(Part 2) ..................................................................................170
Individual work 7. Corpus and computational linguistics ....171 Учебное пособие «Теоретические и прикладные
Individual work 8. Second-language acquisition..................173 аспекты лингвистики» предназначено для студентов 1 курса
Образец тестовых заданий ......................................................175 образовательного уровня «Магистр» направления подготовки
37.04.01 Психология и является дополнением к существующим
Темы рефератов ........................................................................183
учебникам по теоретической и прикладной лингвистике.
Формы контроля и критерии оценивания успеваемости В лекционном курсе, рассчитанном на 72 часа, изложены
студентов ...................................................................................184 основные положения лингвистики как науки и учебной
Вопросы к зачету по «Теоретическим и прикладным дисциплины; рассмотрены такие ее разделы, как когнитивная
аспектам лингвистики» ...........................................................188 лингвистика, психолингвистика, социолингвистика,
Список условных сокращений ................................................190 прагматика и дискурсивный анализ, корпусная лингвистика
Глоссарий терминов.................................................................191 и компьютерная лингвистика, обучение иностранному языку
как аспект прикладной лингвистики и создание искусственных
Литературa ................................................................................204 языков. Особое внимание уделяется психолингвистическим
Рекомендации по изучению дисциплины и подготовке аспектам, необходимым для теоретической подготовки
к занятиям .................................................................................209 начинающего психолога с целью качественного обеспечения
конкурентоспособности специалистов современного рынка
труда в области психологии, обладающих достаточным объемом
знаний и уровнем компетенций в сферах практического
использования лингвистических знаний, необходимых для
решения профессиональных задач.
Курс «Теоретические и прикладные аспекты лингвистики»
является дисциплиной по выбору на этапе подготовки
психологов образовательного уровня «Магистр» и
предполагает овладение лингвистическими теоретическими
знаниями, а также практическими умениями и навыками.
Данное учебное пособие содержит теоретический материал
(лекции с вопросами для самоконтроля), практические задания
для текущего контроля знаний студентов (планы и задания
семинарских занятий, задания для самостоятельной работы
студентов), темы рефератов и вопросы к зачету по дисциплине.
Тематика и содержание пособия направлены на овладение
будущими психологами понятийным аппаратом учебной
дисциплины. Для семинарских занятий предлагается
комплекс упражнений, направленных на обобщение
опыта практического применения лингвистической науки,
ознакомление со сферами применения лингвистических
знаний. Отбор материала основывается на необходимости
сформировать систему знаний в области теоретической и
4 5
прикладной лингвистики как объекта научных исследований УЧЕБНО-ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЛАН ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
и учебной дисциплины. Часть упражнений подготовлены
составителем, другие взяты из различных источников по Общая трудоемкость учебной дисциплины составляет
теоретической и прикладной лингвистике, лексикологии, 2 зачетные единицы; всего – 72 часа; из них: аудиторной
стилистике, грамматике и переводу. работы – 36 часов (лекции – 20 часов, семинарские занятия –
Учебное пособие может использоваться как для 16 часов), самостоятельной работы – 36 часов.
аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов.
Освоение данной дисциплины является необходимой базой Виды
для изучения, в частности, таких дисциплин, как «Методика аудиторной
преподавания филологических дисциплин в ОО ВПО», работы,
их
«Современная когнитивная психология», «Политическая трудоемкость Формы текущего
психология», «Психология бизнеса», «Гендерная психология», (в часах) контроля
«Этнопсихология», «Гендерный аспект публичных успеваемости

семестр

лабораторные занятия
практические занятия

семинарские занятия
выступлений известных личностей», а также для проведения п/п
Раздел дисциплины
научно-исследовательской работы и прохождения психолого- Формы

лекции
педагогической практики. промежуточной
аттестации

1. Тематический модуль II 12 10
№ 1.
Основные
направления
теоретической
и прикладной
лингвистики
1.1. Тема 1. II 2 2 фронтальный опрос
Понятия и основные на семинарском
направления занятии 1, проверка
теоретической письменных заданий
и прикладной (КТ 1)
лингвистики
1.2. Тема 2. II 2 2 фронтальный опрос
Когнитивная на семинарском
лингвистика; занятии 2, проверка
концептуальная и письменных заданий
языковая картины мира (КТ 2)
1.3. Тема 3. II 4 2 фронтальный опрос
Психолингвистика и на семинарском
нейролингвистика занятии 3, проверка
письменных заданий
(КТ 3)

6 7
1.4. Тема 4. II 2 2 фронтальный опрос КОНСПЕКТ ЛЕКЦИЙ
Социолингвистика. на семинарском
Гендерная лингвистика занятии (КТ 4), LECTURE 1
письменная LINGUISTICS AS A SCIENCE.
контрольная работа
(КРТМ 1) THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS
1.5. Тема 5. II 2 2 фронтальный опрос
Прагматика и на семинарском 1. Linguistics as a science; the history of linguistics.
дискурсивный анализ занятии 5, проверка 2. Theoretical linguistics as a system of linguistic disciplines and
письменных заданий areas.
(КТ 5) 3. Applied linguistics: its tasks and areas of use.
Тематический модуль
2. II 8 6 4. The connection of linguistics with the humanities and natural
№ 2.
Направления sciences.
лингвистики в эпоху
информационных 1. Linguistics as a science; the history of linguistics
технологий Linguistics is the science of the natural human language
2.1. Тема 6. Корпусная II 2 2 фронтальный опрос in general and all the languages of the world as individual
лингвистика. на семинарском representatives. In a broad sense, linguistics is the knowledge of
Компьютерная занятии 6, проверка
лингвистика письменных заданий language and the transmission of this knowledge to other people
(КТ 6) for their practical purposes. An interesting fact is that the term
2.2. Тема 7. Лексикография. II 2 1 фронтальный опрос ‘linguistics’ entered scientic use in 1847, although the term
Типы словарей на семинарском ‘linguist’ (with the meaning of “a student of language”) had
занятии 8 (КТ 8) appeared 200 years earlier (1641). It is now the common academic
2.3. Тема 8. Обучение II 2 2 фронтальный опрос term in English for the scientic study of language.
иностранному языку на семинарском
как аспект прикладной занятии 7, проверка
Linguistics arose in connection with the practical needs of
лингвистики письменных заданий people – it is closely associated with the appearance of writing in
(КТ 7) the period, according to various estimates, from 2000 to 5000 BCE
2.4. Тема 9. Создание II 2 1 фронтальный опрос in the Ancient East. Scholars consider the Sumerian glosses (2500
искусственных языков на семинарском BCE) to be one of the rst linguistic products.
занятии 8, The rst scientic work in linguistics is the formal grammar of the
(КТ 8), письменная
контрольная работа
Ancient Indians by the Indian scholar Pāṇini (the 5th century BCE),
(КРТМ 2) although linguistics as a separate science emerged only in the 17th–
Форма промежуточной II 20 16 зачет 18th centuries. It was predetermined by its enormous complexity and
аттестации lack of knowledge of language – the object of this science.
By the 20th century, the term ‘philology’, rst attested in 1716,
had been commonly used to refer to the science of language, which
was then predominantly historical in focus. Since Ferdinand de
Saussure’s insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis,
however, this focus has shifted, and the term ‘philology’ is now
generally used for the “study of a language grammar, history, and
literary tradition”.
8 9
The 19th–20th centuries are noted for the rise of famous Syntax is the study of language structure and phrasal
linguistic schools (such as the American, the Prague, Copenhagen, hierarchies. Syntax seeks to describe how structural relations
and Moscow) and new linguistic trends. A huge contribution between elements (lexical items/words and operators) in a
to linguistic theory was made by Ferdinand de Saussure, who sentence contribute to its interpretation. Syntax uses principles of
suggested the foundations for structuralism or structural linguistics formal logic and Set Theory to formalize and represent accurately
as well as developed the theory of language and speech. the hierarchical relationship between elements in a sentence.
Linguistics conditionally can be subdivided into theoretical, Thus, in active declarative sentences in English the subject is
sometimes also called ‘scientic linguistics’ or ‘the theory of followed by the main verb which in turn is followed by the object
linguistics’ (it considers various scientic concepts such as (SVO).
linguistic theory, linguistic schools, languages in terms of their Lexicology studies the vocabulary of the language and the
structures and systems) and applied (practical) linguistics. Practical laws of its development. Phraseology is the branch of Lexicology
orientation, which is called today ‘applied linguistics’, began to specializing in word-groups that are characterized by stability
develop actively in the mid-20th century with the emergence of of structure and transferred meaning (e.g., to take the bull by
computer technologies and improvement of technical equipment. the horns; to catch smb red-handed). Dialectology studies local
Earlier linguistic studies were predominantly theoretical, in territorial varieties of the language.
particular, applied linguistics had not been systemized and called Semantics is the study of intention, i.e. the intrinsic meanings
as such. of words and phrases. Much of the work in the eld of philosophy
of language is concerned with the relation between meanings and
2. Theoretical linguistics as a system of linguistic the word, and this concern cross-cuts formal semantics in several
disciplines and areas ways.
Theoretical linguistics is a branch of linguistics that is most Stylistics involves the study of patterns of style within written
concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. The or spoken discourse. Thus, it considers the peculiarities of bookish
topic area of it comprises fundamental ideas about the nature of (ofcial documents, scientic prose, publicistic, newspaper and
language. The elds that are generally considered the core of belles-lettres) and colloquial (formal, informal and substandard)
theoretical linguistics are, in particular, Phonology, Morphology, styles.
Syntax, Lexicology, and Semantics; later appeared Pragmatics and Pragmatics is the study of the conditions for communication,
Discourse Analysis. inuence, and comprehension; the study of the relationship
Phonology is the study of how sounds are used in languages between the means of the language and speech and people who use
to convey meanings. Phonology includes topics such as stress these means.
and intonation. The basic unit of analysis in phonology is called Discourse Analysis studies specic for the type of texts (or
‘phoneme’. In English, for example, [t] and [tʰ] are different communicators) vocabulary, syntax, semantics or pragmatics of
allophones that represent a single phoneme /t/. language units that appear in actual communication (acts of oral
Morphology is the study of the internal structure of words. speech and written texts that represent, for instance, political
For example, in the sentences The dog runs and The dogs run, the discourse, educational discourse, or sports discourse).
word forms runs and dogs have inexions -s added, distinguishing From the point of view of relation with the temporal axis,
them from the base forms dog and run. Adding this inexion to a linguistics is subdivided into synchronic (which is aimed at the
nominal stem gives plural forms, whereas adding it to verbal stems study of the state of the language system at a particular moment of
restricts the subject to third person singular. One should distinguish its development) and diachronic (which studies the development of
between two distinct -s that are homonymic inexions (endings) the language system throughout the time span); the latter includes
for plural and third person singular, respectively. historical linguistics.
10 11
According to the number of languages under research, multilingualism. Research in applied linguistics was shifted to the
theoretical linguistics is subdivided into the following types: theoretical and empirical investigation of real world problems in
(1) partial linguistics, which studies one language or a group which language is a central issue.
of related (kindred) languages (e.g., Germanic, Slavic or Balkan In the United States, applied linguistics also began narrowly
linguistics, etc.) and as the application of insights from structural linguistics – rst to
(2) general linguistics, which deals with issues related to all the teaching of English in schools and subsequently to second and
languages, explores the essence and nature of language in general, foreign language teaching. The linguistics applied approach to
and the problem of its origin, general laws of its functioning, language teaching was promulgated most strenuously by Leonard
structure and classication of languages. General linguistics Bloomeld and by Charles C. Fries. The latter established the
develops methods for studying languages, formulates language English Language Institute (ELI) at the University of Michigan in
universals, i.e. provisions applicable to all or the majority of the 1941. In 1948, the Research Club at Michigan established Language
world languages. General linguistics is subdivided, in particular, Learning: A Journal of Applied Linguistics, the rst journal to bear
into linguistics of universals, typological linguistics, lingual the term ‘applied linguistics’. In the late 1960s, applied linguistics
semiotics, etc. began to establish its own identity as an interdisciplinary eld of
Typology is engaged in clarifying the most common patterns of linguistics concerned with real-world language issues. The new
different languages, unrelated by their common origin or mutual identity was solidied by the creation of numerous associations for
inuence. If a phenomenon is revealed in a representative group applied linguistics.
of languages, it may be considered a typological pattern applicable The International Association of Applied Linguistics was
to the language as such. The typological analysis is possible at the founded in France in 1964, where it is better known as Association
level of the sounds (phonetic typology), words (morphological Internationale de la Linguistique Appliquée, or AILA. AILA has
typology), sentences (syntax typology), and further (text typology afliates in more than thirty countries, some of which are listed
or discourse typology). below. The British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) was
established in 1967. Its mission is “the advancement of education
3. Applied linguistics: its tasks and the areas of use by fostering and promoting, by any lawful charitable means, the
One of the most important areas of contemporary linguistics is study of language use, language acquisition and language teaching,
applied linguistics. In the contemporary tradition it is a complex and the fostering of interdisciplinary collaboration in this study.”
scientic eld that applies linguistic knowledge in different areas The Australian applied linguistics took as its target the applied
and situations for solving various kinds of practical problems linguistics of mother tongue teaching and teaching English to
(such as machine translation, technical communication, speech immigrants. Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA)
recognition and synthesis, information retrieval, etc.). was established at a National Congress of Applied Linguists
The history of applied linguistics started in the 1960s. In 1960, held in August 1976. ALAA holds a joint annual conference in
the Moscow State University opened the Department of Theoretical collaboration with the Association for Applied Linguistics in
and Applied Linguistics. Originally applied linguistics concerned New Zealand (ALANZ). The American Association for Applied
itself with principles and practices on the basis of linguistics. In Linguistics (AAAL) was founded in 1977. AAAL holds an annual
the 1960s, however, applied linguistics was expanded to include conference, usually in March or April, in the United States or
language assessment, language policy, and second language Canada. In 1982, the Japan Association of Applied Linguistics
acquisition (in Western tradition). As early as the 1970s, applied (JAAL) was established in the Japan Association of College
linguistics became a problem-driven eld including the solution English Teachers (JACET) in order to engage in activities on a
of language-related problems in the real world. By the 1990s, more international scale. In 1984, JAAL became an afliate of the
applied linguistics had broadened to include critical studies and International Association of Applied Linguistics (AILA).
12 13
Since applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary eld, it is (5) linguistic basis of information retrieval;
concerned, in particular, with bilingualism and multilingualism, (6) compiling dictionaries (practical lexicography);
sign linguistics, literacy assessment, language education, second (7) terminology and terminography (streamlining,
language acquisition, lexicography, language planning and policy, standardization and unication of scientic and technical
forensic linguistics and translation, as well as practical application terminology);
of stylistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. Applied linguistics (8) recognition of text characters;
includes practical trends of linguistics, often of an interdisciplinary (9) recognition and synthesis of oral speech.
nature, for example, computational linguistics (machine translation, To solve the above problems it was necessary to develop
linguistic basis of the computer science, information retrieval, etc.), effective methods within the framework of applied linguistics.
lingual didactics (language teaching), decoding (the study of texts Among these classical methods there are, for example, probabilistic
in an unknown code or an unknown language for the information and statistical methods, logical-mathematical methods, simulation
receipt), and mathematical linguistics (e.g., quantitative linguistics, techniques, content analysis, and many other approaches that have
conducting statistical analysis of language and texts dealing with been actively and fruitfully used in other sciences and found their
the construction and use of structural probabilistic models of effective application in linguistics.
languages).
Contemporary applied linguistics actively develops and solves 4. The connection of linguistics with the humanities and
many problems of processing speech and writing, retrieval and use natural sciences
of text information, including communication, in particular, in the Linguistics is a complex multidimensional eld of knowledge and
eld of information and computer technologies. Applied linguistics applications that is in close contact with the humanities and natural
is the sphere where real linguistic experiments are conducted sciences, which has resulted in the rise of new interdisciplinary
with the purpose of verication of the theory of linguistics and areas. This can be shown schematically as follows:
of the effectiveness of concepts and hypotheses put forward and (1) sociology, politics > sociolinguistics, political linguistics;
developed by the scholars. (2) philology > text linguistics;
Practical needs of people are ensured by such sections of (3) psychology > psycholinguistics;
applied linguistics as writing course-books in practical grammar (4) logic > cognitive linguistics, information search, modeling
and practical phonetics, as well as compiling dictionaries (which semantics;
is the task of practical lexicography). Each of the areas of practical (5) mathematics > mathematical linguistics, lingual statistics;
linguistics usually has its reection in the eld of theoretical (6) biology > phonetics;
linguistics. For example, the problems of translation are studied (7) physics > speech recognition and synthesis;
within the discipline of Translation Studies, which forms its theory (8) history, archeology > ethnolinguistics, decoding,
of translation and develops various translation concepts. comparative-historical linguistics;
Therefore, the range of the major problems of applied linguistics (9) jurisprudence > legal linguistics (considering the language
includes: of law, verbal behavior patterns, linguistic examination of texts and
(1) translation from/into foreign languages; statements);
(2) lingual didactics (methods for teaching foreign languages); (10) computer studies > computational linguistics (e.g.,
(3) support of communication with the help of technical linguistic basis in informatics, which is related to the development
means; and treatment of articial languages programming);
(4) linguistic basis of computer science (creation of articial (11) semiotics > the sign language theory, web-design.
languages, for example, programming languages, and web- The study of language and its interconnection with other
development); sciences has led to the growth of elds like psycholinguistics
14 15
(which explores the representation and function of language in the Psycholinguistics is connected with the study of speech and
mind), neurolinguistics (which studies language processing in the speech production (particularly of an individual) to solve the
brain), and language acquisition (which investigates how children problems that cannot be resolved either in psychology or linguistics
and adults acquire a particular language). separately. Psycholinguistics is an independent scientic branch
Since the inception of the discipline of linguistics, linguists that arose at the intersection of linguistics and psychology.
have been concerned with describing and analysing previously Combining these two disciplines into a single marginal discipline
undocumented languages. Starting with Franz Boas in the early allows you to use the conceptual apparatus of linguistics in the
1900s, this became the main focus of American linguistics until description of speech utterances and the conceptual apparatus of
the rise of formal structural linguistics in the mid-20th century. psychology in the description and explanation of mental processes
This focus on language documentation was partly motivated in the speech production and perception. Psycholinguistics, for
by a concern to document the rapidly disappearing languages of example, studies children’s speech as well as speech abnormalities
indigenous peoples. The ethnographic dimension of the Boasian at mental illnesses.
approach to language description played its role in the development Sociolinguistics examines the role of language in society,
of disciplines such as sociolinguistics and anthropological the impact of society, the language in connection with the social
linguistics investigating the relations between language, culture, conditions of its existence, a set of external circumstances (the
and society. community of people using this language, the structure of this
Language description (language documentation) is a work- community, the communicants’ age differences, differences in
intensive endeavor, usually requiring years of eld work in the the status, level of culture and education, place of residence, and,
language concerned, so as to equip the linguist to write a sufciently respectively, differences in their verbal behaviour according to the
accurate reference grammar. Further, the task of documentation situation of communication (e.g., political linguistics).
requires the linguist to collect a substantial corpus in the language
in question, consisting of texts and recordings, both sound and Questions for self-control
video, which can be stored in an accessible format within open 1. What is the subject of linguistics?
repositories and used for further research. 2. Make an account of milestones in the history of linguistics.
Forensic linguistics is the application of linguistic analysis to 3. What are the objectives of theoretical linguistics?
forensics. Forensic analysis investigates on the style, language, 4. Name the branches of theoretical linguistics. What are their
lexical use, and other linguistic and grammatical features used in areas of study?
the legal context to provide evidence in courts of law. Forensic 5. Dene synchronic linguistics vs. diachronic linguistics and
linguists have also contributed expertise in criminal cases. partial linguistics vs. general linguistics.
Para-linguistics is exploring the non-linguistic (non- 6. When did applied linguistics emerge? What were the
verbal) means of speech transmission in connection with the prerequisites for it?
verbal semantic information as part of verbal communication. 7. Give examples of associations of applied linguistics throughout
Studying non-verbal communication is an essential component of the world.
intercultural communication. Para-linguistics is also considered as 8. Delineate the range of major problems of applied linguistics.
nonverbal section of semiotics. 9. Name the methods of study in applied linguistics.
Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary trend of linguistics 10. What humanities and natural studies does linguistics intersect
that is closely connected with semantics. CL explores issues such with? What new studies have emerged as a result of these
as the relationship of the language, consciousness and thought, the intersections?
role of language in the process of cognition (i.e. understanding), 11. Outline the tasks of the new interdisciplinary sciences in which
and the reection of reality. linguistics is engaged.
16 17
LECTURE 2 G. Lakoff was well-known for his works on metaphor and
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE metonymy published in 1981 and 1987. R. Langacker’s ideas had
AND WORLDVIEW. evolved into an explicit theory known rst as Space Grammar and
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERCULTURAL then Cognitive Grammar (1988). Leonard Talmy published a number
COMMUNICATION of increasingly inuential papers on linguistic imaging systems
from 1985 to 1988. Also by this time, G. Fauconnier had developed
1. The history of cognitive linguistics. a theory of Mental Spaces. This theory was later developed in
2. Cognitive linguistics: its subject, objectives, and areas of study. collaboration with M. Turner into a theory of Conceptual Blending
3. The notions of ‘concept’ and ‘worldview’ in linguistics. that meshes in interesting ways with both Langacker’s Cognitive
4. The conceptual world picture and the lingual world picture. Grammar and G. Lakoff’s Theory of Metaphor.
5. National worldviews and intercultural communication. Through the 1980s the work of G. Lakoff and R. Langacker, in
6. Representation of interdependence of language and worldview particular, began to gain adherents. During this decade researchers
in ction. in Poland, Belgium, Germany and Japan began to explore linguistic
problems from a cognitive standpoint, with explicit reference to the
1. The history of cognitive linguistics work of G. Lakoff and R. Langacker. 1987 saw the publication of
Cognitive linguistics grew out of the work of a number of G. Lakoff’s infuential book Women, Fire and Dangerous Things,
researchers active in the 1970s, who were interested in the relation and, at almost the same time, R. Langacker’s Foundations of
of language and mind, and who did not follow the prevailing Cognitive Grammar, which had been circulating chapter by chapter
tendency to explain linguistic patterns by means of appeals to since 1984. The next publication milestone was the collection
structural properties internal to and specic to language. The line of Topics in Cognitive Linguistics edited by Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn
research was to examine the relation of language structure to things (published in 1988). This substantial volume contains a number of
outside language: cognitive principles and mechanisms, including seminal papers by R. Langacker, L. Talmy and others, which made
principles of human categorization, pragmatic and interactional it widely inuential.
principles, and functional principles in general. In 1989, the  rst conference on cognitive linguistics was
The most inuential linguists working along these lines and organized in Duisburg, Germany. The Duisburg conference
focusing centrally on cognitive principles and organization were was retroactively declared the  rst International Cognitive
American linguists Wallace Chafe, Charles Fillmore, George Linguistics Conference. The journal Cognitive Linguistics was
Lakoff, Ronald Langacker, and Leonard Talmy. Each of these also conceived in the mid-1980s, and its rst issue appeared
linguists began developing their own approach to language in 1990. At the Duisburg conference, Rene Dirven proposed
description and linguistic theory, centered on a particular set a new book series, Cognitive Linguistics Research, as another
of phenomena and concerns. One of the important assumptions publication venue for the developing eld. The rst CLR
shared by all of these scholars is that meaning is so central to volume, a collection of articles by R. Langacker, brought
language that it must be a primary focus of study. Linguistic together under the title Concept, Image and Symbol, came out in
structures serve the function of expressing meanings, and hence 1990. The following year, the second volume of his Foundations
the mappings between meaning and form are a prime subject of of Cognitive Grammar appeared.
linguistic analysis. These views were in direct opposition to the During the 1990s, cognitive linguistics became widely
ideas developing at the time within Chomskyan linguistics, in recognized as an important eld of specialization within linguistics.
which meaning was “interpretive” and peripheral to the study of The work of G. Lakoff, R. Langacker and L. Talmy formed the
language, whereas the central object of interest in language was leading strands of the theory, but connections with related theories
syntax. were made by many working cognitive linguists.
18 19
In the 2000s, regional and language-topical Cognitive Cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the branch of linguistics that
Linguistics Associations, afliated to ICLA, began to emerge. interprets language in terms of the concepts – sometimes universal,
The Spanish, Finnish and Slavic-language CLAs were formed, sometimes specic to a particular tongue – that underlie its forms.
and then Poland, Russia and Germany became the sites of newly It is thus closely associated with semantics. The key questions
afliated CLAs. These were followed by Korea, France, Japan, in cognitive linguistics are as follows: (1) how man cognizes the
North America, the U.K., Sweden (which soon expanded to a world, (2) how information is handled by the human mind, and
Scandinavian association), and, most recently, China and Belgium. (3) how knowledge is represented in the consciousness of man and
Some of these associations existed prior to afliation, while others in linguistic forms.
were formed specically as regional afliates. A review journal, Cognitive linguistics is characterized by adherence to three
the Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics began its run in central positions. First, it denies that there is an autonomous
2003, and other new journals followed it. The journal Cognitive language faculty in the mind; second, it understands grammar
Linguistics has continued to increase its reputation and prominence in terms of conceptualization; third, it claims that knowledge of
in linguistics. language arises out of language use. Finally, cognitive linguistics
Cognitive linguistics conferences continue to be organized argues that language is both embodied and situated in a specic
in many countries. The ICLC was held for the rst time in environment. This can be considered a moderate offshoot of the
Asia, specically in Seoul, Korea in July 2005. Asia has a very Sapir–Whorf hypothesis in as much as language and cognition
signicant membership base. In 2005, the Governing Board voted mutually inuence one another and are both embedded in the
to take the conference to China, and a denite venue for the 2011 experiences and environments of its users.
conference was approved in 2007. The ICLA continues to foster the Cognitive linguistics is subdivided into three main areas of
development of Cognitive Linguistics as a worldwide discipline, study as follows:
and to enhance its connection with its natural neighbor disciplines (1) сognitive semantics, dealing mainly with lexical semantics,
of psychology, anthropology, sociology, and cognitive science. separating semantics (meaning) into meaning-construction and
knowledge representation;
2. Cognitive linguistics: its subject, objectives, (2) сognitive approaches to grammar, dealing mainly with
and areas of study syntax, morphology and other traditionally grammar-oriented
Since cognitive linguistics sees language as embedded in the areas;
overall cognitive capacities of man, topics of special interest for (3) cognitive phonology, dealing with classication of various
cognitive linguistics include the following: correspondences between morphemes and phonetic sequences.
(1) the structural characteristics of natural language Aspects of cognition that are of interest to cognitive
categorization (such as cognitive models, systematic polysemy, linguists include (1) conceptual metaphor and conceptual
mental imagery, and metaphor); blending, (2) gesture and sign language, (3) cultural linguistics,
(2) the conceptual interface between syntax and semantics (as (4) computational models of metaphor, and (5) computational and
explored by cognitive grammar and construction grammar); dynamic models of language acquisition.
(3) the experiential and pragmatic background of language-in-
use; 3. The notions of ‘concept’ and ‘worldview’ in linguistics
(4) the relationship between language and thought, including One of the most important concepts in cognitive philosophy and
questions about conceptual universals. cognitive science is the concept of worldview. This expression has
Therefore, we can observe strong connections between cognitive often been used to refer to the world perception of a people, family,
linguistics and the research areas of functional linguistics, linguistic or person. The worldview of a people originates from the unique
description, psycholinguistics, pragmatics, and discourse studies. world experience of a people over several millennia.
20 21
The linguistics of the 21st century actively develops the way politicians often seem to talk past one another, or ascribe different
where a language is considered as the cultural code of a nation meanings to the same events. Tribal or national wars are often the
rather than simply an instrument of the communication and result of incompatible worldviews. If two different worldviews
knowledge. The fundamental basis of such access was determined have sufcient common beliefs it may be possible to have a
by the theories of W. Humboldt, A. Potebnya, and other scholars. constructive dialogue between them.
For example, W. Humboldt stated that the bounds of the language Cognitive linguists deny that the mind has any module for
of the nation mean the bounds of the worldview. The language language-acquisition that is unique and autonomous. They rather
is considered as the way to penetrate not only to the modern view meaning in terms of conceptualization. Yu. Apresyan
mentality of the nation, but also to the view of the ancient people assumes that every language is represented by a certain method of
of the world, the community, and oneself. Through the ages, the world conceptualization (perception and/or systematization). Even
echo of the past keeps in proverbs, sayings, phraseological units, before acquaintance with a language, a person gets acquainted with
metaphors, symbols of culture, etc. the world, learns it; thanks to the known channels of perception of
The linguistic relativity hypothesis of Benjamin Lee Whorf the world, certain information on it, distinguishes and identies
describes how the syntactic-semantic structure of a language objects of the knowledge. Any new information on the world is
becomes an underlying structure for the worldview of a people mastered by each individual on the basis of the knowledge he
through the organization of the perception of the world and the already possesses. The system of the information formed thus is a
linguistic categorization of entities. conceptual system designed as a system of certain notions of the
The founder of the idea that language and worldview are person about the world.
inextricable is the Prussian philologist Wilhelm von Humboldt A concept is what the individual knows, thinks, represents
(1767–1835). W. Humboldt argued that language is part of the about objects of the external and internal worlds; it is an idea of
creative adventure of mankind, and culture, language and linguistic a world fragment. Such representation (an image, concept, or
communities develop simultaneously. The linguist stated that symbol) is formed by national signs that are supplemented with
speech is inherently and implicitly creative: human beings leave signs of individual experience and personal imagination. A concept
their stroke in speech and continue to modify language and thought is represented mostly by the word. The conceptual system is a
by their creative exchanges. framework of language system and its base. Conceptual system is
W. Humboldt also claimed that the speaking human being is a set of all concepts entering into the mental fund of language; it is
the core of language, whereas speech maintains worldviews. formed by conceptual subsystems, such, for example, as of
Worldviews are not prisons that contain and constrain us; they are – the heavenly world (солнце (sun), звезды (stars), луна
the spaces we develop within. If it were possible to draw a map (moon), комета (comet), планета (planet), небо (sky),
of the world on the basis of worldview, it would probably be seen – landscape concepts (земля (ground), море (sea), река
to cross political borders. Worldview is the product of political (river), луг (eld), лес (forest), океан (ocean), озеро (lake),
borders and common experiences of a people from a geographical – zooconcepts (птица (bird), зверь (animal), хищник (beast
region, environmental-climatic conditions, economic resources of prey), бабочка (buttery), божья коровка (ladybird), стрекоза
available, socio-cultural system, and the language family. (dragony),
According to M. Lind, “a worldview is a more or less coherent – anthropoconcepts (властитель (sovereign), правитель
understanding of the nature of reality, which permits its holders (regent), воин (warrior), путник (traveller), музыкант (musician),
to interpret new information in the light of their preconceptions. учитель (teacher), or
Clashes among worldviews cannot be ended by a simple appeal to – social concepts, including political concepts, ideological
facts. Even if rival sides agree on the facts, people may disagree concepts, interpersonal concepts, religious concepts, ethical
on conclusions because of their different premises.” This is why concepts, etc.
22 23
The conceptual system is conservative, and at the same time the The origin of the SWH can be traced back to the work of Franz
conceptual system is cumulative; it develops and is supplemented Boas, the founder of anthropology in the United States. In the
with new signs, since language has property of self-updating and United States, F. Boas encountered Native American languages
possesses ability to generation of new language forms to express from many different language families – all of which were quite
new knowledge. different from the Semitic and Indo-European languages studied
Construction of such system before language mastering is a by most European scholars. F. Boas came to realize how greatly
nonverbal stage of its formation. G. Pocheptsov maintains that at ways of life and grammatical categories could vary from one place
this stage a person gets acquainted with the objects accessible to to another. As a result he came to believe that the culture and life
direct perception. Notions such as ‘a language picture of the world’ ways of a people were reected in the language that they spoke.
and ‘language vision of the world’ refer to the world perception In the late 20th century many works concerning language picture
and its arrangement through the language. appeared (in particular, by G. Brutyan, S. Vasiliev, G. Kolshanskyi,
M. Black, and D. Hime).
4. The conceptual world picture and the lingual world picture The lingual picture of the world is a subsystem presenting
Language and thinking are two independent areas but they are language, thinking and communication. It is the system of
closely connected. According to this position, two pictures of the knowledge imprinted in language signs, and also ways of receiving
world – conceptual and lingual – are distinguished. Conceptual and interpretation of new knowledge. At such approach language
picture of the world is all prescientic and scientic knowledge is considered as a means of registration of the conceptual system
about the world, which is saved up for the history of the people of knowledge of the world. The world created by language is
speaking the language. The meaning of the term ‘conceptual the world of our human existence, and, therefore, our behaviour
picture of the world’ does not coincide with the meaning of the term is conditioned by the laws of this world. All stereotypes of the
‘language (lingual) picture of the world’. There are archaization and language worldview perception include three components:
desemantization processes that are peculiar to language, whereas cognitive (as knowledge about something), emotional (as treatment
the conceptual picture of the world accumulates everything that of something), and behavioural (as ability to act in a certain way).
was once learned, called, and mastered. The close connection between the language model of the world
Conceptual picture of the world consists of many levels of signs. and the conceptual model of the world leads to continuous change,
The primary system of representation gives the model of the world mutual clarication and updating in the course of life. Research
based on sensual data, memories, and introspection. The secondary on the problem of reection of a picture of the world in human
system of representation gives the model in which the world and language usually starts with a simple triad: the surrounding
actions in it are expressed or potentially can be put into words. validity – reection of this validity in a brain of the person –
According to A. Kravchenko, it means that at rst our sensual expression of results of this reection in language. Language does
perception of the world is imposed on conceptual representation, not copy a reality; it rather denitely reects what a person knows
and then this conceptual representation is reected in language about it.
representation. Three closely interrelated phenomena are important for the
In linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states lingual world picture: man–world–language, although from the
that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical point of view of real relations, the world should have taken the
categories of the language a person uses and how that person both rst place, man as a creator and user of language – the second,
understands the world and behaves in it. Although it has come to and language itself – the third. However, from the anthropological
be known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, it rather was an axiom point of view man represents the starting point in establishing
underlying the work of linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir the language image of the world, and man is the key factor in the
and his colleague and student Benjamin Whorf. construction of the language world view.
24 25
The structure of the language picture of the world represents expressed through lexical and phraseological units, etiquette
the trinomial paradigm: preverbal (psychical), conceptual formulae, proverbs, sayings, etc. Every language creates the
(logical), and lingual. The three components of the paradigm world in its own way; it has also its way of conceptualization.
are interrelated and inuence each other. The following terms Thereby linguists decide that every language has a unique picture
correspond to the above-mentioned three levels: ‘concept’ as of the world and language speaker needs to arrange utterances in
a preverbal image of the phenomenon, which is based in our equivalence with their picture since language fulls requirements
consciousness on numerous signs and associations, ‘notion’ as of the informative process.
a linguistic and logical item, which is the generalization result Conceptual pictures of the world can be various depending on
of the most substantial features of a concept and has a linguistic the representatives of different epochs, different social and age
expression, and ‘meaning of the word’, which contains the groups, different areas of scientic knowledge, etc. Although,
concept basis. people speaking different languages, can have under certain
According to A. Vezhbytska, word meaning is anthropocentric, conditions close conceptual pictures of the world, while people
i.e. represents properties of human nature; moreover, it is speaking one and the same language – different, which also proves
ethnocentric, i.e. oriented on its ethnos. Lingual picture of the that a conceptual picture of the world unites universal, national,
world is a part of the conceptual worldview and bears the following and personal.
3 types of features: (1) universal features (common for the whole Language is that problem of interrelation that lies on the
humankind), (2) cultural features as a kind of a cultural core surface of a person’s cultural life. Therefore, since the 19th century
common for all members of a society, and (3) individual features (J. Grimm, R. Raek, W. Humboldt, and A. Potebnya) and to this
immanent to a certain person. day, language and culture interactions have been among the central
The language worldview contains something more than ones in linguistics. According to the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis,
scientic information. It is a crucial regulative principle of all the language and mode of thinking are closely interconnected; the
vital relationships between man and social groups in their historical language reects the fundamental values of the given culture and at
development. Language world picture precedes and forms special the same time forms them. Thus, for the native speaker the mother
world pictures (chemical, physical, etc.). Usually scientic and language represents a form for the conceptualization of the world
naïve pictures of the world are distinguished. The scientic characteristic for that given culture.
picture of the world constantly changes in the process of change The rst attempts to solve the problem of language–culture
of the respective paradigm of knowledge and at revision of views interaction were reected in W. Humboldt’s works, whose
and theories. The naïve world picture is reected in language that substantive provisions of the concept can be reduced to the
forms an answer to practical needs of people in their adaptation to following:
the world. (1) material and spiritual cultures are embodied in the
language;
5. National worldviews and intercultural communication (2) any culture is national, its national character is expressed in
Every natural language reects a denite way of perception and language by means of special vision of the world; internal specic
organization (conceptualization) of the world. According to W. von view of the world is inherent in every language;
Humboldt, language does not only reect and express the spirit of (3) language is an expression of ‘national spirit’ and national
people but also inuences its formation. culture;
Cultural concept is the basic ethno-cultural category, a (4) language is a mediating link between the person and the
complicated semantic entity, which contains conceptual, objective- surrounding world.
gurative and value constituents. V. Karasyk distinguishes ethno-, W. Humboldt’s concept has received original interpretation in
socio- and individual cultural concepts. They are variously A. Potebnya’s work Thought and Language.
26 27
The emotional associations are based on national-cultural investigation of conceptual signs and comparison of fragments
experience and on traditions. There are a lot of examples of curious of the world pictures in different languages is one of the main
ethnic examples in linguistic literature. So, for example, the image objectives of conceptual research. Science development and
of a lean person in the Russian language and consciousness contacts cultural processes supplement data on the world. These scientic
with a pole or a skeleton (lean as a pole (as a skeleton) (compare and cultural representations are affected by changing religious and
in Japanese lean as a mosquito skeleton, in Vietnamese – lean as scientic views of society. The character of thinking is dened
the dried up cicada, in Turkmen – lean as a ladder, etc.). The word by its immanent development, and any thinking contains national
pig as zoomorphism in Russian associates with dirt, ingratitude, features.
bad manners, in the English language – with gluttony, in the If two different worldviews have sufcient common beliefs, it
Kazakh language is perceived as a swear word (having religious may be possible to have a constructive dialogue between them. The
connotation). Dog in the Russian picture of the world (alongside the comparison of religious, philosophical or scientic worldviews is
negative connotation) associates with delity, unpretentiousness a delicate endeavor, because such worldviews start from different
that has found reexion in such phraseological units as the dog presuppositions and cognitive values. Linguistic issues hampering
delity; for Kazakh people this animal has a contempt connotation. intercultural communication include the following:
For Eskimos dog has only positive estimation, it is an animal that (1) collocational or lexical-phraseological constraints of
helps in the farm. speech production. This means that any word in any language
Color interpretations by different peoples also demonstrate has its own, characteristic only of the language in question, set or
specic national features of the worldviews. Thus, red color reserve of words with which it is compatible;
in the USA symbolizes danger, in France – aristocracy, in (2) difference in semantic and stylistic connotations. Words
Egypt – death, in India – life and creativity, in Japan – anger and of different languages with the same meaning (that is referring
danger, in China – happiness; blue color in the USA – courage, to the same object or phenomenon of reality) may have different
in France – freedom and the world, in Egypt – belief, virtue; connotations determining their use in speech;
green color in the USA – safety, in Egypt – fertility and force, (3) the socio-cultural factor, which is a great problem of
in India – fertility and prosperity, in Japan – the future, youth communication because it is invisible and often forgotten. Every
and energy; yellow color in the USA – cowardice, in France – nation has its own cultural vision (picture) of the world underlying
temporariness, in Egypt – happiness and prosperity, in India – its language picture, which may lead to conicts of communication.
success, in Japan – grace and nobleness, in China – birth, riches We can assume that a great deal of cross-cultural misunderstanding
and power; grey color in Russia – mediocrity, dullness, in can be traced to a lack of knowledge of systemic characteristics of
England – nobleness, elegance. Language, in turn, makes certain cultural objects. Thus, the only way to solve the problem of cross-
forming impact on the process of formation and functioning of cultural misunderstanding is to study the systemic structure of
social mentality and mentality of a separate person. The level culture and knowledge lying behind cultural objects.
of family education, the experience of the individual, general
(national and social) traditions, moral norms and rules inuence 6. Representation of interdependence of the language
the development of a person. and worldview in ction
K. Kerenyi began his 1976 English language translation of George Orwell’s classic novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) is a
Dionysus with this passage: “The interdependence of thought and striking example of linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity
speech makes it clear that languages are not so much a means of in ction, in which a language known as Newspeak has trimmed
expressing truth, but are a means of discovering truth that was and supplanted Modern English. In this case, Orwell says that if
previously unknown. Their [languages’] diversity is diversity not humans cannot form the words to express a revolution, then they
of sounds and signs but of ways of looking at the world.” The cannot revolt. All of the theory of Newspeak is aimed at eliminating
28 29
such words. For example, bad has been replaced by ungood, and According to the ideas reected in the above works of ction,
the concept of freedom has been eliminated over time. the world created by language is the world of human existence.
Jack Vance’s science ction novel The Languages of Pao (1958) Human behaviour is determined by the laws of this world.
centers on an experiment in modeling a civilization by tweaking
its language. The future planet of Pao, inhabited by peasant Questions for self-control
cultivators who bow passively to absolute monarchy and are prey 1. When and where was the science of cognitive linguistics born?
to foreign invaders, creates three castes – of warriors, merchants, 2. Enumerate and name the milestones in the history of cognitive
and technicians – each with a specically-tailored language linguistics.
designed to instill the appropriate skills and mindsets. As a result 3. Enlarge on the subject, objectives and areas of study of
the planet overcomes its foreign military invaders and economic cognitive linguistics.
exploiters, but becomes dangerously divided into mutually-hostile 4. What is the contribution of W. Humboldt to the development
castes – and this is overcome by developing yet another language, of cognitive linguistics.
a “pastiche”, which combines elements from the languages of the 5. Who is the author(s) of the language relativity theory? What
three castes as well as the planet’s original language, this Pastiche does the theory maintain?
becomes the language of the reunied, versatile society. 6. Name other linguists who have contributed to the development
In Frank Herbert’s science ction novel Dune (1965) and its of cognitive linguistics.
sequels, the principle of linguistic relativity rst appears when 7. Dene the notion of ‘concept’. Suggest your examples of
a character (Jessica Atreides) with extensive linguistic training concepts.
encounters a foreign tribe (the Fremen). She is shocked by the 8. How is the conceptual picture of the world formed?
“violence” of their language, as she believes their word choices and 9. What is the essence of the lingual picture of the world?
language structure reect a culture of enormous violence. Samuel 10. Dene scientic picture of the world vs. naïve world picture.
R. Delany’s novel Babel-17 (1966) is centered on a ctional 11. Enlarge on the interaction of culture and language. Supply
language that denies its speakers independent thought, forcing your examples of national-cultural experience reected in a
them to think purely logical thoughts. This language is used as a language.
weapon of war, because it is supposed to convert everyone who 12. What factors hamper intercultural communication?
learns it to a traitor. In the novel, the language Babel-17 is likened 13. Enlarge on representations of interdependence of language and
to computer programming languages that do not allow errors or worldview in ction.
imprecise statements.
Suzette Haden Elgin’s science ction novel Native Tongue (1984)
describes a patriarchal society in which the overriding priority of LECTURES 3-4
the oppressed women is the secret development of a “feminist” PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
language to aid them in throwing off their offenders. Ursula K. Le
Guin’s novel The Dispossessed (1974) takes place partly on a world 1. Psycholinguistics as an interdisciplinary study: its subject and
with an anarcho-communist society whose constructed language objectives.
contains little means for expressing possessive relationships, among 2. The history and essence of the Soviet and Russian
other features. In Robert A. Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land psycholinguistics. The notion of the ‘world image’.
(1961), Mike is able to do things that most other humans can’t 3. Mechanisms of language comprehension.
do, and is unable to explain any of this in English, however, once 3.1. Spoken word recognition.
others learn Martian, they start to be able to do these things – those 3.2. Reading and listening comprehension: their common and
concepts could only be explained in Martian. specic features.
30 31
3.3. The mental lexicon. (4) How similar and how different are the processes of
4. Speech production. listening and reading from the point of view of mental processing?
5. Language acquisition and the related theories. (5) When the brain encounters a sentence it has never seen or
6. Methods of investigation in psycholinguistics. heard before, does the person have to look everything up in some
vast dictionary and grammar store, or are there any short-cuts that
1. Psycholinguistics as an interdisciplinary study: the brain can take to work out what it means?
its subject and objectives (6) Does the brain process the words in the order in which a
Psychologists have long been interested in language, but person hears or sees them, or does it store up strings of words and
psycholinguistics as a eld of study has a relatively recent history. then process them all at once?
It did not come into its own as a subject until the early 1960s, when (7) What mechanisms operate during speech production?
behaviorist approaches to the study of the mind lost favour. It was (8) What can the language of brain-damaged people tell us
also motivated by Noam Chomsky’s work (1959) in linguistics, about how language-processing occurs?
and by his claim that special properties of language require special To be a perfect psycholinguist, you would need to have a
mechanisms to handle. However, interest in related topics can be comprehensive understanding of (1) the way the brain operates
traced back to the eighteenth-century diaries recording the language (neurology), (2) the processes by which we perceive and interpret
development of children, to the nineteenth-century research on the the world (psychology), and (3) the variety of categories and
location of language in the brain, to the introspective methods of intricate structures that are found in human language (linguistics).
Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology laboratory established in 1879, and As far as language is concerned, interest lies in establishing
to Francis Galton’s work on word associations. whether the processes responsible for the production and
Psycholinguistics studies the way in which operations of comprehension of oral speech and writing are the four independent
the mind make language possible. It is a cross-disciplinary eld ones or not. For example, if you lose the ability to process spoken
drawing upon ideas and ndings from areas such as cognitive input, does that also mean that you will be unable to process written
psychology, theoretical linguistics, phonetics, neurology, discourse input? Psycholinguistic theory is valuable for language learners
analysis, computer science, semantics, and education. It is because it, in particular, provides a framework for studying both
especially indebted to the rst of these, which provides many of its the cognitive processes that lead to expertise in the target language
basic tenets and research methods. and the additional cognitive demands imposed upon the second
Specically, the eld explores the cognitive processes that language (L2) user by unfamiliar phonology, lexis, and syntax.
underlie the use, storage, and acquisition of language. Although Since the work of Edward Sapir and Benjamin L. Whorf, there
psycholinguists recognize that language users are individuals has been much interest in the question of whether we merely express
possessing different linguistic repertoires, their main goal is thoughts through our language, or whether the way our language
to identify general patterns of behaviour across users. Those operates has an effect upon the way we think. Out of this there
patterns might reect the capabilities and biases of the human have come two hypotheses, the stronger linguistic determinism –
brain or the processing requirements of the language under study. the way we think is determined by our language so that we are,
Psycholinguistics is concerned with language and the brain; it as Edward Sapir put it, “at the mercy of our language” – and the
seeks answers to questions such as weaker linguistic relativity (also maintained by Dan I. Slobin) –
(1) How does the brain store all those words? we are more likely to interpret the world in a certain way because
(2) How does it access them so quickly and efciently most of of our “language habits”. The thing was taken up by George Orwell
the time? who, in an essay at the back of his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four,
(3) Why are we more likely to mishear something that is out of explains how a new version of English, Newspeak, will prevent
context? subversive thought by containing no words capable of expressing it.
32 33
In his turn, Steven Pinker concludes that the Sapir–Whorf position this kind have been proposed in several areas of psycholinguistics.
is unsustainable, and that thought is independent of language. According to such models, frequency of exposure determines our
The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis in linguistics states that the ability to recall stored instances but not our ability to apply rules.
grammatical structure of a mother language inuences the way The idea is that a single set of mechanisms can handle both the
adherents to it perceive the world. The hypothesis has been creative side and the rote side of language. Connectionist theories
largely abandoned by linguists as it has found at best very limited take the view that similarity and frequency both play important
experimental support, at least in its strong form. For instance, a roles in processing, with novel items being processed based on
study showing that speakers of languages lacking a subjunctive their similarity to known ones.
mood such as Chinese experience difculty with hypothetical
problems has been discredited. Another study did show that subjects 2. The history and essence of Soviet and Russian
in memory tests are more likely to remember a given colour if their psycholinguistics.
mother language includes a word for that colour; however, these The notion of the ‘world image’
ndings do not necessarily support this hypothesis specically. Alexander Potebnia, Professor of Linguistics at the University
The special feature of language on which N. Chomsky focused of Kharkov, constructed a theory of language and consciousness
was its productivity. Possessed with a grammar, or syntax, humans that later inuenced the thinking of the psychologist Lev Vygotsky.
can produce and understand novel sentences that carry novel In 1862, A. Potebnia published his work Thought and Language.
messages. We do this in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to the He was particularly interested in the relations between language,
structure of the language. For example, we know that He showed thought, and reality. Language for him was primarily the means
her baby the pictures and He showed her the baby pictures describe by which the mind ordered the inux of impressions and stimuli.
quite different events, even though the difference in word order is Words carry not only a meaning, but also the past experience of
slight. the individual and the nation, through which all new experience is
According to N. Chomsky, we can even make some sense of ltered.
Colourless green ideas sleep furiously, which is semantically Thus, a word usually has three aspects: an external form, a
anomalous but syntactically well formed. The same kinds of abilities meaning, and an internal form. It is through the internal form that
are found at other levels of language. We combine morphemes the objective world is subjectivized. In many cases the internal form
(units of meaning) in systematic ways, and so understand Lewis is rooted in myth and, hence, acts as a bridge between language and
Carroll’s slithy toves to refer to more than one tove that has the folklore (with its symbols). These ideas constitute the framework of
characteristics of slithiness. And we can combine phonemes A. Potebnia’s master’s thesis O nekotorykh simvolakh v slavianskoi
(units of sound) according to the patterns of the English language, narodnoi poezii (On Some Symbols in Slavic Folk Poetry, 1860;
accepting slithy but not tlithy as a potential English word. expanded edn in 1914) and his monumental work Obiasneniia
Although Chomsky and the early psycholinguists focused on malorusskikh i srodnykh narodnykh pesen (Explanations of Little
the creative side of language, language also has its rote side. For Russian and Related Folk Songs, 2 vols, 1883, 1887).
example, we store a great deal of information about the properties With time the consciousness of a word’s internal form fades,
of words in our mental lexicon, and we retrieve this information and one of the tasks of literature is to restore this consciousness.
when we understand or produce language. In some views, different According to this theory, literature is a hierarchy of genres; the
kinds of mechanisms are responsible for the creative and the simplest ones (the proverb, riddle, and fable) directly recall or
habitual aspects of language. For example, we may use morpheme- renew the word’s internal form, and the other genres do so in a
based rules to decompose a complex word like rewritable the rst more complicated, sometimes hardly detectable, way through a
few times we encounter it, but after several exposures we may complex system of subjective (in poetry) or seemingly objective
begin to store and access the word as a unit. Dual-route views of (in the novel) images. Before A. Potebnia’s work, the eld of Slavic
34 35
historical syntax consisted mostly of inventories of constructions The fact that a child masters the semiotic function (the human
collected from literary monuments of various periods. He revised capacity for symbolic activity) during the process of ontogenesis is
it to create a broadly drawn picture of category and construction a crucial point for this conception of language, since the possibility
changes tied to changes in the ways of thinking, by integrating of mutual understanding through the use of outer formal language is
historical, dialectal, and folkloric materials. based on the semiotic function and is determined by the knowledge
Since its inception, Soviet psycholinguistics had its own unique shared by the members of the same culture. Members of any culture
character as it was based on the achievements of the Soviet school of acquire these meanings during the process of socialization and must
psychology – on the cultural-historical psychology of L. Vygotsky retrieve them from their memory in the process of communication,
and the activity theory of A. Leontiev. This is what has determined the extent of mutual understanding depending on the similarity of
the range of problems considered by modern researchers in these meanings.
Russia, namely, the ontogenesis of language competence, speech Ethnopsycholinguistic research within Soviet psycholinguistics
production, speech perception, speech communication, etc. began in the 1970s as a study of the cultural specicity of speech
In all these areas, Soviet and Russian psycholinguistics have communication. A. Leontiev dened ethnopsycholinguistics as
their own achievements, the most signicant of which being a branch of psycholinguistics which studies national and cultural
the development of a speech production model (or the model variation in: (a) speech operations, speech acts and entire acts of
of language competence functioning) based on aphasiological speech activity, (b) language consciousness, i.e. the cognitive use of
evidence (T. Akhutina-Ryabova and A. Leontiev), the view of language and other sign systems functionally equivalent to it, and
language as an activity structure (A. Leontiev), the theory of (c) the external and internal organization of speech communication
language consciousness (Ye. Tarasov and N. Umtseva), and processes.
lacuna theory (Ju. Sorokin and I. Markovina). Owing to both the research of lexicon structure by A. Zalevskaya
In Soviet and Russian psycholinguistics, language has been and her associates on the material of the Edinburgh Associative
viewed as an activity structure that comprises, according to A. Thesaurus (EAT) and the research of language consciousness
Leontiev (1999), “language meanings that are social units by their conducted by the Moscow school of psycholinguistics on the
nature, universal organization of speech activity into different units material of the Russian Associative Dictionary (RAD) and the
and levels, and operators specic to each language.” Language Slavic Associative Dictionary, we now have the area of the
represented in such a way becomes a universal means of connection psycholinguistic research which tries to investigate the content of
between man, culture and the ‘world image’, the latter forming the a national consciousness.
main part of culture through language meanings. Since the early 1990s, a new methodological framework
Language, considered as an activity structure, is said to consist for ethnopsycholinguistic research has been developed
of two parts such as the inner language and the outer one. According in the Moscow School of Psycholinguistics. Its central
to N. Zhinkin (1982), the inner, or conceptual, language mediates problem is the study of the national-cultural specificity of
the activity of the mind (while searching for and processing ‘language consciousness’ (the term used by the Moscow
information) and has nothing to do with any particular language in School of Psycholinguistics), the difference between national
the world. The outer, or formal, language is used for communication consciousnesses of communicants being recognized as the main
with other members of a particular culture. The joint functioning cause of misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication.
of these two “languages” makes up the phenomenon known as The search for new ways of investigation has resulted in the
consciousness. Language is also regarded as an instrument that formation of a cross-cultural ontology of national mentality
serves consciousness: it allows for inner thoughts to be transferred analysis, when “images of consciousness” of one national
into outer words, since we think in our inner language, and culture are analysed through contrastive comparison with
externalize the results of thinking in outer or formal language. those of another culture.
36 37
The specic character of communication when using a certain A. Wierzbicka points out that the idea of friendship in the Anglo-
national language consists in (1) the specic organization of speech American culture has given way to the new ideal of ‘meeting new
according to the rules of the language, (2) the specic images of people’, the latter now being called friends.
consciousness reecting objects of a certain culture, and (3) the On the other hand, N. Lebedeva (2000) believes that family
specic systemic character of the world image. Therefore, in order protection, health, true friendship, delity, intellect, sense of
to achieve mutual understanding communicants should possess (1) life, and inner harmony constitute Russian basic cultural values
common knowledge of the language they use (and common skills passed on from one generation to another. The concept of ‘friend’
of verbal communication) as well as (2) common knowledge of the according to The Russian Associative Dictionary takes a very
world in the form of images of consciousness. important place in the core of the Russian language consciousness.
In modern linguistics, there is a well-established tradition of Thus, the word friend stimulated the following associations:
exploring national character and attitudes with the help of key words vernyi (faithful), nadezhnyi (reliable), nastoyashchiy (true), staryi
identied through the analysis of cultural texts and dictionaries. (old), blizkiy (close), zakadychnyi (bosom), lyubimyi (beloved),
The specic systemic character of the world image can be revealed serdechnyi (warm-hearted), luchshiy (the best), milyi (nice, sweet),
through a mass associative experiment and associative dictionaries yedinstvennyi (the only one), and iz detstva (from childhood);
compiled on the basis of the latter. Associative dictionaries can friend is also tovarishch (comrade) and brat (brother). According
be of two types – direct (from stimulus to reaction) and reverse to the reverse dictionary friend was the response to such stimuli as
(from reaction to stimulus). The material of a direct associative ‘acquaintance’, ‘companion’, ‘college’, ‘buddy’, and ‘neighbour’.
dictionary makes it possible to observe the systemic character of Therefore, the peculiarities of the Russian and English language
the knowledge that is designated by the bodies of signs (i.e. words) consciousness revealed through the analysis of the associative
of a given language, while a reverse associative dictionary gives an dictionaries data demonstrate the real systemic character of the
opportunity to observe the systemic character of the world image world images of the two cultures as well as differences in them.
of average culture representatives through analysing the core of an
associative-verbal network. 3. Mechanisms of language comprehension
According to A. Zalevskaya, the words that are of special 3.1. Spoken word recognition
importance for a respondent have the maximum number of The perception of spoken words would seem to be an extremely
associative connections. These words denote the most capacious difcult task. Speech is distributed in time, thus there are few
concepts whose associative connections have the highest probability reliable cues to the boundaries between segments and words. This
of reproduction. Materials of mass associative experiments reect leads to what is called the “segmentation problem”, or the problem
real consciousness of naïve (average) language speakers and can be of how listeners hear a sequence of discrete units even though the
used for both the analysis of its synchronic state and of the changes acoustic signal itself is continuous.
which occur in the consciousness during a certain period of time Other features of speech could cause difculty for listeners
(diachronic aspect). as well. Certain phonemes are omitted in conversational speech,
An analysis of the concepts of ‘friendship’ and ‘friend’ was others change their pronunciations depending on the surrounding
carried out by Anna Wierzbicka (2001). She arrives at the conclusion sounds (e.g., /n/ may be pronounced as [m] in lean bacon), and
that ‘friends’ cannot be recognized as a universally important social many words have “everyday” pronunciations (e.g., going to
or psychological category. Thus, in AngloAmerican culture the frequently becomes gonna). Despite these potential problems, we
meaning of these concepts has changed a lot, being signicantly usually seem to perceive speech automatically and with little effort.
devalued. As A. Wierzbicka puts it, the meaning of the word friend Three major theories have been put forward in Western
has “weakened” so that it is now necessary to use the expression linguistics about how to process the spoken word. The interest lies
a close friend to make the word friend regain its former power. in how we deduce the meaning so efciently when the quality of
38 39
the acoustic input is so variable, and how we work out so quickly the parsing and interpretation of utterances. For example, it can
what a word is – often after only the rst two phonemes. help resolve lexical and syntactic ambiguities, it can signal the
According to the motor theory, the listener recreates the motor importance, novelty and contrastive value of phrases, and it can
movements associated with speaking the words. This theory has relate newly-heard information to the prior discourse.
been largely discredited now. Here are some examples of slips of the ear, i.e. mishearing
The so called cohort theory maintains that listeners attempt something:
to map the acoustic signal onto a representation in the mental (1) The United Nations is thinking of withdrawing all the
lexicon beginning almost as the signal starts to arrive. The cohort blueberries from the former Yugoslavia (Blue Berets is the UN
model, rst proposed by W. Marslen-Wilson and A. Welsh in Peacekeeping force);
1978 illustrates how this may occur. As soon as we hear a word (2) Hormone treatment should be available for postmen or
begin, we “ag up” all the words we know which have that sound pausal women (post-menopausal women);
at the beginning, creating a word-initial cohort. These candidates (3) I’m going on a trip to Cabbage World (Cadbury World
compete with one another for activation. We then disqualify those is a visitor attraction created and run by the Cadbury chocolate
which no longer t when the next sound is heard, or which are company).
unlikely because of the context. This process continues until only
one word candidate matches the input; the best tting word may 3.2. Reading and listening comprehension,
be chosen if no single candidate is a clear winner (which is a case common and specic features
with polysemantic and homonymous words). Supporting this To read words we must recognize their shape and/or letters, and
view, listeners sometimes glance rst at a picture of a candy when have some way of relating them to meaning. Mostly we can also
instructed to pick up the candle. A simpler and graphic account of link them with a phonological form, though it is certainly possible
its basic operation is suggested by J. Aitchison. to know a word without knowing how to say it. In order to write
The TRACE model derives from such an approach to the a word, we need to rst select it from the mental lexicon and then
modeling of psychological processes as connectionism, and entails access information about how it is spelled.
the dynamic connection of nodes (processing units) creating the Interesting questions arise about whether speakers of different
‘information pathways’ where they are most useful. When we hear languages have different processing systems, because in languages
a word beginning with [t], say, this excites the pathway for the with a good grapheme-phoneme correspondence, such as Spanish,
phoneme /t/, and that in turn begins to excite the pathways to all the it is possible to move between pronunciation and spelling via
words beginning with /t/. The next sound in the word excites new simple rules (T. A. Harley), whereas English has words that are
nodes and pathways, and there is therefore a built-up of activation not pronounced as they are spelled (e.g., knight, Leicester), which
to those words that have all of the sounds heard so far. The model is requires a word-specic listing. Yet an ability to pronounce English
described by M. Eysenck and M. T. Keane, as well as T. A. Harley. non-words (like blenk) shows that English speakers have the
One challenge that is specic to listening comes from the grapheme-phoneme pathway as well.
evanescent nature of speech. People cannot re-listen to what they It is generally believed that there are differences in the way
have just heard in the way that readers can move their eyes back that we access the meaning of spoken and written words, but
in the text. Auditory sensory memory can hold information for up that the processes by which we achieve the comprehension of
to several seconds, whereas reading permits effective revision. larger units (i.e. phrases, clauses, sentences) are common to both
In addition, auditory structure may facilitate short-term memory media (M. Eysenck and M. T. Keane). We need to recognize that
for spoken language. Imposing a rhythm on the items in a to-be- any given sentence displays a number of characteristics: (1) it is
remembered list can help people remember them, and prosody potentially novel, (2) it has a grammatical structure, (3) it has a
may aid memory for sentences as well. Prosody may also guide literal meaning, and (4) it has an intended meaning (pragmatics).
40 41
Comprehension of written and spoken language can be difcult, before we reach the point where the structure becomes false, this
in part, because it is not always easy to identify the constituents can prevent us from recognizing the correct and only grammatical
(phrases) of a sentence and the ways in which they relate to one interpretation (The ball which was bounced past the window
another. The place of a particular constituent within the grammatical burst) even when the whole sentence has been heard (J. F. Kess,
structure may be temporarily or permanently ambiguous. Studies M. Eysenck, M. T. Keane, L. Frazier, and K. Rayner).
of how people resolve grammatical ambiguities, like studies of Long-distance dependencies, like ambiguities, can cause
how they resolve lexical ambiguities, have provided insights into problems in the parsing of language. Sentences can be placed
the processes of language comprehension. inside sentences, without limit. This means that related phrases can
Consider the sentence The second wife will claim the inheritance be distant from one another. Many linguists describe constructions
belongs to her. When the inheritance rst appears, it could be like The girl I saw at the zoo was my sister as having an empty
interpreted as either the direct object of claim or the subject of element, a ‘trace’, in the position where the removed element
belongs. Although it was found that readers’ eyes xated for longer (whom) must be interpreted.
than usual on the verb belongs, which disambiguates the sentence. M. Spivey-Knowlton and J. Sedivy demonstrated effects
They interpreted this result to mean that readers rst interpreted the of particular categories of lexical items, as well as effects of
inheritance as a direct object. discourse structure, in the comprehension of sentences like The
There are potential lexical ambiguities in much of what we hear. salesman glanced at a/the customer with suspicion/ripped jeans.
Why do we not notice that, for example, Have you got enough The prepositional phrases with suspicion or with ripped jeans
time for this? could equally well be Have you got enough thyme could modify either the verb glance or the noun customer. Other
(тимьян, чабрец) for this? Researchers have wanted to establish examples of ambiguous sentence structures are (1) The burglar
whether all possible interpretations of a phonetic string are blew open a safe with the dynamite. (2) Put the cup on the napkin
available at rst, and then eliminated, or whether one interpretation under the book. Some theorists (e.g., G. Altmann and M. Steedman)
is assumed (possibly the most frequent) and the others remain have proposed a referential theory claiming that contextual
unretrieved (A. Garnham, J. Aitchison, and T. A. Harley). appropriateness guides parsing and indeed is responsible for the
Ambiguity that occurs at the syntactic level entails two or effects that have previously been attributed to structural factors
more possible interpretations of a clause, as in (1) Hubert saw such as minimal attachment.
his grandmother riding on a horse. (2) I saw the man with the Competitive constraint-based theories, like other connectionist
telescope. Syntactic ambiguity is of interest because it can tell us theories, grant a major role to frequency. Frequent constructions
how our grammatical and semantic processing interact. Evidence should be more readily activated by appropriate sources of
from experiments suggest that we do use semantic information to information than less common constructions are.
help us resolve syntactic ambiguity (T. A. Harley). Written language carries some information that is not available
Following T. Bever, L. Frazier and K. Rayner described their in the auditory signal. For example, word boundaries are explicitly
readers as being led down a ‘garden path’. Readers are led down indicated in many languages, and readers seldom have to suffer
the garden path, the linguists claimed, because the direct object the kinds of degradation in signal quality that are commonly
analysis is structurally simpler than the other possible analysis. experienced by listeners in noisy environments. However, writing
These researchers proposed a principle of minimal attachment, lacks the full range of grammatically-relevant prosodic information
and they claimed that structural simplicity guides all initial that is available in speech. Punctuation has value in that it restores
analyses. Garden-path sentences are so called because they lead some of this information. For instance, the comma in Since Jay
us up the garden path by misleading us about their construction. always jogs, a mile seems like a very short distance to him helps to
An example is The ball bounced past the window burst. If we have avoid misinterpretation.
already decided that we know how the sentence is constructed
42 43
3.3. The mental lexicon Further evidence for this view comes from a study in which
In discussing how listeners and readers access information in Russian-English bilinguals were asked, in Russian, to pick up
the mental lexicon, there should be said more about the nature of objects such as a marku (a stamp). When a marker was also
the information that they access. present – an object whose English name is similar to marku –
Under a word-based view, the lexicon contains representations people sometimes looked at it before looking at the stamp and
of all words that the language user knows, whether they are single- carrying out the instruction. Although English was not used during
morpheme words such as cat or polymorphemic words such as the experimental session, the bilinguals appeared unable to ignore
beautifully. the irrelevant lexicon.
Under a morpheme-based view, in contrast, the lexicon is Autonomous serial search model consists in the assumption
organized in terms of morphemes such as beauty, -ful, and -ly. In that words in the brain are linked to books on a library shelf, with
this view, complex words are processed and represented in terms each word listed independently in three different access les (like
of such units. Some researchers proved that nonwords such as vive library catalogues): orthographic, phonological, and syntactic-
(which is a part of revive) were difcult to reject in a lexical decision semantic. The comprehension process is speeded up by the most
task. Participants also had trouble with items such as dejuvenate frequent words being the rst to be searched through (J. Aitchison;
which, although not a real word, consists of the genuine prex T. A. Harley).
together with the genuine root. M. Taft and K. Forster interpreted Interactive activation model is based on connectionist
their results to suggest that access to the mental lexicon is based on principles and is similar in nature to the TRACE model for speech
root morphemes and that obligatory decomposition must precede comprehension. Nodes and pathways are activated when we
word recognition for polymorphemic words. recognize parts of letters, whole letters and words. Thus, words
More recent studies suggest that there are in fact two routes to beginning with w achieve an increased level of activation when
recognition for polymorphemic words, one based on morphological the letter level has recognized that w is the initial letter. As the
analysis and the other based on whole-word storage. Commonly subsequent letters in the word are identied, the activation is
encountered words may also be treated as wholes rather than in increased again for those words still consistent with the information,
terms of morphemes. Although morphological decomposition may until the correct one can be chosen (often before all the letters have
not always take place, the evidence we have reviewed suggests been processed) (M. Eysenck, M. T. Keane, and T. A. Harley).
that the lexicon is organized, in part, in terms of morphemes. This
organization helps explain our ability to make some sense of slithy 4. Speech production
and toves. Speech production concerns how people produce language,
Problems with ambiguity are potentially greater in bilinguals either in written or spoken form, in a way that conveys meanings
than in monolinguals. For example, leek has a single sense for comprehensible to others. One of the most effective ways to
a monolingual speaker of English, but it has another meaning, explain the way people represent meanings using rule-governed
‘layperson’, for one who also knows Dutch. When asked to languages is by observing and analysing instances of speech
decide whether printed words are English or not, and when the errors. They include speech disuencies like false starts, repetition,
experimental items included some exclusively Dutch words, Dutch- reformulation, and constant pauses between words or sentences;
English bilinguals were found to have more difculty with words also, slips of tongue such as blendings, substitutions, exchanges,
such as leek than with appropriate control words such as zuivel and various pronunciation errors. These speech errors yield
(dairy). Such results suggest that the Dutch lexicon is activated signicant implication on language production. They reect the
along with the English one in this situation. Although optimal following:
performance could be achieved by deactivating the irrelevant (1) speech is planned in advance: speech errors like substitution
language, bilinguals are sometimes unable to do this. and exchanges show that one does not plan their entire sentence
44 45
before one speaks. Rather, their language faculty is constantly accessed in sequence, according to their order in the utterance
tapped during the speech production process. This is accounted (A. Roelofs).
for by the limitation of the working memory. In particular, errors The next processing step is the generation of the phonological
involving exchanges imply that one plans ahead in their sentence form of the word. Word forms are not simply retrieved as units,
but only about signicant ideas (e.g., the words that constitute the but are rst decomposed into individual segments (or perhaps
core meaning) and only to a certain extent of the sentence; segments and certain groups of segments, such as /st/), which are
(2) lexicon is organised semantically and phonologically: subsequently mapped onto prosodic patterns. The most convincing
substitution and pronunciation errors show that lexicon is organised evidence for phonological decomposition stems from studies of
not only by its meaning, but also its form; speech errors. Speakers sometimes make errors in which they
(3) morphologically complex words are assembled: errors replace or misorder single phonemes (e.g., perry pie instead of
involving blending within a word reect that there seems to be a cherry pie). Western researchers claim that these errors show that
rule governing the construction of words in production (and also the words’ segments constitute processing units; if word forms were
likely in mental lexicon). In other words, speakers generate the retrieved as units, such errors could probably not occur. During
morphologically complex words by merging morphemes rather phonological encoding, the segmental and stress information are
than retrieving them as chunks. combined.
Computational model of access to single words in spoken Inadvertent errors in the speech of normal people can provide
language production reveals a number of stages/processing steps. indication of how we access individual words and how we plan
The rst processing step, called conceptualisation, is deciding the larger units of our utterances. D. Caplan and T. A. Harley have
what notion to express. For instance, such words as the baby– studied speech errors, and found that more errors occur with content
Emilio–Her Majesty’s grandson–he can be used by the speaker to words than other words, including semantic substitutions, words
refer to a small person in a highchair. In making such a choice, the swapping places (e.g., he is planting the garden in the owers),
speaker considers a variety of things, including whether the person and the transposition of sounds between words (e.g., shinking sips
has been mentioned before and whether the listener is likely know for sinking ships). Where an afx gets separated from its root (e.g.,
his proper name. He is schooling to go for He is going to school), it is the afx
The next step is to select a word that corresponds to the chosen that stays in place and the content word that moves. Prepositions
concept. In the view of W. Levelt, the speaker rst selects a lemma, occasionally undergo semantic substitution.
or syntactic unit. Lemma selection is a competitive process. Several In order to speak a word, we have to take the idea that we have
lemmas may be activated at once because several concepts are more in mind to a store of words, nd and retrieve a match, activate the
or less suitable to express the message. A checking mechanism instructions about how to pronounce it, and pass those instructions
ascertains that the selected lemma indeed maps onto the intended to the articulators (such as tongue and larynx). To produce a whole
concept. utterance there must be forward planning to ensure the words are
The following processing step, morpho-phonological articulated in the right order, with the correct intonation, and so on.
encoding, begins with the retrieval of the morphemes corresponding These processes can be investigated in three ways: by
to the selected lemma. For the lemma baby there is only one experimentation, by the analysis of speech errors in normal
morpheme to retrieve, but for grandson or walked two morphemes individuals, and by the observation of the problems encountered by
must be retrieved. Evidence that speakers access morphological certain type of aphasic patients. Many descriptions exist of speech
information comes from a variety of sources. For instance, people errors and word-nding difculties in aphasics, and, clearly,
sometimes make speech errors such as in Imagine getting your models of normal processing need to be able to account for the
model renosed, where stems exchange while afxes remain in phenomenon. Amongst the word-level symptoms that manifest
place. Priming experiments have also shown that morphemes are themselves in various forms of aphasia are the following:
46 47
(1) an inability to access content words: this is like an extreme including ones with irregular pronunciation. This indicates that
form of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (M. Eysenck and reading is only achievable via the lexicon which does not contain
M. T. Keane), any item that hasn’t been encountered before. There are also
(2) making up non-existent words (false neologisms) problems with reading function words;
(T. A. Harley), (3) deep dyslexia: non-words and function words cannot be
(3) semantic errors: substitution of a word with a similar, or read aloud, and there are semantic errors, such as ower for rose.
associated meaning (J. Aitchison), Acquired dysgraphia manifests different symptoms, amongst
(4) phonological errors: problems with sequencing the sounds, which are semantic errors (e.g., writing sun when asked to write
or the persistent use of a wrong sound over several attempts sky, and chair for desk), homophone errors (e.g., writing sought
(J. Aitchison), and for sort and scene for seen), phonetic spelling (e.g., ud for ood,
(5) more problems with verbs than nouns (K. Malmkjaer). neffue for nephew), and the inability to write unknown or non-
Broca’s aphasics (Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) was a French words (M. T. Keane and D. Crystal).
physician, surgeon, anatomist and anthropologist) often have
agrammatism, consisting of problems with putting words into 5. Language acquisition and the related theories
sentences so that they “look as though they are being output one Language acquisition has been one of the central topics in
at a time” (T. A. Harley), and also particular difculties with the cognitive science but has also been one of the most controversial.
elements that carry the grammatical structure, such as function Languages are complex combinations of elegant principles and
words (in particular, prepositions), and word endings. Wernicke’s historical accidents, which is perhaps one of the reasons why
aphasics (Carl/Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) was a German there is no monolithic explanatory theory of language. The goal of
physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist), who language acquisition research is to describe how a child becomes
produce long strings that are incomprehensible, have better access competent to produce and understand language, select the proper
to the grammatical words than to content words. processing strategies and achieve language ‘milestones’.
Dyslexia in common parlance actually refers to developmental However, there is a range of theories of language acquisition
dyslexia and developmental dysgraphia: disabilities that some that have been created but most of these theories cannot agree on
children of normal intelligence have in learning to read and write, the role that both nature and nurture play in language acquisition.
and which can persist into adulthood if not remedied. There are The theories do have one thing in common though, and that is
several reasons why developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia are the fact that they all believe that language acquisition is the key
still not understood; one of them is that until recently, children with aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms and by
severe dyslexia were misdiagnosed as stupid or lazy. understanding how different aspects of language are acquired we
There exist also acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia, however. can better understand the main vehicle by which we communicate.
These affect individuals previously able to read and write, but who Innateness theory. Noam Chomsky is one of the best known
lose some or all of that ability after brain injury. Several types of and the most inuential linguists of the second half of the 20th
acquired dyslexia have been identied, including century. He has made a number of strong claims about language: in
(1) surface dyslexia: irregular words are read phonetically, particular, he suggests that language is an innate faculty – that is to
suggesting that, when reading at least, sufferers do not have say that we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads
access to their lexicon (which would supply information about the which he refers to as the Universal Grammar.
peculiarities of the pronunciation), and have to use a phonological The idea of a universal grammar can be traced back to Roger
route to reading; Bacon’s observations in his c. 1245 Overview of Grammar and
(2) phonological dyslexia: non-words (e.g. blobe) cannot be c. 1268 Greek Grammar that all languages are built upon a common
read aloud, but words known to the patient can be correctly read, grammar, even though they may undergo accidental variations, and
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the 13th century speculative grammarians who, following R. Bacon, as “setting the parameters”. It is as if the child were offered at birth
postulated universal rules underlying all grammars. The concept a certain number of hypotheses, which he or she then matches with
of a universal grammar or language was at the core of the 17th what is happening around him. He knows intuitively that there are
century projects for philosophical languages. There is a Scottish some words that behave like verbs, and others like nouns, and that
school of universal grammarians from the 18th century, which there is a limited set of possibilities as to their ordering within the
includes authors such as J. Beattie, H. Blair, J. Burnett, J. Harris, phrase. This is not information that he is taught directly by the
and A. Smith. The article called “Grammar” in the rst edition of adults that surround him, but information that is given. It is as if
the Encyclopædia Britannica (1771) contains an extensive section the traveller were provided at the beginning of his journey with a
titled “Of Universal Grammar”. compass. This set of language learning tools, provided at birth, is
The universal grammar is the basis upon which all human referred to by N. Chomsky as the Language Acquisition Device.
languages build. If a Martian linguist were to visit the Earth, he (Notice that he uses the term ‘acquisition’ rather than learning).
would deduce from the evidence that there is only one language, The theory claims that our parents didn’t teach us how to walk
with a number of local variants. N. Chomsky gives a number of and they didn’t teach us how to talk. Yet we learned from them.
reasons why this should be so. Among the most important of these How can this be? Certainly there must have been a subtle, perhaps
reasons is the ease with which children acquire their mother tongue. intuitive teaching process that neither our parents nor we were
He claims that it would be little short of a miracle if children learnt aware of. We begin by imitating what we hear our parents say
their language in the same way that they learn mathematics or how as best we can, repeating random phrases. Our parents in subtle
to ride a bicycle. This, he says, is because children are exposed to ways punish us for the childish speech errors we make (by not
very little correctly formed language. responding, correcting the error, etc.) and reward correct phrases
When people speak, they constantly interrupt themselves, (by responding positively). As our speech improves, our parents
change their minds, make slips of the tongue and so on. Yet respond more positively and less negatively. Research shows
children manage to learn their language all the same. Children do that while mothers often respond to the semantic content of what
not simply copy the language that they hear around them. They their children say (No, that’s not a doggie, it’s a cow), they very
deduce rules from it, which they can then use to produce sentences rarely respond to the grammatical status of their children’s phrases
that they have never heard before. They do not learn a repertoire (Daddy go; He hitted me; No eat cake). Here is another example:
of phrases and sayings, as the behaviourists believe, but a grammar Child : Mamma isn’t boy, he a girl.
that generates an innity of new sentences. Children are born, then, Mother : That’s right.
with the universal grammar wired into their brains. This grammar Notice also that the words in the erroneous phrases are all
offers a certain limited number of possibilities – for example, over in the correct order. No child would say go Daddy for Daddy is
the word order of a typical sentence. going or cookie mommy for Mommy’s cookie. By the time a child
Some languages have a basic SVO structure (e.g., The teacher begins putting two words together, he or she has already mastered
gave a lecture). 75 % of the world’s languages use either this the basic rules of syntax and applies them correctly even in their
(English, French, and Vietnamese) or SOV (Japanese, Tibetan, erroneous speech. It takes the child a little longer to master the
and Korean); others prefer VSO (10–15 % – Welsh) or VOS rules of morphology. When parents do respond to speech errors,
(Malagasy). Some languages, such as Latin, appear to have free they most often respond positively. What do you think the response
word order, but even here SOV is very common. OSV is very rare, to the following phrases was – correction or laughter (which is
but you will nd an example in the speech of Yoda, in Star Wars. taken to be a positive response)?
When children begin to listen to their parents, they will (1) Mama, mama, there’s a tree-knocker in the back yard!
unconsciously recognise which kind of a language he is dealing (2) It’s raining, where is the underbrella?
with – and he will set his grammar to the correct one – this is known (3) Give me the beach-lookers! (binoculars)
50 51
The evidence then indicates that children do, in fact, absorb a other linguists prefer to call it ‘caretaker talk’, ‘caretaker speech’,
massive number of sentences and phrases but rather than parrot ‘infant-directed speech (IDS)’, or ‘child-directed speech (CDS)’.
them back, they abstract rules from them and create their own What are the characteristics of this kind of language? They are as
grammar, which they then apply to create new utterances they have follows:
never heard before. Over the years from 2-7, when language is (1) simplied grammar and meaning,
mastered, children constantly adjust their grammar until it matches (2) shorter sentences – from about 8 words per sentence to
that of the adult speaker population. four, when speaking to two-year olds,
Children are known to build a natural language when exposed (3) more restricted range of sentence patterns,
to unsystematic pidgin data. Pidgin is a grammatically simplied (4) expansion and repetition of sentences,
means of communication that develops between two or more (5) slower speech,
groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture (6) use of special words and sounds,
of simplied languages or a simplied primary language with other (7) high pitch,
languages’ elements included. It possesses the following features: (8) large number of questions and utterances with high rising
reduced syntax and vocabulary; often no xed order of words, intonation – looking for feedback, and
with considerable variation from one speaker to another; it is used (9) application here and now.
purely as a language of communication; it is not lived in; noone Although the language that children hear is by no means
speaks a pidgin as a mother tongue. But a pidgin can become a necessarily partial and ungrammatical. Another problem is
language – creole. The resulting creole is almost as systematic and that N. Chomsky appears to reduce language to its grammar.
sophisticated as any natural human language and more interestingly He seems to regard meaning as secondary – a sentence such as
contains rules that are not attributable to the languages forming the “Colourless green ideas sleep furiously” may be considered as
pidgin, out of which the creole is driven. part of the English language, for it is grammatically correct, and,
How does this happen? According to Derek Bickerton, who has therefore, worth of study by Transformational Grammar. Because
reconstructed the process of creolisation in Hawaii, it takes one N. Chomsky disregards meaning and the social situation in which
generation. When children begin to use a pidgin, they automatically language is normally produced, he disregards, in particular, the
enrich the vocabulary and the syntax – it becomes a full language. situation in which the child learns his rst language.
The community of young children in Hawaii took the pidgin used To compare, e.g. empiricism is the theory that all knowledge
by their parents – workers from China, Japan, Korea, Portugal, the is based on experience derived from the senses. Empiricists
Philippines, and Puerto Rico – and created a language. According only study observable behaviour instead of unobservable mental
to the followers of the American linguist Noam Chomsky, this can representations, states and processes. They claim that sense and
stand as an emblem for what the process of acquiring a language experience is the ultimate source of all concepts and knowledge.
consists in, at least for a mother tongue: the child does not learn the Cognitive theory. Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who
language, but creates it anew! was famous for his four stages of cognitive development for
N. Chomsky is certainly mistaken in believing that children hear children, which included the development of language. However,
only partial and ungrammatical sentences. Studies of the ways in children do not think like adults; thus, before they can begin to
which parents, and particularly mothers, interact with their babies develop language, they must rst actively construct their own
and infants show that they use a special kind of language, and take understanding of the world through their interactions with the
great care to speak in full correct sentences to their children. It has environment.
been noticed that mothers and other caretakers, when speaking to A child has to understand a concept before he or she can acquire
children, adopt a certain number of specic verbal strategies. The a particular language that expresses that concept. It is impossible
style of speech that they use is sometimes referred to as ‘motherese’; for a child to voice concepts that are unknown to them; therefore,
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children learn about their environment and then map the language at birth can hear all the phonetic distinctions used in the world’s
onto their prior experience. An infant’s experience of a cat is that it languages. According to P. Kuhl and colleagues (2005), to acquire
is furry, it meows and eats from a bowl in the kitchen; hence they a language, infants have to discover which phonetic distinctions
develop the concept of cat rst and then learn to map the word will be utilized in the language of their culture. During the rst
“kitty” onto that concept. Language is only one of the many human year of life, prior to the acquisition of word meaning, infants begin
mental or cognitive activities, and many cognitivists believe that to perceive speech by forming perceptual maps of the speech
language emerges within the context of other general cognitive they hear in their environment. P. Kuhl’s research focused on the
abilities (like memory, attention, and problem solving) because it mechanism underlying the development transition from an infants’
is a part of their broader intellectual development. universal phonetic capacity to native phonetic discrimination.
Social interaction theory. L. Vygotsky’s social interaction Recently P. Kuhl’s research has initiated the revision of the
theory incorporates nurture arguments in that children can be NLM and expanded the model to include native language neural
inuenced by their environment as well as the language input commitment, which explains effects of language experience on the
children receive from their care-givers. Although the theories of brain.
B. Skinner, N. Chomsky and J. Piaget are all very different and
very important in their own contexts, they don’t necessarily take 6. Methods of investigation in psycholinguistics
into account the fact that children don’t encounter language in Some language processing research relies upon observational
isolation. The interaction theory proposes that language exists data or upon introspective methods such as verbal report.
for the purpose of communication and can only be learned in the However, the most favoured approach is experimental. Importance
context of interaction with adults and older children. It stresses the is accorded to methods that tap in to processes on line, in other
importance of the environment and culture in which the language words, as they are occurring. There is a preference for parametric
is being learned during early childhood development because it is data in the form of, for example, the reaction times involved in
social interaction that rst provides the child with the means of carrying out a small-scale task such as distinguishing actual words
making sense of their own behaviour in the surrounding world. from non-words.
Usage-based theory. The usage-based theory of language Research in the area of language acquisition falls into two broad
suggests that children initially build up their language through traditions. One is theory-driven and adopts the assumption that
very concrete constructions based around individual words or linguistic descriptions of grammar correspond to actual mental
frames on the basis of the speech they hear and use. Basically processes. Drawing especially on Chomskyan accounts, this line
this means, according to M. Tomasello, the developer of the of enquiry seeks evidence in children’s speech of universals of
theory (2003), that children learn language from their language language, of common default values for certain features and of the
experiences and a language structure emerges from language adjustment of those values to match the target language. A second
use. M. Tomasello emphasises the effects of frequency of use on branch is data-driven. It studies samples of speech, using the
cognitive representations. Research by M. Saxton (2010) indicates analytical tools provided by mainstream linguistics and discourse
that the more often a linguistic form occurs in the input, the more analysis.
often it is experienced by the child and the stronger the child’s The research method most favoured in language acquisition
representation of it becomes. studies consists of longitudinal observation based upon diaries
Native language magnet model. Young children learn or recordings. One outcome has been the assembly of a large
their mother tongue rapidly and effortlessly, following similar international corpus of child language known as the Child
developmental paths regardless of culture. How infants accomplish Language Data Exchange System, or CHILDES. Researchers
this task has become the focus of debate especially for Patricia sometimes employ interviews with children to elicit specic
Kuhl who has developed the model to help explain how infants linguistic items. Experimental methods have also been devised that
54 55
enable a researcher to track the shifts of attention of a prelinguistic hemisphere also plays its part, handling larger-scale constructs
infant and thus to assess the infant’s ability to discriminate between such as intonation and discourse structure. It has also shown that
different signals. language is widely distributed throughout the brain, relying upon
Much methodology in psycholinguistics takes the form of massive neural connections for rapid transmission.
behavioural experiments. In these types of studies, subjects are Each type of methodology presents a set of advantages and
presented with some form of linguistic input and asked to perform disadvantages for studying a particular problem in psycholinguistics.
a task (e.g., make a judgement, reproduce the stimulus, or read
a visually presented word aloud). Reaction times (usually on the Questions for self-control
order of milliseconds) and proportion of correct responses are the 1. What does psycholinguistics study?
most often employed measures of performance. Such tasks might 2. Name the milestones in the history of psycholinguistics.
include, for example, asking the subject to convert nouns into 3. Enlarge on the peculiar features of the Soviet and Russian
verbs; e.g., book suggests to write, water suggests to drink, and so psycholinguistics.
on. Another experiment might present an active sentence such as 4. Name the famous Soviet and Russian psycholinguists.
Bob threw the ball to Bill and a passive equivalent, The ball was 5. Dene the ‘world image’. Illustrate the notion with your
thrown to Bill by Bob and then ask the question (Who threw the examples.
ball?) We might then conclude (as is the case) that active sentences 6. Describe the mechanisms of spoken word recognition. Prepare
are processed more easily (faster) than passive sentences. More to discuss the related theories.
interestingly, we might also nd out that some people are unable to 7. How is the mental lexicon stored and accessed? Prepare to
understand passive sentences; we might then make some tentative discuss the related theories.
steps towards understanding certain types of language decits 8. Name the stages of speech production.
(generally grouped under the broad term ‘aphasia’). 9. What ndings are expected from the studies of aphasia,
Computational modelling refers to the practice of setting up dyslexia, and disgraphia. Specify the above deciencies.
cognitive models in the form of executable computer programmes. 10. Prepare to discuss the theories of language acquisition.
Such programmes are useful because they require theorists to 11. What is the contribution of N. Chomsky to psycholinguistics?
be explicit in their hypotheses and because they can be used to What theory was developed by L. Vygotsky?
generate accurate predictions for theoretical models that are so 12. Which of the theories, in your opinion, have proved to be the
complex that they render discursive analysis unreliable. In recent most sustainable?
years, all the areas of psycholinguistics have been assisted by 13. Prepare an extended report on one of the theories of language
technological advances, especially the advent of brain imaging acquisition.
equipment. Researchers can now monitor brain activity while 14. What methods of investigation are applied in psycholinguistics?
a subject is undertaking a language processing task; the purpose
being to discover which parts of the brain are engaged and at
which stages. They can identify where different types of linguistic LECTURE 5
information are located within the brain. SOCIOLINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE AND GENDER
Recent neurolinguistic ndings build upon a long tradition of
research on language in the brain going back to the nineteenth 1. Denition and objectives of sociolinguistics. The history of
century. It was assumed then that language was lateralized to the sociolinguistics.
left hemisphere for most language users and stored in two small 2. Application of sociolinguistics. Fundamental concepts in
areas, named after the researchers Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke. sociolinguistic studies.
However, modern technology has demonstrated that the right 3. Language and gender.
56 57
3.1. The studies of language and gender relationship. The social aspects of language were in the modern sense rst
3.2. Speech practices associated with gender. studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, and also by
3.3. Women’s language and speech throughout history and L. Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received
geography. much attention in the West until much later. The study of the
3.4. Gender paradox in the language use. social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its
foundation in ‘the wave model’ of the late 19th century. The rst
1. Denition and objectives of sociolinguistics. attested use of the term ‘sociolinguistics’ was by T. C. Hodson in
The history of sociolinguistics the title of his 1939 article “Sociolingistics in India” published in
Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and Man, in India.
society. P. Trudgill provides a good summary of some aspects of The studies of L. Iakubinskii, B. Larin and V. Zhirmunskii
its coverage: “Whenever we speak, we cannot avoid giving our working at the Institute of Discursive Culture in Leningrad in the
listeners clues about our origins and the sort of person we are. 1920s and 1930s deserve to be recognised as an early version of
Our accent and our speech generally show where we come from, sociolinguistics in the Soviet Union. The inuence of their teacher,
and what sort of background we have. We may even give some Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, was crucial to their work, as was
indication of certain of our ideas and attitudes, and all of this the tradition of Russian dialect research carried out by Aleksei
information can be used by the people we are speaking with to help Shakhmatov and others.
them formulate an opinion about us.” Sociolinguistics in the West rst appeared in the 1960s and
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US
any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, and Basil Bernstein in the UK. In the 1960s, W. Stewart and
expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the H. Kloss introduced the basic concepts for the sociolinguistic
effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to theory of pluricentric languages, which describes how standard
a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely language varieties differ between nations (e.g., American/
related to linguistic anthropology, and the distinction between British/Canadian/Australian English; Austrian/German/Swiss
the two  elds has even been questioned recently. It also studies German; Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian Serbo-
how language varieties differ between groups separated by Croatian). William Labov is often regarded as the founder of the
certain social variables (e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, study of sociolinguistics, who turned the sociology of language
level of education, age, etc.) and how adherence to these rules into a scientic discipline.
is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic
classes. As well as language usage varies from place to place, 2. Application of sociolinguistics. Fundamental concepts
language usage also varies among social classes, and it is these in sociolinguistic studies
sociolects that sociolinguistics studies. Sociolinguists studies the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary and
Among the main themes and questions sociolinguistics other aspects of a sociolect much as dialectologists study the same
addresses are, in particular, the following: (1) how accents and for a regional dialect. In sociolinguistics, a sociolect, or social
dialects develop; (2) links between a speaker’s use of regional dialect, is a variety of language (a register) associated with a social
accents or dialects and his or her social characteristics (age, gender, group such as a socioeconomic class, an ethnic group (precisely
social background, and ethnicity); (3) language change across time termed ‘ethnolect’), an age group, etc. The study of language
and geographical areas; (4) (types of) changes in the accent, dialect variation is concerned with social constraints determining language
or even the language spoken in conversations with different people; in its contextual environment. Sociolinguistics is also concerned
(5) the link between language and disadvantage (for example, the with language-related preferences in different ethnic, cultural or
language of minority groups) or language and power. social groups.
58 59
Sociolinguistic interviews are an integral part of collecting A social network is another way of describing a particular speech
data for sociolinguistic studies. There is an interviewer, who community in terms of relations between individual members in a
is conducting the study, and a subject, or informant, who is the community. A network could be loose or tight depending on how
interviewee. In order to get a grasp on a specic linguistic form and members interact with each other. The looseness or tightness of a
how it is used in the dialect of the subject, a variety of methods are social network may affect speech patterns adopted by a speaker.
used to elicit certain registers of speech. During the interview style For instance, it was found that speakers in one Cajun Louisiana
(IS), the interviewer can converse with the subject and try to draw community were more likely to pronounce English ‘th’ [θ] as [t] (or
out of them an even more casual sort of speech by asking them to [ð] as [d]) if they participated in a relatively dense social network
recall childhood memories or maybe a near death experience, in (i.e. had strong local ties and interacted with many other speakers
which case the subject will get deeply involved with the story since in the community), and less likely if their networks were looser
strong emotions are often attached to these memories. Of course, (i.e. fewer local ties). A social network may apply to the macro
the most sought after type of speech is the casual style (CS). level of a country or a city, but also to the inter-personal level of
This type of speech is difcult to elicit because of the so called neighborhoods or a single family. Recently, social networks have
‘observer’s paradox’, i.e. a situation in which the phenomenon been formed by the Internet, through chat rooms, Facebook groups,
being observed is unwittingly inuenced by the presence of the organizations, and online dating services.
observer/investigator. The closest one might come to CS in an Sociolinguistics as a eld distinct from dialectology was
interview when the subject is interrupted by a close friend or pioneered through the study of language variation in urban areas.
family member, or perhaps must answer the phone. CS is used in a Whereas dialectology studies the geographic distribution of
completely unmonitored environment where the subject feels most language variation, sociolinguistics focuses on other sources of
comfortable and will use their natural vernacular without overtly variation, among them class. Class and occupation are among the
thinking about it. most important linguistic markers found in society. One of the
While the study of sociolinguistics is very broad, there are a fundamental ndings of sociolinguistics, which has been hard to
few fundamental concepts on which many sociolinguistic inquiries disprove, is that class and language variety are related. Members
depend. Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that of the working class tend to speak less standard language, while the
describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique lower, middle and upper middle classes will in turn speak closer to
and mutually accepted way among themselves. To be considered the standard. However, the upper class, even members of the upper
part of a speech community, one must have a communicative middle class, may often speak less standard than the middle class.
competence. That is, the speaker has the ability to use language in a This is because not only class, but class aspirations, are important.
way that is appropriate in the given situation. Speech communities Studies, such as those by W. Labov in the 1960s, have shown that
can be members of a profession with a specialized jargon, distinct social aspirations inuence speech patterns. This is also true of
social groups like high school students or hip hop fans, or even class aspirations. In the process of wishing to be associated with
tight-knit groups like families and friends. Members of speech a certain class (usually the upper class and upper middle class)
communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the group’s people who are moving in that direction socio-economically will
special purposes and priorities. adjust their speech patterns to sound like them. However, not being
The learning of a language is greatly inuenced by family but native upper class speakers, they often hypercorrect.
it is supported by the larger local surroundings, such as school, Crucial to sociolinguistic analysis is the concept of prestige;
sports teams, or religion. Speech communities may exist within certain speech habits are assigned a positive or a negative value,
a larger community of practice. Community of practice allows which is then applied to the speaker. This can operate on many
sociolinguistics examine the relationship between socialization, levels. It can be realised on the level of the individual sound/
competence, and identity. phoneme, or on the macro scale of language choice. An important
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implication of sociolinguistic theory is that speakers choose Among the questions addressed by research into language and
a variety when making a speech act, whether consciously or gender are the following: In what ways do males and females
subconsciously. It is generally assumed that non-standard language use language differently (for example, grammar, pronunciation,
is low-prestige language. However, in certain groups, such as vocabulary choice, amount of talk, topics selected for talk, strategies
traditional working-class neighborhoods, standard language may selected in conversation, use of taboo words, politeness, accuracy
be considered undesirable in many contexts. The use of non- in written language)? Are the patterns equally observable in all
standard varieties (even exaggeratedly) expresses neighborhood societies? Do males and females speak differently in single-sex
pride as well as group and class solidarity. B. Bernstein stated that groups and mixed groups? How are males and females portrayed
the restricted code allows strong bonds between group members. as communicators in literature, commercials, comedy, and so on?
The following table illustrates differences in language associated What is the role of gender differences in language change? How
with social position: do children learn to speak and write appropriately for their gender?
Non-standard Standard In 1975, R. Lakoff identied a ‘women’s register’, which
It looks like it ain’t gonna rain It looks as if it isn’t going to rain she argued served to maintain women’s (inferior) role in society.
t’day. today. R. Lakoff argued that women tend to use lingual forms that reect
You give it to me yesterday. You gave it to me yesterday. and reinforce a subordinate role. These include tag questions,
Y’gotta do it right. You have got to do it in the right question intonation, and “weak” directives, among others. Studies
way. such as R. Lakoff’s have been labeled the ‘decit’ approach
since they posit that one gender is decient in terms of the other.
There are several different types of age-based variation one may Descriptions of women’s speech as decient can actually be dated
see within a population. There is a vernacular of a subgroup with as far back as Otto Jespersen’s “The Woman”, a chapter in his 1922
membership typically characterised by a specic age range, age- book Language: Its Nature and Development. O. Jespersen’s idea
graded variation, and indications of linguistic change in progress. that women’s speech is decient relative to a male norm went largely
unchallenged until R. Lakoff’s work appeared fty years later.
3. Language and gender Despite the political incorrectness of the chapter’s language from
3.1. The studies of language and gender relationship a modern perspective, Jespersen’s contributions remain relevant.
Language variation may also be associated with gender. Men These include the prospect of language change based on social and
and women, on average, tend to use slightly different language gendered opportunity, lexical and phonological differences, and
styles. Research into many possible relationships, intersections the idea of genderlects and gender roles inuence upon language.
and tensions between language and gender is diverse. It crosses This approach created a dichotomy between women’s language
disciplinary boundaries and encompasses work notionally housed and men’s language.
within applied linguistics, conversation analysis, cultural studies, One renement of the decit argument is the so-called
feminist psychology, gender studies, stylistics, sociolinguistics, ‘dominance’ approach, which posits that gender differences in
and media studies. A variety of speech (or sociolect) associated language reect power differences in society. J. Coates outlines
with a particular gender is called a genderlect. the historical range of approaches to gendered speech in her book
The study of gender and language in sociolinguistics and gender Women, Men, and Language. She contrasts the four approaches
studies is often said to have begun with R. Lakoff’s 1975 book known as the ‘decit’, ‘dominance’, ‘difference’ and ‘dynamic’
Language and Woman’s Place, as well as some earlier studies by approaches.
R. Lakoff. The study of language and gender has developed greatly ‘Difference’ is an approach of equality, differentiating men
since the 1970s. Prominent scholars in Western linguistics include and women as belonging to different sub-cultures as they have
D. Cameron, P. Eckert, J. Holmes, D. Tannen. been socialised to do so since childhood. This then results in the
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varying communicative styles of men and women. D. Tannen is a the other’s conversational contribution or of acquiring attention
major advocate of this position; she compares gender differences from others conversationally involved, techniques associated with
in language to cultural differences. Comparing conversational a collaborative approach to language use. Therefore, women use
goals, she argues that men tend to use a report style, aiming to questions more frequently. Tag questions are frequently used to
communicate factual information, whereas women more often verify or conrm information, though in women’s language they
use a rapport style, which is more concerned with building and may also be used to avoid making strong statements. As researchers
maintaining relationships. claim, female linguistic behaviour characteristically encompasses a
The ‘dynamic’ or ‘social constructionist’ approach is, as desire to take turns in conversation with others, which is opposed to
R. Coates describes, the most current approach to language and men’s tendency towards centering on their own point or remaining
gender. Instead of speech falling into a natural gendered category, silent when presented with such implicit offers of conversational
the dynamic nature and multiple factors of an interaction help a turn-taking as are provided by hedges such as “y’ know” and “isn’t
socially appropriate gendered construct. it”. Men are observed to commonly exhibit a more regimented
form of turn-taking.
3.2. Speech practices associated with gender According to the studies of same-sex friend interaction, males
The emotional labor (smiling, expressive intonation, showing tend to change the subject more frequently than females. This
rapport/empathy and giving minimal responses) is commonly difference may well be at the root of the conception that women
associated with the feminine domain. Although not all members chatter and talk too much. H. Goodwin observes that girls and
of a particular sex may follow the specic gender roles that are women link their utterances to previous speakers and develop
prescribed by society, and not every member of the corresponding each other’s topics, rather than introducing new topics. However, a
sex may t into those patterns. study of young American couples and their interactions reveal that
One of the ways in which the communicative behavior of while women raise twice as many topics as men, it is the men’s
men and women differ is in their use of minimal responses, topics that are usually taken up and subsequently elaborated in the
i.e. paralinguistic features such as “mhm” and “yeah”, which conversation.
is behaviour associated with collaborative language use. Men Female speakers demonstrate tendencies toward self-disclosure,
generally use them less frequently than women, and, where they do, i.e. sharing their problems and experiences with others, often to
it is usually to show agreement, as D. Zimmerman and C. West’s offer sympathy, which contrasts with male tendencies to non-
study of turn-taking in conversation indicates. self disclosure and professing advice or offering a solution when
Although, for example, minimal responses appearing confronted with another’s problems. Self-disclosure involves risk
throughout streams of talk, such as “mhm” or “yeah”, do not and vulnerability on the part of the person sharing the information.
only function to display active listening and interest and are not When it comes to genderlect, self-disclosure is important because
always signs of “support work”, as J. Fishman (1978) claims. They genderlect is dened as the differences in male and female
can – as more detailed analysis of minimal responses show – signal communication. Although men and women have completely
understanding, demonstrate agreement, indicate scepticism or a different views of self-disclosure, both more likely to self-disclose
critical attitude, demand clarication or show surprise. In other on the computer than they would be face to face. People are more
words, both male and female participants in a conversation can condent when using computer mediated communication, which is
employ these minimal responses for interactive functions, rather faceless and makes it easier to divulge information.
than gender-specic functions. In a conversation, meaning does not reside in the words spoken,
Men and women differ in their use of questions in conversations. but is lled in by the person listening. It appears that women
For men, a question is usually a genuine request for information, attach more weight than men to the importance of listening in
whereas with women it can often be a rhetorical means of engaging conversation. When men talk, women listen and agree. However,
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men tend to misinterpret this agreement, which was intended in languages, some Sanskrit plays recorded the speech of women in
a spirit of connection, as a reection of status and power. A man Prakrit, distinct from the Sanskrit of male speakers. This convention
might conclude that a woman is indecisive or insecure as a result was also used for illiterate and low-caste male speakers.
of her listening and attempts of acknowledgment. When in all The indigenous Australian language Yanyuwa has separate
actuality, a woman’s reasons for behaving this way have nothing to dialects for men and women. The only time that men use the
do with her attitudes toward her knowledge, but are a result of her women’s dialect is if they are quoting someone of the opposite sex
attitudes toward her relationships. The act of giving information and vice versa. The women in the Kafr of South America have
frames the speaker with a higher status, while the act of listening their own vocabulary system that is not understood by men. It is
frames the listener as lower. However, when women listen to men, called the ‘ukulela kwabazi’, or ‘women’s language’. In eastern
they are not necessarily thinking in terms of status, but in terms of Siberia, Chukchi women’s language differs from the Chukchi
connection and support. men’s variety in a number of synchronically unpredictable ways,
Power is reected in every aspect of communication – from particularly with respect to an alternation between r and c/č.
what is the actual topic of the communication to the ways in The island Carib has two distinct vocabularies, the one used
which it is communicated. Women are typically less concerned by men and by women when speaking to men, and the other used
with power more concerned with forming and maintaining by women when speaking to each other. In the Lesser Antilles,
relationships, whereas men are more concerned with their status. words special to one or the other sex are found most frequently
Girls and women feel it is crucial that they be liked by their peers, a in the names of the various degrees of kinship; thus, maternal
form of involvement that focuses on symmetrical connection. Boys uncle, son (elder son, younger son), brother-in-law, wife, mother,
and men feel it is crucial that they be respected by their peers, as grandmother, daughter, or cousin are called differently according
form of involvement that focuses on asymmetrical status. Thus, a to a man or a woman is speaking.
woman’s communication will tend to be more focused on building Nüshu (simplied Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ;
and maintaining relationships. Men on the other hand, will place pinyin (the ofcial romanisation system for Standard Chinese in
a higher priority on power, and their communication styles will mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan): Nǚshū [nỳʂú];
reect their desire to maintain their status in the relationship. literally: “women’s writing”) is a syllabic script, a very different
Other language-and-gender-related aspects of interest include variation of Chinese characters that was used exclusively among
politeness, talkativeness, as well as swearing and taboo language. women in Jiangyong County in Hunan province of southern China.
The Japanese language has some words and some grammatical
3.3. Women’s language and speech throughout history constructions that are associated with men or boys, while others
and geography are associated with women or girls. In Japanese, speech patterns
Many languages have distinct sets of enunciation and/or of associated with women are referred to as onna no kotoba (
writing, dependent on whether the speaker or writer is a man or a , “women’s words, or words of woman”) or joseigo ( ,
woman, and/or on whether the party or parties addressed are men “women’s language”).
or women. The word onnarashii ( , “ladylike; feminine”) refers to
Sumerian women had a special language called Emesal, distinct the behaviour expected of a typical Japanese woman. As well as
from the main language, Emegir, which was spoken by both behaving in particular ways, being onnarashii means conforming to
genders. The women’s language had a distinct vocabulary, found particular styles of speech. Some of the features of women’s speech
in the records of religious rituals to be performed by women, also include speaking in a higher register, using more polite forms and
in the speech of goddesses in mythological texts. For a signicant using polite speech or honorics in more situations, and referring
period of time in the history of the ancient languages of India, after to themselves and those they address more formally. According to
the formal language Sanskrit diverged from the popular Prakrit Katsue Akiba Reynolds, ladylike speech is instrumental in keeping
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Japanese women in traditional roles and reects Japanese society’s language to convey inclusion of all sexes or genders (gender-
concept of the difference between women and men. For example, inclusive language).
there is the potential for conict for women in the workplace in Historically, the use of masculine pronouns in place of generic
that to be onnarashii, a woman must speak politely, submissively was regarded as non-sexist, but various forms of gender-neutral
and humbly, yet to command respect as a superior, she must be language became a common feature in written and spoken versions
assertive, self-assured, and direct, even when dealing with male of many languages in the late twentieth century. Feminists argue that
subordinates. previously the practice of assigning masculine gender to generic
Just as there are modes of speaking and behaviour that are antecedents stemmed from language reecting the prejudices of
considered intrinsically feminine, there are also those that are the society in which it evolved, and English evolved through most
considered intrinsically masculine. In speech, being otokorashii of its history in a male-centered, patriarchal society. There are
( , “manly” or “masculine”) means speaking in a lower different approaches to forming a ‘gender-neutral language’: some
register, using fewer polite forms and using them in fewer forms of emphasizing gender for gender-neutrality, are considered
situations, and using intrinsically masculine words. Research on to be labeled.
Japanese men’s speech shows greater use of neutral forms, which
are not strongly associated with masculine or feminine speech. 3.4. Gender paradox in the language use
Scholars argue that men use typically masculine forms to assert The gender paradox is a sociolinguistic phenomenon rst
their own authority and knowledge of themselves. Some studies observed by William Labov, in which women conform more closely
of conversation between Japanese men and women show neither than men to sociolinguistic norms that are overtly prescribed, but
gender taking a more dominant position in interaction. Men, conform less than men when they are not. W. Labov identies
however, tend to show a self-oriented conversation style, telling three main principles that, in combination, constitute the gender
stories and expressing their expertise on topics being discussed. paradox. They illuminate the juxtaposing roles of women, who
As women gain an increasing leadership role in Japanese display both conformist and nonconformist behaviour in the
society, notions of ‘onnarashisa’ and ‘otokorashisa’, that is, what treatment of linguistic variables.
is deemed appropriate behavior for men and women, have evolved The rst of the three principles states that for stable sociolinguistic
over time. Instead, trends in actual usage indicate that women are variables, women show a lower rate of stigmatized variants and
feeling more comfortable using traditional characteristics of female a higher rate of prestige variants than men. This principle gives
speech. In other words, there is a gradual decoupling of language the most general understanding of women’s treatment of linguistic
forms and traditional cultural expectations. variables, in that when variables are not undergoing any change,
Gender-neutral language (gender-inclusive language, women tend to prefer the standard form of the variable to the non-
inclusive language, or gender neutrality) is a form of linguistic standard form. The second principle states that in linguistic change,
prescriptivism that aims to eliminate (or neutralize) reference to women adopt prestige forms at a higher rate than men. Several
biological sex or gender with regard to terms that describe people. studies have shown that women are leaders both in eliminating
For example, the words policeman and stewardess are gender- stigmatized forms and adopting incoming prestige forms, and they
specic; the corresponding gender-neutral terms are police ofcer do so at a notably higher rate than men. The third principle claims
and ight attendant. Gender-neutral language may also involve that in linguistic change, women demonstrate higher frequencies of
the avoidance of gender-specic pronouns, such as he, when the innovative forms than men do.
gender of the person referred to is unknown; they may be replaced The Atlas of North American English provides data on the
with gender-neutral pronouns – possibilities in English include he analysis of 56 speakers in the Inland North, in which the most
or she, s/he, or the so called singular they. It has become common signicant factor regarding sound change advancement is gender,
in academic and governmental settings to rely on gender-neutral making women the leading innovators. Women-led sound change
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is salient, like that of the palatalization of /t/ and /d/ in Cairo Arabic. standard variants. Male speakers of Malagasy also lead in the use
Researchers in sociolinguistics have attempted to provide a unied of their ideal speech style, characterized by non-confrontational
account and explanation for the gender paradox with varying indirectness, whereas the women are “norm-breakers” and use
levels of success. One proposed explanation from J. Chambers is the stigmatized, direct style associated with negative information.
the notion that women lead sound change due to some inherent Thus, these counterexamples suggest that the gender paradox could
biological verbal advantage. Under this view, women also be limited to western cultures or languages.
command a greater range of variants and styles. W. Labov asserts
that if J. Chambers’ biological explanation were true, it would Questions for self-control
reveal itself in a robust effect across generations. 1. What does sociolinguistics study? What are its core questions?
Another possible explanation for women’s leadership in 2. Make an account of the history of sociolinguistics.
language change is their greater sensitivity to the social status 3. Who is considered to be the founder of sociolinguistics?
associated with certain variants. As women have historically been 4. Enlarge upon the core concepts and notions in sociolinguistics.
denied access to the standard economic capital available to men 5. Name the known researchers in the eld of language and
through education and job opportunities, this may have motivated gender studies.
the usage of prestige forms to help them gain social capital and 6. How is gender afliation reected in language and discourse?
advance their social standing. The notion that women’s speech is 7. Enlarge on the differences in male vs. female speech.
in fact the ‘language of powerlessness’ is supported by ndings 8. What are the examples of distinctions in male vs. female
that some features of stereotypical women’s speech were also used speech throughout geographic regions and history?
by men when in a position of subverted power. However, this view 9. Prepare to discuss the so called ‘gender paradox’ in the
fails to address the consistently higher use of prestige forms by language use.
women even in contemporary societies with high levels of gender 10. What is you view of the issue of language and gender
equality. Studies of language variation in central Sweden show relationship?
that gender differences in speech have been maintained or even
increased since 1967, despite the fact that recent legislation in
Sweden has led to widespread gender equality. LECTURE 6
Gendered patterns of speech can also be explained by social PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
network theory, which suggests that speech differences are
accounted for by the differences between the social networks of men 1. An overview of the notion of pragmatics.
and women. Men tend to have denser, more local social networks, 2. Constitutive factors of a speech event and their functions.
which are more conservative and resistant to change, resulting in 3. The notion of discourse. Discourse structure and taxonomy of
higher usage of non-standard local variants. On the other hand, discourses.
women tend to have more open, less locally-constrained networks, 4. Discourse analysis and the relevant concepts.
which are more likely to use standard variants and have access to
innovative forms due to weak ties to other speech communities. 1. An overview of the notion of pragmatics
Most data in support of the gender paradox come from studies The word pragmatics is derived via Latin pragmaticus from
of Indo-European languages in Europe or North America, but the Greek πραγματικός (pragmatikos) meaning among other “t
studies done in Asian, African and Middle Eastern countries often for action”, which comes from πράγμα (pragma) “deed, act”, and
show contradictory patterns. For example, male speakers use that from πράσσω (prassō) “to pass over, to practise, to achieve”.
the prestigious classical variety of Arabic far more than women, Pragmatics is a subeld of linguistics and semiotics that studies the
even though women lead in the use of locally “prestigious” ways in which context contributes to meaning. It is the study of the
70 71
practical aspects of human action and thought, as well as of the use of ambiguous, for example: Flying planes can be dangerous. The
linguistic signs in actual situations. Pragmatics encompasses speech rst meaning is that planes that are ying can be dangerous. The
act theory, talk in interaction and other approaches to language second meaning is that ying planes, as a pilot (or passenger), can
behaviour in philosophy, sociology, linguistics, and anthropology. be dangerous. Linguists assert that it is the context that we must
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional invoke to determine what an ambiguous sentence means.
or “coded” in a given language, pragmatics studies how the Pragmatics is studied to understand and explore conversational
transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and implicature and how meaning is constructed in interaction. Themes
linguistic knowledge (e.g., grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker that a researcher of pragmatics refers to include, in particular,
and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, any pre- the following: 1) the means a speaker uses to convey messages
existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of indirectly, i.e. ones that are not explicitly carried in the words
the speaker, and other factors. In this respect, pragmatics explains themselves; (2) expression of politeness/impoliteness through
how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since structure; (3) ambiguity of sentences; (4) the ways in which
meaning relies on the manner, place, time, etc. of an utterance. intonation and punctuation contribute to meaning; (5) distinctions
Semantics is the literal meaning of an idea, whereas pragmatics in the ways languages express meaning through words and through
is the implied meaning of the given idea. Pragmatics helps strings of words. Pragmatics is closely related to semantics,
anthropologists relate elements of language to broader social stylistics, sociolinguistics, and discourse analysis.
phenomena. Pragmatics includes the study of power, gender, race,
identity, and their interactions with individual speech acts. There 2. Constitutive factors of a speech event and their functions
is considerable overlap between pragmatics and sociolinguistics, Roman Jakobson, expanding on the work of Karl Bühler,
since they share an interest in linguistic meaning as determined by described six constitutive factors of a speech event, each of which
usage in a speech community. However, sociolinguists tend to be represents the privileging of a corresponding function, and only one
more interested in variations in language within such communities. of which is the referential (which corresponds to the context of the
Pragmatics looks beyond the literal meaning of an utterance, speech event). The six constitutive factors and their corresponding
studies how meaning is constructed, and focuses on implied functions are diagrammed below.
meanings. It considers language as an instrument of interaction, The six constitutive factors of a speech event
what people mean when they use language and how we Context
communicate and understand each other. J. Thomas claims that Message
pragmatics considers the negotiation of meaning between speaker Addresser------------------------Addressee
and listener, the context and the meaning potential of the utterance. Contact
This may be best presented in the following example: Code
Speaker: Are you putting the kettle on? Each of the six factors of an effective verbal communication
Listener knows the speaker is hinting that they would like a hot corresponds to a particular language function:
drink. Referential
Or another example: Poetic
Speaker: What time do you call this? Expressive-----------------------Conative
Listener interprets it as Why are you so late? and knows it is not Phatic (denoting or relating to language used for general
appropriate to reply with the literal time. purposes of social interaction, rather than to convey information
The context of interaction and our everyday experiences allow or ask questions. Utterances such as Hello, how are you? and Nice
us to construct and interpret layers of meaning beyond what morning, isn’t it? are phatic.
is literally suggested. This occurs when a sentence is lexically Metalingual
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The ‘referential’ function corresponds to the factor of context a dinner-time conversation); (2) the highest unit of linguistic
and describes a situation, object, or mental state. The descriptive description; phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases, clauses,
statements of the referential function can consist of both denite sentences and texts are below; (3) the communication expected in
descriptions and deictic words (e.g., The autumn leaves have all one situation context, alongside one eld and register (such as the
fallen now). The ‘poetic’ function focuses on the message for its own discourse of law or medicine); (4) human interaction through any
sake and is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans. The means, verbal and non-verbal; (5) the whole communicative event;
‘expressive’ (alternatively called ‘emotive’ or ‘affective’) function (6) systematically-organised set of statements that give expression
relates to the addresser and is best exemplied by interjections to the meanings. A discourse provides a set of possible statements
and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning as well as organises and structures the manner in which a particular
of an utterance but do add information about the addresser’s topic, object, or process is to be talked about.
(speaker’s) internal state (e.g., Wow, what a view!). The ‘conative’ A meat-purchase discourse, for instance, is a complex social
function engages the addressee directly and is best illustrated by act, the goal of which is to exchange money for meat. It made
vocatives and imperatives (e.g., Tom! Come inside and eat!). The up of a structured sequence of stages such as greetings, request
‘phatic’ function is language for the sake of interaction and is of information about materials on sale, payment, and so on. Each
therefore associated with the contact factor. The phatic function stage is oriented to certain a sub-goal, and the stages come in
can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, certain orders – for example, it would not make sense to pay before
particularly with strangers. The ‘metalingual’ (alternatively called greeting the butcher, or before selecting the meat. The discourse
‘metalinguistic’ or ‘reexive’) function is the use of language is clearly much more than a mere collection of grammatically
(what R. Jakobson calls ‘code’) to discuss or describe itself. acceptable utterances.
It is controversial to say that understanding context solves all Although the ancient Greeks (among others) had much to say
complications in this area as context, by denition, changes all the on discourse, L. Spitzer’s Stilstudien (Style Studies) of 1928 is the
time, yet the way in which it is described by linguistics suggests earliest example of discourse analysis (DA). However, the term
a stationary snapshot of a situation. P. Grice has developed the ‘discourse’ rst came into general use following the publication
theory of cooperation that helps determine what information of a series of papers by Z. Harris beginning in 1952. In Europe,
speakers should provide to give a sufcient response to the previous M. Foucault became one of the key theorists of discourse, and
speaker’s utterance. wrote The Archaeology of Knowledge. In this context, the term
‘discourse’ no longer refers to formal linguistic aspects, but to
3. The notion of discourse. Taxonomy of discourses institutionalized patterns of knowledge that become manifest in
Texts are units that are primarily concerned with structuring and disciplinary structures and operate by the connection of knowledge
conveying information, typically where this information is fairly and power. Since the 1970s, M. Foucault’s works have had an
sizeable in quantity and complex. This is the case with jokes and increasing impact especially on discourse analysis in the social
narratives, for instance: they usually convey too much complex sciences.
information to be structured as single sentences. Nevertheless, Taxonomy of discourses. There are several ways in which
they carve out segments of the real world or an imaginary world particular discourses can differ from each other. The rst major
that members of a culture perceive as forming a coherent set of taxonomy is based on the mode of discourse, that is, the opposition
circumstances and events. A text is characterized by cohesion, between spoken and written discourse. A systematic comparison
coherence, intentionality, informativity, and intertextuality. of spoken and written discourse began only in the last several
A discourse is dened in the following ways: (1) the language decades. Written discourse is secondary to the oral use of language
component of a complete interactive event (such as the purchase in all respects, and must be viewed as an adaptation of the basic
of meat at the butchers’ or of a car at a secondhand car lot, or features of language to the graphic/visual mode of presentation.
74 75
In discourse studies, it is useful to always control for whether data 4. Discourse analysis and the relevant concepts
comes from spoken or written language use, as discourse processes Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term
may be sensitive to mode. for a number of approaches to analyse written, vocal, or sign language
The second central taxonomy of discourse is a classication into use, or any signicant semiotic event. The objects of discourse
genres. Discourse genres are classes of discourses that correspond analysis – discourse, writing, conversation, communicative event –
to certain standard communicative goals, typical of particular are variously dened in terms of coherent sequences of sentences,
discourse communities. Discourse genres crosscut the modes: for propositions (i.e. statements or assertions that express a judgment
examples, the genre of story can appear in the spoken mode and or opinion), speech, or turns-at-talk. Contrary to much of traditional
in the written mode, still being the same genre. From the point of linguistics, discourse analysts prefer to analyse naturally occurring
view of lexico-grammatical characteristics, discourse of one genre language use instead of invented examples. Text linguistics is a
can be very heterogeneous. closely related eld. The essential difference between discourse
Other differences between kinds of discourse, cross- analysis and text linguistics is that discourse analysis aims at
cutting the ones just discussed, relate to the functional style revealing socio-psychological characteristics of a person/persons
and degree of formality. Degree of formality depends on the rather than text structure.
kind of social relationship between discourse participants, Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of social
including their relative status, gender, age, etc., and is closely science disciplines, including linguistics, education, sociology,
related to the phenomena often subsumed under the notion of anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social
politeness. Both functional styles and formality are reflected psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations,
in many lexical, grammatical and phonetic choices made by human geography, communication studies, and translation studies,
the speaker. each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of
Discourse structure. Discourse structures are often informally analysis, and methodologies.
divided into surface structures and deep or underlying structures. Linguistics is generally biased toward the study of written
Surface structures are usually associated with the forms of language. This bias is due to several factors, including the ready
language use one can see or hear, such as sounds, intonations, availability of written language to analysis, as well as the cultural
gestures, letters, graphic displays, words, and the order of words prestige of written word. Spoken discourse, however, is the
in a sentence. Underlying structures are usually associated with primary, fundamental form of language use. A technical problem
meaning, or (inter)action, and sometimes with cognitive phenomena immediately arising for anyone interested in spoken language is
such as mental representations or strategies of understanding and that, before any analytical study, it must be converted into a certain
production. graphic form, or transcribed. An objective graphic rendering of
It is useful to distinguish between the global and the spoken discourse is usually called discourse transcription. Apart
local structure of discourse. Global discourse structure is the from the purely segmental, verbal component of talk, the elements
segmentation of discourse into its immediate constituents large typically addressed in discourse transcription include: pausing,
chunks such as paragraphs in an article or groups of adjacent and prosody, disuencies, division of the ow of speech into units and
interrelated turns in a conversation. Local discourse structure is other aspects of local discourse structure.
the structure consisting of minimal units that belong to the level Topics of interest of discourse analysis include various levels
of discourse. In particular, these units are identied on the basis or dimensions of discourse, such as sounds, intonation, pauses,
of prosodic criteria such as tempo, loudness, intonation contours, gestures, syntax, the lexicon, style, rhetoric, meanings, speech
pitch accents, and pausing. acts, moves, strategies, turns, and other aspects of interaction.
Discourse analysis deals with various types of discourse in politics,
media, education, science, business, etc. Discourse analysis
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studies, in particular, (1) the relations between discourse and the impression management plays an important role. A spoken
emergence of syntactic structure, (2) the relations between text discourse especially signals the social distances and hierarchies
(discourse) and context, (3) the relations between discourse and between speakers and hearers.
power, (4) the relations between discourse and interaction, (5) the Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary
relations between discourse, cognition, and memory. Not only in approach to the study of discourse that views language as a
the humanities but also in the social sciences, the prominent role form of social practice. CDA emerged as an approach in the
of discourse is increasingly becoming recognised and subjected to 1980s to nd the mixture of social theory and language studies.
systematic study. CDA was rst developed by the Lancaster school of linguists of
Political discourse analysis is a eld of discourse analysis that which N. Fairclough was the most prominent  gure. Scholars
focuses on discourse in political forums (such as debates, speeches, working in the tradition of CDA generally assume that (non-
and hearings) as the phenomenon of interest. Social and political linguistic) social practice and linguistic practice constitute one
analyses of power and dominance usually focus on groups, social another and focus on investigating how societal power relations
formations, classes, or institutions. Occasionally, more cognitive are established and reinforced through language use. Thus, in
notions such as consciousness or ideology may also be involved. addition to linguistic theory, the CDA approach draws from
Events are usually described from a specic perspective. This may social theory in order to examine ideologies and power relations
literally be the point of view from which events are seen, or more involved in discourse.
generally the social or political position of the speaker. The effectiveness of critical linguistics would be seen primarily
Discourse may be seen as a semantic iceberg, of which only a in its capacity to equip readers for understanding of ideology-laden
few meanings are expressed on the surface of text and talk, whereas texts. Discourse analysis provides a systematic theoretical and
others meanings remain implicit. With our knowledge of the descriptive account of (1) the structures and strategies, at various
world, however, we are usually able to infer such implicit meanings levels, of written and spoken discourse, seen both as a textual object
from the meanings that are actually expressed. Implications play and as a form of sociocultural practice and interaction, and (2) the
an important role in discourse and communication. A specic relationships of these properties of text and talk with the relevant
type of implication is presupposition. Presuppositions may be structures of their cognitive, social, cultural and historical contexts.
signaled in many ways in a discourse and represent the knowledge N. Fairclough, in particular, has developed a three-dimensional
speech participants must share in order for a specic sentence to framework for studying discourse, where the aim is to map three
be meaningful; meanings may thus be conveyed without being separate forms of analysis onto one another: (1) analysis of (spoken
explicitly stated. Text and talk typically consist of sequences of or written) language texts, (2) analysis of discourse practice
sentences that express sequences of propositions. The propositions (processes of text production, distribution and consumption),
of such sequences are multiply related among each other. That and (3) analysis of discursive events as instances of sociocultural
is, discourses are usually (made or interpreted as) more or practice. Particularly, he combines micro-, meso- and macro-levels
less coherent. Discourse is not coherent merely at the level of interpretation. At the micro-level, the analyst considers various
subsequent sentences. It also displays overall, global coherence by aspects of textual/linguistic analysis, for examples syntactic
the topics of a text or talk, or of the whole discourse. analysis, use of metaphor and rhetorical devices. The meso-
Events may be described at various levels of generality and level or “level of discursive practice” involves studying issues of
specicity (as in headlines versus the later details in a news report), production and consumption, for instance, which institution has
and each level may again be described more or less completely. produced a text, who is the target audience. At the macro-level, the
The relevance of details may depend on the mental models and the analyst is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive elements
ethnic attitudes of the speaker or writer. Among the many overall and tries to take into account the broad, societal currents that are
strategies that may be accomplished in discursive interaction, affecting the text being studied.
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Feminist CDA aims to analyse the relationship between gender know whether you are reading a news story, an editorial, or an
and language, which mostly means examining enactments of power advertisement in order to properly interpret the text you are reading.
by men and women in the public domain. Sexism, victimisation, For example, years ago, when Orson Welles’ radio play The War
emancipation and the construction of identity are key issues in of the Worlds was broadcast, some listeners who tuned in late
question. Feminist research has been prolic in investigating the panicked, thinking they were hearing the actual end of the world.
role of gender in politics, media, in the workplace and classroom They mistook the frame for news instead of drama. Reframing is
contexts. The evolution from the decit, difference and dominance a way to talk about going back and re-interpreting the meaning of
approaches to discourse has been crucial. In current research, the rst sentence.
attention is redirected from whether men and women speak Turn-taking. Conversation is an enterprise in which one
differently to the viewing of gender as a dynamic construct. person speaks, and another listens. Discourse analysts who study
Discursive psychology (DP) is a form of discourse analysis conversation note that speakers have systems for determining when
that focuses on psychological themes in talk, text and images. one person’s turn is over and the next person’s turn begins. This
Discursive psychology conducts studies of both naturally occurring exchange of turns or “oors” is signalled by such linguistic means
and experimentally engineered human interaction that offer new as intonation, pausing, and phrasing. Some people await a clear
ways of understanding topics in social and cognitive psychology pause before beginning to speak, but others assume that winding
such as memory and attitudes, and treats talk as social action in a down is an invitation to someone else to take the oor. When
socially meaningful world. Whereas traditional DP studies explore speakers have different assumptions about how turn exchanges are
the situated, occasioned, rhetorical use of our rich common sense signaled, they may inadvertently interrupt or feel interrupted. On
psychological lexicon across various forms of spoken data, the the other hand, speakers also frequently take the oor even though
newer form of textual DP has proved particularly productive they know the other speaker has not invited them to do so.
in the age marked by the growth in usage of social media, SMS Listenership too may be signaled in different ways. Some
texts, photo messaging apps, blogs/vlogs, youtube, and interactive people expect frequent nodding as well as listener feedback such
websites: never before there were so many opportunities for as “mhm”, “uhuh”, and “yeah”. Less of this than you expect can
explicitly public, interactional and rhetorically motivated use of create the impression that someone is not listening; more than you
psychological terms by so many people. expect can give the impression that you are being rushed along.
Some discourse analysts consider how the larger discourse For some, eye contact is expected nearly continually; for others, it
context affects the meaning of the sentence. For example, should only be intermittent. The type of listener response you get
Ch. Fillmore points out that two sentences taken together as a can change your way of speaking: if someone seems uninterested
single discourse can have meanings different from each one taken or uncomprehending (whether or not they truly are), you may slow
separately. To illustrate, he asks you to imagine two independent down, repeat, or overexplain.
signs at a swimming pool: Please, use the toilet, not the pool, says Discourse markers is the term linguists give to the little words
one. The other announces, Pool for members only. If you regard like “well”, “oh”, “but”, and “and” that break our speech up into
each sign independently, they seem quite reasonable. But taking parts and show the relation between parts. “Oh” prepares the hearer
them together as a single discourse makes you go back and revise for a surprising or just-recalled item, whereas “but” indicates that
your interpretation of the rst sentence after you’ve read the second. sentence to follow is in opposition to the one before. However,
Frame analysis is a multi-disciplinary social science research these markers don’t necessarily mean what the dictionary says
method used to analyse how people understand situations and they mean. Some people use “and” just to start a new thought,
activities. Consider how hard it is to make sense of what you and some people put “but” at the end of their sentences, as a way
are hearing or reading if you do not know who is talking or what of trailing off gently. Realizing that these words can function as
the general topic is. When you read a newspaper, you need to discourse markers is important to prevent the frustration that can
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be experienced if you expect every word to have its dictionary LECTURE 7
meaning every time it is used. CORPUS AND COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
Speech act analysis asks not what form the utterance takes
but what it does. Saying “I now pronounce you man and wife” 1. Corpus linguistics as a scientic study.
enacts a marriage. Studying speech acts such as complimenting 2. Text corpus and treebank.
allows discourse analysts to ask what counts as a compliment, who 2.1. Text corpus.
gives compliments to whom, and what other function they can 2.2. Treebank and collocations.
serve. For example, linguists have observed that women are more 3. Corpora in translation studies and machine translation.
likely both to give compliments and to get them. There are also Translation memory.
cultural differences; in India, for instance, politeness requires that 4. Computational linguistics and natural language processing.
if someone compliments one of your possessions, you should offer 4.1. Computational linguistics and its approaches.
to give the item as a gift, so complimenting can be a way of asking 4.2. Natural language processing.
for things. An Indian woman who had just met her son’s American
wife was shocked to hear her new daughter-in-law praise her 1. Corpus linguistics as a scientic study; its methods
beautiful saris. She commented, “What kind of girl did he marry? of investigation
She wants everything!” Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in
Drawbacks notwithstanding, the adventure of CDA is to look corpora (samples) of the real world text. Corpus linguistics suggests
into how discourses construct participants in communication as that reliable language analysis is more feasible with corpora
individuals with allegiances to the collective, and to embark on the collected in the eld, in their natural contexts. Corpus linguistics
analysis of the discursive means by which the world comes into takes naturally occurring texts or lms (in signed languages) as its
existence. Finally this may bring increased understanding of social primary object of analysis and studies the variation of grammatical
processes and structures and increased understanding of effects and other features based on such corpora.
on social actors’ views and actions. By comparing how people in Some of the earliest efforts at grammatical description were
different cultures use language, discourse analysts hope to make a based at least in part on corpora of particular religious or cultural
contribution to improving cross-cultural understanding. signicance. For example, Prātiśākhya literature described the
sound patterns of Sanskrit as found in the Vedas, and Pānini’s
Questions for self-control grammar of classical Sanskrit was based at least in part on analysis
1. What is the area of study, objectives and core questions of of that same corpus. Similarly, the early Arabic grammarians paid
pragmatics? particular attention to the language of the Quran. In the Western
2. Enlarge on the constitutive factors of a speech event and their European tradition, scholars prepared concordances to allow
functions? detailed study of the language of the Bible and other canonical
3. What is the main purpose of discourse analysis? texts.
4. What linguists have contributed to the development of the A landmark in modern corpus linguistics was the publication
study? by H. Kučera and W. Nelson Francis of Computational Analysis
5. What is CDA? of Present-Day American English in 1967, a work based on the
6. Dene the notion of ‘discursive psychology’. analysis of the Brown Corpus, a carefully compiled selection of
7. Name and dene the main concepts in the eld of discourse current American English, totaling about a million words drawn
analysis. from a wide variety of sources. The researchers subjected it to a
8. What are the functions of discourse analysis? variety of computational analyses, from which they compiled
a rich and variegated corpus, combining elements of linguistics,
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language teaching, psychology, statistics, and sociology. Shortly and carry out hypothesis testing, check occurrences, or validate
thereafter, Boston publisher Houghton-Mifin approached linguistic rules within a specic language territory. A corpus may
H. Kučera to supply a million-word citation base for its new contain texts in a single language (monolingual corpus) or text
American Heritage Dictionary, the rst dictionary to be compiled data in multiple languages (multilingual corpus).
using corpus linguistics. Multilingual corpora that have been specially formatted for
The Brown Corpus has also spawned a number of similarly side-by-side comparison are called aligned parallel corpora.
structured corpora such as the LOB Corpus (the 1960s British There are two main types of parallel corpora which contain texts in
English), Kolhapur (Indian English), Wellington (New Zealand two languages. In a translation corpus, the texts in one language
English), Australian Corpus of English (Australian English), the are translations of texts in the other language. In a comparable
Frown Corpus (the early 1990s American English), and the FLOB corpus, the texts are of the same kind and cover the same content,
Corpus (the 1990s British English). Other corpora represent many but they are not translations of each other. Machine translation
languages, varieties and modes, and include the International algorithms for translating between two languages are often trained
Corpus of English, and the British National Corpus, a 100 million using parallel fragments comprising a rst language corpus and a
word collection of a range of spoken and written texts. The second language corpus which is an element-for-element translation
400+million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English of the rst language corpus.
(1990-present) is now available through a web interface. It is important to mention the difference made by corpus
Corpus linguistics has generated a number of scientic linguistics between corpora and archives of electronic texts; the
approaches, attempting to trace a path from data to theory. second one is only a repertory of electronic texts. Building a
S. Wallis and F. Nelson (2001) rst introduced what they called the corpus implies an information retrieval operation, in order to locate
3A perspective: annotation, abstraction, and analysis. Annotation relevant and reliable documents. Corpora are the main knowledge
consists in the application of a scheme to texts. Annotations may base in corpus linguistics. The analysis and processing of various
include structural markup, part-of-speech tagging, parsing, and types of corpora is also the subject of much work in computational
numerous other representations. Most lexical corpora today are linguistics, speech recognition and machine translation. Corpora
part-of-speech-tagged (POS-tagged). Abstraction consists in and frequency lists derived from them are useful for language
the mapping of terms in the scheme to terms in a theoretically teaching. Text corpora are also used in the study of historical
motivated model or dataset. Abstraction typically includes linguist- documents (e.g., archaeological corpora), for example in attempts
directed search but may include, for example, rule-learning for to decipher ancient scripts, or in Biblical scholarship.
parsers. Analysis consists in statistical probing, manipulating and A speech corpus (or spoken corpus) is a database of speech
generalising from the dataset. Analysis might include statistical audio les and text transcriptions. In speech technology, speech
evaluations, optimisation of rule-bases, or knowledge discovery corpora are used, among other things, to create acoustic models
methods. The text-corpus method is a digestive approach for (which can then be used with a speech recognition engine). In
deriving a set of abstract rules from a text for governing a natural linguistics, spoken corpora are used to do research into phonetics,
language. The advantage of publishing an annotated corpus is that conversation analysis, dialectology, and other elds. There are two
other users can then carry out experiments on the corpus. types of speech corpora; they are the following: (1) read speech
(book excerpts, broadcast news, lists of words, and sequences of
2. Text corpus and treebank numbers) and (2) spontaneous speech (dialogues, conversations,
2.1. Text corpus and narratives). A special kind of speech corpora is formed by non-
In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a native speech databases that contain speech with foreign accent.
large and structured set of texts (nowadays usually electronically In order to make corpora more useful for doing linguistic
stored and processed). They are used to make statistical analysis research, they are often subjected to a process known as
84 85
annotation. An example of annotating a corpus is part-of-speech In corpus linguistics, a collocation is a sequence of words or
tagging, or POS-tagging, in which information about each word’s terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance.
part of speech (verb, noun, adjective, etc.) is added to the corpus in In phraseology, collocation is a sub-type of phraseme. An example
the form of tags. Another example is indicating the lemma (base) of a phraseological collocation is the expression strong tea, which is
form of each word. Other levels of linguistic structured analysis non-equivalent to *powerful tea (the latter expression is considered
are possible, including annotations for morphology, semantics, and incorrect by English speakers). Conversely, the expression powerful
pragmatics. computers is preferred over *strong computers. Phraseological
collocations should not be confused with idioms, where meaning
2.2. Treebank and collocations is derived, whereas collocations are mostly compositional and
In linguistics, a treebank is a parsed text corpus that annotates become established through repeated context-dependent use (e.g.,
syntactic or semantic sentence structure. The construction of parsed crystal clear and cosmetic surgery). The processing of collocations
corpora in the early 1990s revolutionized computational linguistics. involves a number of parameters, the most important of which is the
The term ‘treebank’ was coined by linguist Geoffrey Leech in the measure of association, which evaluates whether the co-occurrence
1980s, by analogy to other repositories such as a seedbank or is purely by chance or statistically signicant.
bloodbank. This is because both syntactic and semantic structures From the 1940s onwards, information about recurrent word
are commonly represented compositionally as a tree structure. combinations became a standard feature of monolingual learner’s
The term ‘parsed corpus’ is often used interchangeably with the dictionaries. As these dictionaries became less word-centred and
term ‘treebank’, with the emphasis on the primacy of sentences more phrase-centred, more attention was paid to collocation. This
rather than trees. A semantic treebank is a collection of natural trend was supported, from the beginning of the 21st century,
language sentences annotated with a meaning representation. by the availability of large text corpora and intelligent corpus-
These resources use a formal representation of each sentence’s querying software, making possible a more systematic account of
semantic structure. Semantic treebanks vary in the depth of their collocations in dictionaries. Using these tools, dictionaries such as
semantic representation. the Macmillan English Dictionary and the Longman Dictionary
The exploitation of treebank data has been important ever since of Contemporary English included boxes or panels with lists of
the rst large-scale treebank, The Penn Treebank, was published. frequent collocations. There are also a number of specialised
From the computational perspective, treebanks have been used dictionaries devoted to describing the frequent collocations in a
to engineer natural language processing systems such as part- language (e.g., the LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations (1997)
of-speech taggers, parsers (синтаксические анализаторы), and the Macmillan Collocations Dictionary (2010).
semantic analysers, and machine translation systems. A parser
may be improved by applying it to large amounts of text and 3. Corpora in translation studies and machine translation.
gathering rule frequencies; however, only correcting and Translation memory
completing a corpus by hand makes it possible to identify rules Personal computers have the capacity of processing information
absent from the parser knowledge base. Although originating in easier and quicker than ever before. Today computer can be
computational linguistics, the value of treebanks is becoming considered an important or even essential tool in translation.
more widely appreciated in linguistics research as a whole. However it computer doesn’t substitute traditional tools such
Thus, another use of treebanks in theoretical linguistics and as monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, terminologies and
psycholinguistics is interaction evidence. A completed treebank encyclopaedias on paper or in digital format.
can help linguists carry out experiments as to how the decision to In order to translate from one language into another, one has
use one grammatical construction tends to inuence the decision to understand the grammar of both languages, including both
to form others. morphology (the grammar of word forms) and syntax (the grammar
86 87
of sentence structures). In order to understand syntax, one has to TM technology became commercially available on a wide scale in
also understand the semantics and the lexicon (or vocabulary), and the late 1990s, so the efforts had been made by several engineers
even to understand the pragmatics of language use. and translators. In addition, one recent development is the concept
Machine translation uses statistical methods to generate of ‘text memory’ in contrast to ‘translation memory’.
translations from corpora of bilingual texts. For instance, European Translation memory programmes store previously translated
parliament minutes are written in all EU (European Union) ofcial source texts and their equivalent target texts in a database and
languages. If there were more of this corpus, we would get excellent retrieve related segments during the translation of new texts. In
results of translation of texts about those subjects. The rst statistic machine translation, a special programme breaks a new source text
machine translation programme was CANDIDE by IBM. Machine into segments, looks for matches between segments and previously
translation based on examples is well known for using bilingual translated source-target pairs (translation units) stored in the
corpora as the main source of knowledge. Parallel translation corpora translation memory, and presents such matching pairs as translation
are texts in one language aligned with their translations in another. candidates. The translator can accept a candidate, replace it with
Corpora can function as general or specialised dictionaries; in that a fresh translation, or modify it to match the source. In the last
way, parallel corpora could be compared to a bilingual dictionary. two cases, the new or modied translation goes into the database.
Dealing with translation corpora, however, it is necessary to take The exibility and robustness of the matching algorithm largely
into account several variables such as, in particular, the equivalence determine the performance of the translation memory.
of translation or the number of languages. Translation memories work best on texts which are highly
Translation memory (TM) is a database that stores segments, repetitive. Traditionally, translation memories have not been
which can be sentences, paragraphs or sentence-like units considered appropriate for literary or creative texts, for the
(headings, titles or elements in a list) that have previously been simple reason that there is so little repetition in the language used.
translated, in order to aid human translators. Translation memory Translation memory managers are most suitable for translating
stores the source text and its corresponding translation in language technical documentation and documents containing specialised
pairs. Individual words are handled by terminology bases and are vocabularies. The process of analysis involves the following
not within the domain of TM. Translation memories are typically steps:
used in conjunction with a computer-assisted translation (CAT) (1) textual parsing (it is very important to recognise
tool, word processing programmes, terminology management punctuation correctly in order to distinguish between, for example,
systems, multilingual dictionaries, or even raw machine translation a full stop at the end of a sentence and a full stop in an abbreviation);
output. (2) linguistic parsing (the base form reduction is used to
Research indicates that many companies producing multilingual prepare lists of words and the text for automatic retrieval of terms
documentation are using translation memory systems. In a survey from the term bank);
of language professionals in 2006, 82.5 % out of 874 replies (3) segmentation (its purpose is to choose the most useful
conrmed the use of a TM. The use of TM well correlated with text translation units);
type characterised by technical terms, simple sentence structure, (4) alignment (it is the task of defining translation
and repetitiveness of content. correspondences between source and target texts. There
The 1970s mark the infancy stage for translation memory should be feedback from alignment to segmentation and a
systems (TMS). The original idea for TMS is often attributed to good alignment algorithm should be able to correct initial
M. Kay. His observation was actually inuenced by the suggestion segmentation);
of P. Arthern that translators can use similar, already translated (5) term extraction (it can have as input a previous dictionary);
documents online. A. Melby and his group at Brigham Young (6) retrieval (several different types of matches can be
University were also claimed to be the founding fathers of TMS. retrieved from the TM);
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(7) match (‘exact’ matches occur when there is a character-to- Computational linguistics has theoretical and applied
character match between the current source segment and the stored components, where theoretical computational linguistics takes up
one; when the match is not exact, it is a ‘fuzzy’ match); issues in theoretical linguistics and cognitive science, and applied
(8) updating (a TM is updated with a new translation when computational linguistics focuses on the practical outcome of
it has been accepted by the translator. A TM can be modied by modelling human language use (the methods, techniques, tools
changing or deleting its entries. Some systems allow translators to and applications in this area are often subsumed under the term
save multiple translations of the same source segment). language engineering). Computational linguistics originated in
Therefore, translation memory programmes store previously the 1950s to use computers to automatically translate texts from
translated source texts and their equivalent target texts in a database foreign languages (particularly, Russian scientic journals into
and retrieve related segments during the translation of new texts. English). Since computers can make arithmetic calculations much
The automatic machine translation systems available today are not faster and more accurately than humans, it was thought to be only
able to produce high-quality translations unaided: their output must a short matter of time before the technical details could be taken
be edited by a human to correct errors and improve the quality care of, which would allow them the same remarkable capacity to
of translation. Computer-assisted translation (CAT) incorporates process language.
the manual editing stage into the software, making translation an When machine translation (also known as mechanical
interactive process between human and computer. translation) failed to yield accurate translations right away,
automated processing of human languages was recognised
4. Computational linguistics and natural language processing to be far more complex than it had originally been assumed.
4.1. Computational linguistics and its approaches Computational linguistics was born as the new eld of study
In the past over half a century, the introduction of new information devoted to developing algorithms and software for intelligently
technologies in all elds of human communication has made applied processing language data. When articial intelligence came into
linguistics develop in the direction of computational linguistics, existence in the 1960s, the eld of computational linguistics
i.e. an interdisciplinary eld that applies computer technology became its sub-division dealing with human-level comprehension
to address questions in theoretical linguistics and to create and production of natural languages. Nowadays research within
applications for use in such areas as machine translation, computer the scope of computational linguistics is done at computational
lexicography (compiling electronic dictionaries), computer lingual linguistics departments, computational linguistics laboratories,
didactics (CALL/T – Computer Assisted Language Learning and computer science departments, and linguistics departments. Some
Teaching), and natural language processing (NLP). research in the eld of computational linguistics aims to create text
Traditionally, computational linguistics used to be performed processing systems, while others aim to create a system allowing
by computer scientists who had specialized in the application of human-machine interaction. Programmes meant for human-
computers to the processing of a natural language. Nowadays machine communication are called conversational agents.
computational linguists often work as members of interdisciplinary Computational linguistics can be divided into major areas
teams that include linguists (specically trained in linguistics), depending upon the medium of the language being processed,
language experts (persons with some level of ability in the languages whether spoken or textual, and upon the task being performed,
relevant to a given project), and computer scientists. In general, whether analysing language (recognition) or synthesizing language
computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, (generation). Speech recognition and speech synthesis deal
computer scientists, experts trained in articial intelligence, with how spoken language can be understood or created using
mathematicians, logicians, philosophers, cognitive scientists, computers. Machine translation remains the sub-division of
cognitive psychologists, psycholinguists, anthropologists and computational linguistics dealing with having computers translate
neuroscientists, among others. between languages.
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Some of the areas of research that are studied by computational and computational linguistics has made some very interesting
linguistics include (1) computational semantics, which comprises discoveries in this area).
dening suitable logics for linguistic meaning representation,
(2) computer-aided corpus linguistics, which has been used 4.2. Natural language processing
since the 1970s as a way to make detailed advances in the eld Natural language processing (NLP) is a eld of computer
of discourse analysis, (3) design of parsers and taggers like POS- science, articial intelligence and computational linguistics
taggers (part-of-speech taggers), and (4) simulation and study of concerned with the interactions between computers and human
language evolution in historical linguistics/glottochronology. (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human–
Research methods in computational linguistics comprise the computer interaction. Many challenges in NLP involve natural
following: language understanding (i.e. enabling computers to derive meaning
(1) developmental approaches (attempts have been made from human or natural language input) and natural language
to model the developmental process of language acquisition in generation.
children from a computational angle, leading to both statistical The history of NLP generally starts in the 1950s, although some
grammars and connectionist models. Work in this realm has also research can be found from earlier periods. In 1950, A. Turing
been proposed as a method to explain the evolution of language published his article titled Computing Machinery and Intelligence
through history); that proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of
(2) structural approaches (in order to create better intelligence. The 1954 Georgetown experiment involved fully
computational models of language, an understanding of language’s automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into
structure is crucial. To this end, the English language has been English. The authors claimed that within three or ve years, machine
meticulously studied using computational approaches to better translation would be a solved problem. However, real progress was
understand how the language works on a structural level. One much slower, and after the ALPAC report in 1966, which found
of the most important pieces of being able to study linguistic that ten-year-long research had failed to fulll the expectations,
structure is the availability of large linguistic corpora. This grants funding for machine translation was dramatically reduced. Little
computational linguists the raw data necessary to run their models further research in machine translation was conducted until the late
and gain a better understanding of the underlying structures in a 1980s, when the rst statistical machine translation systems were
language); developed.
(3) theoretical approaches (these allow computational In 1971, T. Winograd developed an early natural language
linguistics to have a framework within which they could work out processing engine capable of interpreting naturally written
hypotheses that will further the language understanding); commands within a simple rule governed environment. During the
(4) comprehension approaches (much of the focus of 1970s many programmers began to write ‘conceptual ontologies’,
modern computational linguistics is on comprehension. With the which structured real-world information into computer-
proliferation of the Internet and the abundance of easily accessible understandable data. Examples include MARGIE (Schank, 1975),
written speech, the ability to create a programme capable of SAM (Cullingford, 1978), PAM (Wilensky, 1978), TaleSpin
understanding a language would have many broad and exciting (Meehan, 1976), QUALM (Lehnert, 1977), Politics (Carbonell,
possibilities, including improved search engines, automated 1979), and Plot Units (Lehnert, 1981).
customer service, and online education); Starting in the late 1980s, however, there was a revolution in
(5) production approaches (the production of language is NLP with the introduction of machine learning algorithms for
equally complex in the required information and the demanded language processing. Some of the earliest-used machine learning
skills. That is to say, comprehension is only half the problem of algorithms, such as decision trees, produced systems of ‘if-then’
communication; the other half is how a system produces language, rules similar to existing hand-written rules. Increasingly, research
92 93
has focused on statistical models, which provide probabilistic LECTURE 8
decisions. Many of the notable early successes occurred in the eld THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LEXICOGRAPHY
of machine translation, especially due to work at IBM Research,
where successively more complicated statistical models were 1. The essence and scope of lexicography.
developed. These systems were able to take advantage of the 2. The problems of lexicography.
existing multilingual text corpora. 3. The types and features of dictionaries. Dictionaries for natural
NLP research is gradually shifting from lexical semantics language processing.
to compositional semantics and, further on, narrative
understanding. Natural language interfaces enable the user to 1. The essence and scope of lexicography
communicate with the computer in French, English, German, or Lexicography is a branch of linguistics that covers the theory
another human language. Current advances in the recognition of and practice of compiling dictionaries. It is closely connected
spoken language improve the usability of many types of natural with lexicology, both dealing with the same problems – the
language systems. The human–computer communication using form, meaning, usage and origin of vocabulary units. At present
spoken language will have a lasting impact upon the environment; lexicography has three meanings: (1) a branch of linguistics
new areas of application for information technologies will open that studies the principles of compiling dictionaries of various
up. Human-level natural language processing, however, is an types, (2) the practice of compiling dictionaries, and (3) a set
AI-complete problem, i.e. it is equivalent to solving the central of dictionaries of a given language. Lexicography covers the
AI problem – making computers as intelligent as people. NLP’s study (theoretical lexicography) and construction of dictionaries
future is, therefore, tied closely to the development of AI in (practical lexicography).
general. A dictionary is collection of words in one or more specic
languages, often listed alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for
Questions for self-control ideographic languages), with usage of information, denitions,
1. Give the denition of corpus linguistics. etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, translation, and other
2. Name the milestones in the history of corpus linguistics. information. It is a lexicographical product designed for utility and
3. What methods and approaches are used in corpus linguistics? function, curated with selected data, presented in a way that shows
4. What is a text corpus? What types of corpora do you know? inter-relationships among the data.
5. How are corpora compiled? Where are they applied? A broad distinction is made between general and specialised
6. What is translation memory? Enumerate the stages of the dictionaries. Specialised dictionaries do not contain information
process of analysis in the translation memory system. about words that are used in language for general purposes – words
7. What does computational linguistics focus on? used by ordinary people in everyday situations. Lexical items that
8. Enlarge on the approaches used in computational linguistics. describe concepts in specic elds are usually called ‘terms’ instead
9. What is natural language processing? of ‘words’, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and
10. Name the milestones in the history of natural language terminology are two different elds of study. Such dictionaries
processing. can be terminological, phraseological, dialectical word-books,
dictionaries of new words, of foreign words or abbreviations, etc.
In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological,
mapping word to denition, while specialised dictionaries are
supposed to be onomasiological, rst identifying concepts and
then establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the
two approaches are used for both types. Moreover, there are other
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types of dictionaries that do not t neatly in the above distinction, Practical lexicographic work involves several activities,
for instance, bilingual (translation) dictionaries, dictionaries of and the compilation of well crafted dictionaries require careful
synonyms (thesauri), or rhyming dictionaries. consideration of all or some of the following aspects: (1) proling
A different dimension on which dictionaries (usually just the intended users (which demands both linguistic and non-
general-purpose ones) are sometimes distinguished is whether linguistic competences) and identifying their needs, (2) determining
they are prescriptive or descriptive, the latter being in theory the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary,
largely based on linguistic corpus studies – this is the case of most (3) selecting and organising the components of the dictionary,
modern dictionaries. However, this distinction cannot be upheld in (4) choosing the appropriate structures (such as frame structure,
the strictest sense. The choice of headwords is considered itself of distribution structure, macro-structure, micro-structure, and cross-
prescriptive nature; for instance, dictionaries avoid having too many reference structure) for presenting the data in the dictionary,
taboo words in that position. Stylistic indications (e.g., informal or (5) selecting words and afxes for systematising the entries,
vulgar) present in many modern dictionaries are considered less (6) selecting collocations, phrases, and examples, (7) choosing
than objectively descriptive as well. lemma forms for each word or part of word to be lemmatised,
Although the rst recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian (8) dening words, (9) arranging the denitions, (10) specifying
times (these were bilingual dictionaries), the systematic study of pronunciations of the words, (11) labelling denitions and
dictionaries as objects of scientic interest themselves is a 20th- pronunciations for registre and dialect, where appropriate,
century enterprise, called lexicography, and largely initiated by (12) selecting equivalents in bi- and multi-lingual dictionaries,
Ladislav Zgusta. The birth of the new discipline was not without (13) translating collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and
controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes multilingual dictionaries, (14) designing the best way in which
accused by others of lack of method and critical-self reection. users can access the data in printed and electronic dictionaries.
Because of the widespread use of dictionaries in schools and The problems of lexicography are connected with the selection
their acceptance by many as language authorities, their treatment of headwords, the number, the structure and contents of the
of the language does affect usage to some degree, with even the vocabulary entry in different types of dictionaries. The most
most descriptive dictionaries providing conservative continuity. In important problems the lexicographer faces are: (1) the selection
the long run, however, the meanings of words in any language are of items for inclusion and their arrangement, (2) the setting
primarily determined by usage, and the language is being changed of the entries, (3) the selection, arrangement and denition of
and created every day. meanings, (4) the illustrative examples to be supplied, and (5) the
supplementary material. The choice among the possible solutions
2. The problems of lexicography depends upon the type to which the dictionary will belong, the aim
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally the compilers pursue, the prospective user of the dictionary, the
important groups. Practical lexicography is the art or craft linguistic conceptions of the dictionary-maker, etc. For example,
of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. Theoretical learner’s dictionaries are characterised by their strictly limited
lexicography is the scholarly discipline for analysing and word-list; great attention is given to the functioning of lexical units
describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic in speech and their strong perspective orientation.
relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language,
developing theories of dictionary components and structures 3. The types and features of dictionaries.
linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information in Dictionaries for natural language processing
specic types of situations, and how users may best access the The main functions of any dictionary are informative and
data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is normative. The dictionary can be short (by 30000 words), middle-
sometimes referred to as ‘metalexicography’. size (from 70000 to 80000 words), and full (more than 80000
96 97
words). In addition, dictionaries can be divided into two groups: The most wide-spread explanatory dictionaries in English are
encyclopaedic and linguistic. The two groups of reference books The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles and The
differ essentially in the choice of items included and in the sort of Shorter Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principles (they are
information given about them. diachronic); The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English
Encyclopaedic dictionaries are thing-books that give and Universal Dictionary of the English Language (these are
information about the extralingual world; they deal with concepts synchronic). Moreover, there are dictionaries of a separate
(objects and phenomena) and their relations to other objects and historical period, such as Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (by J. Bosworth
phenomena. Articles in encyclopaedias include only nouns or noun- and T. N. Toller) and Stratmann’s Middle English Dictionary (by
combinations, either common (general) names or proper names. In H. Brabley). They are called historical but can not be strictly
an encyclopaedia, words disclose general and detailed information. referred to diachronic explanatory dictionaries. Oxford Advanced
The best-known encyclopaedic dictionaries in the English Leaner’s Dictionary and The Dictionary of Contemporary English
language are The Encyclopaedia Britannica (in 24 volumes) and (new editions) are rather popular nowadays.
The Encyclopaedia Americana (in 30 volumes). Very popular in Translation dictionaries are wordbooks containing vocabulary
Great Britain and the USA also is Collier’s Encyclopaedia (in 24 items in one language and their equivalents in another language.
volumes) intended for students and school teachers. Chamber’s Translation dictionaries can be general and specialised (most often –
Encyclopaedia (in 15 volumes) is a family type reference book, terminological). An example of a general translation dictionary is,
and Everyman’s Encyclopaedia (in 12 volumes) is designed for in particular, “Англо-русский словарь” (by Yu. D. Apresyan; in
general use. Besides general encyclopaedic dictionaries, there are 2 volumes; published in 2000 in Moscow; nearly 250 000 words);
reference books that denite elds of knowledge, such as The Oxford an example of a specialised translation dictionary is “Англо-
Companion to English Literature and Cassell’s Encyclopaedia of русский фразеологический словарь” (by A. V. Kunin; published
World Literature. There are also numerous dictionaries presenting in 1984; about 20 000 phraseological units).
information about notable persons. Specialised Dictionaries. Phraseological English dictionaries
Linguistic dictionaries are wordbooks that determine the have accumulated vast collections of idiomatic or colloquial
meanings of words and characterise their peculiarities; moreover, phrases, proverbs and other word-groups with profuse illustrations.
the subject matter is lexical units and their linguistic properties. However, many of such dictionaries mix phraseological items
Articles in linguistic dictionaries include all parts of speech; nouns with all forms of linguistic anomalies that transgress the laws of
there are common names. A linguistic dictionary presents the grammar or logic but are approved by usage. Alongside set phrases,
word’s spelling, pronunciation, grammar characteristics, polysemy, lexicographers tend to enter free phrases and even separate words,
synonyms, etc. as in the dictionary called A Desk-Book of Idioms and Idiomatic
For practical purpose, it is important to know that, for instance, Phrases (by F. N. Vizetelly and L. G. De Bekker).
American dictionaries are characterised by encyclopaedic A. V. Kunin’s dictionary “Англо-русский фразеологический
inclusion of scientic, technical, geographical and bibliographical словарь” is, in fact, the rst dictionary of English phraseology
items, whereas it is common practice with British lexicographers proper. To ensure the highest possible cognitive value and quick
to exclude information of this kind and to devote maximum space nding of necessary phrases, the dictionary enters phrase variants
to linguistic properties of words. and structural synonyms, distinguishes between polysemantic and
Monolingual explanatory dictionaries provide information homonymic phrases, shows word- and form-building abilities of
on all aspects of the lexical units entered: graphical, phonetical, phraseological units, and illustrates their use by quotations.
semantic, stylistic, and etymological. Most of these dictionaries New words dictionaries are aimed at adequate reection
deal with the form, usage and meaning of lexical units in synchronic of the continuous growth of a language. These include, for
and diachronic aspects. instance, Twentieth Century Words (by J. Ayto; published in
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1999), New Words (by O. Hargraves; published in 2004), The words grouped by the concepts expressed. The world-famous
Oxford Dictionary of New Words (by E. Knowles; published in ideographic dictionary of English is P. M. Roget’s Thesaurus of
1997), Word Spy: The Word Lover’s Guide to Modern Culture English Words and Phrases.
(by P. McFedries; published in 2004), and New Words (by Thus, the numerous linguistic dictionaries may be grouped
O. Hargraves; published in 2004). by the following criteria: (1) the nature of their word-list, (2) the
Dictionaries of slang contain elements from areas of substandard information they contain, (3) the language of the explanations,
speech such as vulgarisms, jargonisms, taboo words, curse-words, and (4) the intended user. Semantically specic lexical units are
dialectical words, and colloquialisms. The best-known dictionaries included in the dictionaries of synonyms, antonyms, paronyms,
of the type are Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (by homonyms, proper names, etc.
E. Partridge), The Dictionary of American Slang (by H. Wentworth In contrast to traditional dictionaries, which are designed to
and S. B. Flexner), Dictionary of the Underworld: British and be used by human beings, dictionaries for natural language
American, The American Thesaurus of Slang (by L. V. Berry and processing (NLP) are built to be used by computer programmes.
M. Den Bork). (The nal user is a human being, but the direct user is a
Usage dictionaries are designed to pass judgement on usage programme.) Such a dictionary does not need to be printed on
problems of all kinds. The most widely employed usage guides in paper. The structure of the content is not linear, ordered entry by
English are Dictionary of Modern English Usage (by N. W. Fowler), entry; instead, it has the form of a complex graph. Because most
A Dictionary of American English Usage. Perhaps the best usage of these dictionaries are used to control machine translations or
dictionary is A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage (by cross-lingual information retrieval (CLIR), the content is usually
B. Evans and C. Evans). multilingual and usually of huge size. In order to allow formalised
Reverse dictionaries are lists of words in which the entry exchange and merging of dictionaries, an ISO (International
words are arranged in alphabetical order starting with their nal Organization for Standardization) standard called Lexical Markup
letters. The original purpose of such dictionaries was to indicate Framework (LMF) has been dened and used among the industrial
rhyming words. An example is Rhyming Dictionary of the English and academic communities.
Language (by J. Walker).
Pronounciation dictionaries record contemporary Questions for self-control
pronunciation. These dictionaries indicate variant pronunciations 1. What is lexicography? Name its tasks and objectives.
as well as the pronunciation of different grammatical forms. The 2. What is a dictionary? How are dictionaries compiled?
world famous English Pronouncing Dictionary by D. Jones is 3. What are the main types of dictionaries? Name their distinctive
considered to provide the most expert guidance on British English. features.
The most popular dictionary for the American variant of English 4. What problems are considered by theoretical lexicography?
is A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English by J. S. Kenyon 5. What problems are solved by practical lexicography?
and T. A. Knott. 6. Enlarge on the subtypes of specialised dictionaries; supply
Etymological dictionaries trace present-day words to the oldest examples.
forms available, establish their primary meanings, and give the 7. What are the main criteria of classifying linguistic dictionaries?
parent form reconstructed by means of the comparative-historical
method. The most substantial of the etymological dictionaries is The
Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (edited by C. T. Onions)
and Etymological English Dictionary (by W. W. Skeat).
Ideographic dictionaries are designed for writers, orators or
translators seeking to express their ideas adequately. They contain
100 101
LECTURE 9 or when a child (or adult) is more comfortable with and uent in a
SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION language learnt later, and/or has forgotten his/her earliest acquired
language. It is worth remembering that such situations are by no
1. General considerations. means uncommon; thus, monolingualism is not the norm.
2. The consequences of bilingualism on language development. Foreign-language (FL) learning occurs when the language is
3. Approaches to SLA research. taught in the L1 environment, often through the medium of L1,
4. Code switching and interlanguage as language learning such as when French children learn English at school in France.
strategies. The stages of SLA. Second-language learning occurs when the language being taught
5. Factors that inuence SLA. Polyglottism. is that of the host community, such as in case of Chileans arriving
in Britain and learning English either informally or in classes. The
1. General considerations term ‘second language’ (L2) is also used in a more general sense,
The study of second-language acquisition (SLA) is a subeld as a cover term for the second and foreign languages; it may also
of applied linguistics. It is closely related to psychology, cognitive be used for a third or fourth language. The term ‘second-language
psychology, and education. There is considerable interest in the acquisition’ (SLA, 2LA, L2A) is used to refer to both acquisition
processes by which we succeed or fail in learning a second (or and learning. There are many situations in the world where the
third, fourth, etc.) language. The insights we can gain from research distinction between foreign- and second-language learning is not
into this area can tell us more about the nature of language, how so clear-cut; especially where the language being learnt has some
the brain stores it and how language learning takes place. Research sort of special political or social status or signicance, as in case,
into second-language acquisition asks, in particular, (1) whether for example, with English in India or South Africa. Acquisition
classroom learning is a valid way to gain communicative language vs. learning is a distinction made by S. Krashen in the early
skills, (2) whether there is a fundamental difference between being 1980s: acquisition was dened as a subconscious assimilation of a
taught a language and picking it from the environment, (3) what language without knowing its rules, and learning – as a conscious
language-teaching methods work best, (4) if second-language process, which is achieved particularly through formal study and
acquisition is intrinsically the same as or different from rst- results in an explicit knowledge of the rules.
language acquisition, (5) if children are inherently better at language For different writers, bilingualism can imply equal uency and
learning than adults, (6) if there is an age beyond which the natural ability in two languages, any (however minimal) ability in one
language-learning mechanisms no longer function effectively, language together with uency in another language, the ability to
(7) whether residence abroad makes a qualitative difference to switch easily between two languages in speech, or the ability to
language skills, (8) if there are any consistent patterns in the order understand more than one language, though not necessarily the
in which learners master language features, and (9) how successful ability to speak both. Code(-)switching occurs when a speaker
self-teach courses are. alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties,
The mother tongue (MT) is the language acquired in early in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals, speakers
childhood from parents, and spoken in the home environment; of more than one language, sometimes use elements of multiple
it is normally synonymous to the rst language (L1). Although languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching
these terms may seem easy to dene at rst glance, there are many is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent
situations where it might be difcult to identify which language with the syntax and phonology of each variety.
deserves either both of these labels: for example, when each parent
speaks a different language, when two or more languages are 2. The consequences of bilingualism
commonly used in the family or immediate community, when the Increasing globalisation has created a large need for people in
child is regularly exposed to a second language outside the home, the workforce who can communicate in multiple languages. The
102 103
uses of common languages are in areas such as trade, tourism, with ambiguities, resolve conicts, and resist Alzheimer’s disease
international relations, technology, media, and science. Although, and other forms of dementia. Some studies have found that groups
there is a large debate regarding whether or not bilingualism of multilingual individuals get higher average scores on tests for
is truly benecial to children. Parents of children often view personality traits such as cultural empathy, open-mindedness, and
learning a second language throughout elementary and high school social initiative.
education benecial to the child. Another perspective dictates that
a second language will just confuse the child and prevent them 3. Approaches to SLA research
from mastering their primary language. SLA research began in Western linguistics as an interdisciplinary
Studies have shown that American bilingual children have eld, and two papers in particular are seen as instrumental to the
greater cognitive  exibility, better perceptual skills and tend to development of the modern study of SLA: P. Corder’s 1967 essay
be more divergent thinkers than monolingual children between The Signicance of Learners’ Errors and L. Selinker’s 1972 article
the ages of ve to ten. Better executive functioning skills are Interlanguage. The eld saw a great deal of development in the
likely to develop because bilingual children have to choose following decades. Since the 1980s, second-language acquisition
one language to speak while actively suppressing the other. has been studied from a variety of theoretical perspectives.
This builds stronger selective attention and cognitive exibility Research on how exactly learners acquire a new language
because these skills are being exercised more. In addition, spans a number of different areas. Cognitive approaches to SLA
bilingual children have a better understanding of universal research deal with the processes in the brain that underpin language
language concepts, such as grammar, because these concepts acquisition, for example, how language acquisition is related to
are applied in multiple languages. short-term and long-term memories. These approaches are also
However, studies comparing Swedish-Finnish bilingual applied to research on speech production, speech planning, and
children and Swedish monolingual children between the ages of communication strategies. Speech planning can impact learners’
ve to seven have also shown that the bilingual children have a spoken output, and research in this area has focused on how
smaller vocabulary than monolingual children. In another study planning affects three aspects of speech: complexity, accuracy, and
throughout America, elementary school English-monolingual uency. Sociocultural approaches reject the notion that second-
children performed better in mathematics and reading activities language acquisition is a purely psychological phenomenon and
than their non-English-dominant bilingual peers from kindergarten attempt to explain it in its social context. Linguistic approaches
to grade ve. Therefore, learning two languages simultaneously can consider language separately from other kinds of knowledge and
be benecial or a hindrance to a child’s language and intellectual attempt to use ndings from the wider study of linguistics to explain
development. Further research is necessary to continue to shed second-language acquisition. There is also a considerable body of
light on this debate. research on how second-language acquisition can be affected by
Adults who learn a second language differ from children such factors as age and learning strategies.
learning their rst language in the following: children are still The dominant model in cognitive approaches to second-language
developing their brains whereas adults have conscious minds, acquisition and in all second-language acquisition research is a
and adults have at least a rst language that orients their thinking computational model. The mental processes that underlie second-
and speaking. In addition to the study of bilingualism in children, language acquisition can be broken down into micro-processes and
similar research is being conducted in adults. Bilinguals who are macro-processes. Micro-processes comprise attention, working
highly procient in two or more languages are reported to have memory, integration, restructuring (the process by which learners
enhanced the executive function and are better at some aspects of change their interlanguage systems), and monitoring (a conscious
language learning compared to monolinguals. Research indicates attending of learners to their own language output). Macro-
that a multilingual brain is nimbler, quicker, better able to deal processes include the distinction between intentional learning and
104 105
incidental learning and between explicit and implicit learning. A language, similar to speech by children or in pidgins. This may be
primary factor affecting language acquisition appears to be the related to linguistic universals.
input that the learner receives; some evidence for input comes from Language transfer. An important difference between rst-
studies on reading: large amounts of free voluntary reading have a language acquisition and second-language acquisition is that the
signicant positive effect on learners’ vocabulary, grammar, and process of second-language acquisition is inuenced by languages
writing. that the learner already knows. This is a complex phenomenon
resulting from interaction between learners’ prior linguistic
4. Code switching and interlanguage as language knowledge, the target-language input they encounter, and their
learning strategies. cognitive processes. Language transfer (which can occur in
The stages of SLA grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, or discourse) is not always
Code switching, i.e. changing between languages at some point from the learner’s native language; it can also be from a second
in a sentence or utterance, is a commonly used communication language, or a third one.
strategy among language learners and bilinguals. If viewed as a Transfer can be positive, i.e. promote learning, or negative,
learning strategy, wherein the student uses the target language i.e. lead to mistakes. Some errors that second-language learners
as much as possible but reverts to their native language for any make in their speech originate in their rst language. For example,
element of an utterance that they are unable to produce in the target Spanish speakers learning English may say Is raining rather than It
language, then it has certain advantages. In particular, it encourages is raining, leaving out the subject of the sentence. French speakers
uency development, motivation, and a sense of accomplishment learning English, however, do not usually make the same mistake.
by enabling the student to discuss topics of interest to him or her This is because pronominal and impersonal sentence subjects can
early in the learning process – before requisite vocabulary has be omitted in Spanish but not in French. In such cases, linguists use
been memorised. The study of code switching directly relates to the term ‘interference error’.
pragmatics, since a switch in code affects a shift in the pragmatic Language transfer often occurs when learners sense a similarity
force. between a feature of a language that they already know and a
An interlanguage is an emerging language system in the corresponding feature of the interlanguage they have developed. If
mind of a second-language learner. A learner’s interlanguage is this happens, the acquisition of more complicated language forms
not a decient version of the language being learned lled with may be delayed in favour of simpler forms that resemble those of
random errors; rather, it is a language in its own right, with its the language the learner is familiar with. Learners may also decline
own systematic rules. It is possible to view most aspects of to use some language forms at all if they are perceived as being
language from an interlanguage perspective, including grammar, too distant from their rst language. Some researchers claim that
phonology, lexicon, and pragmatics. The interlanguage gradually when people learn a second language, the way they speak their rst
develops as learners become more exposed to the target language. language also changes in subtle ways.
There are three different processes that inuence the creation of The process of second-language acquisition is believed to
interlanguages: (1) language transfer, (2) overgeneralisation, and comprise ve stages such as (1) preproduction, (2) early production,
(3) simplication. (3) speech emergence, (4) intermediate uency, and (5) advanced
Overgeneralization. Learners use rules from the second uency. The rst stage, preproduction, is also known as the silent
language in roughly the same way that children overgeneralise in period. Learners at this stage have a receptive vocabulary of up to
their rst language. For example, a learner may say I goed home, 500 words, but they do not yet speak their second language. Not
overgeneralising the English rule of adding -ed to create past tense all learners go through a silent period: some learners start speaking
verb forms. English children also produce forms like goed, sticked, straight away, although their output may consist of imitation
bringed. Simplication. Learners use a highly simplied form of rather than creative language use; others may be required to speak
106 107
from the start as part of a language course. For learners that do Japanese is typically more difcult to learn than other languages in
go through a silent period, it may last around three to six months. this group.
The second stage is early production, during which learners are The issue of age was rst addressed with the critical period
able to speak in short phrases of one or two words. They can also hypothesis. The strict version of this hypothesis states that there
memorise chunks of language, although they may make mistakes is a cut-off age at about 12, after which learners lose the ability to
when using them. At this stage, learners typically have both an fully learn a language. This strict version has since been rejected for
active and receptive vocabulary of around 1000 words. This stage second-language acquisition, as adult learners have been observed
normally lasts for around six months. who reach native-like levels of pronunciation and general uency.
At the stage of speech emergence, learners’ vocabularies However, in general, adult learners of a second-language rarely
increase to around 3000 words, they can communicate using simple achieve the native-like uency that children display, despite often
questions and phrases, although they may often make grammatical progressing faster in the initial stages. Researchers claim that the
errors. At the stage of intermediate uency, learners have a earlier children learn a second language the better off they are in
vocabulary of around 6000 words and can use more complicated terms of pronunciation.
sentence structures, share their thoughts and opinions, although The learner’s attitude to the learning process has also been
they may make frequent errors with more complicated sentence identied as being critically important to second-language
structures. The nal stage is advanced uency, which is typically acquisition. Anxiety in language-learning situations has been
reached somewhere between ve and ten years of learning the almost unanimously shown to be detrimental to successful learning.
language. Learners at this stage can function at a level close to While considerable SLA research has been devoted to language
native speakers. learning in a natural setting, there have also been efforts made to
investigate second-language acquisition in the classroom. This
5. Factors that inuence SLA. Polyglottism kind of research has a signicant overlap with language education,
There is considerable variation in the rate at which people learn and it is mainly concerned with the effect that instruction has on
second languages, and in the language level that they ultimately the learner. It also explores the teachers’ actions, the classroom
reach. Some learners learn quickly and reach a near-native level context, and the dynamics of classroom communication. It is both
of competence, but others learn slowly and get stuck at relatively qualitative and quantitative research.
early stages of acquisition, despite living in the country where the There are differences between those who learn a language in a
language is spoken for several years. The reason for this disparity class environment and those who learn through total immersion,
was rst addressed with the study of language learning aptitude usually living in a country where the target language is widely
in the 1950s. More recently research has focused on a number spoken. Without the possibility to actively translate, due to a
of different factors that affect individuals’ language learning, complete lack of any rst language communication opportunity,
in particular, learning strategy, social and societal inuences, the comparison between languages is reduced. The new language
personality, motivation, and anxiety. The relationship between age is almost independently learned, like the mother tongue for a child,
and the ability to learn languages has also been a subject of long- with direct concept-to-language translation that can become more
standing debate. natural than word structures learned as a subject. Added to this,
The time taken to reach a high level of prociency can vary the uninterrupted, immediate and exclusive practice of the new
depending on the language learned. Of the 63 languages analysed, language reinforces and deepens the attained knowledge.
the ve most difcult languages to reach prociency in speaking Polyglottism is the ability to master, or the state of having
and reading, requiring 88 weeks (2200 class hours), are Arabic, mastered, multiple languages. Numerous theories exist as
Cantonese, Mandarin, Japanese, and Korean. The Foreign Service explanations for polyglottism. For example, it has been recognised
Institute and the National Virtual Translation Center both note that that someone who is interested in languages, with a sufciently
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developed intellect, and who optimises their learning techniques the emotional impact of one’s native tongue. Nevertheless, the idea
with experience is will become increasingly efcient in mastering of linguistic relativity, which claims that the language people speak
new languages, with much less effort than an average person. Also, inuences the way they see the world, can be interpreted to mean
different languages overlap in the areas of grammar and vocabulary that individuals who speak multiple languages have a broader,
(e.g., English and French/German words), which makes it easier to more diverse view of the world, even when speaking only one
acquire the connected languages. language at a time.
On the one hand, the brain contains areas that are specialised
to deal with language. One theory suggests that a spike in a Questions for self-control
baby’s testosterone levels while in the uterus can increase brain 1. Outline the area(s) of study for SLA.
asymmetry, while others have suggested that hard work and the 2. Dene the native language, mother tongue, second language,
right type of motivation – which any adult can apply – are the and foreign language.
key factors of polyglottism. Neuroscientist K. Amunts studied the 3. Dene language acquisition vs. language learning.
brain of German polyglot Emil Krebs and determined that the area 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages (if any) of
of Krebs’ brain that was responsible for language – the Broca’s bilingualism?
area – was organised differently in comparison to the brains of 5. Enlarge on the approaches to second-language acquisition.
monolinguals. 6. Enumerate and describe the stages of second-language
On the other hand, multilingualism affects the structural acquisition.
plasticity of the brain. Bilinguals, particularly those who learned 7. What are the mechanisms of polyglottism?
their second language early in life, show increased density of grey 8. What factors promote or hamper second-language acquisition?
matter in the inferior parietal cortex. Although there is some debate
over whether this is due to genetic predisposition to increased
density or to experience, overall the research suggests that the LECTURE 10
process of second-language acquisition restructures the brain itself. CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGES
Moreover, it should be noted that due to the advent of computers,
it has been estimated that the most frequently used 2000 words – 1. Early experiments in language construction.
in all or most of their multiple senses – cover approximately 2. The notion of constructed languages and their classication.
seventy-ve to eighty percent of a general text in English and other 3. A priori and a posteriori languages.
European languages; such a limited vocabulary also allows one 4. International auxiliary languages.
to express more complicated concepts. It is, therefore, difcult to 5. Logical and philosophical languages.
objectively judge many claims of polyglottism, because what is 6. Fictional languages.
ostensibly uent speech can be achieved with the assertive use of a 7. The problems of constructed languages. The prospects of
very limited general-purpose or specialised vocabulary. conlanging.
Psycholinguistic studies reveal the fact that using a foreign
language reduces decision-making biases. Since human 1. Early experiments in language construction
reasoning is shaped by two distinct modes of thought – one that There are thousands of human languages and dialects. Some
is systematic, analytical and cognition-intensive, and another are closely related and are part of large language families (such as
that is fast, unconscious and emotionally charged – it is believed Indo-European languages), while others are spoken by only a few
that a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from hundred people in isolated tribes. What all natural languages have
automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing in common is that they have evolved through unplanned human
emotional reaction. It was surmised that a foreign language lacks interaction and inventiveness. Natural human languages cannot
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be traced back to one inventor and in many cases cannot even be with God and divine beings rst, followed by humans (with their
traced back to a specic nation or culture. For example, English relations, occupations, and crafts), then on to animals, birds, plants,
borrows heavily from Latin, French, Italian, and even Hindi. and insects. This categorisation approach to a universal language
For the most part, the grammar and vocabulary of natural would be echoed centuries later by Dalgarno, Wilkins, and others.
languages have evolved through usage. Words have taken on Dr. S. Higley of the University of Rochester has written her study
different meanings over time, have risen in popularity or faded on Hildegard’s Lingua Ignota: Hildegard of Bingen’s Unknown
away. Since pronunciation changes, an English speaker today Language: An Edition, Translation, and Discussion, edited by
would barely understand an English speaker from the Elizabethan Palgrave Macmillan in 2007). Lingua Ignota is considered to be
age. In large part, what constitutes proper grammar and word the rst entirely articial language.
usage is determined by general consensus through the process of An important example from Middle-Eastern culture is
linguistic evolution that can happen quickly or slowly depending Balaibalan, invented in the 16th century. Kabbalistic grammatical
on a number of social and cultural conditions. In contrast, articial speculation was directed at recovering the original language spoken
languages – or more commonly, constructed languages – are by Adam and Eve in Paradise, lost in the confusion of tongues. The
invented by one person or a small group of people and spring forth rst Christian project for an ideal language is outlined in Dante
almost fully formed, with a vocabulary and grammar of their own. Alighieri’s De vulgari eloquentia, where he searches for the ideal
There are several hundred constructed languages used today, and Italian vernacular suited for literature. Ramon Llull’s Ars Magna
each has its own peculiar characteristics and goals. was a project of a perfect language with which the indels could be
The earliest experiments in language construction can be traced convinced of the truth of the Christian faith.
back, for example, to Dionysius of Sicily who created neologisms The Renaissance interest in Ancient Egypt, notably the discovery
like menandros “virgin” (from menei “waiting” and andra of the Hieroglyphica of Horapollo, and rst encounters with the
“husband”), menekratēs “pillar” (from menei “it remains in one Chinese script directed efforts towards a perfect written language.
place” and kratei “it is strong”), and ballantion “javelin” (from Johannes Trithemius, in Steganographia and Polygraphia,
balletai enantion “thrown against someone”), whereas the more attempted to show how all languages can be reduced to one.
common Greek words for those three are parthenos, stulos, and The 17th century saw the rise of projects for ‘philosophical’
akon. Alexarchus of Macedon introduced a peculiar vocabulary, or ‘a priori’ languages. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz had a similar
referring to a rooster as a “dawn-crier”, a barber as a “mortal- purpose for his Lingua Generalis of 1678. These projects were not
shaver”, a drachma as “worked silver”, and a herald as an aputēs only occupied with reducing or modelling grammar, but also with
(from ēputa “loud-voiced”). While the mechanisms of grammar the arrangement of all human knowledge into hierarchies. Many
suggested by classical philosophers were designed to explain of the 17th−18th centuries’ conlangs were pasigraphies, or purely
existing languages (Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit), they were not used written languages with no spoken form or a spoken form that would
to construct new grammars. Roughly contemporary to Plato, in his vary greatly according to the native language of the reader.
descriptive grammar of Sanskrit, Pā ini constructed a set of rules
for explaining language, so that the text of his grammar may be 2. The notion of constructed languages and their classication
considered a mixture of natural and constructed language. A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a
In the 12th century, Hildegard of Bingen constructed her Lingua language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been
Ignota (“unknown language”), a collection of 1,012 nouns that consciously devised for human or human-like communication,
Hildegard attributed to divine revelation. The abbess used Latin instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as
for the grammar of her language but also wrote the Lingua Ignota an articial, planned or invented language and, in some cases, a
in an accompanying script, Litterae Ignotae (“unknown letters”). ctional language. There are many possible reasons to create a
The glossary contained in Lingua Ignota is arranged hierarchically, constructed language, such as to ease human communication, to
112 113
give ction or an associated constructed setting an added layer of hypothesis claims that the language one speaks inuences the way
realism, for experimentation in the elds of linguistics, cognitive one thinks. Thus, a “better” language should allow the speaker to
science, and machine learning, for artistic purpose, and for language think more clearly or intelligently or encompass more points of
games. view (this was the intention of Suzette Haden Elgin in creating
Conlang (short for ‘constructed language’) includes artlangs, Láadan). A constructed language could also be used to restrict
auxlangs, and engelangs. Other names for conlangs include thought (as in George Orwell’s Newspeak), or to simplify thought
model languages, articial languages, imaginary languages, (as in Toki Pona). In contrast, linguists such as Steven Pinker argue
invented languages, or planned languages. Artlang (short for that ideas exist independently of language. For example, in the book
‘artistic language’) is a language created for artistic or aesthetic The Language Instinct, S. Pinker states that children spontaneously
reasons, whether to stand on its own merits or to be used in ction. re-invent slang and even grammar with each generation. These
Examples include Ayeri, Verdurian, Teonaht, Tolkien’s Elvish linguists argue that attempts to control the range of human thought
languages, Klingon, Lapine (Watership Down), and Drac (Enemy through the reform of language would fail, as concepts like
Mine). Auxlang (short for ‘auxiliary language’) is designed to ‘freedom’ will reappear in new words if the old words vanish.
serve as a means of international communication. The best known
auxlang is Esperanto, which was devised as a neutral means of 3. A priori and a posteriori languages
communication. Other auxlangs include Ido, Volapük, Interlingua, An a priori constructed language is one whose features
Solresol, and Ro. Engelang (short for ‘engineered language’) (including vocabulary, grammar, etc.) are not based on an existing
includes loglangs as well as unique languages (like Ithkuil) language, and an a posteriori language is the opposite. This
designed to meet specic objective criteria. Loglang (short for categorization, however, is not absolute, as many constructed
‘logical language’) is designed with the use of philosophical and/ languages may be both a priori and a posteriori depending on
or logical parameters. Examples include Loglan and Lojban. which linguistic factors of them are observed.
The terms ‘planned’, ‘constructed’ and ‘articial’ are used A priori languages (from Latin a priori “from the former”).
differently in some traditions. For example, few speakers of There have been many experimental languages constructed to test
Interlingua consider their language articial since they assert that linguistic hypotheses (such as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis) and/
it has no invented content: Interlingua’s vocabulary is taken from a or to explore innovative or invented linguistic features. They are,
small set of natural languages, and its grammar is based closely on therefore, necessarily designed with a priori features. Examples
these source languages, even including some degree of irregularity; include Ithkuil, Kotava, Lojban and its predecessor Loglan, and
its proponents prefer to describe its vocabulary and grammar as even the ctional Láadan.
standardized rather than articial or constructed. Similarly, Latino Most artistic languages, i.e. those created for amusement or to
sine exione (LsF) is a simplication of Latin from which the serve as natural languages of ctional worlds, are largely a priori in
inections have been removed. As with Interlingua, some prefer to both vocabulary and grammar. Among classical “ctional natural
describe its development as “planning” rather than “constructing”. languages” are Klingon and the languages created by the fantasy
Some speakers of Esperanto also avoid the term ‘articial’ language writer J. R. R. Tolkien. Other examples include Dothraki and
because they deny that there is anything unnatural about the use of Valyrian from Game of Thrones, as well as Atlantean from Atlantis:
their language in human communication. There is an assumption The Lost Empire. Láadan is both experimental and artistic.
that as soon as a constructed language has a community of uent A posteriori languages (from Latin a posteriori “from the
speakers, especially if it has numerous native speakers, it begins to latter”). According to Louis Couturat, these are any constructed
evolve and hence loses its constructed status. languages whose elements are borrowed from or based on existing
Proponents of constructed languages often have many reasons languages. The term can be extended to controlled versions of the
for using the latter. The famous although disputed Sapir–Whorf existing languages. Such languages may be controlled, naturalistic,
114 115
or schematic. A controlled language is a version of a natural task. (Chinese writing is not really ideographic: each symbol
language with improvements intended to make it easier to learn denotes the sound of a particular syllable, which makes learning
and to use, such as, in particular, reduced vocabulary and simplied to write Chinese possible.)
grammar. These include, for example, Latino sine exione, Basic In 1629, the French philosopher Rene Decartes outlined a scheme
English, and Globish (from ‘global English’). for constructing a universal language with numbers representing
A posteriori articial languages are much simpler in structure words and notions. Since that time, there have been more than 700
than the natural languages they are patterned after. Esperanto attempts to create an articial language. Decartes’ language was an
grammar, for example, can be condensed to t into a single page; example of an a priori language; many such languages have been
and there are no exceptions to the rules. invented since the 1600’s. Musical notes and numerals served as
Naturalistic languages are constructed languages that largely the prototypes for several such languages.
imitate the grammar and vocabulary of a particular group of In 1993, the Italian intellectual Umberto Eco wrote a book
related languages within a family, thus being potentially zonal, called The Search for the Perfect Language. In that book he says
i.e. auxiliary between speakers of these languages. Examples that there were two quests in the 19th century: (1) the quest for the
include Occidental (also called Interlingua), Interlingua de IALA, ancient language, from which other languages were derived (the
Interslavic, and Lingua Franca Nova. proto-language), and (2) the quest for the better language, which
A constructed language is considered schematic when it features is not in the past but in the future. These two quests started from
a more original grammar (which is usually precise and regular the same origin. During the 19th century, a bewildering variety
to avoid ambiguities and other obstacles to an easy study) and a of International Auxiliary Languages (IALs) were proposed, so
vocabulary coming from languages of different families (to make that Louis Couturat and Léopold Leau in Histoire de la langue
it as recognisable as possible for potential international auxiliary universelle (1903) reviewed 38 projects.
purposes). For that, such languages can be described as half a The French novelist Jules Verne (1828-1905) was an early
priori, half a posteriori. proponent of Esperanto. Although most likely unable to speak or
read Esperanto at the time, Verne was made rst honorary president
4. International auxiliary languages of an Esperanto society in the town of Amiens, France, in 1903.
The idea for the rst type of articial language developed Another direct link to the language is contained in an unpublished
in the 17th century. This was a time when Latin was falling manuscript of a novel entitled Voyage d’étude (Voyage of
into disuse as a universal language of learning in Europe. It Discovery). This book contained a character who was an Esperanto
was also a time when Europeans were rst becoming aware of admirer and contained these lines: La clé d’une langue commune,
the tremendous number of different languages in the world and perdue dans la Tour de Babel, peut être seulement construite par
the inadequacy of any single European language for worldwide l’usage de l’Espéranto. (The key of a common language, lost in the
communication. Many felt that Europe needed a new language Tower of Babel, can only be remade by the use of Esperanto.)
for commerce, mission work and other international tasks. The Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859-1917), born in Poland, was
European encounter with Chinese also fueled these schemes. a Russian-speaking Jew living in an area of ethnic and national
Many scholars at that time believed reality could be categorized tension and saw rst-hand the trouble that competing languages
into a limited set of categories that they called ‘concepts’. In the could create. His theory was that tolerance could be fostered by
1700’s, many people continued to look to Chinese characters use of an international language unencumbered by a connection
as a conceptual language, with each concept having its own to a specic country, and Zamenhof dedicated himself to creating
pictographic symbol. Such systems proved impossible to use such a language. Along with a group of friends in school, the young
because of the enormous number of different symbols needed. idealist created a workable language. His father, uneasy about
The learner was presented with a virtually impossible memory the reaction to a “secret” language in the contemporary political
116 117
climate, burned all of Zamenhof’s notebooks while Ludwik was Kim Jan Henriksen (also known as Kimo) (b. 1960) is a native
away at the University of Warsaw. Esperanto speaker. Kimo’s Danish father and Polish mother met
Failure of the a priori language schemes led to a new approach through Esperanto and used the language as the everyday medium
to articial language creation – a posteriori languages, i.e. actual of their home life. Kimo grew up speaking both Esperanto and
languages with grammars patterned on simplication of the existing Danish but considers the invented language his “native” tongue.
languages. The dream of a universal language was widespread at Kimo formed an Esperanto rock group Ampliki (Esperanto for
this time, and, in 1880, Johann Martin Schleyer created Volapük “amplify”). It was during this time that he wrote the song Sola
(meaning “world’s speech”), which attracted a sizable number of (Esperanto for “alone”) which has become a mainstay at Esperanto
users. It was the rst large-scale movement. The new language gatherings. George Soros, the Hungarian-born billionaire, is the
was patterned after English and German; contained 8 vowels and son of Tivadar Schwartz, a proponent of Esperanto. Soros’ father
20 consonants). The motto of Volapük is “One Mankind, One changed the family name ahead of a rising tide of anti-Semiticism
Language.” in Europe: soros is both Hungarian for “next in line” and Esperanto
Undaunted by this competition, Zamenhof by 1887 had for “will soar”. George Soros survived Nazi-occupation by posing
reconstituted his work from the burned notebooks and as a non-Jewish Hungarian; later he attended an international
published a textbook entitled Lingvo Internacia under the Esperanto youth conference and emigrated to Britain.
pseudonym Dr Esperanto (“Dr Hopeful” in his new language). However, originally viewed as a means of bringing the world
The book included a pledge to use the new language for people closer, Esperanto underwent a fracture early on when, in 1907,
to sign and send back to Zamenhof. Lingvo Internacia quickly a group of Esperanto enthusiasts attempted to “correct” flaws
acquired the name of its founder, and Esperanto was born. they perceived in that language’s design. In fact, Zamenhof
The language contained 5 vowels, 23 consonants, and a mainly proposed most of the changes himself, but they were rejected
West European lexicon with Slavic influence on syntax and by a poll of La Esperantisto readers. Zamenhof did not pursue
spelling. Encouraged by the significant return of pledges, the instituting the changes, fearing a schism (which ended up
first Esperanto magazine, La Esperantisto, appeared in 1889. A happening anyway). The result of the revisionists was the
number of Volapük clubs switched “allegiances” to Esperanto, language known as Ido, which is actually an Esperanto suffix
due in large part to the fact that it was easier to learn than meaning “derived from”.
Volapük. Leo Tolstoy himself became an early supporter of One of the early advocates of Ido was Danish linguist Otto
Esperanto. Jespersen. Jespersen continued to have difculties with the
The rst Esperanto World Congress was held in 1905 in Boulogne- revised-Esperanto grammar of Ido and set about creating an
sur-Mer, France, with over 600 people attending. The same year, entirely new international auxiliary language. The result, in 1928,
Zamenhof published his Fundamento de Esperanto, which would was Novial, a compromise between a completely regular language
become the canon for the language. The Universala Esperanto- like Esperanto and Ido and a natural language. Novial also drew on
Asocio (Universal Esperanto Association) was established in more Germanic and Western European sources for its words than
1908. Today there are an estimated two million Esperanto speakers either of its predecessors.
worldwide. The Internet has also opened up unlimited possibilities Johann Martin Schleyer’s Volapük was not immune to splintering
with lively online communities and informational websites using as well. In 1887, the International Academy of Volapük or Kadem
Esperanto. The rst feature-length movie entirely in Esperanto Bevünetik Volapüka set out to perfect the language. The result
was the 1965 lm Incubus starring William Shatner. The 1997 was called Idiom Neutral. In recognition of the major change, the
sci- thriller Gattaca included announcements in the corporate name of the Academy was changed to Akademi Internasional de
headquarters in Esperanto. Zamenhof’s birthday is celebrated as Lingu Universal in 1898. There are still speakers of Volapük, and
Esperanto Day or Esperanto-Tago. Vükiped is the community’s version of Wikipedia.
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Named Langue Musicale Universelle by its creator Jean François published in 1951. Alice Vanderbilt Morris was the primary
Sudre (1787-1862), Solresol was the rst conlang to be seriously founder and funder of the project, which was headed by Alexander
proposed as a universal language. The basis of the language was Gode and William E. Collinson. She hired some young, but some
the musical scale, and Sudre hoped this would facilitate easy of them very prominent, linguists, including the French linguist
learning by persons with diverse cultural backgrounds or even André Martinet, who was one of the greatest French linguists of
physical handicaps. Sudre’s major work outlining the structure the 20th century, to make a language scientically. Interlingua,
of the language was published posthumously in 1866. A unique which was sometimes referred to as “Standard Average European”,
feature of Solresol is that every word is a combination of only seven is promoted as an international auxiliary language. It borrows
syllables, but those seven syllables can be represented as musical heavily from the grammar and vocabulary of the existing Romance
notes, spoken syllables (do, re, mi, etc.), colors (do=red, re=orange, languages. The designers of Interlingua were mostly concerned
etc.), numbers, hand gestures, or symbols. Two-note combinations about words; they apparently wanted to make a common European
were used for grammatical words: si – yes, dore – I; domi – you; language, so they took the seven major European languages as the
common words used three-note combinations: doresol – month; basis. The result of that was the language that looks very much
doredo – time; semantic opposites were expressed by reversing like Latin – it’s basically a kind of simplied Latin. Anyone who
the order of syllables: misol – good vs. solmi – evil; four note speaks a Romance language such as Italian or French should be
combinations were divided into different semantic classes: for able to understand a text written in Interlingua without any special
example, the note ‘la’ appeared in words dealing with nance and instruction or prior knowledge of the language. It is one of the
commerce. Solresol could be played, whistled, or sung, as well as most widely used constructed languages but has very few speakers
spoken. But it had the defect of being monotonous since it was compared to Esperanto.
composed entirely of eight syllables. In addition, it was easy to Uropi (from “Europe”) is a relatively new constructed language
mix up the rules for combining words (misol/solmi). Solresol fell developed in the 1990s by Joël Landais, a French English teacher.
out of favour in the early 1900s but has attracted fans even up to The concept is that anyone speaking a natural European language
the present day. would already now a large number of root words and grammatical
Latino sin Flexione (or “Latin without inections”), principles, so as to be able to easily learn this common language.
Interlingua de Academia pro Interlingua (IL de ApI) or Peano’s Various paper zines on constructed languages were published
Interlingua (abbreviated as IL), is an international auxiliary from the 1970s through the 1990s, such as Glossopoeic Quarterly,
language compiled by the Academia pro Interlingua under Taboo Jadoo, and The Journal of Planned Languages. The Conlang
chairmanship of the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano Mailing List was founded in 1991, and later split off an AUXLANG
(1858–1932) in 1887-1914. The language uses the Latin mailing list dedicated to international auxiliary languages.
vocabulary but simplies the grammar by removing all of the A constructed language can have native speakers if young
declensions and cases. For example, in Latin, the phrase “Art children learn it from parents who speak it uently. According
imitates nature” is written as “Ars imitatio naturae est”; but to Ethnologue, there are 200–2000 people who speak Esperanto
in Latino sine exione, the same phrase is “Arte imita natura” as a rst language. A member of the Klingon Language Institute,
(which in terms of sentence structure is identical to English, just d’Armond Speers, attempted to raise his son as a native (bilingual
using Latin words). However, the language has been criticised with English) Klingon speaker.
as having too few grammatical rules, which sometimes makes it
difcult to understand exactly what is being said. 5. Logical and philosophical languages
Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (like Among the well-known logical languages there is Lojban,
Esperanto) that began development in 1924 owing to the which began its development in 1987 owing to the Logical Language
International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and was Group. Derived from the much older Loglan, it is specically
120 121
designed to be culturally neutral, logic-based, grammatically 6. Fictional languages
unambiguous, and easily learned. The lately invented articial languages do not simplify the
Formal languages are tools in the eld of mathematical logic international language picture, but rather add yet another dollop
and computer science where meaning (semantics) and grammar of linguistic diversity to the picture. The earliest was Francis
(syntax) are very precisely dened. Computer languages Godwin’s (1634) History of the Man on the Moon, in which the
are formal languages used by humans to communicate with author invented a language called Lunarian. Lunarian was an a
computers or for communication among computing devices. priori language patterned after Chinese (or so the author thought).
Programming languages and markup languages are the subtypes. Godwin’s book is considered the rst work of science ction.
Robot Interaction Language (2010) is a spoken language that is More recently other authors have created elaborate languages for
optimised for communication between machines and humans. The imaginary peoples, which function more like real languages, with
major goals of ROILA are that it should be easily learnable by the phonology, morphology, and grammar.
human user, and optimised for efcient recognition by computer In the early rst decade of the 21st century, it had become
speech recognition algorithms. common for science-ction and fantasy works set in other worlds
Philosophical languages. John Quijada (b. 1959) was studying to feature constructed languages, or more commonly, an extremely
linguistics at university when the grammar of non-Indo-European limited but dened vocabulary that suggests the existence of a
languages urged him into constructing a language that would complete language. Constructed languages are a regular part of
“combine the best and most efcient features” of the world’s the genres, appearing in Star Wars, Star Trek, Lord of the Rings,
languages into one. Over time, this language evolved into a Stargate SG-1, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, Game of Thrones, Avatar,
philosophical language that attempts to convey complex levels and Dune. A Princess of Mars (1912) by Edgar Rice Burroughs was
of cognition, at the same time being as concise as possible in the possibly the rst ction of the 20th century to feature a constructed
physical length of sentences. It is inuenced by the writings of the language. J. R. R. Tolkien developed a family of related ctional
cognitive linguists such as G. Lakoff, L. Talmy, R. Langacker, and languages and discussed artistic languages publicly, giving a
G. Fauconnier. In 2004, Ithkuil was introduced to the world via the lecture entitled “A Secret Vice” in 1931 at a congress. (Orwell’s
Internet. This language is so complex that it proves to be too difcult Newspeak is considered a satire of an IAL rather than an artistic
for most people, except for trained linguists, to learn. As such it language proper.)
represents a radical departure from the ideals of Esperanto and When J. R. R. Tolkien wrote his books about Middle Earth, he
other universal languages aimed at universality and accessibility. A created a detailed background history and language for each of
new variant of the language, Ilaksh, was introduced in 2007 for the the races of Elves, and other creatures inhabiting Middle Earth.
benet of the fans seeking easier pronunciation. At present, John is Tolkien has the distinction of having created over 20 constructed
working on expanding the Ithkuil/Ilaksh lexicon. languages, the greatest number of languages ever created by one
Toki Pona is a constructed language rst published as draft individual. Though meant as works of fantasy and imagination,
on the web in 2001 and then as a complete book and e-book Toki these articial languages have taken on an unexpected life and are
Pona: The Language of Good in 2014. It was designed by translator today spoken by several acionados of the Tolkien universe.
and linguist Sonja Lang of Toronto. Toki Pona is a minimal John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973) based his Quenya
language; like a pidgin, it focuses on simple concepts and elements primarily on Finnish, therefore, Quenya has ten cases with their
that are relatively universal among cultures. Toki Pona is aimed respective sufxes (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Possessive,
at expressing maximal meaning with minimal complexity. The Dative, Locative, Ablative, Allative, Instrumental, and Respective).
language has 14 phonemes and approximately 120 root words. It Tolkien’s inspiration for Sindarin was Welsh, and his language
is not designed as an international auxiliary language but is instead displays the characteristic consonant mutations of that language.
inspired by Taoist philosophy, among other things. The word “mutations” refers to changes in letters when they come
122 123
before or after certain other letters. For example, soft mutation took the sounds of those words as a starting point and created the
turns [p], [t], [k] into [b], [d], [g]; original [b] and [d] turn into language known today as Klingon. This language contains uvular
[v] and [dh], and original [g] disappears. Nasal mutation turns [b], and retroex consonants, a voiceless [l], and other decidedly non-
[d], [g] produces [mb], [nd], [ng]. This is only a sampling of the European sounds. After the lm, Klingon took on a life of its
mutations used in Sindarin. own. M. Okrand wrote three books about the language (including
When Peter Jackson decided to include dialogue in Tolkien’s the essential Klingon Dictionary), recorded language learning
languages in his movie version of The Lord of the Rings, David Salo audiotapes, and worked on a CD-ROM game related to learning
was the one chosen to create song lyrics, dialogue and inscriptions Klingon. He also shows up from time to time at the Klingon
in Quenya, Sindarin, Khuzdul, the Black Speech of Mordor, and Language Institute’s annual qep’a’.
others. After his work on the lm, D. Salo would go on to write Most commonly, Klingon is written using the English alphabet,
A Gateway To Sindarin: A Grammar of an Elvish Language from although a “native” form of writing known as pIqaD does exist.
J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings, the best introduction to that Many letters of the Klingon alphabet are also pronounced as in
language currently in print. English, but there are some notable exceptions. Being connected
Dr Suzette Haden Elgin has had a distinguished career as with the Star Trek, Klingon is probably the best known conlang
a writer, artist, linguist, publisher of the Linguistics & Science used in any television series or movie franchise. Founded in 1992
Fiction newsletter, and founder of the Science Fiction Poetry by Dr Lawrence M. Schoen, The Klingon Language Institute’s
Association. In 1980, she rst came to widespread attention with mission is to bring together individuals interested in the study of the
her book The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense. Elgin’s place in the Klingon language and culture and to provide a forum for discussion
conlanger’s pantheon, however, was assured with the creation of and the exchange of ideas. KLI’s motto is “qo’mey poSmoH Hol”
Láadan, appearing in her Native Tongue Trilogy: Native Tongue, (“Language Opens Worlds”). Since 1992, the KLI has grown to be
The Judas Rose, and Earthsong. Láadan is a language created by an international organisation with members in thirty countries. The
women for women. The novel is set in a future where women have Institute also publishes a scholarly journal (HolQeD), sponsors a
been subjugated to serve only as linguists for male-dominated Klingon language course and an annual conference (qep’a’), and
companies dealing with various alien races. However, being has been instrumental in translating Shakespearean plays into
linguists, the women begin to create a language to more accurately Klingon.
reect their thoughts, feelings, and desires and to free them from a In addition to Vulcan and Klingon, M. Okrand also created
male-dominated, aggressive way of expressing themselves. the Atlantean language for the 2001 Disney animated feature the
Klingon is formed from the stuff of real languages, just small Atlantis: The Lost Empire. Atlantean is based, in part, on Indo-
enough that you can know every word, the entire canon, but it is European roots to give it an ancient quality.
also exible enough to lend itself to the challenge of translation. Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange is a masterpiece
Klingon speakers are engaging in intellectually stimulating of conlang ction. Burgess constructed the teen “slanguage”
language play. When Harve Bennett, Executive Director of the of Nadsat using a brilliant combination of Russian, Cockney
Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, needed a linguist to create some English, and other languages. The reader learns Nadsat as the story
dialogue in Vulcan, Marc Okrand was recruited for the job. Those progresses, allowing the violent world of Alex and his droogs to
four lines in Vulcan were to be just the beginning. Two years later, unfold, literally, in their own words.
H. Bennett was working on the Star Trek III: The Search for Spock The Dothraki language was created by David J. Peterson for
and called upon Okrand’s expertise again. The assignment this time the Game of Thrones. D. J. Peterson extrapolated a morphological
was to create a language for the alien warrior race of Klingons. system: for example, in the books, we see dothraki for the people
James Doohan, who played Star Trek’s Scotty, had actually coined (plural), Vaes Dothrak for the Dothraki city, and dothrae meaning
a few words of Klingon for the rst Star Trek movie. Marc Okrand “rides”, which suggests that /-k/, /-i/ and /-e/ are somehow involved
124 125
in the paradigm for the stem dothra-. D. J. Peterson managed who do must work hard at doing so. Third, a person’s native
to build a fairly stable morphology (paradigms and derivational language is part of their identity and cultural heritage, something
morphology, in particular) and then created the vocabulary. not so willingly given up. Thus, it is unlikely that an articial
Fictional and experimental languages can also be naturalistic, language, with no cultural prestige would come to replace living,
in the sense that they are meant to sound natural and, if derived natural languages. Fourth, even if an articial language were to be
a posteriori, they try to follow natural rules of phonological, adopted as a world language, each nation would in time develop
lexical and grammatical change. In creating languages for local dialects based on interference from their own native tongues;
art you might need some kind of linguistic knowledge. If we these would eventually begin to diverge into separate languages,
make a language for a warrior people, it has to sound warrior- just as English- and French-based creoles have in many parts of
like. What we know from linguistics is that people around the the world.
world nd sounds which you make in the front of your mouth Therefore, in practical terms, arti cial language projects
more beautiful: [je], [pje], [kje], whereas [gha], [ra], [wra] are have really been unsuccessful. Few people today believe that
supposed to be ugly. Thus, if you want to make a language of the world will one day adopt such a language as the chief means
the elves, you want to have many sounds like [chje], [pje], of international communication. Instead of an articial language
[kje], and if you want to make a language of warriors, you coming to be used as an international lingua franca, the world
would need many [wra], [ra], [gra]. People might just feel that community seems to be moving closer to the use of several
without knowing it explicitly. There is a book called The Art Of widely spoken natural languages as lingua francas in various
Language Invention by an American linguist David J. Peterson, parts of the world. For example, Mandarin Chinese has over a
who created the languages for the Game of Thrones series. It is billion speakers; Hindi has nearly as many; next come English,
actually an introduction to linguistics from the point of view of Spanish, Russian, and Portuguese. These languages plus French,
creating a language. German, Japanese and Arabic can be used to communicate
with a large majority of the world’s inhabitants. Today English
7. The problems of constructed languages. The prospects comes closest to being a worldwide international language:
of conlanging more people speak English as a second language than any other
In terms of practical usage, a priori languages have several language. Chinese and Hindi are spoken predominantly in South
problems. The main problem is that the natural boundaries between and East Asia.
concepts, which were supposed to be determined by science While most constructed languages have been created by a single
or philosophy, turned out to be elusive; the boundaries between person, a few are the results of group collaborations. Examples are
concepts agreed upon for the articial language turned out to be Interlingua, which was developed by the International Auxiliary
no less arbitrary than those in conventional languages. Secondly, Language Association, and Lojban, which was developed by
an a priori language required a prodigious memory for symbols. a breakaway group of Loglanists. Group collaboration has
Learning the several thousand symbols needed for such a scheme apparently become more common in recent years, as constructed
is a daunting task which few attempted and even fewer succeeded language designers have started using Internet tools to coordinate
in. design efforts. In the realm of conlangs, the Internet has provided
Problems with a posteriori articial languages include the an unsurpassed opportunity for articial languages to ourish.
following. First, articial languages like Esperanto are not really Entire web sites and forums dedicated to Esperanto, Klingon, and
linguistically neutral media of communication since they derive thousands of other personal and international languages are now
basically from one of the major language families, usually Indo- commonplace online. Conlanging transcends national boundaries
European. Second, considerable effort still must go into learning and enjoys a global community of enthusiasts.
them; many adults don’t learn a second language at all, and those
126 127
Questions for self-control ПЛАНЫ СЕМИНАРСКИХ ЗАНЯТИЙ
1. Give the denition of the ‘constructed language’.
2. What are the purposes of language constructing? SEMINAR 1
3. Specify and dene other names for constructed languages. LINGUISTICS AS A SCIENCE.
Supply your examples. THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS
4. What were the rst attempts to construct new languages?
5. What is the meaning of the name ‘Volapük’? Who constructed 1. Linguistics as a science; the history of linguistics.
Volapük? 2. Theoretical linguistics as a system of linguistic disciplines and
6. Who is the founder of Esperanto? Explain the language name. areas.
What do you know about Esperanto? 3. Applied linguistics: its tasks and areas of use.
7. Which was rst designed and which became more popular – 4. The connection of linguistics with the humanities and natural
Volapük or Esperanto? sciences.
8. What is the rst known collaborative endeavour in language
construction? Practical part
9. What is the distinction between a priori and a posteriori 1. Identify and explain the meanings of the following
languages? What classes of constructed languages belong to phrases. Classify the examples into: A. metonymic and
each type? Supply your examples. B. metaphoric.
10. What problems are connected with a priori and a posteriori He writes with a ne hand; the apple of the eye; she works for a
languages? newspaper; the temple of the head; he is a man of cloth; books are
11. What promotes collaborative language construction nowadays? to be tasted, swallowed, chewed, and digested; the pen is mightier
12. Name the most famous organisations and journals dedicated to than the sword; the head of the department; they remained loyal
language construction? to the crown; the key to the test; the House was called to order; to
stand glued to the spot; dying breath; the smell of the hell; the arm
of the chair; the time was bleeding; give me your hand around the
house; the root of the word; to stumble through the text; all hands
on deck.

2. Match the words with the languages and denitions.


1. A wear thing, in Japanese
A. sake B. kimono
C. hara-kiri D. samurai
2. A children’s garden, in German
A. a crèche B. a day nursery
C. kindergarten D. day-care
3. A keepsake, remembrance, in French
A. memento B. memorandum
C. souvenir D. token
4. Leisure, in Greek
A. symposium B. school
C. pastime D. sport
128 129
5. To go about in a circle, in Latin 5. “Joey La Guardia works for the Organization?” “He’s one of
A. orbit B. surround Michael Moretti’s enforcers.” (Sheldon. Rage…)
C. seek D. search A. en- + [(force +-er) + -s]
6. The smallest Venetian coin, in Italian B. [en- + (force +-er)] + -s
A. centesimo B. gazette C. [(en- + force) + -er] + -s
C. magazine D. centime D. en- + [force+ (-er + -s)]
7. Management of a household, in Greek 6. Thus it is that the manner in which you utter words, write
A. ecosphere B. ecocide words, and receive words throughout your life determines
C. economy D. ecology how effectively and resourcefully you carry on the business of
8. The nomad race, thought to have come from Egypt, in English being a member of the human race. (Lederer. The Miracle…)
A. gypsy B. Bedouin A. [(re- + source) + -ful] + -ly
C. arab D. romany B. [re- + (source + -ful)] + -ly
9. A belt, girdle, in Greek C. re- + [source + (-ful + -ly)]
A. area B. zone D. re- + [(source + -ful) + -ly]
C. circle D. equator 7. Dore Schary … has agreed to produce on the Capitol Steps a
10. Foot of a crane, in Old French reenactment of Lincoln’s second inauguration. (Barnhart)
A. pedicure B. pedestal A. re- + [en- + (act + -ment)]
C. pedigree D. peduncle B. re- + [(en- + act) + -ment]
C. [(re- + en-) + act] + -ment
3. Identify the correct variant of IC analysis. D. [re- + (en- + act)] + -ment
1. There was an injustice there and it rankled her. (Sheldon. 8. … and went on uninterruptedly cutting up her food. (Francis.
Rage…) Dead…)
A. in-+ (just + -ice) A. un- + {inter- + [(rupt + -ed) + -ly]}
B. (in-+just) +-ice B. {[un- + (inter- + rupt)] + -ed} + -ly
2. … but once in a while an overzealous tin hotdog, a young C. {un- + [(inter- + rupt) + -ed]} + -ly
detective, would set up a gypsy – or illegal – tap, hoping to D. {un- + [inter- + (rupt + -ed)]} + -ly
pick up information. (Sheldon. Rage…) 9. President Clinton’s approach to expanding coverage is
A. (over + zeal) + -ous uncharacteristically straightforward… (Newsweek)
B. over + (zeal + -ous) A. un- + |{[(character + -ist) + -ic] + -al} + -ly|
3. He nodded, tight-lipped. (Sheldon. Rage…) B. |un- + {[character + (-ist + -ic)] + -al}| + -ly
A. (tight + lip) + -ed C. un- + |{[character + (-ist + -ic)] + -al} + -ly|
B. tight + (lip + -ed) D. un- + |{character + [(-ist + -ic) + -al]} + -ly|
4. Whether you like it or not, a campaign needs salesmanship. 10. Incomprehensibility is the reader’s fault … the writer’s
(Sheldon. Rage…) reasoning … cannot be responsible. (Barnhart)
A. {(sale + -s) + [man + -ship]} A. |in- + {[(com- +pre-) + hens] + -ibil}| + -ity
B. [(sale + -s) + man] + -ship B. in- + |{com- + [(pre- + hens) +- ibil]} + -ity|
C. sale + [-s + (man + -ship)] C. |in- + {com- + [pre- + (hens + -ibil)]}| + -ity
D. [sale + (-s + man)] + -ship D. |in- + {com- + [(pre- + hens) + -ibil]}| + -ity

130 131
4. Dene the meanings of the following paronyms (Suggest Cleveland Cornwall Essex Old Spot
corresponding word combinations to illustrate the meanings). Prince of Day Gloucester United
Career – carrier, cause – course, courage – carriage, cost – Duke of Pie Sussex Wonder
coast, human – humane, major – mayor, personal – personnel, Derby Pig Manchester Speckled
sergeant – surgeon, suit – suite, very – vary, access – excess, Hampshire Broads Yorkshire Avon
campaign – company, politics – policies, economical – economic, Worcester Conurbation Sheriff of Wales
manifesto – manifest, logic – logistics, popular – populous,
Lancashire Hotpot Buckingham Cord
conscious – conscientious, canal – channel, collar – colour, corps –
Leicester Sauce Stradford-on- Nottingham
corpse, cost – coast, lay – lie, ellipse – eclipse, antidote – anecdote.
Merseyside Sheep Bedford Palace
Norfolk Square Devonshire pudding
SEMINAR 2
COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE 3. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below choosing the names
AND WORLDVIEW. of the six towns’ inhabitants from the lists below.
LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERCULTURAL Aberdeen Birmingham Bristol
COMMUNICATION A. an Aberdinee A. Brummie A. Bristoler
B. an Aberdonian B. Birmese B. Bristolian
1. The history of cognitive linguistics. C. an Aberdeener C. Burmenite C. Bristolee
2. Cognitive linguistics: its subject, objectives, and areas of study. Glasgow Liverpool Manchester
3. The notions of ‘concept’ and ‘worldview’ in linguistics. A. Glaswegian A. Liverpooler A. Manchesterian
4. The conceptual world picture and the lingual world picture. B. Glasgower B. Liverpudlian B. Manchesterite
5. National worldviews and intercultural communication. C. Glascunian C. Liverpoolian C. Muncunian
6. Representation of interdependence of language and worldview
in ction. 1. Manchester United and Manchester City are both … football
teams.
Practical part 2. The Beatles are the most famous … rock group.
1. Give the corresponding neutral words to nominate the 3. Though Celtic and Glasgow Rangers are both … football
same as the following euphemisms. Trace whether all the teams, their fans are separated because of religious differences.
euphemisms have euphemistic equivalents in Russian. 4. … like their city, where there are many beautiful houses built
Correctional facility, departed, differently-abled, vertically- of Aberdeen granite.
challenged, ethnic cleansing, collateral damage, letting someone 5. … are proud of their city, Birmingham, the second largest one
go, pregnancy termination, on the streets, adult beverages, au in Britain.
natural, big-boned, economical with the truth, powder one’s nose, 6. … pop groups, like Massive Attack, became famous due to
between jobs, domestic engineer, sanitation engineer. their style of music, trip-hop, which is sometimes called the
“Bristol sound”.
2. Match parts A and B to form units of specic national
lexicon. Explain their meanings. 4. Translate the following verbal zoonymic expressions and
A B A B classify them into the ones having: A. the same, B. different
Berkshire Bay Dorset Miners’ Gala animalistic, and C. totally different components across the
Cheshire Cat Durham Blue languages.
132 133
Decide which of them have A. positive, B. negative, and Hypothesis 1: people better memorise objects when they hear their
C. neutral meanings. names. Hypothesis 2: people better memorise objects when they
(1) to kill two birds with one stone, (2) to count one’s chickens see them. Null hypothesis: people memorise objects at equal rates
before they are hatched, (3) to cook someone’s goose, (4) to kill the regardless of whether they see them of hear their names. Prove or
goose that lays golden eggs, (5) to hawk around, (6) to rise with the disprove the above hypotheses.
lark, (7) to talk turkey, (8) to buffalo smb. into compliance, (9) to Experiment 2. Run an experiment separately on two groups.
bull one’s way, (10) to take the bull by the horns, (11) to make cow In both cases tell them to write down as many words beginning
eyes, (12) to copycat, (13) to lead a cat and dog life, (14) to let with, say, “m” as they can think of in two minutes (you can make
the cat out of the bag, (15) to go to the dogs, (16) to let sleeping this harder by specifying that they must be nouns and/or more
dogs lie, (17) to have a dog’s life, (18) to die a dog’s death, (19) to than three letters long). Then go through the same procedure again
change horses in the midstream, (20) to og a dead horse, (21) to (using a different letter), but before they start, tell one group that
please the pigs, (22) to pull a rabbit out of one’s hat, (23) to cast an average score on this test is 10 words, and tell the other group
sheep’s eyes, (24) to shed crocodile tears, (25) to set a fox to keep that it is 35 words. Hypothesis 1: when people feel pressured into
the geese, (26) to make a monkey out of smb, (27) can the leopard attaining high standards they will perform less well. Hypothesis 2:
change his spots? (28) smell a rat, (29) to have rats in the attic, when people feel pressured into attaining high standards they will
(30) to have butteries in one’s stomach, (31) to stir up a nest of perform better. Null hypothesis: putting pressure onto people does
hornets, (32) to sh in big waters, (33) a queer sh, (34) to sh in not signicantly reduce or increase their ability to access items in
troubled waters. the lexicon.

2. Answer the following questions to the best of your ability,


SEMINAR 3 using external sources if needed.
PSYCHOLINGUISTICS 1. You are a new theorist in the eld of psycholinguistics and
are trying to determine which perspective you are willing to take on
1. Psycholinguistics as an interdisciplinary study: its subject and how individuals acquire language. Being the great researcher that
objectives. you are, you want your opinions to be based on evidence-based
2. The history and essence of the Soviet and Russian knowledge. Analyse and pick a position based on new evidence
psycholinguistics. The notion of the ‘world image’. from within the eld of linguistics defending why a certain
3. Mechanisms of language comprehension. perspective or theory better explains language acquisition. Make
3.1. Spoken word recognition. sure to contrast your arguments against other theories or models
3.2. Reading and listening comprehension: their common and and clearly support why other theorists should accept your view.
specic features. If you want to be really ambitious you can even create your own
3.3. The mental lexicon. theory or model to endorse your ideas, but make sure that you have
4. Speech production. evidence backing why you think your theory could hold up against
5. Language acquisition and the related theories. any other.
6. Methods of investigation in psycholinguistics. 2. Recently someone you know gave birth to a baby, and with
your new found psycholinguistics knowledge you realise that you
Practical part may have some advice to help with the baby’s language acquisition
1. Study the hypotheses below and carry out experiments. when the time comes. Using what you know about the theories
Experiment 1. What is easier to memorise – objects or words? and models of language acquisition, what tips or guidance could
Does the process of memorising an object involve naming it? you give this person to help her baby with mastering a language?
134 135
Specically describe with examples if there are certain aspects of 3. Language and gender.
the theories or models of language acquisition that could support 3.1. The studies of language and gender relationship.
the infant in developing language skills. 3.2. Speech practices associated with gender.
3.3. Women’s language and speech throughout history and
3. Read carefully the humorous essay about English. Explain geography.
the semantics and motivation (if any) of the words and word 3.4. Gender paradox in the language use.
combinations in italics. Translate them into Russian. Compare
the word semantics through the languages. Practical part
Let’s face it – English is a crazy language. There is no egg in 1. Choose the correct answer.
eggplant nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. 1. Dialectal variation refers to variation in linguistic forms
English mufns weren’t invented in England or French fries in associated primarily with which of the following phenomena?
France. Sweetmeats are candies while sweetbreads, which aren’t A. social groups
sweet, are meat. We take English for granted. But if we explore its B. illiterate speakers
paradoxes, we nd that quicksand can work slowly, boxing rings C. geographical regions
are square and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig. D. rural regions
Doesn’t it seem crazy that you can make amends but not one E. different individuals
amend? If you have a bunch of odds and ends and get rid of all but 2. Which of the following best describes the term ‘isogloss’?
one of them, what do you call it? Sometimes I think all the English A. boundary of a region in which a single dialect is spoken
speakers should be committed to an asylum for they are verbally B. boundary of a region where a particular feature of a language
insane. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a is found
recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship? How can overlook C. boundary of region where a single language is spoken
and oversee be opposites? How can the weather be hot as hell one D. none of the previous
day and cold as hell another? 3. Dialectal variation can be in any aspect of a language – in
You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, or
your house can burn up as it burns down, in which you ll in a lexicon.
form by lling it out and in which an alarm clock goes off by going A. true
on. English was invented by people, not computers, and it reects B. false
the creativity of the human race (which, of course, isn’t a race at 4. Which of the following characteristics is not likely to correlate
all). That is why, when the stars are out, they are visible, but when with systematic variation in a language?
the lights are out, they are invisible. And why, when I wind up my A. age
watch, I start it, but when I wind up this essay, I end it? B. religion
C. sex
D. ethnicity
SEMINAR 4 E. handedness
SOCIOLINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE AND GENDER 5. Which of the following varieties is not a register?
A. British English
1. Denition and objectives of sociolinguistics. The history of B. medical English
sociolinguistics. C. an anti-language
2. Application of sociolinguistics. Fundamental concepts in D. legalese
sociolinguistic studies. E. scientic Danish
136 137
6. The choice of language by speakers in a bilingual community 14. The … of words seen as offensive, obscene or disturbing is
is not normally completely random. known as euphemism.
A. true B. false A. none of these
7. Code switching refers to which of the following phenomena? B. excessive use
A. switching from written to spoken codes C. playful use
B. changing languages in different domains D. semantics
C. changing languages within a single discourse 15. The replacement of forms such as ‘chairman’ by ‘chair(person)’
8. Choice of which of the following language varieties is most and ‘reman’ by ‘re ghter’ involves the elimination of …
likely to be used to indicate solidarity among members of the forms.
community? A. none of these
A. a global language like English B. generic neuter
B. a national language C. genitive
C. a regional language or dialect D. generic feminine
D. a local language or language variety 16. In sociolinguistics, the term … denotes any prohibition on the
9. Code-switching is a bad habit that should be remedied via use of particular lexical items.
education and training. A. totem
A. true B. false B. toto
10. Which of the following is not a cause of language shift? C. none of these
A. inadequacies in the grammar or lexicon of one of the D. taboo
languages 17. ‘Would you mind opening the window?’ This sentence contains
B. physical separation of the speakers a ….
C. attitudes to the languages in use in the community A. statement of purpose
D. symbolic value associated with the languages B. politeness formula
11. Use of a second-person plural pronoun for a single addressee is C. prestige formula
in many languages associated with which of the following? 18. The co-existence of languages in a fairly stable relationship is
A. intimacy known as ….
B. respectfulness A. none of these
C. disrespect B. language stagnation
D. secret varieties or anti-languages C. language shift
E. deception or lying 19. The substitution of words seen as offensive, obscene or
12. Sociolects are usually thought of in terms of the … of the disturbing is known as ….
speakers. A. euphemism
A. origins B. feminism
B. socialbility C. euphoria
C. socio-economic status 20. A pioneering sociolinguist is ….
13. A register is a bit of talk that is appropriate in particular …. A. Edward Sapir
A. speech situations B. Ferdinand de Saussure
B. societies C. William Labov
C. conditions D. Noam Chomsky
E. Charles Hockett
138 139
2. Decide whether each of the statements is true or false. 3. The notion of discourse. Discourse structure and taxonomy of
Explain your choice. discourses.
1. What is considered standard in the language is associated 4. Discourse analysis and the relevant concepts.
with prestige, a non-linguistic factor.
2. People tend to use more vernacular forms in communication Practical part
with those they don’t know well, and more standard forms – with 1. Study the problem and do the following assignment.
their friends. What we say when we want to get something done provides
3. In general, men tend to use more standard language forms interesting paradigms, in which a decreasing scale of directness
than women. may reect increasing levels of politeness, For example, all of the
following could be used as a request for a book: ‘Give me that
3. Answer the questions and do the following assignments. please?’; ‘Could I have that please?’; ‘Would you mind passing
1. What ‘speech communities’ or ‘networks’ do you nd at your me that book?’; ‘I haven’t seen that book’; ‘That book looks
university, workplace, or place of residence? Select one to describe interesting.’
in detail. Examine data from, for example, episodes of a soap opera, to
2. Think about how you could divide the community into evaluate the relationships between the characters, as independently
‘linguistically similar’ subgroups, based on social relations among demonstrated by their behaviour and the content of their utterances
the members. What criteria would you use? (for example, Do two people who dislike each other use more
3. You want to nd out whether or not males are more likely direct framings? Do two people of unequal status contrast in their
than females to try to solve problems rather than sympathise with politeness markers when talking to each other?)
someone’s problem, or to nd out if males are more competitive
in their speech than females. How would you set up a study to 2. Identify the metaphors, epithets and similes in the given
investigate any such problems? What pitfalls would your anticipate passage and replace them with more literal expressions.
and what would you do to avoid them? Evaluate the expressiveness of the text with and without the
4. Examine how girls and boys are portrayed in children’s stylistic devices.
books. Preferably select books for a certain age group and make A breeze blew through the room, blew curtains in at one end and
a table of who does the talking in each, what kind of talking each out the other like pale ags, twisting them up toward the frosted
does (e.g., advising, complaining, informing, comforting, or wedding-cake of the ceiling, and then rippled over the wine-colored
rebelling). rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.
5. Carefully observe and record the number of interruptions in The only completely stationary object in the room was an
male–male, female–female and male–female dyads. What tactics enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as
does each gender apply to deal with interruptions? Are there strong though upon an anchored balloon. They were both in white, and
gender differences? Do your ndings support points that were read their dresses were rippling and uttering as if they had just been
or discussed in class? blown back in after a short ight around the house. I must have
stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the
curtains and the groan of a picture on the wall. Then there was a
SEMINAR 5 boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind
PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS died out about the room, and the curtains and the rugs and the two
young women ballooned slowly to the oor.
1. An overview of the notion of pragmatics. (F. S. Fitzgerald. The Great Gatsby)
2. Constitutive factors of a speech event and their functions.
140 141
3. Compare newspaper accounts of the events. Look for B. The second passage because it is a rsthand account of what
different ways in which the same story can be told so that a it is like to visit the park.
different emphasis is achieved. Answer the follow-up questions. C. The rst passage because it explains the interesting history
Yosemite: A National Treasure of the park.
Yosemite is the jewel of our national park system. People D. The second passage because it talks about all of the different
have been attracted to its amazing cliffs, lush forests, and mighty things there are to do in the park.
waterfalls since as early as the 1850s. Even then, people knew that 2. What kind of information does the rst passage provide
Yosemite was something worth saving. In 1864, Abraham Lincoln that the second passage leaves out? Select the correct
signed a bill preventing developers from building in the Yosemite answer.
Valley. In 1903, John Muir took President Roosevelt camping at A. Information about how much it costs to visit the park.
Yosemite to convince him to make it a national park. Every year, B. Information about how to get to the park.
over 3.7 million people visit the park. Most just come for the day to C. Information about where to park your car when you get to
see the postcard views overlooking Yosemite valley. Many others the park.
stay longer, and enjoy all the hiking, climbing and camping the park D. Information about the history of the park.
has to offer. Overnight options include camping in tents, cabins, or 3. What kind of information does the second passage provide
RVs. You can even book a room at the world-famous Ahwahnee that the rst passage leaves out? Select the correct answer.
Hotel. Only one thing is certain: once you’ve visited Yosemite you A. Information about the history of the park.
will denitely want to come back. B. Information about how much it costs to visit the park.
Yosemite: A Big Rip-Off C. Information about where to stay when visiting the park.
I took my family to Yosemite last summer, because we had seen D. Information about the different things to do in the park.
all of the “postcard views” and heard so many good things about
it. But there are many things we never hear about Yosemite that I Panthers Lose Championship Game 12-0
think it is important to mention. One thing is how crowded it is. Patterson Elementary School’s miracle kickball season has
Since there aren’t many roads in and out of the park, you should ended with a 12-0 loss to the Monroe Manatees. It was the rst
expect to spend a lot of time stuck in trafc jams. Another you time the Panthers had ever reached the championship game. With
hear about is the huge waterfalls at Yosemite. But you never hear their star pitcher on the mound, it looked like Patterson had a
about the huge parking fees. At over twenty bucks a pop, those good chance of taking home the trophy. But it was not to be. The
snapshots you take had better be good. But they probably won’t Manatees got off to a quick start, scoring six runs in the rst inning,
be, because there’s usually a tour bus blocking the view. People and they never looked back. “I don’t know what happened,” said
go to Yosemite because they want to “experience nature”. But Joey, the Patterson pitcher. “I guess they were just the better team.
it’s pretty much an amusement park without rides. Even the bears They deserve all the credit in the world. Great game guys.” It was
who live there aren’t really “natural”. They have grown so used Monroe’s 12th championship.
to eating campers’ leftovers that they have forgotten how to hunt Joey’s Story: I Just Gave Up 12 Runs in the Kickball
for themselves. So next time you’re thinking about taking a trip to Championship Game
Yosemite, I’d suggest buying a postcard, then going to one of the I had been looking forward to the game all week. Our school
many beautiful, less-crowded state parks in the area. had never made it to the championship game before, and I was
1. Which passage gives a better idea of what it is like to going to be the starting pitcher. Monroe always has a great team.
actually visit the park and why? Select the correct answer. It was going to be a tough game either way. The day before
A. The rst passage because it provides actual facts about how the game I came down with a really bad cold. I had a runny
many people visit the park every year. nose, and I was sneezing and coughing all day. I made sure
142 143
to drink plenty of water like my mom told me. She made me 3. Corpora in translation studies and machine translation.
chicken soup and I went to bed early. When I woke up, I felt Translation memory.
a little better. But I was still in no shape to play kickball. My 4. Computational linguistics and natural language processing.
mom wanted me to stay home, but all the kids on my team were 4.1. Computational linguistics and its approaches.
counting on me. So I lied and told her I was all better. The game 4.2. Natural language processing.
didn’t even feel like it was really happening. I thought I was
having a bad dream. It all went by so fast. Next thing I know we Practical part
had lost 12-0. I don’t think we would have won even if I was 1. Retrieve and analyse corpus data to nd out typical
healthy. The Manatees were just that good. I didn’t tell anyone collocations of adjectives with adverbs.
I was sick after the game because I didn’t want to take anything When writing in English, it is rather important that you do not
away from the other team. Cold or no cold, they deserved to use the same words and expressions over and over again, but that
win. I’m still proud of our guys, though. you have several options to express yourself at your disposal. This
1. Which passage gives a better idea of what happened in the will make your text more reader-friendly, interesting and, above
game and why? Select the correct answer. all, more idiomatic. In the following sentences, nd out which
A. The rst passage does, because it tells the score of the game. other intensifying adverbs besides very can be used with the
B. The second passage does, because it tells how much better italicised adjectives. Consult an electronic corpus freely available
the Manatees were. on the web (e.g., for British English the British National Corpus, or
C. The rst passage does, because it tells how inexperienced the for short: BNC). Find the most frequent collocations for the words
Panthers were in championship games. signicant, religious, and boring to substitute very in the following
D. The second passage does, because it gives rsthand examples.
information about the game. 1. The report was very critical of the railway’s poor safety
2. What information does the rst passage provide that the record.
second passage leaves out? Select the correct answer. 2. This development proved very signicant for the whole
A. The score of the game. town.
B. How many times Patterson had reached the championship 3. His poetry reects the fact that he was a very religious
game. person.
C. How many times Monroe had won the championship. 4. Good thing you didn’t come to the lecture today – it was
D. Who the losing pitcher was. very boring.
Analyse the above articles from the point of view of various
language means (lexical, grammatical, and stylistic) that help 2. Study the concordance for the expression to bear …
the authors achieve the desired pragmatic effect in each case. resemblance. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences (use the
words no, any, a strong, little, a striking).
1. All of this bears … resemblance to the Europe of today.
SEMINAR 6 The contemporary Europe is secular with little serious commitment
CORPUS AND COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS to religion.
2. Queuing up at the polls at election time bears …
1. Corpus linguistics as a scientic study. resemblance to a gathering of a herd.
2. Text corpus and treebank. 3. The medieval conception of rights bears … resemblance to
2.1. Text corpus. modern beliefs.
2.2. Treebank and collocations. 4. Most bear … resemblance to their wild ancestors.
144 145
5. Their stories bear … resemblance. 1. The Foreign Secretary says no options are off the table if
6. No, the GOP of 2013 does not bear … resemblance to the Syria’s ruling regime refuses to seriously engage in an international
party of Ronald Reagan. conference to broker peace in the country.
2. One of the main stumbling blocks to talk with Iran has
3. Find the words that concord with the noun consequence. been the condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment. Now
Fill in the gaps in the following sentences (use the words logical, the Obama administration may take that option off the table, at
long-term, positive, international). least for now.
1. […] for foreign-born workers with high skills and/or 3. The only thing on the table at the moment is whether we
higher incomes. This seems a … consequence of the fact that high pursue the option to purchase this year.
skills are the result of a process of specialisation. 4. It is not, however, brought immediately before either
2. The West itself is witnessing major social and economic House by laying on the table, but is deposited in the Private Bill
change. And as a … consequence of the end of the Cold War […]. Ofce of the House of Commons.
3. […] in advertising, journalism, public relations and so on. 5. There would have been no action and there’d have been a
This is no doubt a … consequence of the rapid expansion of these nice plan on the table.
new professions in Russian business.
4. […] sells at about one-quarter the European price. The main 6. Find the meanings of the set expressions to knock/lick/get
… consequence of this situation has been a shift in cargo ows […]. somebody/something into shape, to be (in) a shambles, to put all
eggs in one basket, to have bigger sh to fry. Supply examples of
4. Match the adjectives, nouns, and verbs so that you might sentences with these set expressions to illustrate their use.
get correct collocations. An example of one such collocation
is boldfaced. Supply examples of sentences with the found 7. Point out an odd element in each line of collocations.
collocations. Translate the found collocations into Russian.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 exaggerate the impotance the the the
drastic implications escape impact signicance indication
nancial conclusion predict suffer the a bad defeat loss
preconceived excuse have consequences back
foregone consequences be underestimate the importance the extent the costs the
feeble idea come up with assessment
noticeable difference change condent increase
E.g. 1. It’s one of those situations where marriage between us long-term future strategy solution sure-re
has always been a foregone conclusion. I’ve known the family
since I was a child. 2. It was not a foregone conclusion that there 8. Study the list of collocates (%) to the noun efforts; name
would be a place available at Cedars since there is a lot. 3. It is the parts of speech they belong to. Supply examples of sentences
equally a foregone conclusion that the reform must come eventually to illustrate the use of these collocations.
successful. 4. Who will win and who will lose these struggles was Collocate % Collocate % Collocate %
considered to be a foregone conclusion. despite 4.95 co-ordinate 6.66 thanks to 6.08
strenuous 8.95 redouble 10.76 concerted 6.28
5. Guess the meanings of the phrases on the table/off the concentrate 5.15 renewed 4.92 hampered 6.02
table from the following examples of sentences. Point out the in spite of 5.12 diplomatic 4.54 undermine 4.81
verbs that are used with these phrases.
146 147
persuade 4.98 mediation 6.85 unsuccessful 4.64 2. Find and correct mistakes in the following sentences.
praised 5.01 curb 5.14 vigorous 4.65 1. Meeting different kinds of people is a very important part
tireless 7.07 directing 5.03 untiring 9.20 of our lifes.
feeble 5.17 intensify 6.12 conserve 5.60 2. There are a lot of examples where the teacher is very
fundraising 5.94 lobbying 5.05 futile 5.45 intelligent, and knows a lot, but he is not able to learn the children
what he knows.
3. In professions like advocate, teacher, doctor, etc., among
SEMINAR 7 others things the computer is a very helpful invention.
SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 4. The police uphold order by their presence in the streets,
but it’s the arrestations and jailing of criminals that really rids the
1. General considerations. society of its unwanted.
2. The consequences of bilingualism on language development. 5. It is said that all the movies and computer games ruin the
3. Approaches to SLA research. child’s fantasy.
4. Code switching and interlanguage as language learning 6. Many people have made great theories on the paper.
strategies. The stages of SLA. 7. Sometimes theoretical people cannot imagine how things
5. Factors that inuence SLA. Polyglottism. will be once they are put in to life.
8. It may say something about the way we perceive ourself.
Practical part 9. One of the differences from “the good old days” who
1. Correct the three mistakes in each sentence by writing the attracts people is that the television is showing the watchers what
correction above the mistake. the generations before the 20th century had to imagine.
1. He through the bawl threw the window. 10. Many critics of the university degree focus their criticism
2. Wee plan too meat you later, Lesley. on wether the knowledge achieved at the universities are too general
3. The be smelled the sent of the beautiful garden our. and in many cases not usefull for the work that most companies can
4. When eye pushed my foot down on the car’s break, I hurt offer.
my heal. 11. Today you will observe more and more conrmity with
5. Has she herd watt the pour people need for the holidays? women. Personal identity and individuality are disappearing.
6. Bill scraped his knee on the course bored two. 12. Being surrounded by other criminals with negative attitude
7. Whose the won who painted this pretty seen? will effect your mentality.
8. The company’s quite personal director seldom waists words. 13. If we want to scare criminals from committing their deeds,
9. Wood yew change your plans if the whether turns nasty? we can explain our brethren and sisthren what would happen if
10. Ken has a write to right what he thinks about war and everybody did what they do.
piece. 14. There has been several researches done on this eld.
11. Their will be a miner change in the way they manufacture 15. Forgery of money and credit cards, embezzlement and
steal. transactions are some examples of crime, which goes under this
12. When you ned it, yews the organization’s ofcial category.
stationary. 16. A child also needs it’s mother more then anything after it’s
13. The morale of the story involves reel pane and sacrice. born.
14. Her ant’s favorite color is blew, and her favorite desert is 17. Millions of people would loose their jobs when the cereal
vanilla ice cream. factories would have to close down.
15. Did his complement about your recent wait loss effect you?
148 149
18. They have to nd out a way to do rehabilitation that works 4. Early experiments in language construction.
and have a positive affect on people. 5. The notion of constructed languages and their classication.
19. How important is television in todays’ people’s lifes? 6. A priori and a posteriori languages.
20. Therefore, it is possible to state that in this aspect opium 7. International auxiliary languages.
and television is comparable. 8. Logical and philosophical languages.
9. Fictional languages.
3. Specify the nature of the words and word combinations in 10. The problems of constructed languages. The prospects of
italics. Translate the following sentences into Russian. conlanging.
1. “That’s what I need,” he said. “Some microsleep. Or better
yet, some serious macrosleep.” (Crichton). 2. In nding peace Practical part
with himself, he had banked the res of his hate for the faceless 1. Use the Online etymology Dictionary and match each
bureaucretins who had done it in the name of national security Russian word with its native English cognate.
or whatever it was. 3. “Oh, the thing’s rustproof, shockproof, 1. Овца
waterproof and antimagnetic,” Savage assured him (Chalker). 4. “I A. ewe B. lamb C. sheep D. ram
told you, I don’t know for sure.” “Well, give me a guesstimate.” 2. Полный
Guesstimate. One of my all-time least favorite words. A Paul A. plenty B. full C. pond D. fool
Harvey word. “There might have been three.” 5. I turned my face 3. Говядина
into the red light of the westering sun (S. King). 6. The police A. beef B. veal C. calf D. cow
ofcer had a ne time with the trafc violator. 7. It had taken him 4. Пламя
just ve years to turn Tech-Electric, a failing electronics rm that A. re B. fever C. ame D. blush
he’d bought for a song in 1979 into a leading manufacturer of 5. Дерево
business and personal computer products (Clancy). 8. Eventually, A. trefoil B. timber C. draw D. tree
Jack had own back to Los Angeles with Thornberg Kinderling in 6. Клёвый
custody – Thornberg Kinderling, just an inoffensive, bespectacled A. clever B. claymore C. cleaver D. clear
farm-insurance salesman from Centralia, wouldn’t say boo to 7. Груда
a goose. 9. I’m usually known as a reserved type, and I’ve been A. gross B. great C. grade D. ground
talking the hind leg off a donkey (Cody). 10. All right. Have it your 8. Полк
own way. It cuts no ice with me (O’Neill). 11. “You see, Mr. Shore, A. polk B. pollack C. polka D. folk
I have my troubles like everyone else.” “Yes,” said Brush, “but you
have what they call a silver lining (Wilder). 2. Use phraseological dictionaries to suggest English
equivalents for the following Russian set expressions. Сomment
on the semantic and stylistic congruence of the cross-language
SEMINAR 8 equivalents.
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF LEXICOGRAPHY. Быть под каблуком, гусь свинье не товарищ, кормить
CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGES байками, метать бисер перед свиньями, мёд-пиво пить, плясать
под чью-л. дудку, рухнуть с дуба, дать от ворот поворот, считать
1. The essence and scope of lexicography. ворон, книжный червь, Млечный путь.
2. The problems of lexicography.
3. The types and features of dictionaries. Dictionaries for natural 3. Work with the vocabulary of the imaginable constructed
language processing. language and decide which word could be translated as suggested.
150 151
1. Gorblur means “fan belt”; pixngorbl means “ceiling fan”; 4. Work with the vocabulary of the imaginable constructed
arthtusl means “tile roof”. Which word could mean “ceiling language and decide which word could have the following
tile”? meaning.
A. gorbltusl B. urgorbl 1. Gemolinea means “fair warning”; gerimitu means “report
C. arthur D. pixnarth card”; gilageri means “weather report”. Which word could
2. Hapllesh means “cloudburst”; srenchoch means pinball; mean “fair weather”?
resbosrench means “ninepin”. Which word could mean “cloud A. gemogila B. gerigeme
nine”? C. gemomitu D. gerimita
A. leshsrench B. ochhapi 2. Slar means “jump”; slary means “jumping”; slarend means
C. haploch D. haplresbo “jumped”. Which word could mean “playing”?
3. Agnoscrenia means “poisonous spider”; delanocrenia means A. clargslarend B. clergy
“poisonous snake”; agnosdeery means “brown spider”. Which C. ellaclarg D. slarmont
word could mean “black widow spider”? 3. Jalkamofti means “happy birthday”; moftihoze means
A. deeryclostagnos B. agnosdelano “birthday party”; mentogunn means “goodness”. Which word
C. agnosvitriblunin D. trymuttiagnos could mean “happiness”?
4. Moolokarn means “blue sky”; wilkospadi means “bicycle A. jalkagunn B. mentohoze
race”; moolowilko means “blue bicycle”. Which word could C. moftihoze D. hozemento
mean “racecar”? 4. Plekapaki means “fruitcake”; pakishillen means “cakewalk”;
A. wilkozwet B. spadiwilko treftalan means “buttercup”. Which word could mean “cupcake”?
C. moolobreil D. spadivolo A. shillenalan B. treftpleka
5. Migenlasan means “cupboard”; lasanpoen means “boardwalk”; C. pakitreft D. alanpaki
cuopdansa means “pullman”. Which word could mean 5. Malgauper means “peach cobbler”; malgaport means “peach
“walkway”? juice”; moggagrop means “apple jelly”. Which word could
A. poenmigen B. cuopeisel mean “apple juice”?
C. lasandansa D. poenforc A. moggaport B. malgaauper
6. Godabim means “kidney stones”; romzbim means “kidney C. gropport D. moggagrop
beans”; romzbako means “wax beans”. Which word could 6. Peslligen means “basketball court”; ligenstrisi means
mean “wax statue”? “courtroom”; oltaganti means “placement test”. Which word
A. godaromz B. lazbim could mean “guest room”?
C. wasibako D. romzpeo A. peslstrisi B. vosefstrisi
7. Granamelke means “big tree”; pinimelke means “little tree”; C. gantipesl D. oltastrisi
melkehoon means “tree house”. Which word could mean “big 7. Mallonpiml means “blue light”; mallonti means “blueberry”;
house”? arpanti means “raspberry”. Which word could mean
A. granahoon B. pinishur “lighthouse”?
C. pinihoon D. melkegrana A. timallon B. pimlarpan
8. Daftafoni means “advisement”; imodafta means “misadvise”; C. mallonarpan D. pimldoken
imolokti means “misconduct”. Which word could mean 8. Briftamint means “militant”; uftonel means “occupied”; uftonalene
“statement”? means “occupation”. Which word could mean “occupant”?
A. kratafoni B. kratadafta A. elbrifta B. uftonamint
C. loktifoni D. daftaimo C. elamint D. briftalene
152 153
СТРУКТУРА И СОДЕРЖАНИЕ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ 5. Тема 5. II Изучение 5 фронтальный
РАБОТЫ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ Прагматика и теоретического опрос на
дискурсивный материала, семинарском
анализ выполнение занятии 5,

Трудоемкость (в часах)
письменных заданий, проверка
подготовка к письменных
устному опросу на заданий (КТ 5)

семестр
Виды Форма контроля семинарском занятии
№ Раздел
самостоятельной самостоятельной 6. Тема 6. II Изучение 4 фронтальный
п/п дисциплины
работы работы Корпусная теоретического опрос на
лингвистика. материала, семинарском
Компьютерная выполнение занятии 6,
лингвистика письменных заданий, проверка
1. Тема 1. Понятия II Изучение 4 фронтальный подготовка к письменных
и основные теоретического опрос на устному опросу на заданий (КТ 6)
направления материала, семинарском семинарском занятии
теоретической выполнение занятии 1, 7. Тема 7. II Изучение 5 фронтальный
и прикладной письменных заданий, проверка Лексикография. теоретического опрос на
лингвистики подготовка к письменных Типы словарей материала, семинарском
устному опросу на заданий (КТ 1) выполнение занятии 8 (КТ 8),
семинарском занятии письменных письменная
2. Тема 2. II Изучение 4 фронтальный заданий, подготовка контрольная
Когнитивная теоретического к письменной работа (КРТМ 2)
опрос на
лингвистика; материала, семинарском контрольной работе
концептуальная выполнение занятии 2, 8. Тема 8. Обучение II Изучение 4 фронтальный
и языковая письменных заданий, проверка иностранному теоретического опрос на
картины мира подготовка к письменных языку как аспект материала, семинарском
устному опросу на заданий (КТ 2) прикладной выполнение занятии 7,
семинарском занятии лингвистики письменных заданий, проверка
3. Тема 3. Психо- II Изучение 5 фронтальный подготовка к письменных
лингвистика теоретического опрос на устному опросу на заданий (КТ 7)
и нейро- материала, семинарском семинарском занятии
лингвистика выполнение занятии 3,
письменных заданий, проверка
подготовка к письменных
устному опросу на заданий (КТ 3)
семинарском занятии
4. Тема 4. Социо- II Изучение 5 фронтальный
лингвистика. теоретического опрос на
Гендерная материала, семинарском
лингвистика выполнение занятии (КТ 4),
письменных заданий, письменная
подготовка к контрольная
устному опросу на работа (КРТМ 1)
семинарском занятии

154 155
INDIVIDUAL WORK 1 over The Times. “Well, Harry,” said the old gentleman, “What
THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LINGUISTICS brings you out so early? I thought you dandies never got up till
two, and were not visible till ve.”
1. Analyse the connotation of the italicised words. Enlarge “Pure family affection, I assure you, Uncle George. I want to
on how they contribute to the characters’ description in the get something out of you.”
rst fragment. “Money, I suppose,” said Lord Fermor, making a wry face.
1. He (Soames) didn’t believe a word of it, on the other hand, “Well, sit down and tell me all about it. Young people, nowadays,
it was a form of insurance which could not safely be neglected, in imagine that money is everything.” (O. Wilde)
case there might be something in it after all. Too fond of her. He 3. “Mother, mother, I am so happy!” whispered the girl,
was like a man uninsured, with his ship at sea. Fleur longing for burying her face in the lap of the faded, tired-looking woman who,
Jon and despair made Soames regret one cannot insure happiness with back turned to the shrill intrusive light, was sitting in the one
from going down. Why couldn’t one put happiness into Local arm-chair that their dingy sitting-room contained. “I am so happy!”
Loans, gild its edges, insure it against going down. (J. Galsworthy) she repeated, “and you must be happy too!”
2. All that we do is done with an eye to something else. Mrs. Vane winced, and put her thin bismuth whitened hands on
(Aristotle) her daughter’s head. “Happy!” she echoed. “I am only happy, Sybil,
3. Man has gone long enough, or even too long, without being when I see you act. You mustn’t think of anything but your acting.
man enough to face the simple truth that the trouble with man is Mr. Isaacs has been very good to us, and we owe him money.” (O.
Man. (J. Thurber) Wilde)
4. Men can starve from a lack of self-realization as much as 4. Once you have been remembering – isn’t this so? – one
they can from a lack of bread. (R. Wright) image springs an-other; they run through your head in all directions,
5. Our failings sometimes bind us to one another as closely as scampering animals ushed from coverts. Memory’s not a reel, not
could virtue itself. (Vauvenargues) a lm you can run backwards and forwards at will: it’s that ash of
startled fur, the slither of silk between the ngers, the duplicated
2. Identify and analyse the overphrasal unity in the following texture of hair or bone. It’s an image blurring, caught on the move:
text fragments. Enlarge on incorporation at different levels. as if in one of my family snapshots, taken before cameras got so
1. It was a shame and bad taste to be an alien, and it is no foolproof that any fool could capture the moment.
use pretending otherwise. There is no way out of it. A criminal I remember this. I am six years old, and I have been ill. After
may improve and become a decent member of society. A foreigner this illness I am returning to school. It is a spring morning, water
cannot improve. Once a foreigner, always a foreigner. There is no gurgling in the gutters, a keen wind. I am still shaky, un-used to
way out for him. He may become British; he can never become going out, and I have to hold tight to my mother’s hand as she leads
English. me through the school gate (H. Mantel).
So it is better to reconcile yourself to the sorrowful reality.
There are some noble English people who might forgive you. There 3. Analyse the means of turn-taking in the dialogues. Enlarge
are some magnanimous souls who realise that it is not your fault, upon the means of cohesion in the following text fragments.
only your misfortune. They will treat you with condescension, 1. This duty done, we relled our glasses, lit our pipes, and
understanding and sympathy. They will invite you to their homes. resumed the discussion upon our state of health. What it was
Just as they keep lap-dogs and other pets, they are quite prepared actually the matter with us, none of us could be sure of; but the
to keep a few foreigners. (J. Mikesh) unanimous opinion was that it – whatever it was – had been brought
2. When Lord Henry entered the room, he found his uncle on by overwork.
sitting in a rough shooting car, smoking a cheroot and grumbling “What we want is rest,” said Harris.
156 157
“Rest and a complete change,” said George. “The overstrain INDIVIDUAL WORK 2
upon our brains has produced a general depression throughout the COGNITIVE LINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE
system. Change of scene, and absence of necessity for thought, will AND WORLDVIEW.
restore the mental equilibrium.” LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF INTERCULTURAL
George has a cousin, who is usually described in the charge- COMMUNICATION
sheet as a medical student, so that he naturally has a somewhat
family-physicianary way of putting things. (J. Jerome) 1. Analyse the lingual and stylistic means of expressing the
2. “It might be good for the Miltoners. Many things might be concept of ‘corruption’ in the following excepts in African
good for them which would be very disagreeable for other people.” English. What metaphors are used by the authors of the texts
“Are you not a Milton man yourself?” asked Margaret. “I should to name and characterise the bribe? Point out such metaphors.
have thought you would have been proud of your town.” What is the attitude of African people to bribes and corruption
“I confess I don’t see what there is to be proud of. If you only in their countries?
come to Oxford, Margaret, I will show you a place to glory in.” 1. But it has to be emphasized that while my Nigerian brother
“Well!” said Mr. Hale, “Mr. Thornton is coming to drink tea is right about what corruption is, it is important to distinguish
with us to-night, and he is as proud of Milton as you of Oxford. You corruption from that which entails the illegal sale of special favour
two must try and make each other a little more liberal-minded.” to political patronage, which occurs when public decision makers
“I don’t want to be more liberal-minded, thank you”, said Mr. use their legal margins of discretion to confer favours on their
Bell (E. Gaskell). friends and followers without receiving material benets in return.
3. She nished her sentence with a ourish, a brilliant imitation (WCL)
of Sue’s peculiar accent. I said, “She has a problem with people.” 2. They took bribes from their less fortunate brothers. (CEC)
“A chip on her shoulder,” Julianne said. “We know her, you 3. This excessive concentration of power at the national level
see.” has become the breeding ground for the corrupt fat cats bent on
“What language does she speak?” Lynette asked. “English.” enriching themselves at the expense of the poor peasants whose
“Yes, but with her parents – what did she talk at home?” resource rich lands are being exploited and conscated by the
“English.” I explained the situation, so far as I could. government without due compensation. (WCL)
Lynette frowned. (H. Mantel) 4. No society can achieve anything near its full potential if it
4. “I could not come sooner: the superintendent would – Where allows corruption to become the full-blown cancer it has become
is she?” He looked round the dining-room, and then almost ercely in Nigeria. (WCL)
at his mother, who was quietly rearranging the disturbed furniture, 5. This kind and level of compromise by our paid so-called
and did not instantly reply. “Where is Miss Hale?” asked he again. government ofcials at the passport ofces all over the country is
“Gone home,” said she, rather shortly. deleterious to the health and stability of the country. (WCL)
“Gone home!” 6. The Pandemic of Bribery in Nigeria. (WCL)
“Yes. She was a great deal better. Indeed, I don’t believe it was 7. Once you cure corruption in Nigeria, the economy would
so very much of a hurt; only some people faint at the least thing.” improve automatically. (WCL)
I am sorry she is gone home,” said he, walking uneasily about. 8. Corruption is contagious and tends to spread from the top.
“She could have been t for it.” (E. Gaskell) (WCL)
9. Anybody who has been to Sierra Leone will tell you this
without batting an eyelid. If there is anything that typies life in
this war-wracked nation, it is the endemic plague that has crippled
many West African nations – corruption and kleptocracy. (WCL)
158 159
10. This long overdue seemingly tall order is readily welcomed bake none. In all these, the idea is to let Yorubas get as much as
wholeheartedly by Nigerians who yearn for a leadership that gives possible before the eventual break-up Afenifere is engineering.
priority to the eradication of corruption which has eaten deep into What goes to the Niger Delta where the national cake comes
the fabric of national life. (WCL) from? (WCL)
11. Corruption has indeed eaten deeply into the economic 3. President Obasanjo knows he has unwittingly provoked the
fabric of this nation to the extent that those things once considered intensity of the economic liberation struggle in the Niger-Delta.
taboos are now being praised and envied. (WCL) He has disconnected that by his actions or in-actions, politics or
12. Violence and fear in the streets and homes abound, and impolitic, he has infuriated the owners of money thirsty women
corruption is eating away at our society’s moral bre. (WCL) and girls. (CEC)
13. CORRUPTION is slowly eating away the heart of 4. She never chop money belle full. [Nigerian Pidgin English]
Zimbawean society. (Electronic Mail & Guardian online) (Adimora-Ezeigbo)
14. President Obasanjo himself had talked tough when he came 5. How can anyone be so daft enough to think that just by
into ofce. He had vowed to stamp out the cankerworm called putting down $20,000,000, you can double it in just 1 week. Get
corruption from the civil service. (WCL) real guys! And, please, shorten your long throats. (WCL)
15. He therefore tells the Chief of Manawhoneybee village that 6. How many million promises can ll a bucket when you eat
his “... name can only go on the radio if [he] brought something;” money the way locusts eat tons of green. (CEC)
and of course, the chief gives him money (kola). (CEC) 7. “This national coffers koraa, where is it?” “As for you, the
16. They say a man expects to accept kola from him for services thing is empty and you are cross-examining me about it. They’ve
rendered. (Muzrai online) chopped everything in it.” “But when you look at them, especially
17. When he opens the ofce door there is a loud, pleased their mouths, nothing indicates they can chop so much money in so
laughter inside, and a voice with a vague familiarity says, “No. short a time.” (WCL)
This is only your kola. Take it as kola.” (Armah) 8. For I do honestly believe that the fat-dripping, gummy,
18. As a consequence of this kind of practice, anyone with a eat-and-let-eat regime just ended – a regime which inspired the
criminal record or a foreign national can easily obtain Nigerian common saying that a man could only be sure of what he had put
passport [sic] without adequate clearance provided the individual in his gut (Achebe)
is quite willing to “settle”. (WCL: 59) 9. No, my brother, I won’t spoil anybody’s good fortune. When
19. There is no doubt that this announcement asking all the ex- Eddy’s father married me I was not half her age. As soon as her
ofcials to return the extra soli they took to the government chest mother recovers let her come and eat Nanga’s wealth. (Achebe )
is going to cause severe wahala [Pidgin English for ‘trouble’] in 10. [Nigerian Pidgin English] Few people dey fat with big
many houses. (WCL) money, and the rest dey hungry (WCL)
20. In Ghana it [a bribe] is called “Soli” meaning ‘solidarity’
(WCL)
INDIVIDUAL WORK 3
2. Point out and analyse metaphors in the following PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
sentences. What concept(s) do they relate to?
1. He would not only eat the national cake, but also huge 1. Enlarge upon the actual division of the following sentences.
mouthfuls of national chin chin! [Chin chin is a staple Nigerian 1. He heard her singing in a snatchy fashion.
dish] (WCL) 2. It was Mr Eccles I particularly wanted to see.
2. Also, look at the 2001 budget in which the southwest got 3. For me to get up early was something like a deed.
a very disproportionate share of the national cake where they 4. Again he wasn’t sure – rather vague, the whole thing.
160 161
5. With a little ash of triumph, she lifted a pair of pearl ear- Nevertheless, Raymond is still nervous with the new situation.
rings from the small box. Charlie wants to call Lenny. Raymond says that the bed is in the
wrong place. Charlie commands Susanna to move the bed. There
2. Answer the following questions and do the following is no bookshelf, so Raymond starts to sigh that he will be book-
assignments. less. Charlie gives him a big telephone book.
1. Name a literary work that features two individuals in conict Scene VII
with each other. Include the work’s author and the genre. SP: We can watch TV here. We’re allowed.
2. Describe the conict. RB: Wheeel oof fortune. Look at this studio lled with
3. How did the two characters attempt to resolve the conict? glam’orous merchandise…fa’bulous and exci’ting bonus
4. To what extent were these characters successful in resolving prizes…
the conict? Context: Susanna turns on ‘Wheel of Fortune’. Raymond starts
5. If they were unsuccessful, what, in your opinion, contributed to sketch the dialogues on ‘Wheel of Fortune’. The host on the
to their not being able to settle their differences? television announces about the gift. Raymond still sketches about
6. If you had been the literary work’s author, how, if at all, ‘Wheel of Fortune’. Susanna wants to come to her room, so she
would you have made the outcome of this conict different? gives remote control to Raymond and says the food will come
shortly. Raymond convinces himself that far from Wallbrook is
3. Analyse from the point of view of psycholinguistics the good for him.
following fragments of scenes from the Rain Man. Scene XI
Scene V RB: Uh-oh-uh. oh. ’course theses an ai:r pla:ne out there.
CB: Here is Raymond’s room. Look at this beautiful room. CB: That’s right, and everybody’s boarding. Let’s go.
RB: This is ’defenli not my room. RB: (Airline) travel’s very dangerous.
SP: It’s just for tonight. CB: Don’t be silly. It’s the safest travel in the world.
CB: Little guy! This is gonna be terric. We’re brothers. Context: Charlie and Raymond are in the airport. They will y
RB: ’course I (do) not have my ta:pioca pudding. We have that to Los Angel. Raymond sees an airplane out there. Charlie veries
for dessert. Raymond and asks him to go. Raymond says that airlines travel is
CB: We can do that. very dangerous. Charlie tries to inuence him.
RB: This is ’defenli not my room, and I (do) not have my
ta:pioca pudding.
CB: I’m gonna call Lenny. INDIVIDUAL WORK 4
RB: (The) bed’s in the wrong place. SOCIOLINGUISTICS. LANGUAGE AND GENDER
CB: You can move it.
RB: ’course, I dxn’t have my books. ’course, there’s no 1. Analyse the following texts (excerpts from the immigrants’
bookshelf. I’m ’defenli out of books. I’m-I’m gonna be book-less. memories and speech) from the point of view of sociolinguistics.
CB: Here’s a book, a big telephone book. A lot of words. State the age (if possible) and social status of the characters,
Context: When they have arrived in the hotel, Charlie problems raised in the excerpts, and the intentions of the
points out Raymond’s room. Raymond refuses. Susanna tries authors of texts.
to persuade him. Raymond ignores her and wants to go back to 1. Well [...] my parents rightly decided to go to Italy after the
Wallbrook for dinner. Charlie tries to hold him back. Raymond 1990 revolution [...] we moved to Italy because my father and
thinks that there is no tapioca pudding as in Wallbrook. Charlie my mother had also been several times in Italy on vacation and
promises that he and Susanna can present tapioca pudding. they liked it then because of the revolution our country needed to
162 163
renovate itself [...] then because of this kind of difculties, to avoid INDIVIDUAL WORK 5
the management of change in Albania, my parents rightly decided PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
to go abroad, to give us a better future. (Part 1)
2. You need to nd your way and to keep your own dignity
in this country, I am what I am, a foreigner, I do my job and you 1. Analyse the exchanges, turn-taking and pre-sequences in
cannot push me aside, looking to me with indifference, I am sorry the suggested fragments.
to say these things but also you Italians you are not all the same. Exchanges are sequences of moves by different speakers
3. Rumanians do not go to the coffee shop if they do not have a that go together as complementary in speech act value, such as
job even if a coffee is very cheap: “Why should I spend this money questions and answers, offers and acceptances, commands and
if I can make coffee at home?” Italians think different, and it is not compliances, and so forth. The term “exchange” captures the
a polemic, everyone has his own way of thinking, little things make idea that the roles of speaker and hearer are exchanged in these
big things. sequences of move; these sequences are also called adjacency
4. I don’t know how can I say we are actually diverse, we pairs, since they are often made up of pairs of moves. However,
have a different culture, for instance, I have spent my Christmas some sequences consist of three essential component moves. This
holidays 7 times in Italy but I have found nothing how could I say is typical of teacher–student interaction, in which the pupil’s
no traditions. response to a teacher’s question is almost invariably followed by
5. Since I rent my at I have completed my plan I had everything a feedback move by the teacher. This need not necessarily be
also a job. I was satised, everything was well organized and I was verbal: a nod might sufce. When the third move is absent – that
feeling good. (Laughing) is, the teacher gives no response – this is usually interpreted as
6. Companies should understand that in other countries people indicating that the answer is wrong.
work differently from Italians therefore for a foreigner worker In turn-taking, the exchange of turns or “oors” is signalled by
it could be very difcult to change routines and habits at work such linguistic means as intonation, pausing, and phrasing. Some
therefore Italians colleagues should be very-very patient even if people await a clear pause before beginning to speak, but others
they do not speak English and/or German it could be useful to learn assume that winding down is an invitation to someone else to take
a little bit of our language just to help their foreigner colleagues. the oor. When speakers have different assumptions about how
7. The joke is that when I went to work in the countryside they turn exchanges are signaled, they may inadvertently interrupt or
said to me, “What’s your name?” I said, “Lofti,” and they, “What, feel interrupted. On the other hand, speakers also frequently take
Lofti? Noo, I will call you Giovanni.” “My name is Lofti.” “No, the oor even though they know the other speaker has not invited
no, oh shut up and let’s begin working.” Then I laughed (...) after them to do so.
some time I changed teamwork even in the countryside, “What’s Pre-sequences are used in many other circumstances, for
your name?” “Lot,” “O’key, Lot, come here.” But after having instance: to set up the grounds for asking a request; for offering an
forgotten my name so many times they said to me “stop it I cannot invitatio; for asking a question (e.g. Um, there’s one thing I wanted
remember your name now you are Lino” then wherever I went they to ask you – yes mhm); for closing a conversation or transaction
changed my name since in Italian my name does not exist. (e.g. well okay – okay); and so forth.
1. Ben:Molly! Mol! Let’s switch. You take care of her. I’ll do
2. Analyse the use of personal pronouns in the above whatever you’re doing.
excepts. Identify their functions. What is the tone of the excepts Molly: I’m making popcorn. You always burn it.
(dramatic, sorrowful, bitter, reproachful, full of expectation, 2. P: It’s a really clear lake isn’t it?
comic, ironical, or sarcastic)? What language means create an L: It’s wonderful!
ironical effect?
164 165
3. T: Those letters have special names. Do you know what it is? Jane Eyre: How dare I, Mrs. Reed? Because it’s the truth. You
What is one name that we give to these letters? think I can do without one bit of love or kindness. People think you
P: Vowels. are a good woman. But you are bad.
T: They’re vowels, aren’t they? 5. Mr. Rochester: Damnation.
An exchange can be enclosed within another exchange, as in the Jane Eyre: Can I help you?
following example: Mr. Rochester: Stand aside!
4. A: Can I have a bottle of Mich? Jane Eyre: I can fetch help, sir.
B: Are you over twenty-one? 6. Mr. Rochester: Miss Eyre, come and sit by me. You have
A: No. been here 3 months?
B: No. Jane Eyre: Yes, sir.
5. M: Well? She doesn’t know? (laughs) Mr. Rochester: You come from a charitable institution? How
L: Ohh, my God! long were you there?
M: Hhhhh. Well it was an- Jane Eyre: 8 years.
L: Are you watching Daktari? Mr. Rochester: 8 years? You must be tenacious of life. You have
6. A: Hi. Do you have uh size C ashlight batteries? the look of another world. When I saw you last night I thought of
B: Yes, sir. fairy tales. Who are your parents?
A: I’ll have four, please. Jane Eyre: I have no, sir.
7. Governess: It is not ladylike to strike a young gentleman.
2. Analyse the following dialogues from Jane Eyre by Your benefactress’ son, your master!
Charlotte Brontë from the point of view of the tone of the Jane Eyre: Master? How is he a master? Am I a servant?
speakers and means of turn-taking. Point out lingual and Governess: You are less than a servant. You do not work.
stylistic means that reveal the situation, relations between the 8. Jane Eyre: Let me out, please! Abbot, Bessie, I am frightened.
speakers and their intentions; comment on them. Let me out, let me out, Bessie.
1. Benefactress’ son: What are you doing, Jane? Bessie: Are you feeling right? What a dreadful noise.
Jane Eyre: I am reading, cousin. Jane Eyre: Let me out. I saw a light. Maybe it was a ghost.
2. Pupil: Miss Eyre, please, miss Eyre. Bessie: You silly child. That was Ruddock the gardener with a
Jane Eyre: Very well, Mary. lantern.
Pupil: B-O-U-G-H-T. B-O-W, bow. 9. Mr. Rochester: Remorse is the poison of life.
Jane Eyre: Very good. I am very pleased with you. Jane Eyre: Repentance is said to be its cure, sir.
3. Mr. Rochester: Can you play? Mr. Rochester: It is not its cure. Reformation may be.
Jane Eyre: A little. 10. Mr. Rochester: May I get a sweet, please. I will get it, as
Mr. Rochester: The established answer. Go into the library. sweet and fresh, as the wild honey the bee gathers on the moor.
Excuse my tone of command I cannot alter my customary habits. You are like a bird. Trapped in a cage: vivid, restless, but captive…
Go into the library. Take a castle, sit down at the piano and play a Jane Eyre: To speak truth, sir, I do not understand you.
tune.
Jane Eyre: Very well, sir. 3. In the above dialogues, point out the means of expressing
4. Jane Eyre: I am glad you are no relation on my. I will never politeness/impoliteness.
call you aunt again. I will never visit you. I will tell anyone who
asks you treat me with miserable cruelty. 4. Analyse the means of turn-taking in the following dialogues
Mrs. Reed: How dare you afrm that? taken from the American TV series The Desperate Housewives.
166 167
1. Susan: I wouldn’t eat that if I were you. copy of the painting. From time to time throughout the interview the
Mike: Why? child bends the painting towards himself to view it more closely.)
Susan: I made it. Trust me. C: OK. [fall/rise intonation]
Mike: (He is eating the food) I: I’d like you to describe exactly what you see in this picture...
Susan: Hey. Do you have a death wish? C (leans over painting looking at it intently, then straightens
Mike: No, I just refused to believe that anybody can screw up up) umm…
macaroni and cheese. (Mike is eating the food) I: Imagine I’ve never seen it before and you’re explaining it to
Mike: Oh, my god. How did you…? It tastes like it’s burnt and me.
undercooked. I: Describe exactly what is in the picture.
Susan: Yeah. I get that a lot. Here you go. C: Well it’s a picture of... ahh ... um ... a boy with a machine,
Mike: Thanks. I’m Mike Delno. I just started renting the house with a toy machine gun.
next door. C: and a grand ... well it seems like Christmas or happy
Susan: Susan Mayer. I live across the street. birthdays or something so the grandpa’s giving them ... um a
Mike: Mrs Huber told me about you, said you illustrate machine gun.
children’s books. C: And another present for the other boy ... other boy (looks
Susan: Yeah. I’m very big with the under-ve set. What do you do? towards the interviewer).
Mike: Plumber. So if you ever have a clog…or something. I: Oh, so one for both of them?
(They smile to each other) C: Yeah.
2. Rex: I can’t believe you tried to kill me. I: Can you tell me what the picture makes you think about
Bree: Yes, well I feel badly about that. I told you Mrs Huber Joshua?
came over and I got distracted. It was a mistake. C. Toys. [falling intonation]
Rex: Since when do you make mistakes? I: Ah hum.
Bree: What does that mean? I: How does the painting make you feel?
Rex: It means I’m sick of you being so damn perfect all the C (scratches head, then brings closed hand to rest against right
time. I’m sick of the bizarre way your hair doesn’t move. I’m sick cheek, purses lips.)
of you making bed in the morning before I’ve used the bathroom. C: ... makes me feel just a little bit, you know, sort of sad [falling
You’re this plastic suburban housewife with her pearl and spatula, intonation] as well.
who says things like “We owe the Hendersons a dinner.” Where’s C: by the way the grandpa’s looking.
the woman I fell in love with? ...Who used to burn toast and drink I: All right, so which part makes you happy?
milk out of the carton? And laugh. I need her. Not this cold, perfect C: Well, the boy getting that, I suppose … As if he’s, you know,
thing you’ve become. giving all ... um ... his lifetime, lifetime possessions or something
Bree: These need water. (Then she walks out of the room.) to the to the wee boys. As if he’s going to die soon or something...
I don’t know [fall/rise intonation].
5. Make up a full analysis of the structure of the suggested I: Yeah, I suppose that’s a possibility. So he might be dying soon
fragment in terms of exchanges and moves, overlap of turns, so he’s giving all his lifetime possessions away?
continuers, and hesitations (e.g. um, aa, and the like). Dene C. Yeah.
the type of the discourse. I: Why do you think the artist did the painting this particular
Interviewer’s indication of intention way?
I: I’m going to show you some reproductions or copies of two C.(cocks head to his left, then straightens up, purses lips) Well
paintings made by New Zealand artists. (Gives child laminated [fall/rise intonation], I s’pose to just show how...
168 169
C: Ohh, push out his feelings I s’pose. Express his feelings in 2. Analyse the suggested fragments of the political
his work. discourse.
I: Yeah. And what do you think he’s trying to say to you in the The opening of President Bush’s speech
picture? or to us? Good afternoon. On my orders, the United States military has
C: (looks straight ahead) Umm … play with a present, or enjoy begun strikes against al-Qaeda terrorist training camps and military
your present or … umm give presents too. installations of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. These carefully
I: All right. targeted actions are designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a
terrorist base of operations, and to attack the military capability of
the Taliban regime.
INDIVIDUAL WORK 6 We are joined in this operation by our staunch friend, Great
PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Britain. Other close friends, including Canada, Australia, Germany
(Part 2) and France, have pledged forces as the operation unfolds. More
than 40 countries in the Middle East, Africa, Europe and across
1. Make up critical discourse analysis of the suggested texts Asia have granted air transit or landing rights. Many more have
(political discourse). What language and stylistic means signal shared intelligence. We are supported by the collective will of the
the intention of the authors? world.
Get Lost, Spongers The opening of Osama bin Laden’s speech
By Victor Chapple Praise be to God and we beseech Him for help and forgiveness.
A blitz on illegal immigration is being launched by the We seek refuge with the Lord of our bad and evil doing. He
Government. The number of staff dealing with foreign spongers whom God guides is rightly guided but he whom God leaves to
will be more than doubled, and tough new curbs are planned against stray, for him wilt thou nd no protector to lead him to the right
bogus overseas students. Key targets will be phoney colleges which way.
enroll youngsters, but provide no courses. I witness that there is no God but God and Mohammed is His
When immigration ofcers raided one in East London last year, slave and Prophet. God Almighty hit the United States at its most
they found that 990 of the 1000 “students” had no right to be in vulnerable spot.
Britain. Home secretary Douglas Hurd is considering law changes He destroyed its greatest buildings.
to stop foreign visitors switching to student status while here. (Sun) Praise be to God.
Britain Invaded by an Army of Illegals
By John Kay and Alison Bowyer
Britain is being swamped by a tide of illegal immigrants so INDIVIDUAL WORK 7
desperate for a job that they will work for a pittance in our restaurants, CORPUS AND COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
cafes and nightclubs. Immigration ofcers are being overwhelmed
with work. Last year, 2,191 “illegals” were being nabbed and sent 1. Answer the questions and do the following assignments.
back home. But there are tens of thousands more, slaving behind 1. What are the 5 most frequent words in Frown?
bars, cleaning hotel rooms and working in kitchens…. 2. How frequent is the word ingredient in Frown? Is the singular
Illegals sneak in by deceiving immigration ofcers when they or the plural form more frequent?
are quizzed at airports, disappearing after their entry visas run out, 3. Compare the 5 most frequent words in Frown to the 5 most
forging work permits and other documents, and running away frequent words in FLOB.
from immigrant detention centres, whereas lefties hand £20,000 to 4. Does the word gamut occur in Frown? If so, what are the
illegal immigrant. (Sun) words occurring to the right of gamut?
170 171
5. What is the word occurring most frequently to the left of the investigation is WordSmith; you start by searching for ashlight*
word (use the sorting function) and how often does it occur? and torch* (the asterisk is necessary to include the plural forms).
6. What is the adjective occurring most frequently directly If you use different corpora for an analysis, nd out to what
to the left of the word factor (use the sorting function) and how degree they are comparable (corpus size, variety, time span covered,
frequently does it occur? text types) etc. You need to make sure that your search (or searches)
7. What is the easiest way of nding out whether and how often actually nds all occurrences of the language item in question (for
the collocation take a trip (including instances such as When we example all inectional variants). You need to check how the item
were taking that trip…, The trips we are going to take… etc.) in question is distributed in the corpus (e.g. whether it only occurs in
occurs in Frown (select a distance of 6 words to both sides)? certain periods / text types etc.); it is also relevant from how many
different texts (or text categories) the solutions come from (i.e. if an
2. Imagine you are interested in whether Australian English item is very frequent, but occurs only in one or two texts, this does
vocabulary tends to be more similar to British or to American not mean that it is frequent in the variety / text type etc. investigated).
English. If an item does not occur in a given corpus, this does not
First, you formulate some more precise questions or hypotheses necessarily mean that it does not occur in the variety/text type/
that you would like to investigate. period etc. represented in the corpus, especially if the corpus is fairly
1. Does Australian English exclusively use vocabulary items small. Small differences in frequency can be a matter of chance and
from either British or American English or does it use items therefore need to be interpreted prudently. In the interpretation of
from both varieties? 2. If it uses items from both varieties, does your results, be aware of what you have actually investigated (e.g.
it usually make a choice for a given pair of items or does it in only written or only spoken language, only certain instances of the
addition mix items denoting the same concept from both varieties? phenomenon in question, etc.).
3. If items from both varieties are used, can a dominance of either
British English or American English vocabulary be observed? 4. If
Australian English uses terms from both varieties denoting the INDIVIDUAL WORK 8
same concept in British and American English, can a difference in SECOND-LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
usage of these two items be observed?
In a next step you consult a reference book, for example, Find and correct mistakes in the following sentences.
Crystal’s Encyclopedia of the English Language, for differences 1. The suspected is entitled to defend him/herself, s/he will not
of vocabulary in British and American English (1995: 309) and be punished before the trail is over, and the person is found guilty.
randomly choose 5 pairs of items from among those which are 2. Besides this achievements, the woman has gained
said to be used exclusively in one of the two varieties: ashlight understandness and respect from men, as this is what the women’s
(AmE) – torch (BrE), freeway (AmE) – motorway (BrE), sidewalk ght concerns.
(AmE) – pavement (BrE), elevator (AmE) – lift (BrE), diaper 3. I think television has the ability to passify the viewer to a big
(AmE) – nappy (BrE). extent.
Then you choose your corpus. For Australian English, the 4. On week ends people go shopping, go to cabins on the
Australian Corpus of English (ACE) is available to you. This mountain, or by the ocean, or in the woods.
corpus contains written English of different text types (you need 5. Woman have achieved a position that gives her all basic rights
to keep in mind, therefore, that your study has two major caveats: as regards to [as regards, with respect to] education.
rst, your investigation is limited to only a very small part of the 6. People eat breakfast all over the world, but except from
Australian English vocabulary, and secondly, your investigation is the fact that the meal is eaten in the morning, there are a lot of
based on written language only). The software you choose for the differences between the countries when it comes to this meal.
172 173
7. The problems from all over the world are thrown into your ОБРАЗЕЦ ТЕСТОВЫХ ЗАДАНИЙ
own living room, and after a wail the watchers are getting immune
to other peoples suffering, seeing it every day at the television. Задания с одним правильным ответом (100 баллов):
8. I now attend at Bislet College in order to take an English За каждый правильный ответ – 2 балла
degree.
9. We are not the same as for thousand years ago. 1. Which of the following best denes ‘linguistics’?
10. We learned that we should be happy for living in our own A. the study of foreign languages
country. B. the ability to speak English uently
11. It may seem that the universities are useing the wrong C. parasites that attach themselves to the tongue, thereby
methods for getting the students on the right track. affecting a person’s ability to speak
12. The question is whether we, with the new technology, no D. the study of language and its structure: how it works and
longer have a place for dreaming and imagination. Does it deprive how it is used
us from social contact? 2. What is the study of language as it pertains to social classes,
13. But unlike from religion, people in today’s society are ethnic groups and genders?
rational beeings with the oppurtunity to choose. A. psycholinguistics
14. Many people are a lot better in doing things practically. B. comparative linguistics
15. Surveys show that television as a phenomenon has a great C. sociolinguistics
impact in most peoples lives. D. linguistics
16. Trevor chooses to do things he likes on his spare time. He 3. It is the study of language from a cognitive and developmental
likes to travel but has only time to do that on his vacations. law.
17. Therefore, it is possible to state that in this aspect opium and A. psycholinguistics
television is comparable. B. sociolinguistics
18. The authorities often made advantage of this trust to God C. comparative linguistics
and used the gospel manipulative to keep inhabitants calm. D. linguistics
19. Advanced weapons, as long-range ballistic missiles, armed 4. Which of the following is not a branch of linguistics?
with toxic gasses, nuclear warheads etc. could surely be said to A. syntax
represent one of the largest threats against world peace. B. cognitive linguistics
20. But in despite of all this, “the old fashioned” objects have C. sociolinguistics
survived. D. anthropology
5. Which of the following branches of linguistics is primarily
concerned with changes in a language or several languages
over time?
A. historical linguistics
B. sociolinguistics
C. morphology
D. evolutionary linguistics
E. typology
F. semantics

174 175
6. Which of the following denitions best describes ‘language 14. Etymology is the study of the history of words. Which of the
acquisition’? following does not deal with etymology?
A. the process by which a society’s vernacular varies A. how a word’s meaning has changed over time
B. the process by which linguistics are applied to sociology B. when a word entered a language
C. the process by which the linguistic ability develops in a C. what source a word is from
human D. these all deal with etymology.
7. Psycholinguistics is the study of what two factors that enable 15. What is critical discourse analysis?
humans to use a language? A. It is an approach to the elicitation and analysis of language
A. psychological and neurobiological that is sensitive to the sense of temporal sequence that people
B. sociological and biological detect in their lives.
C. linguistic and developmental B. It emphasizes the role of language as a power resource that is
8. Which of the following does the study of sociolinguistics not related to ideology and socio-cultural change.
include? C. It is an interview technique in which the researcher provokes
A. the context in which language is used the interviewee.
B. cultural norms/expectations of languages D. It is an approach that focuses on the importance of rhetorical
C. original development of languages devices.
9. Linguistic anthropology deals with semiotics, the study of how 16. Which is another term for pragmatics?
word meaning is constructed and understood. A. language
A. true B. conversational implicature
B. false C. conversation
10. Which of the following is not an area that cognitive linguistics D. ambiguous
focuses on? E. linguistics
A. autonomous linguistic faculty 17. What does conversational implicature mean?
B. word evolution over time A. study of language
C. conceptualization B. vague or unclear meaning
D. language use C. process in which the speaker implies and a listener infers
11. Computational linguistics deals more with the scientic side of D. confusing your listener
linguistics. E. being ambiguous
A. true 18. Dialectal variation refers to variation in linguistic forms
B. false associated primarily with which of the following phenomena?
12. Which of the following is another name for historical A. social groups
linguistics? B. illiterate speakers
A. diachronic linguistics C. geographical regions
B. paleonguistics D. rural regions
C. histolinguism E. different individuals
13. Which of the following is the study of languages as spoken/ 19. Which of the following characteristics is not likely to correlate
written in samples of real text, rather than of grammar rules? with systematic variation in a language?
A. syntax A. age
B. corpus linguistics B. religion
C. postulate linguistics C. sex
176 177
D. ethnicity D. legalese
E. handedness E. scientic Danish
20. Sociolects are usually thought of in terms of the … of the 27. ‘Code switching’ refers to which of the following phenomena?
speakers. A. switching from written to spoken codes
A. origins B. changing languages in different domains
B. socialbility C. changing languages within a single discourse
C. socio-economic status 28. The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis consists of two components,
21. The replacement of forms such as ‘chairman’ by ‘chair(person)’ linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism.
and ‘reman’ by ‘re ghter’ involves the elimination of … A. true
forms. B. false
A. none of these 29. Which of the following best describes ‘linguistic determinism’?
B. generic neuter A. The idea that the structure of the language you speak is
C. Genitive determined by the way you think about the world.
D. generic feminine B. The notion that the structure of the language you speak is
22. In sociolinguistics the term … denotes any prohibition on the correlated in some way with the world view of speakers.
use of particular lexical items. C. The idea that the structure of the language you speak
A. totem determines the way you think about the world.
B. toto D. The notion that the grammatical structures found in a
C. none of these language are determined by human genetics.
D. taboo 30. Which of the following best describes ‘linguistic relativity’?
23. What do we call a unit of text or speech event larger than a A. The idea that the structure of the language you speak is
sentence? determined by the way you think about the world.
A. discourse B. The notion that the structure of the language you speak is
B. the phoneme correlated in some way with the world view of speakers.
C. an inection C. The idea that the structure of the language you speak
D. a phrase determines the way you think about the world.
24. Writing is …. D. The notion that the grammatical structures found in a
A. superior to speech language are not determined by human genetics.
B. the basis for all spoken language 31. In dialectology, what is the line on a map called which divides
C. natural areas with different forms of a word?
D. derivative of speech. A. isobar
25. ‘Garden pathing’ reveals which of the following? B. isogloss
A. that parsing begins after the entire sentence has been heard. C. isotherm
B. that speech perception is categorical. D. isomer
C. an error has occurred in speech production. 32. Which one of the following famous people is/was not a
D. that parsing begins before the entire sentence has been heard. linguist?
26. Which of the following varieties is not a register? A. Groucho Marx
A. British English B. Alexander Graham Bell
B. medical English C. J. R. R. Tolkein
C. an anti-language D. Noam Chomsky
178 179
33. Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can still combine D. the pragmatic rules in learning language
the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. 39. Communicators in a high-context culture are more likely to
This aspect of language is referred to as A. state feelings explicitly
A. syntax B. use language to build harmony
B. phonology C. ask for things they need directly
C. morphology D. engage in confrontation
D. innite generativity 40. “Misunderstanding results when one person assumes that words
34. Pointing to a tree, young Ramal says, “Bird ied away.” mean the same thing to him or her as to all other persons.” This
Ramal’s interesting, but inaccurate, use of the “-ed” word is a paraphrase of which concept of language?
ending shows that he is trying to learn … rules of the language. A. Many words have similar meanings
A. syntactical B. Dictionaries are adequate for everyday language
B. semantic C. Meanings are in people not in words
C. pragmatic D. Gender inuences our language style and content
D. morphological 41. Pragmatic rules govern ….
35. Yoshi is learning that there are many different ways to say A. how people use language in everyday interactions
‘thank you’ in Japanese, depending on the gender, social status, B. the way we inuence the self concept of others
and relationship to Yoshi of the person he is thanking. This use C. how we view world affairs
of appropriate conversation demonstrates an issue of D. how words are arranged in different languages
A. syntax 42. Using the same kind of language and language style as someone
B. semantics else can be a way to demonstrate … through convergence.
C. morphology A. power
D. pragmatics B. responsibility
36. Edward said to his mother, “The mouse the cat the farmer C. afliation
chased killed at the cheese.” After puzzling over this for a D. high context
bit, Edward’s mother said, “Do you mean ‘The farmer chased 43. The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis ….
the cat that killed the mouse that ate the cheese?” “Yes,” he A. is related to gender differences
replied. Edward was having a problem with B. is related to culture
A. syntax C. is related to demographics
B. semantics D. is related to credibility
C. pragmatics 44. The notions people have about the superiority of one dialect or
D. morphology language and the inferiority of others are
37. Chomsky’s theory of language development emphasised A. linguistic relativity
A. learning and conditioning principles B. sociolinguistics
B. innate structures and biological mechanisms C. language ideology
C. children’s cognitive abilities D. phonetics
D. the language support system provided by parents 45. Which theorist hypothesised that children are born with a
38. Critical periods for learning language are determined by language acquisition device?
A. biology A. Chomsky
B. the environment B. Piaget
C. the deep structures of language C. Skinner
180 181
D. Vygotsky ТЕМЫ РЕФЕРАТОВ
46. Which theorist places the most importance on social interaction
in the development of language? 1. Mechanisms, symbols and models underlying cognition.
A. Chomsky 2. Basic sociological and anthropological concepts.
B. Piaget 3. The problems of speech production and perception.
C. Skinner 4. Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning.
D. Vygotsky 5. Bilingualism and multilingualism: linguistic and cultural
47. Metalinguistic awareness is …. aspects.
A. the ability to think and talk about language 6. Gender communication differences and strategies.
B. the ability to connect the distinctive sounds in words to letters 7. Linguistic and gender features of online communication.
C. understanding of the mapping principles between sounds and 8. Content analysis of political discourse.
meaning 9. Forensic discourse analysis.
D. the ability to recognize writing from other visual marks 10. Text corpus: format, content, and structure.
48. Immersion is supposed to be one of the most adequate 11. Machine translation strategies. Prospects for the development
approaches to teach a second language. of machine translation.
A. true 12. Modern trends in lexicography. Computerised lexicography.
B. false 13. Computational linguistics and articial intelligence.
49. Little Lisa points to a ball and says, “Color dat ball.” Her father 14. Articial language evolution as a dynamic interaction process.
responds with “What color is the ball?” This is an example of
A. echoing
B. recasting
C. motherese
D. morphology
50. Information currently available about language development
indicates that to encourage language development, adults
should ….
A. drill children in proper language use
B. engage children in meaningful conversation
C. provide excellent examples of language use
D. reinforce children whenever they use language correctly

182 183
ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ И КРИТЕРИИ ОЦЕНИВАНИЯ изученный материал для собственных аргументированных
УСПЕВАЕМОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ суждений в практической деятельности).
85 баллов – «хорошо» (студент освещает специфику
Формы контроля лингвистических понятий, приводит соответствующие
II семестр – зачет. иллюстративные примеры, допускает незначительные
Уровень знаний студентов оценивается по 100-балльной неточности в определениях, но самостоятельно исправляет
шкале. ошибки в ответе. Студент свободно владеет изученным
Общая оценка по дисциплине «Теоретические и прикладные материалом, применяет знания в несколько измененных
аспекты лингвистики» соответствует итоговому результату ситуациях, умеет анализировать и систематизировать
работы студента в семестре по 100-балльной системе информацию, использует общеизвестные доказательства
(коэффициент – 1,0). Количество КТ – 8, коэффициент – 0,075. в собственной аргументации; выражает стандартную
Количество КРТМ – 2, коэффициент – 0,2. аргументацию при оценке действий, процессов, явлений;
четко толкует понятие).
Критерии оценки устного ответа/реферата 80 баллов – «хорошо» (студент освещает специфику
100 баллов – «отлично» (студент полностью и глубоко лингвистических понятий и приводит соответствующие
освещает специфику лингвистических понятий, свободно иллюстративные примеры, допускает незначительные
приводит соответствующие иллюстративные примеры. неточности в определениях, но самостоятельно исправляет
Студент имеет системные знания по дисциплине, проявляет ошибки в ответе. Знания студента являются достаточно
неординарные творческие способности в учебной полными, он свободно применяет изученный материал в
деятельности, пользуется широким арсеналом доказательств стандартных ситуациях, логично освещает события с точки
своего мнения, решает сложные проблемные задачи, склонен зрения смысловой взаимосвязи; умеет анализировать,
к системно-научному анализу и прогнозу явлений; умеет устанавливать смысловые связи и зависимости между
ставить и решать проблемы; логично и творчески излагает явлениями, фактами, делать выводы, ответ его полный,
материал, проявляя свои дарования и склонности). логичный, обоснованный, но с некоторыми неточностями).
95 баллов – «отлично» (студент полностью и глубоко 75 баллов – «хорошо» (студент освещает специфику
освещает специфику лингвистических понятий, свободно лингвистических понятий, правильно использует
приводит соответствующие иллюстративные примеры. терминологию, приводит соответствующие иллюстративные
Студент имеет системные знания по дисциплине, проявляет примеры, допуская незначительные неточности в
творческие способности в учебной деятельности, пользуется определениях, но самостоятельно исправляет ошибки
широким арсеналом доказательств своего мнения, решает в ответе. Студент правильно и логично воспроизводит
сложные проблемные задачи, склонен к системно-научному учебный материал, понимает основополагающие теории и
анализу явлений; умеет решать проблемы; логично и творчески факты, устанавливает причинно-следственные связи между
излагает материал). ними; умеет приводить отдельные собственные примеры в
90 баллов – «отлично» (студент полностью и глубоко подтверждение определенных мыслей, применять изученный
освещает специфику лингвистических понятий, свободно материал в стандартных ситуациях).
приводит соответствующие иллюстративные примеры. 70 баллов – «удовлетворительно» (студент допускает
Студент владеет обобщенными знаниями предмета, неточности в определениях, нуждается в помощи экзаменатора,
аргументированно использует их в нестандартных ситуациях; но освещает специфику лингвистических понятий, приводит
умеет самостоятельно находить источник информации и соответствующие иллюстративные примеры. Студент знает
анализировать его, решать проблемы, умеет применять более половины учебного материала, понимает основной
184 185
учебный материал; способен с ошибками и неточностями Шкала оценивания
дать определение понятий, имеет устойчивые навыки

Оценка по шкале
работы с текстом учебника; формулирует понятие, приводит
примеры, подтверждает высказанное суждение одним-двумя Оценка Национальная шкала оценивания

ECTS
аргументами; ответ непоследователен). в Объяснения
65 баллов – «удовлетворительно» (студент допускает баллах
неточности и колеблется в определениях, нуждается в помощи
экзаменатора, но освещает специфику лингвистических Экзамен Зачет
понятий, приводит соответствующие иллюстративные
отличный результат
примеры. Студент знает около половины учебного материала, с незначительным
способен воспроизвести его в соответствии с текстом учебника 90-100 Отлично A
количеством
или объяснением преподавателя, повторить по образцу ошибок
определенную операцию, действие; описывает явления, выше среднего
процессы без объяснений причин, при помощи преподавателя уровня с
82–89 B
способен воспроизвести их последовательность, слабо несколькими
ошибками
ориентируется в понятиях; способен отвечать на простые, Хорошо
выше среднего
стандартные вопросы). C уровня с
60 баллов – «удовлетворительно» (студент допускает 75–81 зачтено
несколькими
неточности и колеблется в определениях, нуждается в помощи ошибками
экзаменатора, но освещает специфику лингвистических неплохо, но со
понятий, приводит соответствующие иллюстративные D значительным
67–74
примеры. Студент фрагментарно воспроизводит количеством
недостатков
незначительную часть учебного материала, имеет нечеткие Удовлетворительно
результат
представления об объекте изучения; обнаруживает способность E удовлетворяет
элементарно изложить мнение; может устно воспроизвести 60–66
минимальные
несколько терминов, явлений без связи между ними; может критерии
выбрать правильный вариант ответа (на уровне «да-нет»). 35–59
FX с возможностью
Менее 60 баллов – «неудовлетворительно» (студент не может не зачтено повторной сдачи
Неудовлетворительно
осветить специфику лингвистических понятий, привести F с обязательным
1–34
соответствующие иллюстративные примеры. Студент мало повторным курсом
осознает цель учебно-познавательной деятельности).
Требования к зачету
Оценка «зачтено» ставится, если студент освоил материал
Критерии оценки письменного теста (КРТМ)
семестра в достаточной степени и по результатам оценивания
КРТМ в виде письменного теста содержит вопросы,
КТ и КРТМ набрал от 60 до 100 баллов. Если студент набрал
охватывающие лингвистические понятия и категории, и
меньше 60 баллов, ставится оценка «не зачтено». Студент, не
оценивается по 100-балльной системе.
получивший автоматической оценки, обязан сдавать зачет,
который предполагает устную беседу по тематике курса.

186 187
ВОПРОСЫ К ЗАЧЕТУ ПО «ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИМ 27. The history of the emergence and development of computer
И ПРИКЛАДНЫМ АСПЕКТАМ ЛИНГВИСТИКИ» linguistics.
28. Computer modeling of language and speech.
1. Theoretical linguistics and its components. 29. Lexicography and machine translation.
2. The subject and objectives of theoretical linguistics. 30. Typology of machine translation systems. Areas of application
3. The origin and objectives of аpplied linguistics. Methods of of machine translation.
investigation in Applied linguistics. 31. Methodological foundations of interlinguistics; the object and
4. Interdisciplinary links and interdisciplinary studies. subject of interlinguistics.
5. Cognitive linguistics and its basic concepts. 32. Articial languages. Programming languages.
6. Conceptualization of the world. Conceptual and linguistic 33. International constructed languages; their structure and cultural
pictures of the world. aspects.
7. Cognitive grammar and cognitive syntax.
8. Cognitive semantics. Cognitive theory of metaphor.
9. Hypothesis of linguistic relativity of Sapir-Whorf. Idioethnic
and linguocultural characteristics of the vocabulary of the
language.
10. Psycholinguistics as an interdisciplinary science.
11. Perception of oral and written speech.
12. Mechanisms of the generation of oral and written speech.
13. A word in the mental lexicon.
14. Methods of research in psycholinguistics.
15. Discourse as a main object of research of modern
psycholinguistics.
16. Sociolinguistics as a science. The subject of sociolinguistic
research.
17. The formation of sociolinguistics as an independent scientic
discipline.
18. Methods of sociolinguistic research.
19. The importance of language contacts for genealogical and
typological classications of languages.
20. Parameters of the description of speech situations.
21. Gender differences in language and speech.
22. The object, subject and objectives of pragmatics.
23. Areas of application of discourse analysis. The methods of
content analysis.
24. Metaphors in political discourse. Content analysis of the
national idea.
25. Content analysis of the literary text.
26. Corpus linguistics; its subject and objectives. The concept of
“corpus”.
188 189
СПИСОК УСЛОВНЫХ СОКРАЩЕНИЙ ГЛОССАРИЙ ТЕРМИНОВ

AI – articial intelligence Abstraction consists in the translation (mapping) of terms in


AL – articial language the scheme to terms in a theoretically motivated model or dataset.
AL – applied linguistics Abstraction typically includes linguist-directed search but may
ASR – automatic speech recognition include, for example, rule-learning for parsers.
CALL/T – computer-assisted language learning and teaching Aligned parallel corpora are multilingual corpora that have
CAT – computer assisted translation been specially formatted for side-by-side comparison.
CDA – critical discourse analysis Annotation consists in the application of a scheme to texts.
CDS – child-directed speech Annotations may include structural markup, part-of-speech
CL – cognitive linguistics tagging, parsing, and numerous other representations.
CL – constructed language Anthropological linguistics investigates the relations between
CLIR – cross-lingual information retrieval language, culture, and society.
CS – casual style Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language
DA – discourse analysis because of damage to specic brain regions.
DP – discursive psychology Applied linguistics is a complex scientic discipline that
FL – foreign language applies linguistic knowledge in different areas and situations for
IAL(s) – international auxiliary language(s) solving different kinds of practical problems (such as machine
ICLA – International Cognitive Linguistics Association translation, technical communication, speech recognition and
IDS – infant-directed speech synthesis, information retrieval).
IL – Interlingua Articial language (See also Constructed language).
IS – interview style Autonomous serial search model consists in the assumption
ISO – International Organization for Standardization that words in the brain are linked to books on a library shelf, with
L1 – rst language each word listed independently in three different access les (like
L2 – second language library catalogues): orthographic, phonological and syntactic-
LMF – Lexical Markup Framework semantic.
LsF – Latino sine exione
MT – mother tongue Bilingualism can imply equal uency and ability in two
NLM – native language magnet model languages, any (however minimal) ability in one language together
NLP – natural language processing with uency in another language, the ability to switch easily
OPU – overphrasal unity between two languages in speech, or the ability to understand more
POS-tagging – part-of-speech tagging than one language, though not necessarily the ability to speak both.
SLA (2LA, L2A) – second-language acquisition Broca’s aphasics often have agrammatism, consisting in
STT – speech–to–text problems with putting words into sentences and also particular
SVO – subject–verb–object difculties with the elements that carry the grammatical structure,
SWH – Sapir–Whorf hypothesis such as functional words (e.g. prepositions) and word endings.
TM – translation memory (Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880) was a French physician, surgeon,
TMM – translation memory managers anatomist and anthropologist).
TMS – translation memory system

190 191
Code-switching is the term given to the alternation between two Contextualization signals are the cues by which speakers
or more languages, or language varieties (in a manner consistent and writers indicate and to some extent negotiate the immediate
with the syntax and phonology of each variety) in the context of a situation of the text’s production.
single conversation. Conceptual picture of the world is all prescientic and
Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary trend of linguistics scientic knowledge about the world that is saved up for the history
that is closely connected with semantics. CL explores issues such of the people speaking the language.
as the relationship of the language, consciousness and thought, the Connectionism is a linguistic approach that views the dynamic
role of language in the process of cognition (i.e. understanding), connection of nodes (processing units) creating the information
and the reection of reality. pathways where they are most useful.
Cognitive theory posits that a child has to understand a Constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a
concept before he or she can acquire the particular language which language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been
expresses that concept. consciously devised for human or human-like communication,
Cohesion means multifarious linguistic ways in which instead of having developed naturally. It is also referred to as an
sentences are connected to each other. It is the “glue” that holds articial, planned or invented language, and in some cases a
texts together. ctional language.
Cohort theory maintains that listeners attempt to map the Conversational implicature is a process in which the speaker
acoustic signal onto a representation in the mental lexicon implies and the listener infers.
beginning almost as the signal starts to arrive. Corpus or text corpus is a sample of a “real world” text. Most
Collocation, in corpus linguistics, is a sequence of words or lexical corpora today are part-of-speech-tagged (POS-tagged).
terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in
In phraseology, collocation is a sub-type of phraseme. corpora (samples) of “real world” text. Corpus linguistics suggests
Community of practice allows sociolinguistics examine the that reliable language analysis is more feasible with corpora
relationship between socialization, competence, and identity. collected in the eld, in their natural contexts.
Comparable corpus is a corpus in which the texts are of the Creole language resulting from unsystematic pidgin data
same kind and cover the same content, but they are not translations is almost as systematic and sophisticated as any natural human
of each other. language and more interestingly contains rules that are not
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary eld concerned attributable to the languages forming the pidgin, out of which it is
with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from driven.
a computational perspective. Traditionally, computational linguistics Critical discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary approach
was usually performed by computer scientists who had specialised in to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social
the application of computers to the processing of a natural language. practice. Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally
Computational semantics comprises dening suitable logics assume that (non-linguistic) social practice and linguistic practice
for linguistic meaning representation, automatically constructing constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal
them and reasoning with them. power relations are established and reinforced through language
Computer-aided corpus linguistics has been used since the use.
1970s as a way to make detailed advances in the eld of discourse Critical period hypothesis (its strict version) states that there
analysis. is a cut-off age at about 12, after which learners lose the ability to
Concept is what the individual knows, thinks, represents about fully learn a language.
objects of the external and internal worlds. The ‘concept’ is an idea
of a world fragment.
192 193
De cit approach posits that one gender is de cient in speech acts, and entire acts of speech activity; (b) language
terms of the other. Descriptions of women’s speech as de cient consciousness, i.e. the cognitive use of language and other sign
can actually be dated as far back as Otto Jespersen’s “The systems functionally equivalent to it; (c) the external and internal
Woman”, a chapter in his 1922 book Language: Its Nature and organization of speech communication processes.
Development. Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins,
Diachronic linguistics studies the development of the language and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
system throughout the time span. Diachronic linguistics includes
comparative and historic linguistics. First language is normally synonymous with the mother
Dialectology (its variant – linguistic geography) studies local tongue. Although there are many situations where it might be
territorial varieties of the language. difcult to identify which language deserves both of these labels: for
Direct associative dictionary makes it possible to observe example, when each parent speaks a different language, when two
the systemic character of the knowledge that is designated by the or more languages are commonly used in the family or immediate
bodies of signs (i.e. words) of a given language. community, or when the child (or adult) is more comfortable with
Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within and uent in a language learnt later, and/or has forgotten his/her
each modality and context of communication. earliest acquired language.
Discourse analysis is a general term for a number of approaches Forensic linguistics is the application of linguistic analysis
to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any signicant to forensics. Forensic analysis investigates on the style,
semiotic event. language, lexical use, and other linguistic and grammatical
Discourse organisation means the ways in which sentences are features used in the legal context to provide evidence in courts
organised into higher-order units (bigger than single sentences), of law. Forensic linguists have also contributed expertise in
for example, the scenes and episodes making up a story or the criminal cases.
arguments and sub-arguments making up an overall argument for
a particular position. Garden-path sentence are so called because they lead us up
Discursive psychology is a form of discourse analysis that the garden path by misleading us about their construction (e.g., The
focuses on psychological themes in talk, text and images. ball bounced past the window burst).
Dominance approach posits that gender differences in Genderlect is a variety of speech (or sociolect) associated with
language reect power differences in society. a particular gender.
Dysgraphia is a deciency in the ability to write, primarily Gender-neutral language, gender-inclusive language,
handwriting, but also orthography, the storing process of written inclusive language, or gender neutrality is a form of linguistic
words, processing the letters in those words and coherence. prescriptivism that aims to eliminate (or neutralize) reference to
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized biological sex or gender with regard to terms that describe people
by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. (e.g., the words policeman and stewardess are gender-specic; the
corresponding gender-neutral terms are police ofcer and ight
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) attendant).
is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between Gender paradox is a sociolinguistic phenomenon rst observed
language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups by William Labov, in which women conform more closely than
perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology men to sociolinguistic norms that are overtly prescribed, but
and linguistics. conform less than men when they are not.
Ethnopsycholinguistics is a branch of psycholinguistics which General linguistics deals with issues related to all languages,
studies national and cultural variation in (a) speech operations, explores the essence and nature of language in general, and the
194 195
problem of its origin, general laws of its functioning, structure, and Language acquisition device, according to Noam Chomsky, is
classication of languages. General linguistics develops methods a set of language learning tools, provided at birth.
for studying languages and formulates language universals. Language/lingual picture of the world is a subsystem
presenting language, thinking, and communication. It is the system
Historical linguistics deals with the simulation and study of of knowledge imprinted in language signs, and also ways of
language evolution. receiving and interpretation of new knowledge.
Language transfer in the language acquisition studies is a
Innateness theory posits that language is an innate faculty – phenomenon when language learners fall back on their mother
we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads which tongue to help create their acquired language system.
Noam Chomsky refers to as the ‘universal grammar’. Lexicography is a branch of Linguistics that covers the theory
Interactive activation model is based on connectionist and practice of compiling dictionaries. It is closely connected
principles and is similar in nature to the TRACE model for speech with Lexicology, both dealing with the same problems – the
comprehension. Nodes and pathways are activated when we form, meaning, usage and origin of vocabulary units. At present
recognize parts of letters, whole letters and words. lexicography has three meanings: (1) a branch of linguistics that
Interlanguage is an emerging language system in the mind studies the principles of compiling dictionaries of various types;
of a second-language learner. A learner’s interlanguage is not a (2) the practice of compiling dictionaries; (3) a set of dictionaries
decient version of the language being learned lled with random of a given language.
errors, nor is it a language purely based on errors introduced from Lingual didactics focuses on enhancing the theoretical and
the learner’s rst language; rather, it is a language in its own right, practical bases of language teaching and provides methods for the
with its own systematic rules. latter. Sometimes it is interchangeable with language teaching.
Interlinear gloss is a gloss (series of brief explanations, such Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how
as denitions or pronunciations) placed between lines, such as language inuences social life; it is the branch of anthropology
between a line of the original text and its translation into another that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems,
language. linking the analysis of semiotic and particularly linguistic forms
Isogloss, also called a heterogloss, is the geographic boundary and processes to the interpretation of sociocultural processes.
of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a Linguistic determinism is the stronger of the two versions (the
vowel letter, the meaning of a word, or the use of some syntactic weaker being linguistic relativity) of the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.
feature. It is the idea that language and its structures limit and determine
human knowledge or thought, as well as thought processes such
Morpho-phonological encoding is a processing step that as categorization, memory, and perception. The term implies that
begins with the retrieval of the morphemes corresponding to the people who speak different languages as their mother tongues have
selected lemma. different thought processes.
Motor theory posits that the listener recreates the motor Linguistic relativity is the weaker of the two versions (the
movements associated with speaking the words. This theory has stronger being linguistic determinism) of the Sapir–Whorf
been largely discredited now. hypothesis. It holds that the structure of a language affects its
speakers’ world view or cognition.
Language acquisition research is aimed at describing how a
child becomes competent to produce and understand language, Machine translation remains the sub-division of computational
select the proper processing strategies and achieve language linguistics dealing with having computers translate between
“milestones”. languages.
196 197
Mathematical linguistics is a eld of scientic linguistic with the interactions between computers and human (natural)
inquiry applying mathematical methods and concepts to linguistic languages; as such, NLP is related to the area of human–computer
systems, to phenomena observed in natural languages, or to the interaction.
metatheory of grammar models. Neurolinguistics studies language processing in the brain.
Mental lexicon is a mental dictionary that contains
information regarding a word’s meaning, pronunciation, syntactic Para-linguistics is exploring the non-linguistic (non-verbal)
characteristics, and so on. It is a construct used in linguistics and means of speech transmission in connection with the verbal
psycholinguistics to refer to individual speakers’ lexical, or word, semantic information as part of verbal communication. Para-
representations. linguistics is also considered as nonverbal section of semiotics.
Minimal attachment posits that structural simplicity guides all Partial linguistics studies one language or a group of related
initial analyses. (kindred) languages (e.g., Germanic, Slavic or Balkan linguistics).
Monolingual corpus is a corpus that contains texts naturally Part-of-speech tagging (or POS-tagging) is an example of
occurring in a single language. annotating a corpus, in which information about each word’s part
Morpheme-based view posits that the lexicon is organized of speech (verb, noun, adjective, etc.) is added to the corpus in the
in terms of morphemes such as beauty, -ful, and -ly. In this view, form of tags.
complex words are processed and represented in terms of such Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of
units. human speech, or – in the case of sign languages – the equivalent
Morphology is a eld of linguistics that studies how words are aspects of sign.
formed, their categories, and their relationship to other words in Phonology (sometimes called phonemics or phonematics) is
the same language. the study of how sounds are used in languages to convey meanings.
Mother tongue is the language acquired in early childhood It includes topics such as stress and intonation. The basic unit of
from parents and spoken in the home environment. analysis for phonology is called phoneme.
Multilingual corpus is a corpus that contains naturally Phraseology is the branch of lexicology specializing in word-
occurring texts in multiple languages. groups that are characterized by stability of structure and transferred
meaning.
Native language magnet model posits that infants are Pidgin is a grammatically simplied means of communication
biologically endowed with neural mechanisms responding to the that develops between two or more groups that do not have a
phonetic contrasts used by the world’s languages and, thereby, language in common. It possesses the following features: reduced
learn their mother tongue rapidly and effortlessly, following similar syntax and vocabulary; often no xed order of words, with
developmental paths regardless of culture. considerable variation from one speaker to another; it is used purely
Native language magnet model, expanded (NLM-e) proposes as a means of communication; it is not lived in; noone speaks a
that early language experience shapes neural architecture, affecting pidgin as a mother tongue.
later language learning, and both computational and social abilities Polyglot(t)ism is the ability to master, or the state of having
affect learning. mastered, multiple languages.
Natural language interface enables the user to communicate Pragmatics is the study of the conditions for communication,
with the computer in French, English, German, or another human inuence, and comprehension; studying the relationship between
language. Current advances in the recognition of spoken language the means of the language and speech and people who use these
improve the usability of many types of natural language systems. means.
Natural language processing is a eld of computer science, Prosody means the ways in which the words and sentences of a
articial intelligence, and computational linguistics concerned text are said: their pitch, loudness, stress, and the length assigned to
198 199
various syllables, as well as the way in which the speaker hesitates variables (such as ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of
and pauses. education, age, etc.).
Psycholinguistics is an independent scientic branch that arose Speech act in linguistics is an utterance that has a performative
at the intersection of linguistics and psychology. It explores the function in language and communication.
representation and function of language in the mind, describes and Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that
explains mental processes in the speech production and perception. describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique
and mutually accepted way among themselves.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is an underlying axiom of linguist Speech/spoken corpus is a database of speech audio les and
and anthropologist Edward Sapir and his colleague and student text transcriptions. In linguistics, spoken corpora are used to do
Benjamin Whorf. This linguistic theory proclaims that the semantic research into phonetics, conversation analysis, dialectology and
structure of a language shapes or limits a speaker’s conception of other elds. There are two types of speech corpora: (1) read speech
the world. and (2) spontaneous speech.
Second language is a language that is not the native language Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-eld of
of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In a more computational linguistics that develops methodologies and
general way, it is a cover term for second and foreign language; it technologies for the recognition and translation of spoken language
may also be used for a third or fourth language. into text by computers.
Second language acquisition is used to refer to both acquisition Speech synthesis is the articial production of human speech.
and learning. There are many situations in the world where the A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech
distinction between foreign- and second-language learning is not synthesizer.
so clear-cut. Structuralism in sociology, anthropology and linguistics is
Semantics is the study of intension, that is, the intrinsic the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be
meanings of words and phrases. understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching
Semiotics is the study of how word meaning is constructed and system or structure. It works to uncover the structures that underlie
understood. all the things that humans do, think, perceive, and feel.
Social interaction theory, which was proposed by L. Vygotsky, Stylistics is the study of patterns of style within written or spoken
incorporates nurture arguments in that children can be inuenced discourse; thus, it considers the peculiarities of bookish (ofcial
by their environment as well as the language input children receive documents, scientic prose, publicistic, newspaper, and belles-
from their care-givers. lettres) and colloquial (formal, informal, and substandard) styles.
Social network is another way of describing a particular speech Synchronic linguistics is aimed at the study of the state of the
community in terms of relations between individual members in a language system at a particular moment of its development.
community. A network could be loose or tight depending on how Syntax is the set of rules, principles and processes that govern
members interact with each other. the structure of sentences in a given language, specically word
Sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) order and punctuation.
associated with a social group such as a socioeconomic class, an
ethnic group (precisely termed ethnolect), an age group, etc. Text-corpus method is a digestive approach for deriving a set
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of abstract rules from a text for governing a natural language. The
of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, advantage of publishing an annotated corpus is that other users can
expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and then perform experiments on it.
society’s effect on language. It also studies how language Text linguistics is the study of text as a product (text grammar)
varieties differ between groups separated by certain social or as a process (theory of text).
200 201
Thematic organization means the ways in which themes corresponding cognitive schemes and being amenable to conscious
(images, contrasts, focal points of interest) are signalled and reection.
developed. Worldview refers to the world perception of a people, family,
Theoretical linguistics is a branch of linguistics that is most or person.
concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. The
elds that are generally considered the core of theoretical linguistics
are, in particular, phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicology, and
semantics; later appeared pragmatics and discourse analysis
TRACE model entails the dynamic connection of nodes
(processing units) creating the information pathways where they
are most useful.
Translation corpus contains texts in one language that are
translations of texts in the other language.
Treebank in linguistics is a parsed text corpus that annotates
syntactic or semantic sentence structure. The construction of
parsed corpora in the early 1990s revolutionized computational
linguistics.
Typology (universalism) is engaged in clarifying the most
common patterns of different languages, unrelated by their
common origin or mutual inuence. If a phenomenon is revealed
in a representative group of languages, it may be considered a
typological pattern applicable to the language as such.

Universal grammar is the idea that all languages are built


upon a common grammar, even though it may undergo accidental
variations.
Usage-based theory of language suggests that children initially
build up their language through very concrete constructions
based around individual words or frames.

Wernicke’s aphasics produce long strings that are


incomprehensible, have better access to the grammatical words
than to content words. (Carl/Karl Wernicke (1848-1905) was a
German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist).
Word-based view posits that the lexicon contains representations
of all words that the language user knows, whether they are single-
morpheme words such as cat or polymorphemic words such as
beautifully.
World image is the reection of the object world in a person’s
psyche, this reection being mediated by object meanings and
202 203
ЛИТЕРАТУРA 15. Попова З. Д. Когнитивная лингвистика : учебник /
З. Д. Попова, И. А. Стернин. – М. : Восток-Запад : АСТ,
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Донецьк : Юго-Восток : Лтд, 2006. – 188 с. Дополнительная литература
11. Лайонз Дж. Введение в теоретическую лингвистику : 1. Баранов А. Н. Лингвистическая экспертиза текста: теория
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УРСС, 2010. – 544 c. Наука, 2007. – 592 c.
12. Маслова В. А. Введение в когнитивную лингвистику : 2. Березович Е. Л. Язык и традиционная культура :
учеб. пособие / В. А. Маслова. – 3-е изд., испр. – М. : этнолингвист. исслед. / Е. Л. Березович. – М. : Индрик,
Флинта, 2012. – 296 c. 2007. – 600 c.
13. Пиневич Е. В. Социолингвистика : учеб. пособие / 3. Борботько В. Г. Принципы формирования дискурса: от
Е. В. Пиневич, В. Ф. Стародубцев. – М. : Экономика, психолингвистики к лингвосинергетике / В. Г. Борботько. –
2011. – 215 с. М. : Либроком, 2011. – 288 c.
14. Плеханова Т. Ф. Дискурс-анализ текста / Т. Ф. Плеханова. – 4. Бринев К. И. Теоретическая лингвистика и судебная
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168 c. 2008. – 224 с.
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350 с. 22. Формановская Н. И. Речевое взаимодействие.
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10. Малюга Е. Н. Функциональная прагматика межкультурной Академ. проект, 2011. – 336 c.
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14. Михалёва О. Л. Политический дискурс. Специфика Oxford University Press, 2007. – 496 p.
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Либроком, 2008. – 256 c. G. Barkhuizen. – 2nd ed. – Oxford : Oxford University Press,
15. Песина С. А. Инвариантность в когнитивной лингвистике 2008. – 158 p.
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Флинта, 2014. – 218 c. London ; New York : Routledge, 2004. – 366 p.
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Мн. : Изд-во МГЛУ, 2005. – 156 с. E. Tarone. – Amsterdam : John Benjamins. 2014. – 262 p.
17. Рассел Дж. Искусственный язык / Дж. Рассел. – М. : VSD, 31. Lightbown P. How Languages Are Learned / P. Lightbown,
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258 p.
206 207
РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ИЗУЧЕНИЮ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
32. Potts Ch. The Logic of Conventional Implicatures / Ch. Potts. – И ПОДГОТОВКЕ К ЗАНЯТИЯМ
Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2005. – 260 p.
33. Second Language Acquisition : An Introductory Course / ed. Лекции на старших курсах отличаются большей широтой
вy : S. M. Gass, L. Selinker. – 3rd ed. – Routledge, 2008. – и глубиной охвата научных проблем. Лекции должны
612 p. характеризоваться научностью и информативностью
34. Theories in Second Language Acquisition : An Introduction / (современный научный уровень), доказательностью и
ed. вy : B. van Patten, J. Williams. – Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence аргументированностью, наличием достаточного количества
Erlbaum Associates, 2007. – 262 p. убедительных примеров, фактов, обоснований, документов
и научных доказательств, способностью активизировать
мышление слушателей, ставить вопросы для размышления,
иметь четкую структуру и логику раскрытия последовательно
излагаемых вопросов; разъяснять вновь вводимые термины
и понятия, подчеркивать главные мысли, положения и
выводы. Объяснение материала преподавателем на лекциях
сопровождается показом схем, таблиц, демонстрацией
основных вех в истории развития и понятий с использованием
видеопроектора, показом видеофрагментов по теме
лекционного занятия.
Семинарские занятия играют важную роль в выработке
у студентов навыков применения полученных знаний для
решения практических задач совместно с преподавателем.
Семинарские занятия по «Теоретическим и прикладным
аспектам лингвистики» логически продолжают работу,
начатую в ходе теоретического обучения. СЗ призваны
углублять, расширять, детализировать знания, полученные
на лекциях в обобщенной форме, и содействовать выработке
навыков профессиональной деятельности. В рамках курса
предусмотрено выполнение следующих видов работ:
поиск справочной информации, хранение и архивирование,
работа с информационными ресурсами в профессиональной
деятельности лингвиста. Самостоятельная работа студентов
предусматривает подготовку творческих работ, проектов,
рефератов, презентаций.

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Учебное издание

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ И ПРИКЛАДНЫЕ АСПЕКТЫ


ЛИНГВИСТИКИ

Учебное пособие

На английском языке

Составитель
Наталья Анатольевна ЯСИНЕЦКАЯ

Технический редактор А. М. Калашников


Компьютерная вёрстка и макетирование Е. С. Шалыгиной
Корректор О. Т. Захарова

За достоверность представленной информации и ссылок


ответственность несёт составитель

Подписано к изданию 21.03.2018.


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Усл.-изд. л. – 12,32.
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