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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ


ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
БАШКИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ им. М.АКМУЛЛЫ

КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
В ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ СФЕРЕ
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ

для студентов, обучающихся по направлению


Педагогическое образование
профиль «Музыкальное образование»

Уфа 2015
УДК 811.111
ББК 81.43.21-9
А64

Тексты для дополнительного чтения по английскому языку


в профессиональной сфере обсуждены на кафедре иностранных языков.
Зав. кафедрой доктор филологических наук Т.А. Буркова

Печатается по решению Совета по учебно-методической работе


Башкирского государственного педагогического университета
им. М. Акмуллы

Английский язык в профессиональной сфере [Текст]: Тексты для


дополнительного чтения по английскому языку в профессиональной
сфере: учебно-методическое пособие / сост. М.А. Бойко, Т.В. Антипова –
Уфа: Изд-во БГПУ, 2015. – 50 с.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов,


обучающихся по направлению «Педагогическое образование», профиль
«Музыкальное образование». Пособие содержит профессиональные тексты
на английском языке, включающие коммуникативно-ориентированные
задания, задания для перевода с русского языка на иностранный и c
иностранного на русский. Предлагаемые тексты могут быть использованы
как на аудиторных занятиях, так и для самостоятельной работы в процессе
изучения дисциплины «Иностранный язык».

Рецензенты: О.Н. Новикова, докт. филол. наук, профессор (БГАУ)


З.Р. Киреева, канд. пед. наук, доцент (БГПУ им. М.Акмуллы)

© Издательство БГПУ, 2015


© М.А. Бойко, Т.В. Антипова
Введение

Пособие рассчитано на лиц, имеющих подготовку по английскому


языку в объеме средней школы. В пособии представлены материалы,
которые могут быть использованы на этапе перехода от изучения Basic
English к изучению English in Professional Use.

Пособие разработано на основе современных аутентичных


материалов, оно профессионально ориентировано. Особое внимание
уделяется отбору слов и выражений, связанных с терминологическим
аппаратом по психологии.

Целью обучения с использованием материалов данного пособия


является овладение профессиональным языком специальности, а именно
развитие навыков чтения для извлечения информации, а также овладение
терминами по музыкальному образованию. В дополнение к текстам
предлагаются компьютерные обучающие программы по терминологии
(КОПРы по терминологии).

В пособии предлагаются упражнения для развития навыков устной


речи, поскольку формирование иноязычной компетенции является
основной целью обучения иностранному языку в современном мире
глобализации и интеграции. После прочтения текста и его обсуждения
требуется высказать собственное мнение по содержанию текста. В
упражнения включены, в первую очередь, слова и выражения для
активного усвоения. Упражнения способствуют развитию умения кратко
изложить основное содержание текста на иностранном языке.

Тексты данного учебно-методического пособия могут быть


использованы как при работе в аудитории, так и для индивидуальной
работы.

Пособие может быть использовано на занятиях по английскому


языку бакалавров второго и третьего курса, а также всеми,
интересующимися соответствующими терминологическими тезаурусами
по проблемам музыкального образования.

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TEXT 1

Vocabulary

flute флейта

string instrument струнный инструмент

harp арфа

orchestra оркестр

lyre лира

lute лютня

rhythm ритм

drum барабан

note нота

octave октава

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Do you know any ancient musical instruments?
2. What were the earliest materials for making musical instruments?
3. What were the reasons of prehistoric music emergence?

HISTORY OF MUSIC. PART ONE

4
Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic
archaeology sites. Flutes are often discovered, carved from bones in which
lateral holes have been pierced; these are thought to have been blown at one end
like the Japanese shakuhachi. The Divje Babe flute, carved from a cave bear
femur, is thought to be at least 40,000 years old. Instruments such as the seven-
holed flute and various types of stringed instruments, such as the Ravanahatha,
have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites.
India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world—references to Indian
classical music (marga) are found in the Vedas, ancient scriptures of the
Hindu tradition The earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical
instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BC.
The Hurrian song, found on clay tablets that date back to approximately 1400
BC, is the oldest surviving notated work of music.

The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods, Thoth, with the
invention of music, which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilize the
world. The earliest material and representational evidence of Egyptian musical
instruments dates to the Predynastic period, but the evidence is more securely
attested in the Old Kingdom when harps, flutes and double clarinets were
played. Percussion instruments, lyres and lutes were added to orchestras by the
Middle Kingdom. Cymbals frequently accompanied music and dance, much as
they still do in Egypt today. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi
dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian
music, having preserved many of its features, rhythms and instruments.

Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.
The Indus Valley civilization has sculptures that show dance and old musical
instruments, like the seven holed flute. Various types of stringed instruments
and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by
excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. The Rigveda has elements of
present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode
of chanting. Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based on a
single melody line or raga rhythmically organized through talas.
Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal gives so much information about how new
scale can be formed by modal shift of tonic from existing scale. Hindustani
music was influenced by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan
Mughals. Carnatic music popular in the southern states, is largely devotional;
the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. There are a lot of
songs emphasising love and other social issues.

Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central Asia, East Asia,
South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Chinese classical music, the traditional art or
court music of China, has a history stretching over around three thousand years.

5
It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as musical tuning and
pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical genres. Chinese music is
pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes to an octave (5 + 7 = 12) as
does European-influenced music. Persian music is the music of Persia and
Persian language countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the
sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983).

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. The Divje Babe flute is thought to be at least 20, 000 years old.
2. India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.
3. The earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was
found in Japan.
4. Osiris used music as part of his effort to civilize the world.
5. Hindustani music was influenced by the Persian performance practices of
the Afghan Mughals.
6. The traditional art or court music of China, has a history stretching over
around two thousand years.
7. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve notes.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What can the theory of prehistoric music be based on?
2. How old is the Divje Babe flute?
3. When and where was the earliest and largest collection of prehistoric
musical instruments found?
4. What is the oldest surviving notated work of music?
5. Whom did the ancient Egyptians credit with the invention of music.
6. Which civilization had sculptures that show dance and old musical
instruments?
7. What music cultures does the Asian music cover?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the ancient musical traditions with your partner.

TEXT 2

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Vocabulary

a musician музыкант

a singer певец

musical literacy музыкальная грамота

music theory музыкальная теория

classical music классическая музыка

Epitaph эпитафия

a musical composition музыкальное произведение

a composer композитор

a musical style музыкальный стиль

a church choir церковный хор

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What was the role of music in Ancient Greece?
2. Was there any link between music and Catholic Church services.
3. Did the Renaissance period benefit music?

HISTORY OF MUSIC. PART 2

References in the Bibleying the history and anthropology of Semitic and


early Judeo-Christian culture have discovered common links in theatrical and
musical activity between the classical cultures of the Hebrews and those of later
Greeks and Romans. The common area of performance is found in a "social
phenomenon called litany," a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations
or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the
earliest forms of litany, "Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical
tradition:"

7
Music was an important part of social and cultural life in Ancient Greece.
Musicians and singers played a prominent role in Greek theater. Mixed-gender
choruses performed for entertainment, celebration, and spiritual ceremonies.
Instruments included the double-reed aulos and a plucked string instrument, the
lyre, principally the special kind called a kithara. Music was an important part of
education, and boys were taught music starting at age six. Greek musical literacy
created a flowering of music development. Greek music theory included the
Greek musical modes, that eventually became the basis for Western religious
and classical music. Later, influences from the Roman Empire, Eastern Europe,
and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music. The Seikilos epitaph is the
oldest surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical
notation, from anywhere in the world.

The medieval era (476 to 1400) started with the introduction of chanting
into Roman Catholic Church services. Western Music then started becoming
more of an art form with the advances in music notation. The only European
Medieval repertory that survives from before about 800 is the monophonic
liturgical plainsong of the Roman Catholic Church, the central tradition of which
was called Gregorian chant. Alongside these traditions of sacred and church
music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song. Examples of composers
from this period are Léonin, Pérotin and Guillaume de Machaut.

Renaissance music (c. 1400 to 1600) was more focused on secular themes.
Around 1450, the printing press was invented, and that helped to disseminate
musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Thus, music could play an
increasingly important role in daily life. Musicians worked for the church, courts
and towns. Church choirs grew in size, and the church remained an important
patron of music. By the middle of the 15th century, composers wrote richly
polyphonic sacred music. Prominent composers from this era are Guillaume
Dufay, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Thomas Morley, and Orlande de
Lassus. However, musical activity shifted to the courts. Kings and princes
competed for the finest composers.

Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium,


and northern France and are called the Franco-Flemish composers. They held
important positions throughout Europe, especially in Italy. Other countries with
vibrant musical lives include Germany, England, and Spain.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false.


1. Music was an important part of social and cultural life in Ancient Greece.
2. Music was an important part of education, and boys were taught music
starting at age seven.
8
3. The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving example of a complete
musical composition.
4. The medieval era started with the introduction of chanting into Roman
Catholic Church services.
5. The printing press was invented in 1480.
6. Musicians worked for the theatres and ballet.
7. Many leading important composers came from the Netherlands, Belgium,
and northern France.
III. Answer the following questions.
1. Did musicians and singers play a prominent role in Greek theater?
2. What events did mixed-gender choruses perform at?
3. At what age did boys start learning music?
4. What musical instruments were used in Ancient Greece?
5. What are the most prominent composers of the Middle Ages?
6. What themes was Renaissance music focused on?
7. What countries were the leading composers from?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss rich musical traditions of different ages.

TEXT 3

Vocabulary

an opera опера

a pipe organ орган

clavichord клавикорды

a sonata соната

a concerto концерт

accompaniment аккомпанемент

a voice голос

a serenade серенада

9
divertimento дивертисмент

musical genre музыкальный жанр

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. In what part of the world did the Baroque style arise?
2. Which musical forms belonging to Classicism you know?
3. Name the most prominent composers of the Romantic music?

MUSICAL STYLES OF 1600-1900

The Baroque era of music took place from 1600 to 1750, as the Baroque
artistic style flourished across Europe; and during this time, music expanded in
its range and complexity. Baroque music began when the first operas were
written and when contrapuntal music became prevalent. German Baroque
composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds,
as well as choirs, pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. During this period
several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they
were expanded and evolved further, including the fugue, the invention, the
sonata, and the concerto. The late Baroque style was polyphonically complex
and ornamental and rich in its melodies. Composers from the Baroque era
include Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, and Georg Philipp
Telemann.

The music of the Classical Period (1750 to 1830) looked at the art and
philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome, to the ideals of balance, proportion
and disciplined expression. It has a lighter, clearer and considerably simpler
texture, and tended to be almost voice like and singable. New genres were
discovered. The main style was the homophony, where prominent melody and
accompaniment are clearly distinct.

Importance was given to instrumental music. It was dominated by further


evolution of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata,
the concerto, and the symphony. Others main kinds were trio, string quartet,
serenade and divertimento. The sonata was the most important and developed
form. Although Baroque composers also wrote sonatas, the Classical style of
sonata is completely distinct. All of the main instrumental forms of the Classical
era were based on the dramatic structure of the sonata.

10
The best known composers of Classicism are Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach,
Christoph Willibald Gluck, Johann Christian Bach, Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert. Beethoven and
Schubert are also considered to be composers in evolution towards
Romanticism.

Romantic music (c. 1810 to 1900) turned the rigid styles and forms of the
Classical era into more passionate and expressive pieces. It attempted to increase
emotional expression and power to describe deeper truths or human feelings.
The emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over
technique and tradition. Romantic composers grew in idiosyncrasy, and went
further in the syncretism of different art-forms (such as literature), history
(historical figures), or nature itself with music. Romantic love was a prevalent
theme in many works composed during this period. In some cases the formal
structures from the classical period were preserved, but in many others existing
genres, forms, and functions were improved. Also, new forms were created that
were deemed better suited to the new subject matter. Opera and ballet continued
to evolve.

In 1800, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz


Schubert introduced a more dramatic, expressive style. In Beethoven's case,
motifs, developed organically, came to replace melody as the most significant
compositional unit. Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr Ilyich
Tchaikovsky, Antonín Dvořák, and Gustav Mahler used more elaborated chords
and more dissonance to create dramatic tension. They generated complex and
often much longer musical works. During Romantic period tonality was at its
peak.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. French Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings.
2. The Baroque artistic style flourished across Asia.
3. The late Baroque style was polyphonically complex and ornamental and
rich in its melodies.
4. The music of the Classical Period (1750 to 1830) looked at the art and
philosophy of Ancient Greece and Rome.
5. Beethoven and Schubert are also considered to be composers of Baroque.
6. Romantic love was a prevalent theme in many works composed during
Romanticism.
7. In 1800, the music developed by Ludwig van Beethoven and Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart introduced a more dramatic, expressive style.
11
III. Answer the following questions.
1. When did the Baroque music begin?
2. What instruments did German Baroque composers write for?
3. What composers did the Baroque era include?
4. What was the main style of the Classical Period music?
5. Which musical forms dominated during the Classical Period?
6. What was the prevalent theme during the Romantic Period?
7. What style was introduced by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz
Schubert?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Compare musical styles of 1600-1900 in a dialogue with your partner.

TEXT 4

Vocabulary

violinist скрипач

music ensemble музыкальный ансамбль

violin скрипка

opera composer оперный композитор

impresario импресарио

performance выступление

oratorio оратория

oboe гобой

mandolin мандолина

recorder английская флейта

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.

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1. What is the best-known work of Vivaldi?
2. What musical instrument did Vivaldi play?
3. Do you know any operas of Vivaldi?

ANTONI LUCIO VIVALDI

Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian


Baroque composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric. Born in Venice, he was
recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during
his lifetime was widespread across Europe. He is known mainly for composing
many instrumental concertos, for the violin and a variety of other instruments, as
well as sacred choral works and over forty operas. His best-known work is a
series of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons.

Many of his compositions were written for the female music ensemble of
the Ospedale della Pietà, a home for abandoned children where Vivaldi (who
had been ordained as a Catholic priest) was employed from 1703 to 1715 and
from 1723 to 1740. Vivaldi also had some success with expensive stagings of
his operas in Venice, Mantua and Vienna. After meeting the Emperor Charles
VI, Vivaldi moved to Vienna, hoping for preferment. However, the Emperor
died soon after Vivaldi's arrival, and Vivaldi himself died less than a year later
in poverty.
In early 18th-century Venice, opera was the most popular musical
entertainment. It proved most profitable for Vivaldi. There were several theaters
competing for the public's attention. Vivaldi started his career as an opera
composer as a sideline: his first opera, Ottone in villa was performed not in
Venice, but at the Garzerie Theater in Vicenza in 1713. The following year,
Vivaldi became the impresario of the Teatro San Angelo in Venice, where his
opera Orlando finto pazzo was performed. The work was not to the public's
taste, and it closed after a couple of weeks, being replaced with a repeat of a
different work already given the previous year.
In 1715, he presented Nerone fatto Cesare, with music by seven different
composers, of which he was the leader. The opera contained eleven arias, and
was a success. In the late season, Vivaldi planned to put on an opera composed
entirely by him, Arsilda, regina di Ponto (RV 700), but the state censor blocked
the performance. The main character, Arsilda, falls in love with another woman,
Lisea, who is pretending to be a man. Vivaldi got the censor to accept the opera
the following year, and it was a resounding success.
At this period, the Pietà commissioned several liturgical works. The most
important were two oratorios. Moyses Deus Pharaonis, is lost. The second,
13
Juditha triumphans, celebrates the victory of the Republic of Venice against the
Turks and the recapture of the island of Corfu. Composed in 1716, it is one of
his sacred masterpieces. All eleven singing parts were performed by girls of the
Pietà, both the female and male roles. Many of the arias include parts for solo
instruments—recorders, oboes, violas d'amore, and mandolins—that showcased
the range of talents of the girls.
Also in 1716, Vivaldi wrote and produced two more operas,
L'incoronazione di Dario and La costanza trionfante degli amori e degli odi. The
latter was so popular that it performed two years later, re-edited and retitled
Artabano re dei Parti. It was also performed in Prague in 1732. In the following
years, Vivaldi wrote several operas that were performed all over Italy.
His progressive operatic style caused him some trouble with more
conservative musicians, like Benedetto Marcello, a magistrate and amateur
musician who wrote a pamphlet denouncing him and his operas. The pamphlet,
Il teatro alla moda, attacks Vivaldi without mentioning him directly. The cover
drawing shows a boat (the Sant'Angelo), on the left end of which stands a little
angel wearing a priest's hat and playing the violin. The Marcello family claimed
ownership of the Teatro Sant'Angelo, and a long legal battle had been fought
with the management for its restitution, without success. The obscure writing
under the picture mentions non-existent places and names: ALDIVIVA is an
anagram of A. Vivaldi.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false:


1. Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was a Spanish Baroque composer.

2. His best-known work is a series of violin concertos known as The Four


Seasons.
3. Many of his compositions were written for the male music ensemble.
4. In 1715, he presented Nerone fatto Cesare, with music by eight different
composers, of which he was the leader.
5. In 1716 Vivaldi wrote and produced two more operas.
6. His progressive operatic style caused him some trouble with more
conservative musicians,
7. ALVIVIDA is an anagram of A. Vivaldi.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Where and when was Vivaldi born?
2. What is he mainly known for?
3. What is his best-known work?
4. What was the most popular musical entertainment in early 18th century in
Venice?
5. Where and when was his first opera performed?
6. Did his progressive operatic style cause him any trouble?

14
7. Who wrote a pamphlet denouncing Vivaldi and his operas?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Vivaldi’s progressive operatic style with your partner.

TEXT 5

Vocabulary

keyboard instruments клавишные

a symphony симфония

choral music хоровая музыка

chamber music камерная музыка

quartet квартет

quintet квинтет

a piano concerto фортепианный концерт

religious music религиозная музыка

overture увертюра

harmony гармония

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Which musical era did Mozart belong to?
2. Did Mozart write religious music?
3. Did Mozart work in only one genre?

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

15
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791),
baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a
prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.

Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already


competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and
performed before European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court musician
inSalzburg, but grew restless and travelled in search of a better position, always
composing abundantly. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from
his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame
but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many
of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the
Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The
circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was
survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.

He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of


symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the
most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence on subsequent
Western art music is profound; Beethoven composed his own early works in the
shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a
talent again in 100 years."

Mozart's music, like Haydn's, stands as an archetype of the Classical style.


At the time he began composing, European music was dominated by the style
galant, a reaction against the highly evolved intricacy of theBaroque.
Progressively, and in large part at the hands of Mozart himself, the contrapuntal
complexities of the late Baroque emerged once more, moderated and disciplined
by new forms, and adapted to a new aesthetic and social milieu. Mozart was a
versatile composer, and wrote in every major genre, including symphony, opera,
the solo concerto, chamber music including string quartet and string quintet, and
the piano sonata. These forms were not new, but Mozart advanced their
technical sophistication and emotional reach. He almost single-handedly
developed and popularized the Classical piano concerto. He wrote a great deal
of religious music, including large-scale masses, as well as dances, divertimenti,
serenades, and other forms of light entertainment.

Especially during his last decade, Mozart exploited chromatic harmony to


a degree rare at the time, with remarkable assurance and to great artistic effect.

Mozart always had a gift for absorbing and adapting valuable features of
others' music. His travels helped in the forging of a unique compositional
language. In London as a child, he met J.C. Bach and heard his music. In Paris,
Mannheim, and Vienna he met with other compositional influences, as well as
16
the avant-garde capabilities of the Mannheim orchestra. In Italy he encountered
the Italian overture and opera buffa, both of which deeply affected the evolution
of his own practice. In London and Italy, the galant style was in the ascendent:
simple, light music with a mania for cadencing; an emphasis on tonic, dominant,
and subdominant to the exclusion of other harmonies; symmetrical phrases; and
clearly articulated partitions in the overall form of movements. Some of
Mozart's early symphonies are Italian overtures, with three movements running
into each other; many are homotonal (all three movements having the same key
signature, with the slow middle movement being in the relative minor). Others
mimic the works of J.C. Bach, and others show the simple rounded binary forms
turned out by Viennese composers.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false.


1. Mozart was born on the 27th of February.
2. Mozart composed over 600 works.
3. Mozart’s music stands as an archetype of the rock style.
4. In London as a child he met Beethoven.
5. He wrote a great deal of religious music.
6. He was survived by his wife Lolita and three sons.
7. At 20, he was engaged as a court musician in Salzburg False.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Did Mozart show prodigious ability from his earliest childhood?
2. At was age was he engaged as a court musician?
3. In what city did he achieve fame but little financial security?
4. How many works did he create?
5. What genres did Mozart write in?
6. Where and when did he meet Bach?
7. What is the distinctive feature of Mozart’s early symphonies?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the most prominent Mozart’s operas.

TEXT 6

Vocabulary

17
virtuoso виртуоз

pianist пианист

a string quartet струнный квартет

a premiere премьера

a piano sonata фортепьянная соната

a soloist солист

modulation модуляция

a piano пианино

a conductor дирижер

players зд. оркестр

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What was the native country of Beethoven?
2. Did he suffer from any physical defect?
3. Did Beethoven leave a large heritage?

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

Ludwig van Beethoven (17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827) was a


German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the
Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most
famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9
symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets. He
also composed other chamber music, choral works (including the celebrated
Missa solemnis), and songs.
Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of
the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age
and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and by Christian Gottlob
Neefe. During his first 22 years in Bonn, Beethoven intended to study with
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and befriended Joseph Haydn. Beethoven moved to
Vienna in 1792 and began studying with Haydn, quickly gaining a reputation as
18
a virtuoso pianist. He lived in Vienna until his death. In about 1800 his hearing
began to deteriorate, and by the last decade of his life he was almost totally deaf.
He gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose;
many of his most admired works come from this period.

Beethoven composed his first six string quartets between 1798 and 1800
(commissioned by, and dedicated to, Prince Lobkowitz). They were published in
1801. With premieres of his First and Second Symphonies in 1800 and 1803,
Beethoven became regarded as one of the most important of a generation of
young composers following Haydn and Mozart. He also continued to write in
other forms, turning out widely known piano sonatas like the "Pathétique"
sonata, which Cooper describes as "surpass any of his previous compositions, in
strength of character, depth of emotion, level of originality, and ingenuity of
motivic and tonal manipulation." He also completed his Septet in 1799, which
was one of his most popular works during his lifetime.

For the premiere of his First Symphony, Beethoven hired the Burgtheater
on 2 April 1800, and staged an extensive program of music, including works by
Haydn and Mozart, as well as his Septet, the First Symphony, and one of his
piano concertos (the latter three works all then unpublished). The concert, which
the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung described as "the most interesting concert
in a long time," was not without difficulties; among the criticisms was that "the
players did not bother to pay any attention to the soloist."

Mozart and Haydn were undeniable influences. For example, Beethoven's


quintet for piano and winds is said to bear a strong resemblance to Mozart's
work for the same configuration, albeit with his own distinctive touches. But
Beethoven's melodies, musical development, use of modulation and texture, and
characterization of emotion all set him apart from his influences, and heightened
the impact some of his early works made when they were first published. By the
end of 1800 Beethoven and his music were already much in demand from
patrons and publishers.

In May 1799, Beethoven taught piano to the daughters of Hungarian


Countess Anna Brunsvik. During this time, Beethoven fell in love with the
younger daughter Josephine who has therefore been identified as one of the
more likely candidates for the addressee of his letter to the "Immortal Beloved"
(in 1812). Shortly after these lessons, Josephine was married to Count Josef
Deym. Beethoven was a regular visitor at their house, continuing to teach
Josephine, and playing at parties and concerts. Her marriage was by all accounts
happy (despite initial financial problems), and the couple had four children. Her
relationship with Beethoven intensified after Deym died suddenly in 1804.

19
II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1729.
2. Beethoven father’s name was Johann.
3. The premiere of his First symphony was in 1800.
4. Beethoven befriended Joseph Haydn.
5. In about 1770 his hearing began to deteriorate.
6. By the end of 1800 Beethoven and his music were already much in
demand from patrons and publishers.
7. In May 1799, Beethoven taught piano to the daughters of Russian
Emperor Nicolay II.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What do Beethoven’s best-known compositions include?
2. Who taught him at an early age?
3. How many years did he live in Bonn?
4. When did his hearing begin to deteriorate?
5. When and where was the premiere of his first symphony?
6. Whom did Beethoven fall in love with in 1799?
7. How many string quartets did Beethoven compose?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Beethoven’s musical heritage with your partner.

TEXT 7

Vocabulary

a clavier клавир

a cantata кантата

town musicians уличные музыканты

contemporary music современная музыка

an organist органист

a liturgy литургия

20
a fugue фуга

sacred music духовная музыка

a prelude прелюдия

a recitative речитатив

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Was Bach born in a musical family?
2. Which period did Bach belong to?
3. What style of music was at the centre of his repertory?

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German
composer and musician of the Baroque period. He enriched established German
styles through his skill in counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organization, and
the adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from
Italy and France. Bach's compositions include the Brandenburg concertos, the
Mass in B minor, The Well-Tempered Clavier, two Passions, keyboard works,
and more than 300 cantatas, of which nearly 100 cantatas have been lost to
posterity. His music is revered for its intellectual depth, technical command, and
artistic beauty.

Bach was born in Eisenach, Saxe-Eisenach, into a great musical family;


his father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, and
all of his uncles were professional musicians. His father probably taught him to
play violin and harpsichord, and his brother, Johann Christoph Bach, taught him
the clavichord and exposed him to much contemporary music. Apparently at his
own initiative, Bach attended St Michael's School in Lüneburg for two years.
After graduating, he held several musical posts across Germany: he served as
Kapellmeister (director of music) to Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen, Cantor
of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, and Royal Court Composer to August III.
Bach's health and vision declined in 1749, and he died on 28 July 1750. Modern
historians believe that his death was caused by a combination of stroke and
pneumonia.

21
Bach's abilities as an organist were highly respected throughout Europe
during his lifetime, although he was not widely recognised as a great composer
until a revival of interest and performances of his music in the first half of the
nineteenth century. He is now generally regarded as one of the main composers
of the Baroque period, and as one of the greatest composers of all time.
Bach's musical style arose from his skill in contrapuntal invention and
motivic control, his flair for improvisation, his exposure to North and South
German, Italian and French music, and his devotion to the Lutheran liturgy. His
access to musicians, scores and instruments as a child and a young man and his
emerging talent for writing tightly woven music of powerful sonority, allowed
him to develop an eclectic, energetic musical style in which foreign influences
were combined with an intensified version of the pre-existing German musical
language. From the period 1713–14 onward he learned much from the style of
the Italians.
During the Baroque period, many composers only wrote the framework,
and performers embellished this framework with ornaments and other
elaboration. This practice varied considerably between the schools of European
music; Bach notated most or all of the details of his melodic lines, leaving little
for performers to interpolate. This accounted for his control over the dense
contrapuntal textures that he favoured, and decreased leeway for spontaneous
variation of musical lines. At the same time, Bach left the instrumentation of
major works including The Art of Fugue open.
Bach's devout relationship with the Christian God in the Lutheran
tradition and the high demand for religious music of his times placed sacred
music at the centre of his repertory. He taught Luther's Small Catechism as
theThomaskantor in Leipzig, and some of his pieces represent it; the Lutheran
chorale hymn tune was the basis of much of his work. He wrote more cogent,
tightly integrated chorale preludes than most. The large-scale structure of some
of Bach's sacred works is evidence of subtle, elaborate planning. For example,
the St Matthew Passion illustrates the Passion with Bible text reflected in
recitatives, arias, choruses, and chorales.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false.


1. Johann Sebastian Bach was a Italian composer and musician of
the Baroque period.
2. Bach was born in Eisenach, Saxe-Eisenach, into a teacher’s family.
3. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town
musicians.
4. Modern historians believe that his death was caused by a combination of
stroke and pneumonia.
5. Bach's abilities as an organist were highly respected throughout America.

22
6. From the period 1713–14 onward he learned much from the style of the
Japanese.
7. The large-scale structure of some of Bach's sacred works is evidence of
subtle, elaborate planning.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What do Bach’s compositions include?
2. What were Bach’s relatives?
3. What school did Bach attend?
4. What post did he hold at the court of Leopold?
5. What caused Bach’s death?
6. What did Bach’s musical style arise from?
7. How did Bach work with his melodic lines?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Bach’s new approach to music composition with your


partner.

TEXT 8

Vocabulary

musical education музыкальное образование

a public performance выступление на публике

lyrics слова песни

ballade баллада

nocturne ноктюрн

scherzo скерцо

folk music народная музыка

piano method фортепьянный метод

piano technique фортепьянная техника

23
polonaises полонез

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What is Chopin’s native country?
2. What musical instrument did he play?
3. Which concept did Chopin invent?

FREDERIC FRANCOIS CHOPIN

Frédéric François Chopin (22 February or 1 March 1810 – 17 October


1849), born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, was a Polish composer and virtuoso
pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano. He gained
and has maintained renown worldwide as one of the leading musicians of his
era, whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was
without equal in his generation." Chopin was born in what was then the Duchy
of Warsaw, and grew up in Warsaw, which after 1815 became part of Congress
Poland. He completed his musical education and composed many of his works
in Warsaw before leaving Poland, aged 20, less than a month before the
outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising.
At the age of 21 he settled in Paris. Thereafter, during the last 18 years of
his life, he gave only some 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate
atmosphere of the salon. He supported himself by selling his compositions and
teaching piano, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship
with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his musical contemporaries,
including Robert Schumann. In 1835 he obtained French citizenship. After a
failed engagement to a Polish girl, from 1837 to 1847 he maintained an often
troubled relationship with the French writer George Sand. A brief and unhappy
visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 was one of his most productive periods of
composition. In his last years, he was financially supported by his admirer Jane
Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. Through most of
his life, Chopin suffered from poor health. He died in Paris in 1849, probably
of tuberculosis. All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for
solo piano, although he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces,
and some songs to Polish lyrics. His keyboard style is highly individual and
technically demanding; his own performances were noted for their nuance and
sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of instrumental ballade. His major
piano works also include sonatas, mazurkas, waltzes, nocturnes, polonaises,
études, impromptus, scherzos, and preludes, some published only after his death.
Many contain elements of both Polish folk music and of the classical tradition of
J.S. Bach, Mozart and Schubert, all of whom he particularly admired. His

24
innovations in style, musical form, and harmony, and his association of music
with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.
Both in his native Poland and beyond, Chopin's music, his status as one of
music's earliest "superstars", his association (if only indirect) with political
insurrection, his love life and his early death have made him, in the public
consciousness, a leading symbol of the Romantic era. His works remain popular,
and he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying
degrees of historical accuracy.
Chopin was educated in the tradition of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and
Clementi; he used Clementi's piano method with his own students. He was also
influenced by Hummel's development of virtuoso, yet Mozartian, piano
technique. He cited Bach and Mozart as the two most important composers in
shaping his musical outlook. Chopin's early works are in the style of the
"brilliant" keyboard pieces of his era as exemplified by the works of Ignaz
Moscheles, Friedrich Kalkbrenner, and others.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Frédéric François Chopin, born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, was a
German composer.
2. He completed his musical education and composed many of his works in
Warsaw.
3. At the age of 21 he settled in London.
4. He supported himself by selling his compositions and teaching piano.
5. Chopin formed a friendship with Johann Sebastian Bach and was admired
by many of his musical contemporaries.
6. In 1935 he obtained French citizenship.
7. All of Chopin's compositions include the piano.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What instrument did Chopin primarily write for?
2. When did Chopin leave Poland?
3. Where did Chopin settle?
4. Which French writer did he have troubled relationship with?
5. What kind of composition did Chopin invent?
6. Which composers did he particularly admire?
7. What style are Chopin’s early works in?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Chopin’s innovations in musical style and form.

25
TEXT 9

Vocabulary

opera scene оперная сцена

opera house оперный театр

popular culture популярная культура

masterpiece шедевр

tenor arias ария для тенора

audience публика

an orchestra оркестр

librettist либреттист

libretto либретто

plot сюжет

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Who influenced Verdi’s music?
2. Was Verdi one of the first composers who underlined the role of plot?
3. Which Verdi’s opera’s do you know?

GIUSEPPE FORTUNINO FRANCESCO VERDI

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January


1901) was an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. He is
considered, together with Richard Wagner, the prominent opera composer of the
nineteenth century. Verdi dominated the Italian opera scene after the eras of
Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini. His works are frequently performed in opera
houses throughout the world and, transcending the boundaries of the genre,
some of his themes have long since taken root in popular culture, as "La donna è
mobile" from Rigoletto, "Libiamo ne' lieti calici" (The Drinking Song) from La
traviata, "Va, pensiero" (The Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves) from Nabucco, the

26
"Coro di zingari" (Anvil Chorus) from Il trovatore and the "Grand March" from
Aida.
Moved by the death of compatriot Alessandro Manzoni, Verdi wrote
Messa da Requiem in 1874 in Manzoni's honour, a work now regarded as a
masterpiece of the oratorio tradition and a testimony to his capacity outside the
field of opera. Visionary and politically engaged, he remains – alongside
Garibaldi and Cavour – an emblematic figure of the reunification process of the
Italian peninsula (the Risorgimento).
Verdi's predecessors who influenced his music were Rossini, Bellini,
Giacomo Meyerbeer and, most notably, Gaetano Donizetti and Saverio
Mercadante. Some strains in Aida suggest at least a superficial familiarity with
the works of the Russian composer Mikhail Glinka, whom Franz Liszt, after his
tour of the Russian Empire as a pianist, popularized in Western Europe.
Throughout his career, Verdi rarely utilized the high C in his tenor arias,
citing the fact that the opportunity to sing that particular note in front of an
audience distracts the performer before and after the note appears. However, he
did provide high Cs to Duprez in Jérusalem and to Tamberlick in the original
version of La forza del destino. The high C, often-heard in the aria "Di quella
pira" from Il trovatore, does not appear in Verdi's score.
Verdi himself once said, "Of all composers, past and present, I am the
least learned." He hastened to add, however, "I mean that in all seriousness, and
by learning I do not mean knowledge of music."
However, it would be incorrect to assume that Verdi underestimated the
expressive power of the orchestra or failed to use it to its full capacity where
necessary. Moreover, orchestral and contrapuntal innovation is characteristic of
his style: for instance, the strings producing a rapid ascending scale in
Monterone's scene in Rigoletto accentuate the drama, and, in the same opera, the
chorus humming six closely grouped notes backstage portrays, very effectively,
the brief ominous wails of the approaching tempest. Verdi's innovations are so
distinctive that other composers do not use them; they remain, to this day, some
of Verdi's signatures.
Verdi was one of the first composers who insisted on patiently seeking out
plots to suit his particular talents. Working closely with his librettists and well
aware that dramatic expression was his forte, he made certain that the initial
work upon which the libretto was based was stripped of all "unnecessary" detail
and "superfluous" participants, and only characters brimming with passion and
scenes rich in drama remained.
Many of his operas, especially the later ones from 1851 onwards, are a
staple of the standard repertoire. With the possible exception of Giacomo
Puccini, no composer of Italian opera has managed to match Verdi's popularity.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

27
1. Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Australian Romantic
composer.
2. He is considered the prominent opera composer of the nineteenth century. 
3. His works are frequently performed in opera houses throughout the world.
4. Rossini, Bellini and Giacomo Meyerbeer influenced Verdi’s music.
5.  Verdi himself once said, “Of all composers, past and present, I am the
most learned”.
6. Verdi was one of the first composers who insisted on patiently seeking out
plots to suit his particular talents.
7. Many of his operas are rarely performed.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What is Verdi primarily known for?
2. Who were his opera predecessors?
3. Whom did he dedicate Messa da Requiem in 1874?
4. Whose superficial familiarities do listeners find in Verdi’s works?
5. What was Verdi’s famous quotation?
6. Why didn’t the other composers use Verdi’s innovations?
7. Did he work closely with his librettists?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Verdi’s principles of work with opera plots.

TEXT 10

Vocabulary

ballet балет

conservatory консерватория

The Five Великая Пятерка

musicologist музыковед

musical values музыкальные ценности

music critic музыкальный критик

classical repertoire классический репертуар

28
musical career музыкальная карьера

theatrical music музыка для театральных постановок

guest conductor приглашенный дирижер

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What musical form did Tchaikovsky work on?
2. Was Tchaikovsky the first Russian composer gaining the world fame?
3. Was Tchaikovsky a member of The Five?

PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (7 May 1840 – 6 November 1893), often


anglicised as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer whose works
included symphonies, concertos, operas, ballets, chamber music, and a choral
setting of the Russian Orthodox Divine Liturgy. Some of these are among the
most popular theatrical music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian
composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, which he
bolstered with appearances as a guest conductor later in his career in Europe and
the United States. One of these appearances was at the inaugural concert of
Carnegie Hall in New York City in 1891. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by
Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension in the late 1880s.
Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as
a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that
time, and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an
education arose, he entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he
graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set
him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied
by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship
was mixed. Tchaikovsky's training set him on a path to reconcile what he had
learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from
childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably
Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed
melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely
counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat
the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or
from forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented
Tchaikovsky's self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality,
with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the

29
time of Peter the Great, and this resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia
of the country's national identity.
Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by
personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his leaving his
mother for boarding school, his mother's early death, as well as that of his close
friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring
relationship of his adult life, his 13-year association with the wealthy widow
Nadezhda von Meck. His homosexuality, which he kept private, has
traditionally also been considered a major factor, though some musicologists
now downplay its importance. His sudden death at the age of 53 is generally
ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether it was accidental or
self-inflicted.
While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions
were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently
representative of native musical values and were suspicious that Europeans
accepted it for its Western elements. In apparent reinforcement of the latter
claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive
than base exoticism, and thus transcending stereotypes of Russian classical
music. Tchaikovsky's music was dismissed as "lacking in elevated thought,"
according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and
its formal workings were derided as deficient for not following Western
principles stringently.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Polish composer.
2. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting
impression internationally.
3. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III.
4. Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a doctor.
5. He entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in
1965.
6. Tchaikovsky's life was punctuated by personal crises and depression.
7. His sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to heart attack.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What musical forms did Tchaikovsky’s works include?
2. What hall did he appear at for his inaugural concert in 1891?
3. What was he awarded by Emperor Alexander III?
4. Which career was he initially educated for?
5. What were the contributory factors for his personal crisis?
6. What was the reason of his sudden death?
7. What were the critical opinions about Tchaikovsky’s music?

30
IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Tchaikovsky’s artistic career with your partner.

TEXT 11

Vocabulary

improvisation импровизация

city jazz городской джаз

soul jazz соул джаз

ragtime регтайм

blues блюз

performer исполнитель

interpretation интерпретация

tune мотив

ethno jazz этно джаз

avant-garde jazz авангард джаз

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Where did jazz originate?
2. How do we call a musical group playing jazz?
3. Which styles of jazz do you know?

JAZZ

Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African-American communities


during the late 19th and early 20th century. Jazz emerged in many parts of the
United States of independent popular musical styles; linked by the common
bonds of European American and African-American musical parentage with a

31
performance orientation. Jazz makes heavy use of improvisation, polyrhythms,
syncopation, and the swung note, as well as aspects of European harmony,
American popular music, the brass band tradition, and African musical elements
such as blue notes and ragtime. A musical group that plays jazz is called a jazz
band.
As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national, regional,
and local musical cultures, giving rise to many distinctive styles: New Orleans
jazz dating from the early 1910s, big band swing, Kansas City jazz and Gypsy
jazz from the 1930s and 1940s, bebop from the mid-1940s, Afro-Cuban jazz,
West Coast jazz, ska jazz, cool jazz, Indo jazz, avant-garde jazz, soul jazz,
modal jazz, chamber jazz, free jazz, Latin jazz, smooth jazz, jazz fusion and jazz
rock, jazz funk, loft jazz, punk jazz, acid jazz, ethno jazz, jazz rap, M-Base and
nu jazz.

Jazz spans a range of music from ragtime to the present day—a period of


over 100 years—and has proved to be very difficult to define. Attempts have
been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions—using
the point of view of European music history or African music for example—but
critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition
should be broader.

A broader definition that encompasses all of the radically different eras of


jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: he states that "it is music that
includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an
'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities". An
overview of the discussion on definitions is provided by Krin Gabbard, who
argues that "jazz is a construct" that, while artificial, still is useful to designate
"a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a
coherent tradition". In contrast to the efforts of commentators and enthusiasts of
certain types of jazz, who have argued for narrower definitions that exclude
other types, the musicians themselves are often reluctant to define the music
they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, summed up this
perspective by saying, "It's all music".

While jazz is considered difficult to define, improvisation is consistently


regarded as being one of its key elements. The centrality of improvisation in jazz
is attributed to its presence in influential earlier forms of music: the earlyblues, a
form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of
the African-American workers on plantations. These were commonly structured
around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also highly
improvisational. Although European classical music has been said to be a
composer's medium in which the performer is sometimes granted discretion over
interpretation, ornamentation and accompaniment, the performer's primary goal

32
is to play a composition as it was written. In contrast, jazz is often characterized
as the product of group creativity, interaction, and collaboration, that places
varying degrees of value on the contributions of composer (if there is one) and
performers. In jazz, therefore, the skilled performer will interpret a tune in very
individual ways, never playing the same composition exactly the same way
twice. Depending upon the performer's mood and personal experience,
interactions with other musicians, or even members of the audience, a jazz
musician may alter melodies, harmonies or time signature at will.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. A musical group that plays jazz is called a crew.
2. “It’s all music” – this phrase was said by Duke Ellington.
3. Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African-American communities.
4. Critic Joahim-Ernst Berendt agrees that terms of references of jazz and its
definitions should be not so broad.
5. Jazz has not so many different styles.
6. Krin Gabbard said “Jazz is a construct”.
7. Jazz was originated in early 19th century.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. When did Jazz emerge?
2. What musical elements does jazz include?
3. What are the distinctive styles of jazz?
4. What is the famous quotation of Duke Ellington?
5. What are the characteristics of jazz music according to Travis Jackson.
6. What is one of jazz key elements?
7. What may a jazz musician alter at his will?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the emerging of jazz with your partner.

TEXT 12

Vocabulary

rock and roll рок-н-ролл

sound звук
33
vocal music вокальная музыка

spirituals спиричуэл

acoustics акустика

a listener слушатель

heavy metal music тяжелый рок

hip hop music хип хоп

reggae регги

country music кантри

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Do you know where and when did blues originate?
2. What characteristics does blues possess?
3. Was blues accused of being the “devil’s music”?

BLUES

Blues is a musical form and genre that originated in African-American


communities in the "Deep South" of the United States around the end of the 19th
century from spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants, and rhymed
simple narrative ballads. The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues
and rock and roll, is characterized by specific chord progressions, of which
the twelve-bar blues is the most common. The blues notes that, for expressive
purposes are sung or played flattened or gradually bent (minor 3rd to major 3rd)
in relation to the pitch of the major scale, are also an important part of the sound.
Blues as a genre possesses other characteristics such as lyrics, bass lines,
and instruments. The lyrics of early traditional blues verses consisted of a single
line repeated four times. It was only in the first decades of the 20th century that
the most common current structure became standard: the so-called AAB pattern,
consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four,
and then a longer concluding line over the last bars. Early blues frequently took
the form of a loose narrative, often relating troubles experienced within African
American society. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like
rhythm and call-and-response, and they form a repetitive effect called a groove.

34
The first publication of blues sheet music was in 1908: Antonio Maggio's
"I Got the Blues" is the first published song to use the word blues. Chroniclers
began to report about blues music in Southern Texas and Deep South at the
dawn of the 20th century. The first appearance of the blues is often dated to
after emancipation and, later, the development of juke joints as places where
Blacks went to listen to music, dance, or gamble. The blues is associated with
the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved people.
There are few characteristics common to all blues music, because the
genre took its shape from the idiosyncrasies of individual
performances. However, there are some shared characteristics, such as call-and-
response shouts. Blues has evolved from the unaccompanied vocal music and
oral traditions of slaves into a wide variety of styles and subgenres. Many blues
elements, such as the call-and-response format and the use of blue notes, can be
traced back to the music of Africa. The origins of the blues are also closely
related to the religious music of the Afro-American community, the spirituals.
Blues sub-genres include country blues, such as Delta, Piedmontand Texas
blues, and urban blues styles such as Chicago and West Coast blues. World War
II marked the transition from acoustic to electric blues and the progressive
opening of blues music to a wider audience, especially white listeners. In the
1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues-rock evolved.
Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal music, hip hop music, reggae,
country music, and pop music, blues has been accused of being the "devil's
music" and of inciting violence and other poor behavior. In the early 20th
century, the blues was considered disreputable, especially as white audiences
began listening to the blues during the 1920s. In the early twentieth century,
W.C. Handy was the first to popularize blues-influenced music among non-
black Americans.
During the blues revival of the 1960s and '70s, acoustic blues artist Taj
Mahal and legendary Texas bluesman Lightnin' Hopkins wrote and performed
music that figured prominently in the popularly and critically acclaimed film
Sounder (1972). The film earned Mahal a Grammy nomination for Best Original
Score Written for a Motion Picture and a BAFTA nomination. Almost 30 years
later, Mahal wrote blues for, and performed a banjo composition, claw-hammer
style, in the 2001 movie release Songcatcher, which focused on the story of the
preservation of the roots music of Appalachia.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false.


1. Blues is a musical form and genre that originated in Indian communities.
2. Blues as a genre possesses other characteristics such as lyrics, bass lines,
and instruments.
3. The lyrics of early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line
repeated five times.

35
4. Chroniclers began to report about blues music in Southern Texas and
Deep South at the dawn of the 20th century.
5. The blues is associated with the newly acquired freedom of the enslaved
people.
6. There are few characteristics common to all blues music.
7. In the 1960s and 1970s, a hybrid form called blues-rock evolved.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What is blues characterized by?
2. When did the most common current structure become standard?
3. What is the first published blues song?
4. What formats can be traced back to the music of Africa?
5. Which hybrid form evolved in the 1960-1970s.
6. What music was accused of being “the devil’s music” alongside with
blues?
7. Who was the first to popularize blues among non-black Americans?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss blues characteristics with your partner.

TEXT 13

Vocabulary

lead guitar соло гитара

swing свинг

rock music рок музыка

saxophone саксофон

guitar гитара

upbeat слабая доля такта

lead instrument основной инструмент

recording зд. музыкальная запись

36
bass guitar бас гитара

rhythm guitar ритм гитара

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Where did rock and roll emerge?
2. Do you know at least two different meanings of the term “rock and roll”?
3. What did the phrase “rocking and rolling” originally describe?

ROCK AND ROLL

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of
popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late
1940s and early 1950s, primarily from a combination of African-American
genres such as blues, jump blues, jazz, and gospel music, together with Western
swing and country music. Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in
blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did
not acquire its name until the 1950s.
The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in
common usage: referring to the first wave of music that originated in the US in
the 1950s and would later develop into the more encompassing international
style known as "rock music", and as a term simply synonymous with the rock
music and culture in the broad sense. For the purpose of differentiation, this
article deals with the first definition.
In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either
the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally
replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s. The beat is
essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, the latter almost always
provided by a snare drum. Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or
two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid-1950s)
an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. Beyond simply a musical style, rock and
roll, as seen in movies and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes,
and language. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights
movement because both African-American and white American teens enjoyed
the music. It went on to spawn various sub-genres, often without the initially
characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock
music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different
meanings, both in common usage. The American Heritage Dictionary and the
Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock
music. Encyclopedia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that

37
originated in the mid-1950s and later developed "into the more encompassing
international style known as rock music".
The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a
ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe
the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy. Various
gospel, blues and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more
frequently – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews
of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience.
In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by Boswell Sisters appeared in the film
Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie
Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings
such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn"
in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951,
Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while
popularizing the phrase to describe it.
The origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators
and historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern
United States – a region which would produce most of the major early rock and
roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of
the African musical tradition with European instrumentation. The migration of
many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as
Memphis, New York City, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland and Buffalo meant that
black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than
ever before, and as a result heard each other's music and even began to emulate
each other's fashions.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in
the South Africa.
2. The genre did not acquire its name until the 1960s.
3. The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings.
4. The beat is essentially a blues rhythm with an accentuated backbeat.
5. Rock and roll may have contributed to the women’s rights movement.
6. The phrase "rocking and rolling" originally described the movement of a
ship on the ocean.
7. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by Boswell Sisters appeared in the film
Titanic.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What combination of genres led to rock and roll’s emerging?
2. What are the meanings of the term “rock and roll”?
3. Which instruments were initially the leading ones?
4. Which instrument replaced the leading ones in 1950-s?

38
5. Why did rock and roll contribute to the civil rights movement?
6. What magazine did Maurie Orodenker start to use the term rock and roll
in?
7. What disc jockey began playing rock and roll?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss two different meanings of the term “rock and roll”

TEXT 14

Vocabulary

live performance живой концерт

blues rock блюз рок

folk rock фолк рок

country rock кантри рок

drummer ударник

progressive rock прогрессивный рок

punk rock панк рок

alternative rock music альтернативный рок

an electric guitar электрогитара

a synthesizer синтезатор

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What is the main distinctive feature of a rock group?
2. What is the “golden age” of “classic rock period”?
3. Did rock music serve as a vehicle for cultural and social movements?

ROCK MUSIC

39
Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll"
in the United States in the 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles
in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.
It has its roots in 1940s' and 1950s' rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by
rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a
number of other genres such as blues and folk, and incorporated influences from
jazz, classical and other musical sources.
Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a
rock group with electric bass guitar and drums. Typically, rock is song-based
music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse-chorus form, but the genre
has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love
but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or
political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been
seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. Rock
places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship, live performance, and an
ideology of authenticity than pop music.
By the late 1960s, referred to as the "golden age" or "classic rock" period,
a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged, including hybrids like
blues rock, folk rock, country rock, and jazz-rock fusion, many of which
contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, which was influenced by
the countercultural psychedelic scene. New genres that emerged from this scene
included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock,
which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring
major sub-genre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed.
In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock both intensified and reacted against
some of these trends to produce a raw, energetic form of music characterized by
overt social and political critiques. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the
subsequent development of other sub-genres, including new wave, post-punk
and eventually the alternative rock movement. From the 1990s alternative rock
began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the
form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion sub-genres have since
emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious
attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk revivals at
the beginning of the new millennium.
Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and
social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in
the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the
US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive
goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock
music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social
attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth
revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.

40
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the electric guitar, which
emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularization of rock and
roll. The sound of an electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by an
electric bass guitar pioneered in jazz music in the same era, and percussion
produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of
instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of others, particularly
keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. A group of
musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group and
typically consists of between two and five members. Classically, a rock band
takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including
vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist, drummer and
occasionally that of keyboard player or other instrumentalist.

II. Decide whether the following sentences are true or false.


1. Rock music originated in the USA in 1950s.
2. Rock has centered on violin.
3. Rock is song-based music usually with 2/4 time signature.
4. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship and life
performance.
5. By the late 1960s a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had
emerged.
6. Rock music has serves as the vehicle for cultural and social movements.
7. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a duet.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Where and when did “rock and roll” originate?
2. What were its roots?
3. What are the main musical instruments in a rock band?
4. What is referred to as “golden age” of rock?
5. What are the sub-genres of rock?
6. What is the sound of an electric guitar supported by?
7. How do we usually call a group of musicians performing rock music?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the peculiarities of rock music.

TEXT 15

Vocabulary

41
pop music поп музыка

artistic depth художественная глубина

artist исполнитель

record company звукозаписывающая компания

musical chart музыкальный чарт

youth music style молодежный музыкальный стиль

pop song популярная песня

bit music бит музыка

dance music танцевальная музыка

Latin music латинская музыка

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Does pop music borrow elements from other styles?
2. Which Russian pop artists do you know?
3. Which foreign pop artists do you know

POP MUSIC

Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of


"popular") is a genre of popular music which originated in its modern form in
the 1950s, deriving from rock and roll. The terms "popular music" and "pop
music" are often used interchangeably, even though the former is a description
of music which is popular (and can include any style).
As a genre, pop music is very eclectic, often borrowing elements from
other styles including urban, dance, rock, Latin and country; nonetheless, there
are core elements which define pop. Such include generally short-to-medium
length songs, written in a basic format (often the verse-chorus structure), as well
as the common employment of repeated choruses, melodic tunes,
and catchy hooks.
So-called "pure pop" music, such as power pop, features all these
elements, using electric guitars, drums and bass for instrumentation; in the case
of such music, the main goal is usually that of being pleasurable to listen to,
42
rather than having much artistic depth. Pop music is generally thought of as a
genre which is commercially recorded and desires to have a mass audience
appeal.
David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music
which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, and folk musics". According to Pete
Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and
fine arts music". Although pop music is often seen as oriented towards the
singles charts it is not the sum of all chart music, which has always contained
songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz,rock, and novelty
songs, while pop music as a genre is usually seen as existing and developing
separately. Thus "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, aimed at
a youth market, often characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll.
The term "pop song" is first recorded as being used in 1926, in the sense
of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that
many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of
the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music.
According to Grove Music Online, the term "pop music" "originated in
Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth
music styles that it influenced ...". The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that
while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience ...
since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical
music, usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles,the
Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc". Grove Music Online also states that "... in the early
1960s the term 'pop music' competed terminologically with Beat music in
England, while in the USA its coverage overlapped (as it still does) with that of
'rock and roll'".
From about 1967 the term was increasingly used in opposition to the term
rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. Whereas
rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular
music, pop was more commercial, ephemeral and accessible. According to
Simon Frith pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is
"designed to appeal to everyone" and "doesn't come from any particular place or
mark off any particular taste". It is "not driven by any significant ambition
except profit and commercial reward... and, in musical terms, it is essentially
conservative". It is, "provided from on high (by record companies, radio
programmers and concert promoters) rather than being made from below. Pop is
not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged".

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Pop music is a genre of classical music.
2. Pop music borrows elements from other styles.
3. "Pure pop" music, such as power pop, uses electric guitars, drums and
bass for instrumentation.

43
4. "Pop music" is aimed at an adult market.
5. The term "pop song" is first recorded as being used in 1936.
6. From about 1967 the term was increasingly used in opposition to the term
rock music.
7. Pop music is more commercial, ephemeral and accessible.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Which styles does pop music borrow elements from?
2. What musical instruments does “pure pop” music use?
3. What does pop music desire to have?
4. What did Pete Seeger say about pop music?
5. When is the term “pop song” first recorded as being used?
6. What is the term “pop music” used in opposition to?
7. What are the most common characteristics of pop music.

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.


V. What are the pros and cons of pop music?

TEXT 16

Vocabulary

rock band рок группа

hard rock тяжелый рок

musical potential музыкальный потенциал

musical career музыкальная карьера

musical innovation музыкальная инновация

single песня

hit хит

musical video музыкальный клип

rock era эра рока

songwriting создание песен

44
I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.
1. What is the native town of the Beatles?
2. Do you know the term “Beatlemania”?
3. Do you know the biography of group’s members?

THE BEATLES

The Beatles were an English rock band that formed in Liverpool, in 1960.
With John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, they
became widely regarded as the greatest and most influential act of the rock era.
Rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the Beatles later experimented
with several genres, ranging from pop ballads to psychedelic and hard rock,
often incorporating classical elements in innovative ways. In the early 1960s,
their enormous popularity first emerged as "Beatlemania", but as their
songwriting grew in sophistication they came to be perceived as an embodiment
of the ideals shared by the era's sociocultural revolutions.
From 1960, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool
and Hamburg over a three-year period. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them
into a professional act and producer George Martin enhanced their musical
potential. They gained popularity in the United Kingdom after their first hit,
"Love Me Do", in late 1962. They acquired the nickname "the Fab Four" as
Beatlemania grew in Britain over the following year, and by early 1964 they had
become international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States
pop market. From 1965 onwards, the Beatles produced what many critics
consider their finest material, including the innovative and widely influential
albums Rubber Soul (1965), Revolver (1966), Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club
Band (1967), The Beatles (commonly known as the White Album, 1968) and
Abbey Road (1969). After their break-up in 1970, they each enjoyed successful
musical careers. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980, and Harrison
died of lung cancer in November 2001. McCartney and Starr, the surviving
members, remain musically active.
According to the RIAA, the Beatles are the best-selling music artists in
the United States, with 177 million certified units. They have had more number-
one albums on the British charts and sold more singles in the UK than any other
act. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most
successful "Hot 100" artists; as of 2014, they hold the record for most number-
one hits on the Hot 100 chart with twenty. They have received ten Grammy
Awards, an Academy Award for Best Original Score and fifteen Ivor Novello
Awards. Collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth
century's 100 most influential people, they are the best-selling band in history,
with estimated sales of over 600 million records worldwide.

45
Their musical innovations and commercial success inspired musicians
worldwide. Many artists have acknowledged the Beatles' influence and enjoyed
chart success with covers of their songs. On radio, their arrival marked the
beginning of a new era; in 1968 the programme director of New York's WABC
radio station forbade his DJs from playing any "pre-Beatles" music. They helped
to redefine the album as something more than just a few hits padded out with
"filler", and they were primary innovators of the modern music video. The Shea
Stadium show with which they opened their 1965 North American tour attracted
an estimated 55,600 people, then the largest audience in concert history; Spitz
describes the event as a "major breakthrough ... a giant step toward reshaping
the concert business". Emulation of their clothing and especially their hairstyles,
which became a mark of rebellion, had a global impact on fashion.
According to Gould, the Beatles changed the way people listened to
popular music and experienced its role in their lives. From what began as the
Beatlemania fad, the group's popularity grew into what was seen as an
embodiment of sociocultural movements of the decade. As icons of the 1960s
counterculture, Gould continues, they became a catalyst for bohemianism and
activism in various social and political arenas, fuelling movements such as
women's liberation, gay liberation and environmentalism.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. The Lordi were an English rock band formed in Liverpool.
2. From 1970 the Beatles built their reputation playing in clubs in Liverpool
and Hamburg over a three-year period.
3. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980 and Harrison died of lung
cancer in November 2001.
4. McCartney and Starr the surviving members remain musically active.
5. Their films innovations and commercial success inspired musicians
worldwide.
6. They gained popularity in the United Kingdom after their first hit “Love
me do” in late 1963.
7. They have received ten Grammy Awards, an Academy Award for Best
Original Score and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Where and when did the band form?
2. Who was their first manager?
3. When did they gain popularity in the United Kingdom?
4. What nickname did they acquire?
5. What are their fates?
6. How many Grammy Awards have they received?
7. How many records did they sell worldwide.

46
IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Beatles’ role in life of many people.

TEXT 17

Vocabulary

vocalist вокалист

songwriter автор песен

solo career сольная карьера

studio album студийный альбом

drumbeats ударный ритм

debut album дебютный альбом

band музыкальная группа

musical manager музыкальный продюсер

lead vocalist ведущий вокалист

album sales продажи музыкального альбома

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Which group did Ozzy Osbourne form?
2. In which style did Ozzy Osbourne work?
3. What is he most famous for?

JOHN MICHAEL «OZZY» OSBOURNE

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John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (born 3 December 1948) is an English
heavy metal vocalist, songwriter, and television personality. Osbourne rose to
prominence in the early 1970s as the lead vocalist of the pioneering band Black
Sabbath, whose dark and heavy soundhas often been cited as key to the
development of the heavy metal genre. Osbourne left Black Sabbath in 1979 and
has since had a successful solo career, releasing 11 studio albums, the first seven
of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the U.S., although he
has reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions, most recently in 2011, to
record the album 13, which was released in 2013. Osbourne's longevity and
success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal".
Osbourne's total album sales from his years in Black Sabbath, combined
with his solo work, is over 100 million. As a member of Black Sabbath he was
inducted into the U.S. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and was inducted into the
UK Music Hall of Fame as both a solo artist and as a member of the band. He
has a star on the Birmingham Walk of Stars as well as the Hollywood Walk of
Fame. In the early 2000s, he became a TV star, appearing as himself in the MTV
reality program. The Osbournes, alongside wife/manager Sharon and two of
their three children, Kelly and Jack.
In late 1967, Geezer Butler formed his first band, Rare Breed, with
Osbourne. The band played two shows, then broke up. Osbourne and Butler
reunited in Polka Tulk Blues, along with guitarist Tony Iommi and
drummer Bill Ward, whose band Mythology had recently broken up. They
renamed themselves Earth, but after being accidentally booked for a show
instead of a different band with the same name, they decided to change their
name again. They finally settled on the name Black Sabbath in August 1969,
based on the film of the same name. The band had noticed how people enjoyed
being frightened; inspired, the band decided to play a heavy blues style of music
laced with gloomy sounds and lyrics. While recording their first album in a
castle, Butler read an occult book and woke up to a dark figure at the end of his
bed. Butler told Osbourne about it and together they wrote the lyrics to "Black
Sabbath", their first song in a darker vein.
Despite only a modest investment from their U.S. record label Warner
Bros. Records, Black Sabbath met with swift and enduring success. Built around
Tony Iommi's guitar riffs, Geezer Butler's lyrics, Bill Ward's dark tempo
drumbeats, and topped by Osbourne's eerie vocals, early records such as their
debut album Black Sabbath and Paranoid sold huge numbers, as well as getting
considerable airplay. Osbourne recalls a band lament, "in those days, the band
wasn't very popular with the women".
At about this time, Osbourne first met his future wife, Sharon Arden.
After the unexpected success of their first album, Black Sabbath were
considering her father, Don Arden, as their new manager, and Sharon was at that
time working as Don's receptionist. Osbourne admits he was attracted to her

48
immediately but assumed that "she probably thought I was a lunatic". Osbourne
said years later that the best thing about eventually choosing Don Arden as
manager was that he got to see Sharon regularly, though their relationship was
strictly professional at that point.
Just five months after the release of Paranoid the band released Master of
Reality. The album reached the top ten in both the United States and UK, and
was certified gold in less than two months. In the 1980s it received platinum
certification and went Double Platinum in the early 21 st century. Reviews of the
album were unfavorable. Lester Bangs of Rolling Stone famously dismissed
Master of Reality as "naïve, simplistic, repetitive, absolute doggerel", although
the very same magazine would later place the album at number 298 on their 500
Greatest Albums of All Time list, compiled in 2003.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne was born 3 December 1948, he is an
English heavy metal vocalist.
2. Osbourne rose to prominence in the early 1980s as the lead vocalist of the
pioneering band Black Sabbath.
3. Osbourne released 11 studio albums.
4. In late 1977, Geezer Butler formed his first band, Rare Breed, with
Osbourne.
5. In the early 1990s, he became a TV star, appearing as himself in
the MTV reality program.
6. He has a star on the Birmingham Walk of Stars as well as the Hollywood
Walk of Fame.
7. In the 1980s it received platinum certification and went Double Platinum
in the early 21st century.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What is John Michael “Ozzy” Osbourne?
2. When did he rise to prominence as vocalist of Black Sabbath?
3. When did he begin his solo career?
4. How many studio albums did he release?
5. What is his informal title?
6. What TV show did he appear in the early 2000s?
7. Who is his wife?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Osbourne’s biography with your partner.

TEXT 18

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Vocabulary
rock group рок группа
rock song рок песня
backing vocalist бек вокалист
musical awards музыкальные награды
musical nominations музыкальные номинации
band member член группы
top artist лучший исполнитель
keyboardist клавишник
guitarist гитарист
Bassist басист

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Which country is Nickelback from?
2. Has the band win any musical awards?
3. Do you any of their music albums?

NICKELBACK

Nickelback is a Canadian rock band formed in 1995 in Hanna, Alberta.


The band is composed of guitarist and lead vocalist Chad Kroeger, guitarist,
keyboardist and backing vocalist Ryan Peake, bassist Mike Kroeger, and
drummer Daniel Adair. The band went through a few drummer changes between
1995 and 2005, achieving its current form when Adair replaced drummer Ryan
Vikedal.
Nickelback is one of the most commercially successful Canadian groups,
having sold more than 50 million albums worldwide and ranking as the eleventh
best-selling music act, and the second best-selling foreign act in the U.S. of the
2000s, behind The Beatles. Billboard ranks them the top rock group of the
decade, and their hit song "How You Remind Me" was listed as the top rock
song of the decade and the fourth song of the decade. They were listed number
seven on the Billboard top artist of the decade, with four albums listed on the
Billboard top albums of the decade.
The band signed with Roadrunner Records in 1999 and re-released their
once-independent album The State. The band achieved commercial success with
the release of their 2000 album The State and then they achieved mainstream
success with the release of their 2001 album Silver Side Up. Following the
release of Silver Side Up the band released their biggest and most known hit
today, "How You Remind Me" which peaked number 1 on the American and
Canadian charts at the same time. Then, the band's 4th album The Long Road
spawned 5 singles and continued the band's mainstream success with their hit
single "Someday" which peaked at number 7 on the Billboard Hot 100 and
number 1 at the Canadian Singles Chart. Afterwards, the band put out their
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biggest album to date, All The Right Reasons which produced 3 top 10 singles
and 5 top 20 singles, on the Billboard Hot 100 example of songs like
"Photograph", "Far Away", and "Rockstar". The band's Dark Horse album was a
success which produced eight singles, one of which peaked on the top 10 on the
Billboard Hot 100 and two of which peaked on the top 20 on the Billboard Hot
100. The band recently released their 2011 album, Here and Now which again
topped the charts. The band has won numerous awards including 12 Juno
Awards among 28 nominations.
The band is based in Vancouver, Canada. The band's original domestic
signing was with EMI Canada. They subsequently obtained an American deal
with global distribution via Roadrunner Records. For the release of their seventh
album, the band parted from EMI Canada and signed a new Canadian domestic
distribution deal with Universal Music Canada.
The band was formed in the early 1990s as a cover band called the
"Village Idiots" by Chad Kroeger, Ryan Peake, Mike Kroeger, and Brandon
Kroeger. The band performed covers of songs from Led Zeppelin and Metallica.
Chad Kroeger then asked his step-father to give him $4,000 so that the band
could record their first demo, which was Hesher (EP).\ The band's name
originates from the nickel in change that band member Mike Kroeger gave
customers at his job at Starbucks; he would frequently say, "Here's your nickel
back." Nickelback's first release was a seven-track EP called Hesher in 1996. In
the same year, they also recorded their first full-length album Curb. "Fly" was
included on both Hesher and Curb and was the first single produced by
Nickelback. In 1997, Brandon Kroeger left the band and the band searched for a
new drummer. Later that year Mitch Guindon joined the band, but he decided to
leave in 1998 because he started working in a car company. In Summer 1998,
Ryan Vikedal joined the band.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Nickelback is a Canadian rock band formed in 1998 in Hanna, Alberta.
2. The band has won numerous awards including 12 Juno Awards among 28
nominations.
3. The band signed with Roadrunner Records in 1999 and re-released their
once-independent album The State.
4. They were listed number one on the Billboard top artist of the decade.
5. The band's Dark Horse album was a success which produced nine singles.
6. The band recently released their 2011 album, Here and Now which again
topped the charts.
7. In 1997, Brandon Kroeger left the band and the band searched for a new
guitarist. 

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Where and when did the band form?

51
2. Who are the members of the band?
3. Whom do they follow in the list of popularity?
4. What albums do they have?
5. Where is the band based?
6. What is the band’s name origin?
7. What was their first demo?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the band’s numerous awards.

TEXT 19

Vocabulary

touring турне

metal металл

rap metal реп металл

electronic sounds электронные звуки

remix ремикс

singing style стиль пения

breakthrough album альбом-прорыв

band vocalist вокалист группы

rapper рэпер

Grammy Грэмми

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. What is the most popular album of Linkin Park?
2. What style of music do they play?
3. Who is the most famous figure of the band?

LINKIN PARK

Linkin Park is an American rock band from Agoura Hills, California.


Formed in 1996, the band rose to international fame with their debut album

52
Hybrid Theory, which was certified Diamond by the RIAA in 2005 and multi-
platinum in several other countries. Their following studio album Meteora
continued the band's success, topping the Billboard 200 album chart in 2003,
and was followed by extensive touring and charity work around the world. [2] In
2003, MTV2 named Linkin Park the sixth-greatest band of the music video era
and the third-best of the new millennium. Billboard ranked Linkin Park No. 19
on the Best Artists of the Decade chart. The band was recently voted as the
greatest artist of '00s in a Bracket Madness poll on VH1.
Having adapted new metal and rap metal to a radio-friendly yet densely
layered style in Hybrid Theory and Meteora, the band explored other genres in
their next studio album, Minutes to Midnight (2007). The album topped the
Billboard charts and had the third-best debut week of any album that year. The
band continued to explore a wider variation of musical types in their fourth
album, A Thousand Suns (2010), layering their music with more electronic
sounds and beats. Their fifth album, Living Things (2012), combines musical
elements from all of their previous records. Their sixth and most recent album,
The Hunting Party (2014), returned to a heavier rock sound. The band has
collaborated with several other artists, most notably with rapper Jay-Z in their
mashup EP Collision Course, and many others on the remix albums
Reanimation and Recharged. Linkin Park has sold over 60 million albums
worldwide and has won two Grammy Awards.
Linkin Park was founded by three high school friends; Mike Shinoda, Rob
Bourdon, and Brad Delson. The three attended Agoura High School in Agoura
Hills, California, an affluent suburb of Los Angeles. After graduating from high
school, the three began to take their musical interests more seriously, recruiting
Joe Hahn, Dave "Phoenix" Farrell, and Mark Wakefield to perform in their
band, Xero. Though limited in resources, the band began recording and
producing songs within Shinoda’s makeshift bedroom studio in 1996, resulting
in a 4-track demo tape, entitled as Xero. Tensions and frustration within the
band grew however after they failed to land a record deal. The lack of success
and stalemate in progress prompted Wakefield, at that time the band's vocalist,
to leave the band in search of other projects. Farrell also left to tour with Tasty
Snax and other bands.
After spending a considerable time searching for Wakefield's
replacement, Xero recruited Arizona vocalist, Chester Bennington, who was
recommended by Jeff Blue, the vice president of Zomba Music in March 1999.
Bennington, formerly of a post-grunge band by the name of Grey Daze, became
a standout among applicants because of the dynamic in his singing style. The
band then agreed on changing its name from Xero to Hybrid Theory; the
newborn vocal chemistry between Shinoda and Bennington helped revive the
band, inciting them to work on new material. In 1999 they released an extended
play named after the group, which they plugged into internet chat-rooms and
developed an informal 'street team' from the on-line community to spread the

53
music. The band’s renaissance culminated with a change in name; from Hybrid
Theory, the band once again changed its name, this time to Linkin Park, a play
on and homage to Santa Monica’s Lincoln Park. The band initially wanted to
utilize the name "Lincoln Park", however they changed it to "Linkin" to acquire
the internet domain "linkinpark.com". However, despite these changes, the band
still struggled to sign a record deal. After facing numerous rejections from
several major record labels, Linkin Park turned to Jeff Blue for additional help.
After failing to catch Warner Bros. Records on three previous reviews, Jeff
Blue, now the vice president of Warner Bros. Records, helped the band sign a
deal with the company in 1999. The band released its breakthrough album,
Hybrid Theory, the following year.
II. Decide whether the following statement are true or false.
1. Mike Shinoda, Rob Bourdon, and Brad Delson are school friends.
2. Their fourth album, A Thousand Suns was released in 2007.
3. Their most recent album, is The Hunting Party.
4. Linkin Park has sold over 60 million albums worldwide and has won two
Grammy Awards.
5. The band was formed in 1995.
6. The band then agreed on changing its name from Xero to Pink Floyd.
7. The band signed a deal with Warner Bros Records in 1999.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. Where and when was the band formed?
2. What album brought them international fame?
3. What continued their success?
4. Whom was the band founded by?
5. How many albums have they sold?
6. How many Grammy Awards do they have?
7. What is the band’s name origins?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss the band’s most prominent albums.

TEXT 20

Vocabulary

singer певец

touring solo artist гастролирующий сольный


исполнитель

54
professional music scene профессиональная музыкальная
сцена

popular music популярная музыка

music video музыкальный клип

solo career сольная карьера

pop artist популярный артист

award награда

best-selling musical album самый продаваемый музыкальный


альбом

most-awarded artist обладатель большего количества


наград

I. Before you read the text discuss these questions.


1. Which title has the audience awarded Michael Jackson?
2. What is his best-known album of all time?
3. Was Michael Jackson mentioned in Guinness World Records

MICJAEL JOSEPH JACKSON

Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an


American singer, songwriter, actor, and dancer. Called the King of Pop, his
contributions to music, dance, and fashion, along with his publicized personal
life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.
The eighth child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional
music scene along with his brothers as a member of The Jackson 5 in 1964, and
began his solo career in 1971. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant
figure in popular music. The music videos for his songs, including those of
"Beat It", "Billie Jean", and "Thriller", were credited with breaking down racial
barriers and with transforming the medium into an art form and promotional
tool. The popularity of these videos helped to bring the then-relatively-new
television channel MTV to fame. With videos such as "Black or White" and
"Scream", he continued to innovate the medium throughout the 1990s, as well as
forging a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video
performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques,
such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name. His distinctive

55
sound and style has influenced numerous hip hop, post-disco, contemporary
R&B, pop, and rock artists.
Jackson's 1982 album Thriller is the best-selling album of all time. His
other albums, including Off the Wall (1979), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991),
and HIStory (1995), also rank among the world's best-selling. Jackson is one of
the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice.
He was also inducted into the Songwriter's Hall of Fame and the Dance Hall of
Fame as the first and only dancer from pop and rock music. Some of his other
achievements include multiple Guinness World Records; 13 Grammy Awards as
well as the Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement
Award; 26 American Music Awards, more than any other artist, including the
"Artist of the Century" and "Artist of the 1980s"; 13 number-one singles in the
United States in his solo career, more than any other male artist in the Hot 100
era; and the estimated sale of over 400 million records worldwide. Jackson has
won hundreds of awards, making him the most-awarded recording artist in the
history of popular music. In what would have been Jackson's 52nd birthday on
August 29, 2010, he became the most downloaded artist of all time in Nokia
Music Store. Jackson became the first artist in history to have a top ten single in
the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades when "Love Never Felt So
Good" reached number nine on May 21, 2014. Jackson traveled the world
attending events honoring his humanitarianism and in 2000, the Guinness Book
of Records recognized him for supporting 39 charities, more than any other
artist or entertainer.
Aspects of Jackson's personal life, including his changing appearance,
personal relationships, and behavior, generated controversy. In the mid-1990s,
he was accused of child sexual abuse, but the case was settled out of court for
about $25 million and no formal charges were brought. In 2005, he was tried
and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges
after the jury found him not guilty on all counts. While preparing for his
comeback concert series titled This Is It, Jackson died of acute propofol and
benzodiazepine intoxication on June 25, 2009, after suffering from cardiac
arrest. The Los Angeles County Coroner ruled his death a homicide, and his
personal physician Conrad Murray was convicted of involuntary manslaughter.
Jackson's death triggered a global outpouring of grief and a live broadcast of his
public memorial service was viewed around the world.

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false.


1. Jackson's album Thriller is the best-selling album of all time.
2. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music.
3. His distinctive sound and style has influenced hard rock and heavy metal
style.
4. The popularity of these videos helped to bring the then-relatively-new
television channel MTV to fame.

56
5. Michael Jackson was the seventh child in his family.
6. The New York County Coroner ruled his death a homicide.
7. His personal physician Conrad Murray was convicted of involuntary
manslaughter.

III. Answer the following questions.


1. What was Michael Jackson?
2. What was his nickname?
3. When was his debut as a member of The Jackson 5?
4. When did he begin his solo career?
5. What are his most popular music videos?
6. What was his best-selling album of all time?
7. What musical awards has he got?

IV. Make a plan of the text for oral summary.

V. Discuss Michael Jackson’s tragic biography with your partner.

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

КНИГИ

1. Конен В.Д., История зарубежной музыки, Москва, "Музыка", 1981.- 534


с.

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