Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 103

3. А.

Илюхина

АНГЛИЧАНЕ
ГОВОРЯТ
ТАК

Допущено Государственным комитетом


по народному образованию в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков

"ИНФРА-М"
Москва
1995
ББК 81.2 Англ-923
Предисловие
П 40
Данное пособие предназначается для студентов 1-Н курсов институтов и
факультетов иностранных языков и филологических факультетов университетов.
Кроме того, пособие может быть использовано преподавателями вузов нефилоло­
гического профиля, учителями средних общеобразовательных школ при
проведении кружковой работы и факультативных занятий. Оно также может
найти применение при обучении слушателей различных курсов английского язы­
Рецензенты: ка.
Пособие ставит целью развитие адекватного использования английского
кафедра английской филологии Ростовского-на-Дону госу­ языка с учетом национально-культурной специфики речевого поведения англи­
дарственного педагогического института (зав. кафедрой д-р фи- чан в жизненно важных ситуациях общения.
лол. наук, проф. Ю.Н. Власова); Под национально-культурной спецификой пониматюся исторически обус­
ловленные тип жизненного уклада, культурные обычаи, представления и др., т.е.
Д. Саттон (Иркутский педагогический институт иностран­ то, что данное общество делает и думает. Как известно, национально-культурная
ных языков имени Хо Ши Мина) специфика лежит в основе общепринятых правил и норм социального общения,
выражая определенные стороны реализации нравственной культуры общества.
Совокупность таких правил и норм составляет эмоционально-психологическое
поле общения, которое о к а з ы в а е т большое влияние как на психологическое состо­
яние общающихся, так и на характер их речевого поведения. Установлено, что
Илюхина З.А. игнорирование национально-культурной специфики обычно вызывает непони­
Англичане говорят так: Учеб. пособие. 2-е изд. - М.: мание и, как правило, ведет к нарушению процесса общения. Поэтому в пособии
овладение умениями коммуникации на английском языке рассматривается как
Инфра-М , 1995. - 208 с. процесс приобщения обучаемых к культурным особенностям речевого поведения
На обл.: Z. A. Plukhina. The Way the British Communicate. англичан.
Соответственно, пособие ставит целью научить, с одной стороны, понима­
нию специфики речевого поведения англичан в различных ситуациях общения, а
ISBN 5-86225-020-4 с другой - обеспечить обучаемых речевыми формулами (на уровне автоматизмов),
позволяющими более успешно осуществлять общение на английском языке.
Этим целям отвечают включенные в пособие лингвострановедческие тексты
и система упражнений. Тексты взяты из различных источников (книги по линг-
Цель пособия - развитие умения стилистически адекватного использования
вострановедению, социолингвистике, пособия по разговорному английскому язы­
английского, языка в жизненно важных ситуациях с учетом правил и норм соци­
ку, изданные в Великобритании, и др.), список которых приведен в конце пособия.
ального общения. Пособие состоит из 26 тематических уроков, содержащих
конкретную лингвострановедческую информацию применительно к ситуации Пособие состоит из введения, 26 уроков с перечнем речевых формул,
общения, перечень наиболее употребительных речевых формул и серию характерных для конкретных ситуаций общения на английском языке, и допол­
упражнений, ориентированных на отработку коммуникативных навыков. нительного списка слов и словосочетаний коммуникативного характера.
Каждый урок посвящен определенной теме, содержание которой
ББК 81.2 Англ-923 раскрывается в узуально-поведенческом тексте урока. Текст содержит ин­
4И (Англ) формацию, цель которой - дать обучаемым определенные сведения о националь­
ной специфике речевого поведения англичан в конкретной ситуации общения.
Речевые формулы стилистически дифференцированы. В ряде случаев, когда их
© ИНФРА-М,
употребление возможно в любых ситуациях, стилистические пометы на даются.
1995 Формулировка задания, предваряющего текст, ориентирует студента на исполь­
ISBN 5-86225-020-4 зование того или иного вида чтения.
© З.А. Плюхина, После текста следуют упражнения, нацеленные на проверку понимания
1995 прочитанного, а также формирование разговорной речи на материале текста.
отражающие практическую реализацию в речи той информации, которая описы­
валась в тексте. Каждый диалог предваряется заданием, предназначенным как для
Introduction
проверки понимания его содержания, так и смысла и значения употребленных в
нем средств коммуникативной модальности, клише речевого этикета и других "What do we really know about Britain, how do we picture the
речевых формул. face that would initially seem so accessible to outside eyes? In my
Вопросно-ответные упражнения ориентированы на то, чтобы привлечь вни­ opinion there is no mask more enigmatic than this open face ..."*
мание обучаемых к специфике ситуативно-адекватного использования речевых
формул общения для выражения определенных коммуникативных намерений. These words of the Soviet writer Marietta Shaginyan are
Вслед за этим видом упражнений используются задания, нацеленные на осмыс­ profoundly true. I am sure they make both the teachers and learners
ление речевых формул и их активизацию в речи. Последний, заключительный pf English as a foreign language pause and think. There is no doubt,
раздел урока - это ситуативные и ролевые упражнения, направленные на
развитие у обучаемых умений адекватного использования английского языка в that all in all we know far more about Britain and the British than we
жизненно важных ситуациях с учетом национально-культурной специфики do, say, about New Guinea and its inhabitants. We have common
речевого поведения англичан. roots in European culture, our nations have long been acquainted with
Объем пособия ограничивает возможности включения в него упражнений, each other’s culture, and in particular with the literature which
предназначенных для коррекции интонации английской речи. Но, учитывая важ­
ную роль интонации в речевом общении, в некоторых уроках ряд наиболее portrays national character in artistic manner. On the other hand we
экспрессивных речевых формул, интонация которых может представлять are aware of the differences between the British cultural, political and
определенные трудности, содержит разметку основных тонов. social heritage and that of this country.
Список разговорных формул, данных в приложении, является дополни­
тельным материалом, который, на наш взгляд, может быть с успехом использован As is known culture in its broad sense has two major aspects.
для создания на занятиях ситуаций, реализующих естественное речевое общение. One is the history of civilization. The other component of culture is a
В зависимости от условий обучения в каждом отдельном учебном заведении sociological one: the attitudes, customs, daily activities of a people,
(целей обучения, уровня обученности, количества учебных часов и др.), their ways of thinking, their values. In this country traditionally the
предлагаемое пособие может использоваться как параллельно с другим учебни­
ком, так и в качестве основного практикума на различных курсах английского "culture" element is generally represented in English language
языка и факультативных занятиях, когда обучаемые уже владеют нормативной teaching by the geography and history of Great Britain, and its
грамматикой и общеупотребительной лексикой английского языка и главная за­ achievements in sciences or the arts. At the same time the sociological
дача заключается в формировании умений общения на английском языке.
Преподаватель может по своему усмотрению сократить материал урока пособия component of culture is often overlooked. Meanwhile without proper
или выбрать из него те разделы, которые наиболее важны, по его мнению, для understanding of certain system of views and ideas, habits and
конкретного контингента обучаемых. Однако при этом необходимо сохранить customs of British people it is impossible to communicate with them
последовательность выполнения упражнений, чтобы не нарушать их системы.
naturally. A person who has studied English as a foreign language
without paying attention to its cultural content and background will
Автор
have a limited or distorted use of the language. He may not be aware
of the fact that vocabularies vary not only ina size, but also in
usability, and curiously enough their usability varies with the way
they are used. For example, we often speak of England and the
English when we mean Britain and the British. The point is that in
Soviet eyes, the words "England", "Great Britain", and "the United
Kingdom" differ from one another only in the sense that the first is
the most colloquial, and the last is the most official. We are used to
referring to the inhabitants of the United Kingdom as the English, in questions which in fact are orders or requests (Could you type this
the same way as we refer to the inhabitants of the United States as letter, please?).
Americans. For the British, however, each of the three terms has its So to be polite and pleasant when you speak English means that
own specific meaning, its own geographical and economic you have to learn to say things which you never say in your own
connotations. "Great Britain" is the United Kingdom less Northern language in certain situations. And what is more important, you
Ireland; "England" is Great Britain Wales and Scotland. Thus when should know what the native speaker expects you to say in these
communicating with British people you must not forget that the situations.
British Isles do not consist of one nation, but of four, and that all of Experience indicates that when communicating in English you
them have an acute national consciousness. So, you should not refer
come across some specific factors of cultural differences. And if you
to Robert Burns as your "favourite English poet when speaking to the
overlook them it generally causes misunderstanding and often
Scots, and talking to the Welsh you should not express your pleasure
enough the disruption of the communication. Even the person who
at meeting "English miners".
has learnt English quite well can still make serious mistakes, as with
To be able to communicate with the British naturally you need the Dutchman on a ship who when asked if he was a good sailor
also to know the culturally acceptable ways of interacting orally in j indignantly replied that he was not a sailor but a manager.
English, i. e. you should know exactly what British people normally
In crosscultural communication the way people structure
say in all kinds of circum-stances. To put it differently, you must
conversations, express agreement or disagreement, take turns in
possess communicative skills to express your own intentions and floor-holding, etc. play an important role. Analysis of both English
feelings and understand those of the British whose cultural
and Russian conversations reveal great cultural differences that can
background and ways of conveying meanings may be somewhat
be seen in their structure and vocabulary. Russians are known to
different. For example, there are special speech formulas in English j
share a stronger tendency to simultaneous floor-holding behaviour
which are thought to be appropriate: toaskagirl fora date, todisagree than the British who tend to avoid simultaneous turn-taking.
with someone at a committee, to introduce people to each other, and
so on. Apart from that you should also know certain situations when Another important factor to consider refers to the way people
structure their argument. For example, do people present their main
the British say nothing at all. For example, most European speakers
points first, followed by supporting arguments or do they present a
of English want to say "please" when they give something to someone -
general picture first. This aspect of conversation structure is often
say, when they pay in a shop, or when they pass something to
referred to as directness or indirectness. As is known the accepted
somebody. In most European languages people do say "please" in
these situations, but in English it is used only when asking for code of behaviour of the British does not allow the straightforward
expression of what they think and feel. In contrast to Russians who
something, but not when giving and not in answer to "Thank you".
prefer directness, British people generally tend to understate things.
When giving something "Here you are" may be said, but usually the
A conversation in English is full of hints, half-tones and half­
British say nothing but just smile to be polite. Because the people in
statements. The only exception is a professional conversation or a
other cultures want to be as polite as they are in their own language, !
formal interview when the British generally expect speakers to come
they find it difficult to believe that it is normal and natural to say
to the point. Objectivity and directness are positively valued in formal
something different or nothing at all.
situations. Speakers are cautioned against beating around the bush.
Another good example may be a number of forms of polite usage
Just as Russian and English differ in vocabulary so do they differ
which are misleading in English as well. These may take the form of
in intonation. While the attitudes of a Briton and a Russian may be
exaggeration or modesty. For instance, British people often ask
the same toward a particular topic, the ways in which they express
their attitudes most probably differ. So an utterance may reveal one
8 9
attitude to the Russian and another to a Briton. You should take it
into account when talking to British people. Remember that when the
British hear a mistake in intonation they don’t react in the same way
as when they hear a grammatical mistake. The point is that they are U N IT 1
prepared to make allowances for the foreigner’s faulty grammar but
they do not make the same allowances for the foreigner’s intonation.
Instead they will think, not that the foreigner is making a mistake,
T he M ost Im p o rtan t W ords and P hrases
but that he possesses the wrong attitude. Loudness of the voice is one to M ake a C onversation
of the mechanisms which also differs greatly in our culture as R ead the text to find out: 1) why the rules of communicative competence are so
compared with the British culture. Russians are often said to talk important for foreign learners of English; 2) w hat words and phrases show the speaker’s
loudly which is a part of their openness. As to the British nothing attitude to others.

confuse and irritate them more than loudness and misuse of rising It’s common knowledge that cultural patterns, customs and
and falling tones, as for instance, raising voice in "No" to contradict. ways of life are generally reflected in the language because language
and culture are mutually interdependent and mutually influential.
The British carefully adjust the voice so that it just barely overrides
That’s why if you really want to master communicative competence
the background noise and distance. But at the same time the British
you need to know the culturally acceptable ways of communicating in
will never simplify their speech for the benefit of foreigners in the way English. To put it differently, you should have a good command of
Russians instinctively do. They do not recognise even the remote conversational "maxims" or rules of communicative competence that
possibility that their native tongue may be incomprehensible to would enable you to interact with English natives naturally.
someone else. What are the basic convenimos that govern conversation in English?
And this is also a culturally determined behaviour pattern that The priority rule is the extensive use of certain words and phrases
should be taken into account when talking to British people. which contain no information but show the speaker’s attitude and the
To communicale with the British naturally you should acquire relationship to the other person. Very often text-books call them
cultural awareness. It does not result from contacts alone, even "politeness phrases" which is a bit misleading, because that can easily
give you the idea that they are only used when people are being especially
prolonged contacts, although they certainly broaden one’s knowledge
polite. That’s quite wrong. The fact is the British use these words all the
and ideas of the British culture. You may acquire cultural awareness time in normal situations. So, if you don’t use them a native speaker will
if you are informed of the particular values, customs, beliefs and certainly miss them and probably react negatively, especially if your
behaviour patterns of British people. This knowledge will enable you English is good. In this case he’s sure to think that a foreigner who sounds
to respect and understand culturally accepted ways the British aggressive and angry is angry. That’s why these words and phrases are
communicate. so important. R em em b er: speaking English is not just giving
information - it’s showing how you feel as a person.
Here are the words and phrases that a native English speaker
m isses most if you don’t use them:
'Thank you.* 'That’s 1 quite 1 a ll, right.
Sorry! ' Oh!

*
To mark nuclear tones the following intonation symbols are used: low fall, high
fall, vfall-rise, ^rise-fall, high stress, I low stress, high level tone, - high pre-head.

11
Unit 1 Unit 1

' Sorry? ' Oh! bit familiar. It is to be used between people who know each other very
well - perhaps with other members of family or close freinds.
E x'cuse m e ... ^Really?
4. Ex'cuse me is the normal expression if you want to pass
Ex cuse m e ...! Please.
somebody in a crowd, on a bus, and so on. It’s used after sneezing,
... I’m a fraid ... ' Certainly. coughing, yawning, belching, etc.
, Thanks. 'Y es./'N o . 5. E x,cuse me is used to somebody who you want to speak to,
1. ^Thank you is used if someone has done something but you don’t know their names or they cannot see you - for example
unimportant, something you could reasonably expect them to do for they have their back to you. This phrase is also used to attract
you like holding a door open for you, answering a question for you or somebody’s attention, e. g. when telling people that they have
doing some small service for you. In more formal situations you forgotten something or not noticed something. It’s very common, even
should use Thank you very 'much. Thanks and Thanks very much when the situation is obvious, to add "I think".
are used to friends or people you know well. Excuse me, I think you’ve left your bag.
In Britain you will hear two other even shorter words, which are Excuse me, I think you’ve dropped this.
used in the same way: Ta, [ta: ] (often used by children and in 6. I’m a'fraid... is used to apologize for som ething you aren’t
able to do. On the whole it is used in two main ways:
combinations like Ta, |love by shopkeepers and so on) and, ,Kyou
[kju: ] (mostly used by people who have to say "Thank you" time and 1) to say "No" when someone asks you something and show that
time again every day in their jobs, e. g. bus conductors, ticket it is not your fault:
collectors and so on ). Notice that for a simple service - something you A. Could you tell me the time, please?
could reasonably expect - anything stronger than "Thank you very B. I’m afraid not. I’m afraid my 'watch is broken.
much" can sound too strong. If someone does something important
for you you must say something extra apart from "Thank you very 2) to introduce a piece of information which you think the other person
much." For example you may add, That 'is/'w a s (kind of you and will see as "bad news" in some ways, but which is outside your
stress on "was" or "is". control:
I’m afraid it’s going to snow.
2. 'Sorry! is used after you have slightly inconvenienced
soneboly in some way. It is not a strong apology. If you really regret I’m afraid I really must be going now.
something, then you should use a stronger form - I’m 'terribly I’m afraid I clean forgot his address.
>sorry. Often if someboly says 'Oh, sorry! you reply 'Oh, sorry! The expression "I’m sorry, I’m afraid" is a normal natural
(for example, if two people bump into each other). It is always used expression in English. It’s long, but not exaggerated. The "I’m sorry"
acknowledges that the other person is inconvenienced in some way.
after you have done something. It helps to remember: Ex cuse me -
The "I’m afraid” makes it clear that it is not the speaker’s fault - that
before; 'Sorry - after.
is something outside his control.
3. Sorry? is used to ask a person to repeat what they said. It 7 . 'T hat’s 'quite 'aii fright means something like "I h i XlOt
can be used: 1) because you didn’t hear them; 2) because you didn’t disturbed or upset by what you have done or what you’re going to
understand them; 3) because you didn’t believe what they said. In do". It’s mainly used in two situations: as a reply to an apology (for
the same situation you can use Pardon or I !beg your pardon? but something not very important). E. g.: You knock into another student
the last expression sounds very formal and may be old-fashioned. in the corridor and say: "Oh, I’m sorry, that was silly of me". The
Some people in Britain use What? instead of Sorry? but it sounds a other student accepts your apology with "That’s quite all right".

12 13
Unit 1 Unit 1

Notice, if you say "vSorry!" (and nothing else), the other one should fact, its meaning is something like that "Yes, of course, and I’m so
reply "vSorry!” too. ready to agree it was hardly worth your asking". "I’m glad you asked
8. Oh! is mostly used to show that you have heard and but surely you knew I would agree before you asked".
understood what the other person has said: R e m e m b e r : it is very important to use High Fall tone here or
A . I’m much hard up at the moment, I’m afraid. this can sound rude.
B. Oh, I see. 1Certainly not! means "I do not agree and my disagreement is
Sometimes if it is used on a higher pitch and with a rising tone so obvious that you should not even have asked".
( oh!) it shows surprise: 12. 'Y e s.../'N o ... on their own are very rare in English unless
A . It was quite warm yesterday. the speaker is annoyed. Remember, you will nearly always sound
B. Oh, w asn’t it cold? rude or aggressive if you don’t add something else:
A . Did you say you come from Sweden?
9. Really? is used on its own to encourage the other person to
B, Yes, that’s right, I’m a Swede.
say something more about what he has already said. It’s in a way
similar to "Sorry?". Notice, "Sorry?" means "Can you say the same Exercises
thing again?" "Really?" means "I understood what you said, but I am
not sure h o w to react yet so will you please say something more". I. Discuss these questions:

Really may be used before the words you want to make stronger: 1. Are there "politeness phrases" in your language? 2. Are
people in your culture sensitive about "politeness phrases"? 3. Is
I’m really interested. I really like her. He speaks English really well.
the language of the family and the language you use at work or to
10. Please is used at the end of a polite request: strangers the same? 4. Is the language used by older people the
A 1pound o f , apples, ¡please. same as that used by the younger generation? If th ey’re different,
Could you tell me the time, please? can you say som eting about how th ey ’re different? 5. In your
language can you use very short answers - for exam ple, "Yes" or
It can be also used at the beginning of a sentence to make a
"No", on their own?
suggestion or invitation warmer. In this case the person you’re
speaking to is going to do something for himself: II. W hat’s wrong with this dialogue? W hat words do you thing should be added
to make it natural?
1Please 'come ,in.
0Charles wants to buy a "Daily Telegraph'. H e’s at the
!Please 'help yourselves.
new sagent s.)
At the same time it should be remembered that adding "please"
Charles: The "Daily Telegraph",
doesn’t make something extra polite - it’s normal. If "please" is put
in the middle of a request, it usually means that you’re annoyed or Assistant: We haven’t got any left.
that you’re asking for the second time. Charles: What did you say?
Notice that "please" is not used if the request ends with "if you Assistant: We haven’t got any left.
don’t mind". This serves the same function in the sentence as Charles: Have you got the "Guardian"?
"please", so using both of them will sound strange. Assistant: Yes.
11. 'Cfertainly! is used to agree to a request for permission or Charles: I’ll have that then.
help. It gives the effect of warm and ready agreement. As a matter of Assistant: 15 p.

14 15
Unit 1 Unit 1

Charles'. Can you change a five pound note? mind if I close this door? (No. N o, that’s quite all right, please do.)
A ssistant: No. 4. Excuse me, do you know where the public telephone is? (No, I
Charles: Where can I get it changed? don’t. N o, I’m afraid I don’t know.) 5. Did you find a book for Kate?
Assistant: I don’t know, I don’t live near here. (No. I’m afraid not, I couldn’t find one anywhere.) 6. Oh, I’m sorry,
Customer. There’s a bank on the corner, fifty yards down the street. that was silly of me. (Sorry. That’s quite all right.) 7. Did you say you
Charles: It isn ’t half past nine yet, the bank won’t be open. come from Russia? (Yes. Yes, that’s right, I’m Russian.)
Customer: It’s twenty-five to ten now. VI. Answer these questions by using "Yes, certainly” , or "Yes, please":
Charles: I’ll go and get some change then.
1. May I borrow your pen, please? 2. Would you like a cup of tea now?
{He turns to go out o f the shop and bumps into someone. H e goes out.) 3. Can you help me to put this in the car, please? 4. Did you say two soups?
111. a) Look at the follow ing conversation to find out: 1) what the two people are 5. May I use your phone for a moment, please? 6. Would you excuse me
talking about; 2) where the conversation is taking place; for a moment, please? 7. Can I get you something to eat? 8. Could you help
Steve: W asn’t I next? me with this, please? 9. Could you keep an eye on my seat for a moment,
Andrew: Oh, were you? I’m sorry. please? 10. May I set here? 11. Would you like a cup of tea?
Steve: Oh, I’m in rather a hurry. That clock’s wrong. | VII. W hat will you say to express thanks in the follow ing situations?
J a.tidrcYr** Oh, is it?
1. A stranger has just changed a pound note for you. 2. A stranger
.S tevsi v gc 2n.d tlic trams arc running late because of tbe weather. has just tola you why the bank is closed. 3. A stranger has just carried
Andrew: Oh, are they? I’m going to Brighton. I hope that train’s a heavy bag for you. 4. You’ve dropped a rouble note. Someone ran
not late.
after you and gave it back to you. 5. You’ve dropped a 10 rouble note
Steve: Oh no, no, it’s on time, but it’s going from platform 7 today. and a stranger gave it back to you. 6. You’ve missed the bus and
Andrew: Thank you. 1 someone has picked you up in a car and taken you where you were
b) Look back at the conversation to answer the following questions: going. This means two extra kilometres for the person who heoped.

1. Does the conversation sound friendly and natural? 2. Why do VIII. Add "please” to the follow ing. Remember, it can come either at the
you think the people say "Oh" often enough? 3. What difference would beginning o r at the end:
it make if they didn’t? 1. Start in. 2. Could I have another cup of tea? 3. Bring your
friends. 4. Could you tell me the way to the post office? 5. D on’t wait
IV. Can you recognize "fo re ig n E nglish” - English which is unnatural in some say
and typical o f what foreigners say? for me. 6. U se the phone if you like. 7. Help yourselves. 8. Could you
pass me the book? 9. Make yourself at home.
1. Could you please open the window? 2. Have you got the time,
please? 3. Could I have one of these? 4. Excuse me, w here’s the IX. W hat words should be added to this conversation to make it natural?
bank, please? 5. P lease I don’t understand. 6. I’m afraid I don’t
know. 7. Excuse me for being late. 8. Where is the nearest bank? - S te v e :...
I don’t know, I don’t live near here. W oman: Yes?
S teve:... to bother you, but could you tell me the way to Trafalgar
V. Choose the most suitable replies to the following:
Square, ...?
1. Excuse me, could you tell me the time, please? (Sorry? What?) W oman: ... I’m a stranger here myself.
2. Would you like a sandwich? (No. N o, thank you.) 3. Do you Steve: ..„I see. W e ll,... anyway.

16 17
Unit 1
Unit 2
W om an: ... I couldn’t help.
X. W hat will you say In the follow ing situations?
U N IT 2
1. You’re going to attract somebody’s attention. 2. You want to
call out to somebody but you don’t know their names. 3. You’re going Form s of A ddress
to disturb somebody. 4. You’d like to introduce something you think
the other person will see as "bad news" in some way, but which is Read the te xt explain: 1) what the choice o f a proper form o f address is
determ ined by; 2) what the most fre quen tly used forms o f address in English are.
outside your control. 5. You’d like the person you’re talking to to say
the same thing again. 6. You’re not quite sure how to react to a piece Just like Russians and other nations, the British use different
of news introduced by the other speaker. 7. Your friend suggests you kinds of names and titles for establishing and maintaining social
go to Leningrad but you don’t particularly like the idea. 8. Your relations. There are lots of different reasons for choosing an adequate
mother asks you to play the guitar but you’re overtired. 9. You intend name or a title.
to invite your friend to the cinema, make your suggestion warmer. The main reasons are as follows:
10. You tread on som ebody’s toe in a crowded bus. 11. You bump into 1) the relationship of the speaker with the other person;
each other in a crowd. 12. You’d like to ask your freind to lend you 5 2) the degree of formality;
roubles. 13. A friend of yours invites you to the cinema and you readily 3) the degree of politeness and friendliness and the like.
agree. 14. You’re asking your freind for the second time what classes
For example, if Mr. James Smith is checking in at a hotel where
he/'she will have tomorrow because you didn’t understand his/her
he has made advance reservations, he says: ¡My name is !James
answer. 15. Mike meets his friend, Mary, at the tram stop. They greet
one another. It is very cold. Mike asks after offered a good job with a joing JSmith, because he knows that this is the name the receptionist must
venture. Mike tells her to give Allan his congratulations. look up. If he is introducing himself to a new neighbour and wishes to
allow the nieghbour to determine the level of friendship they can
expect of each other, he says: I ’m 'Jim ^Smith If he is introducing
him self to a small child, indicationg an address form for him, he says:
I’m !Mr JSmith. If he is introducing himself in one of those modern
settings which call for intimacy but not familiarity, he says: I’m AJim.
The most frequently used titles in English-speaking countries
are Mr, Mrs, M iss. These are used by the British when they speak to
people they do not know very well. As a rule, Mr, Mrs, M iss are
followed by the surname, for example: "Mr Allen” to a man, "Mrs
Allen" to a married woman, "Miss Allen" to a girl or a woman who has
never been married or divorced. Now it is increasingly frequently
used by married women who do not want to take their husband’s
surname.
Apart from the above titles there appeared recently a new title
used by modern women who do not wish to be identified as married
or unmarried. It is Ms [miz ], e. g.: Ms Sue Smith.

19
Unit 2 Unit 2

R e m e m b e r : it is not polite to use these titles alone without the Have you got a minute, Mrs Johnson?
surname. The only exception is "Miss" which is widely used as a form As for the forms of address to strangers, it should be said that
of address to a woman-teacher by primary schoolchildren. No title is they are restricted in English. "Sir" and especially "Madam" are too
used before a first name when the surname is not mentioned, e. g.: formal to be used in most situations. Thus, to get the attention of a
Tom or Jane.
stranger you may often have to rely on "Excuse me?", or (in A m .E .)
Titles can be used more generally to mark the speaker’s relation
”vPardon?"
to the person addressed. For example, Sir and Madam are vocatives
Apart from that, in contrast there are some forms of familiar use
which mark respect or distance to a stranger. These are used to men
and women by people performing a service for the public, e. g.: some of vocatives. They are as follows:
shopkeepers, policemen, a ticket collector, etc. But you’ll sound Daddy (dad) M y dear
ridiculous if you use any of these vocatives yourself. However, don’t old man darling, etc.
be surprised if someone uses one of them to you when you’re on a stay You guys (familiar A m .E .)
in Britain. In Britain you may also hear love and dear used to anybody by
Other titles of respect and some professional titles can be used shopkeepers in a very informal friendly way.
as vocatives: Duck is used mostly to women but sometimes to men by some
Uju auivo t 'jc g».uf 1ic tiic.1m
. 1•A a n».y.1 ^v i i f->. ■ I n n p n im , rtf n ortaQrtf.^ shopkeepers, particularly in the East End of London. It should be
u yxvi uuai u i/u ttm g u i <x o p u u u n /
noticed that although the British write the contractions "he’s" and
My 'lord! (to a peer, a bishop, a British judge, etc.) "she’s", they don’t usually write contractions with names. However,
Your 'Excellency (to an ambassador) when speaking, they often omit the vowel sound of "is" when it follows
a name: "Mr Allen is"... sounds like "Mr Allenz". "Jack is" ... sounds
jMr President
like "Jacks".
'Prime Minister
Exercises
Officer (to policemen of any rank by everybody)
I. Re-read the te xt to answer the follow ing questions:
'Father (to a priest)
1. What kinds of names and titles do tbe British use for estab­
Doctor (to a medical doctor) lishing and maintaining social relations? 2. Does the age of the person
Pro'fessor (to a University teacher at the highest level holding you’re speaking to have anything to do with the form of address in
a chair of some branch of learning). Professor Brown/Smith, etc. English? 3. Does the status of the person you’re speaking to have
sounds less formal. anything to do with the form of address that the British use? 4. What
would Mr James Smith say whtn checking in at a hotel where he has
W aiter/W aitress/Porter/N urse, etc. (to people who give you
made advance reservations? 5. What do the British usually say if they
service). However these professional titles are considered by many
wish to allow their heighbour to determine the level of friendship they
impolite now. Instead British people prefer to say "Excuse me,
can expect of each other? 6. What do the British say if they introduce
(please)?"
themselves to children? 7. If one person uses a title and the other uses
To get somebody’s attention, the British generally use vocatives the first name when they talk together, what might this imply about
su ch as'joh n , ,Mrs Johnson, ,Dr. Smith, etc. E. g.: their relationship? 8. What will an Englishman say when introducing
John, I want you. himself in a modern setting that calls for intimacy but not familiarity?

20 21
Unit 2 Unit 3

9. What English titles mark respect to strangers? 10. What vocatives


should be used to get somebody’s attention? 11. What familiar forms U N IT 3
of address are there in the English language? 12. When do the British Greetings, Introductions, Saying Good-bye
prefer to use titles plus last names?
R ead the text to find out w hat factors the use of greetings, introductions and forms
II. Discuss these questions:
of saying good-bye depend on.
1. What are the main forms of address in the Russian language? Greetings:
2. What is the most common form of address in your language? 3. Are The language of greetings in English depends mainly on the
russians sensitive about titles and names? 4. What do the forms of situation the speakers are in and the relationship they have with the
address a person uses depend on in your language? 5. What people they’re talking to. In official situations (business meetings,
differences are there in the way the British address strangers and the official receptions, and conferences) such greetings as 'Good
way people do it in you language? 6. Are the forms of address used by 'morning!, 'Good after noon!, and 'Good evening! are used. But
people in your culture in official situations the same as they use
people who know each other generally say: Hel lo! (Hul lo!).
speaking to friends? 7. Do people in your culture quickly shift to a first
name basis? 8. What about occupational vocatives? Do they exist After the greetings, British people usually say: !How 'are you?
/ I ^
in you language? 9. Are the forms of address used by older people The answer usually is: T ine, thank you! And how are you?
the same as those used by the younger generation? 10. Do you Another possibility is 1Not too Jjad I’m 1glad to xsay. When greeting
know a person that you address in different ways at different
close friends, Hi! is quite possible. In fact, "Hi!" is an abbreviation
times? 11. "What’s in a name?" Shakespeare once wrote. If you had
to answer the question "What’s in a title?", what would you say? Give of "hiya" which in turn is a corruption of "How are you?". While
examples from your language. common enough as a casual, informal greeting, especially among
young people, "Hi" would certainly not be considered correct use in
III. You are visitin g Britain of)an exchange programme. Say how you would any formal situation. It is better to say "Hello!". As is known, "Hello!"
address each o f the follow ing:
is comparatively recent in its general use, dating back to the invention
1. an old man don’t know; 2. a policeman; 3. your foreign of the telephone. They say Edison, always impatient with the waste
colleague, whose name is Sam Smith. He is 45.4. his wife, whose name of time or energy, settled on "Hello!”.
is June. She is 38 years old. 5. his daughter Ella, who is not married; R em e m b e r : the British don’toften shake hands when greeting
6. his daughter Sue, who is marred to Dr. Robert Rice; 7. her husband; each other. As a matter of fact, they normally shake hands with people
8. your friend’s professor, Bruce Baker; 9. Bill Brown’s mother, when they meet them for the first time or if they meet someone again
Bertha, who is a widow; 10. the lady next door, who is divorced. Her after a long time.
name is May Smith. 11. Lily Lewis, whose marital status you don’t Here are some helpful ways of greeting guests in English:
know. She is in her early thirties.
1Good moming/aftemoon/evening, ,Mrs | Smith/Mr Brown, I’m
1so 1pleased you could ,com e/it’s nice of you to come, (slightly formal)
'Hi! 1Nice to rsee you. (informal)
Answering greetings for a guest:
It was 'very 'kind of you to in ,vite u s/m e. (formal)

22 23
Unit 3 Unit 3

'Thanks for ^asking m e/u s. (informal) you ’re going to do so: I 'sh ou ld 'really be ¡going ¡now or I'r e a lly
Thanks for ^having m e/u s, etc. (usually said when leaving) 'ought to be ' making a 'm ove, etc. and then some tim e later when
(informal) you really are going - I really 'm u st/'h a v e to ^go ¡now. The
Introducing people: second time you say you’re going, you go. It’s also usual to say why
Just as with greetings, the language of introduction is different you’re leaving. The most helpful expressions here may be:
in different situations too. 'Well, I 'thing I’d 'better ,go ¡now.
In official situations you should use the following expressions: I have an ap^pointm ent/a d a te /a n en g a g em en t/a class in a
!Let me intro'duce ¡Mr JBrown/K ate/m yself, etc. few m inutes.
'May I introduce 1 Mr ,B row n/K ate/m yself, etc.? AGh, 'look at the , time. I must Arush. 'See you Jater.
The usual response to an introduction is IHow do you do? I 'think I 'have to Jeave ,now. ' Would you ex'cuse me?
which is in fact a sort of greeting. And in reply the other person says: I’m in a 'bit of a Jturry. I must be ,off, I’m a'fraid.
1How do you do?: If you visited somebody you didn’t know very well, you would
Host: Mr Brown, let me introduce you to Mr White. H e’s an normally leave - unless they specifically asked you to stay for some
expert in finance. reason - about 10.30 or rather 10 in the evening at the latest.
M r Brown: How do you do? When the British leave, sometimes they like to say something
M r White: How do you do? to show their hosts that they want to see them again. The most
M r Brown: Pleased to meet you. common phrases for this are:
M r White: So am I. It’s been'nice ¡meeting you. (formal)
However when introducing friends or people of the same age you 'N ice ¡meeting you. (informal)
should use the following expressions: This is..., Meet...:
'Hope to 'see you a^gain. (less formal)
H ostess: H elen, meet my friend Kate.
' See you Jater.
Helen: Hello, Kate. Pleased to meet you.
Kate: Hello, Helen. So am I. 'See you Jhen. (informal)
If you have some knowledge of the person you are being introduced See you.
to, you may add: "Hello, Kate. I’ve heard a lot about you". If you have The other most frequently used common parting phrases are:
already met Kate at some time, you may say: "How are you, Kate?". In
'Good-Jtve! (in formal and informal situations)
reply Kate may say: "Fine/well/pretty well, thanks. And how are 1you?”.
Don’t forgen that men are introduced to women unless they are Cheerio!
much older and more senior. Young men are introduced to older men Bye: (in informal
situations)
and young girls to older women.
' All the 'best!
Saying good-bye:
1See you Jater/next
It’s quite normal when you’re visiting your British friends
year/tomorrow, etc.
and having a meal with them to say some time before you leave that

24 25
Unit 3 U n it3

It’s also common when you leave to ask your friends to reming forms of introductions? 4. What forms of introductions would Kate
you to someone else, say, other members of the family, etc.:
have used if Sally and Terry were not equals?
Give my love to your parents.
Please, remember me to your mother. III. a) Read the follow ing conversation to fin d out: 1) who the speakers are;
2) where it ’s taking place. Suggest a suitable title fo r it.
Exercises
Ted: Excuse me, you must be Tom.
I. Discuss the fo llo w in g questions:
Tom: Sorry?
1. Does the age of the person you are talking to have anything to Ted: You’re Tom, aren’t you? You’ve just come from Stockholm,
do with the forms of greetings or introductions? 2. Does the status of the haven’t you?
person you are speaking to have anything to do with the form of saying
Tom: Yes, that’s right, I’m Tom Andersson.
good-bye? 3. What do you thing different forms of introductions reflect?
Ted: Good, and I’m Ted Royal.
T he degree of formality? The degree of p o liten ess? F rien d lin ess?
4. What are the most common forms of greetings in Russian? 5. What Tom: How do you do.
forms of greetings do you prefer to use and why? 6. What forms of Ted: How do you do. That’s Mrs Royal and our son. Liz, Allan,
saying good-bye exist in Russian? 7. What’s the difference in the use come and say hello to Tom ...
of greetings in Russian as compared with English? Liz: Hello, Tom, did you have a good flight?
Tom : Oh, yes, very nice, thank you. Hello, Allan.
II. a) Read the conversation to find out: 1) who the two people talking are;
2) where it is taking place: Allan: Hello.
K a te: Hello, Terry. Nice to see you. Come on in. Ted: Come on, Tom, we’ve got the car outside. Liz, did you find
Terry. Thanks. I’m not too early, am I? a baggage trolley for Tom?
Kate: N o, of course not. How are you? Liz: I’m afraid, I didn’t. I couldn’t find one anywhere.
Terry: I’m fine, thanks, Kate. And you? Ted: Never mind, give me one of you bags, Tom ...
Kate: Oh, can’t complain. Here, let me take you coat. Tom: Oh, thank you, Mr Royal.
Terry: Thanks. How many people arrived yet? Ted: By the way, I hope you don’t mind me calling you Tom?
Kate: Yes, quite a few. Oh, by the way, have you met Sally? Tom: No, of course not.
Terry: No, I don’t think so. Liz: And, Ted, don’t you think it would be better if Tom called
us by our first names?
Kate: Sally ... this is Terry.
Ted: Yes, of course, "Mr Royal" makes me feel lic^e a
S a lly Hello, Kate’s told me a lot about you.
grandfather.
Terry: Nothing bad, I hope, (they laugh)
b) Re-read the conversation to answer the follow ing questions:
Kate: Anyway, Terry, com e on into the other room and m eet the
others. 1. Why did Ted say "Excuse me!"? 2. What difference would
it have made if he had n ’t used this expression? 3. Could he have
Terry: Yes, OK, thanks,
put it anywhere else in this sentence? 4. Why did Tom say
b) Re-read the conversation and answer the follow ing questions: "Sorry?"? 5. Could he have said anything else with the same
1. Do you think Terry and Kate are on equal terms? If so, what meaning? If, for example, you tread on Somebody’s toe in a crowded
language shows they are? 2. What other forms of greetings might bus you’ll say "Sorry!". How is this different from what Tom said? 6.
Terry and Kate have used in this situation? 3.And what about the Why do you think Tom didn’t say "How do you do” to Allan? 7. Would
26 27
Unit 3
Unit 3
1. Hello, John. How’s it 1. Good morning, Mrs Baker,
he have sounded too formal if he had used this? 8. Is this possible in
going? It was very kind of you
your own language? Can you be too formal? to invite me.
/ IV. a) Read the conversation to find out why Dave has got to leave at 11 o ’clock. 2. Sally, this is Jane. 2. Hello, Jane. Pleased to meet you.
D ave: Thanks for the party, Jane. It was great. But I’d better be 3 . 1 do hope I’m not too 3. Hello, Pete. It’s nice to see
on my way now. early. you again.
Jane: What, so soon? It’s only 11 o’clock. 4. Do you know George? 4. Fine, thanks, Sally. And you?
Dave: Yes, I know, but I’ve got to get up early in the morning. 5. Miss Smith, I’d like to 5. No, I don’t believe I have,
introduce to you Mr Brown.
Jane: Oh, Dave, you can stay a little bit longer, surely?
6. I’m very well, thank 6. Oh, no. Not in the least,
Dave: I’d like to, Jane - really - but if I don’t get home early at you. And how are your children?
night I’ll never be able to wake up in the morning.
7. Pam, say hello to Pete. 7. How do you do.
Jane: Oh, come on, Dave. Just stay for one more dance, that’s all. 8. How do you do? 8. How do you do, Miss Smith?
Dave: I’d like to, Jane, honestly, but I thing I’d better go now. 9 . 1 don’t believe you’ve 9. T hey’re fine, thank you.
Jane: Well, thanks for coming and see you soon. met Miss Baker, have you? And how are your parents?
Dave: Yes, fine. Cheerio, then, Jane. 10. Good morning, 10. No, can’t say I do.
Jane: Cheerio. And give my regards to your mother. Mrs Smith. I’m so pleased
you could come.
Dave: Yes, I will! Bye and thanks again.
'VIII. W hat can you say in the follow ing situations?
— b) Look back at the conversation to answer the following questions:
1. You greet your friend Nick. It’s 6 o’clock in the morning.
1. Who are the two people talking? 2. Are they on equal terms? If
Nick answers your greeting.
so, what language shows they are? 3. What does Dave think of Jane’s
2. You greet a businessman Mr Brown, who you have never met
party? 4. Is Jane surprised at Dave’s leaving? 5. Does she try to persuade
before. It’s 3 o’clock in the afternoon. Mr Brown answers you greeting.
him to stay? What does she say? 6. Does Jane sound a bit excited? If so,
what language shows she does? 7. Why do you think Dave didn’t say 3. You meet a lecturer, Mr White, who is visiting your Institute.
"Good-bye" to Jane? 8. Would he have sounded too formal if he had used It’s 10 o’clock in the morning. Mr White answers you greeting.
it? 9. Are there parting words in your own language that reflect a different 4. You meet your friend Kate. It’s 8 o ’clock in the morning. Kate
degree of formality? Can you be too formal? answers your greeting.
V. Replace these formal phrases with informal ones: 5. A man, Mr Brown, introduces himself to you. You answer the
1. Life is fine with me. How are you? 2. Good afternoon, Mr introduction.
Smith. 3. I don’t believe you’ve met Miss Brown, have you? 4. How 6. You introduce yourself to Mrs Baker.
do you do? 5. It was very kind of you to invite us. 7. You introduce you friend Oleg to a visiting lecturer, Mr Brown.
\f Mr Brown answers the introduction.
i VI. Replace these informal phrases with formal ones:
8. At an official reception of the student committee, you’re
1. Fine, thanks. And you? 2. Glad you could come. 3. Sally. -
introduced by a friend of yours to British students, who are visiting
Brown. 4. Hullo! 5. Bye!
this country.
VII. Can you match the opening phrases in the column on the le ft with the remarks
on the right?
9. Introduce yourself to a girl you have never met before.

29
28
Unit 3 Unit 3

10. You’re m eeting a group of tourists. How would you 10. Jane is about to leave Mary’s flat. Mary wishes to be
introduce yourself? remembered to Jane’s brother Peter.
11. Introduce your wife (husband, brother, sister, father, 11. You’re just leaving Mr Barry’s office after spending the
mother) to your friends. afternoon being shown around the factory. It has been a most
interesting afternoon. What are you final words to Mr Barry?
i/iIX . Make short conversations In the following situations:
12. You’re at your friend Ann’s twenty-first birthday party. It’s
1. You’re visiting your friends. You’ve come to say good-bye.
now 1 o ’clock in the morning and since you have to go to the Institute
You’re flying home on Sunday. Your friend Tom is sorry you have to
for 8 o ’clock, you decide it’s time to leave. You thank Ann for the
leave. He wishes you all the very best. You ask him to say good-bye
party. She’s surprised that you’re leaving so soon and tries to
to the rest of the family for you. Tom asks you to remember to look
persuade you to stay. You explain that you have to go to the Institute
him up if ever you’re in London.
early and she accepts your excuses. She thanks you for coming and
2. You’re ringing Mary to say good-bye. You’re leaving London for
asks you to be remembered to your mother.
home. You’re going to canch the 11.35 boat. Mary says good-bye to you
13. You are at home. A friend of yours is calling to say good-bye.
and asks you not to forget to keep in touch. You thank her for everything.
He./she is going to spend Christmas with h is/h er parents in Britain.
3. You’re visiting Nick. You’ve just called in to say good-bye.
Ask him /her to give your best regards to h is/h er parents.
You’re in a bit of hurry. You’re going to try to get away by 10. Nick
14. A British student who has been on an exchange programme
¿ays good-bye to you and asks you to remember him to your parents.
in this country has come to say good-bye to you. H e/sh e is leaving for
He hopes to see you next year.
home next week. Tell him /her something nice and encouraging and
4. You’re at your aunt’s birthday party. It’s getting late and you
ask to keep in touch.
think you have to go now. You’ve got a date. Your aunt is sorry you
15. Your fellow-student and a friend of yours are at a disco. Your
have to leave. She invites you to come back. You apologize and leave.
fellow-student introduces you to a British student. Greet him /her
5. Tom and his freind are walking through the park when Tom
and introduce your friend to him /her.
meets an old freind of his, Alan. They greet one another and Tom
introduces Alan to his friend. Alan asks Tom and his friend to have a
cup of coffee with him. They accept.
6. Tom has just arrived at Julia’s flat and they’ve greeted each
other. It has been raining and Tom is holding a wet umbrella. What
does Julia say to him?
7. Pam has been invited to Dave’s flat for tea. Dave has just put
a plate of sandwiches on the table. What does Dave say to her?
8. You have been giving a party in your flat for some of your
school friends. One of them - Jane - is about to leave.
9. Mrs Brown has been giving a small dinner party for some
business friends and acquaintances. One of her acquaintances, Miss
Smith, is about to leave. Mrs Brown has thanked her for coming and
hopes she’ll come again soon.

30
Unit 4 Unit 4

A useful way of beginning a conversation with strangers is to


U N IT 4 discuss the weather. Foreigners are often amused that the British
spend so much time talking about the weather. The reason for this is
How to Start a Conversation not simply that the weather in Britain is interesting and variable, but
R ead the text to find out: 1) what one of the possible ways to start a conversation
the British are reluctant to speak about personal matters with people,
with friends is; 2) how the British begin a conversation with strangers; 3) why the British who are not friends. So when they meet the nearly always make some
spend so much time talking about the weather. comments about the weather to be sociable. Often strangers talk about
the weather in bus queues or in shops. You don’t only talk about
One of the opssible ways to start a conversation with friends in
today’s weather, but also the weather of yesterday and tomorrow.
English is to use the greetings and polite inquiries about health you’ve
When you come into a building you can tell the people inside what the
studied in Unit 3. Apart from these expressions you may continue the
weather is like outside by saying: It’s warm /horrible/nice, etc. out.
conversation by asking:
I > , As a matter of fact you should always agree with a person if
How are you getting on? h e /sh e makes a comment about the weather. Remember that
1How are things? mentioning the weather can be a useful and inoffensive way of starting
a conversation with a stranger at a bus-stop or in a train. Here are
The answer may be:
some phrases you can use when talking about the weather.
'Fine, Jhanks, 'pretty ^weli.
Thanks, 'life is fine with me ... Good weather:
'Not 'too ,good, I’m a'fraid, a 'lot of ,work, 'little 'free ,time Opening remarks:
and 'still 'less Jun. 'N ice
But if someone is liable to poor health you may say: Nice and 'warm
'How are you 'feeling to day/'these'days? I 'hope, you’re .w ell 'N iceand sunny
Another tactic is to use some information you have about the
'Nice and hot
other person in the form of a tag-remark. British people often use
tag-remarks at the beginning of a conversation with someone they Very 'nice (to ,day), Jsn ’t it?
don’t know while they are trying to find a subject the other person is
'Quite 'mild
interested in. If you expect a "Yes answer" you should say: You’re a
/student, ^are you? When you expect a "No answer” you should say: 'Hot
You’re a ^student, ^aren’t you? In fact tag-questions are invitations Beautifil
to the other person to talk about the subject.
'Lovely | day
R e m e m b e r : if you want to confirm a "Yes question", you
should answer: Yes, 'that’s^ righ ti,am /w as/can /d o/d id ! If you are Marvellous ¡weather
going to give an unexpected answer, then start with the words: Wei!,
as a 'matter of 'fact I’m not/w asn’t/c a n ’t/haven’t.

32 2—556 33
Unit 4 Unit 4

Possible replies: Another possibility of getting a conversation started is by


beautiful. And they say it’s going to stay warm giving som e details about yourself: I’m from the ,U S SR . 'What
for the next couple of days.
very njce. We could do with some nice weather about ,you ? The British usually prefer this to direct questions. One
Yes, wonderful, for a change. more tactic is to use sentences which lood like negative questions but
very pleasant, It’s about time we had some sun. in fact they aren’t:
lovely, Let’s hope it keeps like this.
Makes a change from all the rain 'Aren’t you a ^student?
marvellous. we’ve had lately. Didn’t I see you at the disco?
Weren’t you at the lecture on literature last Saturday?
Bad weather: The British use them when they think something is true.
O pening remarks: It’s not normal in English to ask someone: "What’s your name?"
A 'bit It’s considered rather rude. Only someone who is doing a job may ask
cold
you: "What name was it?"
Rather wet (to¡day), ,isn’t it?
If you ’re speaking to som eone and you want to know their
Very cloudy
name you can say:
overcast
windy Fm a ’fraid, I 'don’t 'know your „name.
I 'didn’t 'quite 'catch your,nam e!
Shocking day/Terrible weather today, isn’t it?
N ot very nice/prom ising, is it?
Exercises
Loods like rain, doesn’t it?
I. Discuss the follow ing questions:

Possible reopies: 1. In what way is the tactics the British use in getting a
conversation started different from those in your own language? 2.
Are there any conversation starters in your own language? If so, which
horrible, of them are the most frequently used? 3. Do people in your own culture
dreadful. like to talk about the weather? 4. Is it easy to start a conversation with
And they say it’s going to stay like this
lYes, terrible, until the week-end. a stranger in your country? 5, Do people in your own suiture discuss
awful. Good for the garden, though. their personal matters with strangers? 6. What do people in your own
shocking. I’ll be glad when the summer comes. culture often say when they meet and want to make conversation to
N o, terrible. It’s about time we had some sun. be sociable?
Yes, it does. No sign of it changing, either.
ii. a) Read the conversation to find out what Bill and Allan are talking about.

Bill: Hello. How are you?


Allan: Very well, thank you. And you?
34 2* 35
Unit 4 Unit 4

B ill: Fine, thanks. It’s a beautifil day, isn’t it? 2. It seem s to be clearing 2. Yes, not very promising, is it?
Allan: Marvellous, isn ’t it? up. N ice and bright this
morning.
b) Look back at the conversation to answer the following questions:
3. Rather cold today, isn’t it? 3. It’s good to see the sun again.
1. Are Bill and Allan talking about their health in the first 4. Nice and sunny today, 4. Yes, it makes a change, doesn’t
two lines of the conversation? If not, what different phrases isn ’t it? it?
m ight they have used to ask about som eone’s health? 2. What
5. Beautiful, isn ’t it? 5. Yes, still another month
greeting did Bill use in the first line? 3. What did Allan answer?
should see us through the worst
4. Do you think Allan m ight have responded negatively? 5. Do
of it.
you think A llan ’s question "It’s a beautiful day, isn ’t it?" is really
a question about the weather? If not, what exactly Allan meant? 6. Marvellous weather, 6. Yes, quite different from the
6. What does Bill say in reply? Is it an answer about the weather? isn ’t it? forecast. It makes a change,
7. Do you think both Bill and Allan are looking for a subject to doesn’t it?
start a real conversation? 7. Lovely day, isn’t it? 7. Yes, much better than
yesterday. A big improvement on
III. a) Read the conversation to find out whether Ann and Lucy are on friendly
terms. what we’ve been having.

Ann: Hi. How are things?


Lucy: Fime, how about you? V. W hat comments about the weather would you make in each o f these cases?

Ann: I’m O.K. What did you do over the week-end?


1. The temperature is -5°C and there is a bitterly cold wind.
Lucy: Oh, I went skiing. 2. The temperature is +24°C and the sun is shining in a blue sky.
Ann: You went skiing. Did you have a good time? 3. Dark clouds are gathering. 4. It is raining hard. 5, It is raining but
the sky is getting brighter. 6. You’re comfortable indoors in bad
Lucy: Oh, yes. It was great.
weather. It is miserable and windy out.
b) Look back at the conversation to answer the following questions:
VI. Now take It in turns to greet someone and make a comment about the weather,
1. What greetings has Ann used to start a conversation? 2. What using the situations below. The o ther person returns the greeting and also
did Lucy reply? 3. Do they both sound informal or formal? 4. What replies to the comment about the weather:
other greetings might have been used in this situation?
1. You meet your friend Kate in the park. It’s +30°C.
IV. Can you match the opening remarks in the column on the le ft with the phrases 2. You meet your friend Ann at the bus-stop. It’s raining.
on the right?
3. You m eet a visiting lecturer Mr Brown outside the
1. Fairly mild for 1. They say we’re in for snow Institute. Y ou’re both wearing thick coats, gloves and scarves.
the time of the year. (snow is expected). Apparently It’s winter.
it’s going to turn colder.
4. Victor meets Mr Brown in the street. Victor in wearing a
T-shirt and dark glasses.

36 37
Unit 4 Unit 5

5. You meet a M end of yours on the way to the Institute. There


are heavy black clouds in the sky. U N IT S
6. You’re on an exchange programme in Britain. You’ve got
to know a lot of young people there. One of them is Roger. Today
H ow C onversation Works
you meet Roger outside the University. It’s very windy and cold. R ead the text to find out the main rules governing a conversation in English:
7. You m eet H arry, a British student, mear the underground As is generally known, conversation often depends on questions.
station. It’s a cold winter day. The weather is m iserable. But the The person who asks questions in a conversation usually controls it.
outlook for tomorrow is rather favourable. Harry is glad to meet Various techniques may be used to get different sorts of information
you. He says he hopes that the cold weather w on’t stay for too from different people. The British are generally polite in the way they
long. ask a stranger about something.
There is an important rule for you to remember: don’t ask a
VII. Make sh o rt conversations in the following situations. W ork in pairs. Try to
stranger direct questions, you may appear to be rude. Personal
find out the fo llo w in g inform ation about your partner:
questions should be expressed tactfully. When asking questions of
1. You think you ’ve met him /her before but don’t know where. this kind the British generally use:
2. You think you saw him /her at the cinema a couple of days ago. 3. Ex cuse me for ^asking.
You wonder what h is/h e r nationality is. 4. You have two children.
Ex'cuse me .asking/m y .asking, 'do you 'speak .French?
You wonder about your partner. 5. You’d like to know what h is/h er
interest are. 6. You wonder whether h e/sh e shares your views about Ohter useful opening expressions you can use are as follows:
Britain and the British. 7. You wonder whether you have a common I 1wonder if you could 1tell me your ad^dress?
interest which you could enjoy together. Ex'cuse me, 'do you 'happen to 'know when 'Liverpool was
^founded?
1Would you 1mind 1telling me about the 1history of ^London?
I 'hope you 'don’t 'mind my ^asking, but I’d 'like to 'know
'more about the ' English and their ^customs.
'Something 'else I’d 'like to ,know is the 'history of your
U niversity.
Notice that on the whole English-speaking people (whether
American, British or Commonwealth) do not usually ask or give exact
information about their age. It’s usual to say that someone is in h is/
her early twenties/thirties, etc.
To make a general enquiry about somebody’s job the British use:
1What do you do?
1What do you 1do for a living?

39
Unit 5 Unit 5

The British never say "What’s your profession/work?" H ere’re Exvcuse me, 'can I inter'rupt you for a moment?
some useful phrases for describing somebody’s job in more detail:
'Sorry to interrupt but I’ve 'got a ^question for you.
H e’s / I ’m in advertizing/banking, etc.
I’d just like to say that my friend has got a promotion.
She’s /H e ’s / I ’m responsible for out-of-school activities.
She’s /H e ’s / I ’m an English lecturer at Moscow University. By the ,way (to change the subject) I’ve de'cided to 'give up
I /W e /H e deal/deals with the financial side of things. .teaching.
I’m /H e ’s responsible to the director for making sure that the That reminds me of the meeting we had last time.
company is profitable. JJoId 'on, ,please.
I’m /H e ’s qualified as a programme designer. 'just a ^moment, , please.
How to get more information: How to prevent interruptions:
When you ask people questions, they often don’t give you Here are some useful techniques to make sure you continue to
enough information right away. You may have to ask them for hold the floor and are not interrupted:
additional information - you may want further details or you may not
be satisfied with the answer given. There are 'two 'points I’d 'like to ,make. (You can’t be easily
interrupted until you have made them both.)
Here are some techniques for getting the extra information you
want: A'nother ,thing that 'matters 'much in a ¡second ¡language
Could you tel! me a bit more about the history of money? ^learning is the learner’s attitude to the language. (You can’t be
easily interrupted until you have added a sentence.)
jSorry, but I’d like to know some more about your tip to Britain.
Although he speaks English fluently, his pronunciation is not
I didn’t quite follow what you said about his sister.
very good actually. (You can’t be easily interruped until you have
Sorry, that’s not quite what I meant, what I really wanted to made both points.)
know was when exactly you’d be back. You may also pause in the middle of a sentence for you can’t be
Sorry, I don’t quite understand. easily interrupted until you’ve completed your sentence.
How to ask for clarification: How to bring in other people:
Clarifications are a typical feature of all conversations. The most Actually, you probably may want to hear other people’s views
helpful ways of asking for explanations are: and make sure everyone gets a chance to speak in a conversation. The
following phrases may be helpful:
'What do you ,mean?
'Don’t you a^gree, IJane, that 'English is a ^beautiful
'What e x a c tly do you xmean?
^language?
' Can you ex 'plain it ¡n ' more de^tail, | please?
'What do you think, ¡Nick, about 'Spanish ^painting?
How to interrupt person politely:
If you want to interrupt politely when another person is You’re 'very^quiet, ¡Mary.
speaking, you need to be alert for suitable opportunities. Here are I exip ect 'jane will a^gree with me when I say that there’re
some techniques for interrupting: many lovely parks in London.

40 41
Unit 5 Unit 5

1 1don’t 1know 1w h a t1M ary, thinks but I’m sure she knows more Helpful expressions when at a loss for words:
about the problem than I do.
H ere’re some of the things you might say when you can’t think
How to ask for repetition (of what was said): of a word or an expression you want to use while talking to someone:
Sometimes people speak indistinctly, so you may need to ask I 'can’t 'think of the 'right,word, but you 'know 'what I,m ean.
them to repeat what they have said. Here’re the most common ways
of doing that: Oh, you 'know 'what I ,mean.
’what was ’that (you said)? A 'sort of ,thing/food, etc. you ,know.
’could you ’say 'that a,gain (¡please)? You know the sort/kind of thing I mean.
I don’t quite know what you call it.
’could you re^peat ithat?
One of those things, you know.
Sorry, 'would you ’mind repeating ithat? (I didn’t hear
you.) I can’t remember what it’s called.
Possible answers may be:
I'd id n ’t 'hear 'what y o u ,said.
Yes, (I ’think) I know 'what you ,mean.
I 'didn’t (quite) 'catch 'what y o u , said.
Yes, I know (exactly) what you mean, but I can’t remember
'W hat?/'W here?/'W ho?, etc.
what it’s called/the name, etc.
1W h a t/1Why, etc. 'did you ,say? No, I’m afraid I don’t remember what you mean.
How to correct statements politely: You mean your business trip?
Here are some useful techniques of correcting other people’s Are you thinking of your neighbours?
statements:
Is it abroad?
I’m 'sorry, but 'did you 'say the 'CMEA was esltableshed in How to check if your partner is following the conversation:
'i9 6 0 ? 'Wasn’t i t '1965? To be a good speaker you should be aware of your listeners and
You’re ,28, ^aren’t you? - In ’fact/ 'actually I’m ,32. know whether you have their attention. British people generally use
1 * 1 I tags to make sure their listeners are keeping up with them. Another
I ‘didn’t 'say it was ,brown, I said it was ,green. good way to check in English if you are properly understood is to use
R e m e m b e r : when answering questions the British never give different little phrases as:
a one-word answer unless they are annoyed. They have got a very ...if you see what I mean
complicated system for responding. As a matter of fact they generally
I don’t know if you can see that..
do two things - answer and develop the conversation by adding
something new. The answer is often a grammatical "link" to what the ...you know
previous person said: And you know what I said?
A . They 'got 'married 'last ,year, ,didn’t they? Can you guess what I did/said, etc?
See what I mean, etc.
B. 'Yes, they ,did. 'Jusi be'fore ,Christmas I .think.

42 43
Unit 5 Unit 5

However, in more formal situations when explaining something not put too many of these utterances in, because in this case the
or giving instructions to a person or people you don’t know very well, impression may be one of overbearing pugnacity or embarrassing
you might say: friendliness (depending on your facial expression).
Do you follow me? How to delay answering a question:
Are you with me on that? If you need to delay answering a question while you think for a
AH right so far? moment or check on your facts you may use some delaying
Is everything clear? expressions:

Got that? ,WeIi, 'let me ,see ...


The importance of these little phrases cannot be ,WeIl, 'n o w ...
overemphasized. In fact they ask for a tacit agreement from listeners ^ I
Oh, let me .see/,think for a , moment.
and seek their encouragement or approval to continue a conversation.
And what is more important they make speakers sound less abrupt I’m 'not ,sure, I’ll 'just Ihave to 'find it ^out.
and bring listeners into the talk. On the other hand listeners are also 'That’s a 'very 'interesting, question.
expected either to encourage speakers or merely to show they are
listening to be polite. 'That’s a difficult 'question to,answ er.
Facial expressions, gestures and so on are very important It’s difficult to ,say.
indicators of attention and interest. So are certain words and 'Let me 'put it ^this ¡way.
intonation that can be used in uttering them. Here are some useful
words you might use to show you are involved and share the speaker’s 'What do you ,mean?
feelings: ' What e 1xactly do you ,mean?
->Ah. [CL: ] 'Yes. 'Gosh. These delaying expressions give people time to think about their
replies.
Sure. ,Yeah. [je] Wow.
If you want to avoid answering questions altogether you may use
Oh. ,Really? Lovely. expressions like these:
->Mmm... 'Right. 'Fancy i that! I’m 'not 'really, sure.
I ,know. Fine, 'Well. i 'cat’t 'tell you ,off-hand, I’m a fra id .
I ,see. O ,kay. E xactly i so. I’m 'terribly ,sorry, I 'really 'don’t ,know.
'Quite. I’ve 'no i,dea, I’m a fra id .
These brief utterances point to the level of agreement and
I 'can’t 'answer,that (one, but I’ll 'tell you 'where you can find
comprehension as well as reveal the listener’s emotional involvement.
it Iout.
Remember, that native speakers will only attempt to understand you
if a friendly relationship is conversationally established. If you don’t I’d 'rather 'not,answ er ¡that, if you 'don’t,m ind.
put these in, the person talking will begin to wonder whether you are
paying attention, or if you are being rude. At the same time you should

44 45
Unit 5 Unit 5

How to avoid discussing something:


Exercises
1leave indi1viduals ^out of this, I. Re-read the te xt to answer the follow ing questions:
not discuss it at the moment, 1. Why do they say that a conversation often depends on
vWell, I’l 'rather
not talk about it if you don’t mind, questions? 2. What language do the British use to ask personal
wait till I know more about it before I say. questions? To speak about age? Somebody’s job? 3. What are the most
wait before I commit myself. useful phrases for describing somebody’s job? 4. What’s the
technique for getting extra information? 5. How do the British ask for
Each of the phrases is a clear indicator to the other person that clarification? 6. What are the most helpful ways in English for
you don’t want to discuss something. If he or she goes on and interrupting other people? 7. How can one continue to hold the floor
discusses it, h e /sh e is being gauche, and then you can insist by without being interrupted? 8. What are some methods of making sure
saying: eveyone gets a chance to speak in a conversation? 9. What’s the
technique for correcting statements politely? 10. When do the British
,N o, if you 'don’t rmind, I 'really 'don’t 'want to talk about ffii/p a nJn A-u/nrrl iancii/pr*? î 1 \KIhai eÎirmlrl nr ia Hn in cr»«inr? in+Ar’ ActAr?
t WU V L1V/ (r m UJ5U If VI • XA« ( « 11UI U1JIVUI.U V1XV UU IV U VXU1XU X XXrvx VUIVUL
it (at the |m om ent). (This is very strong, particularly without the
when listening to others? 12. What are some ways to delay answering
words "at the moment".)
a question? 13. What language do the British use to avoid discussing
How to terminate a conversation: something? 14. How can a person develop a conversation in English?
The British generally end a conversation with people or a person 15. What are the ways of terminating a conversation in English?
they know by an excuse and saying someting nice after the topics the
speakers have in common have been discussed. II Look through the te xt again to discuss these questions:

Exvcuxt me, I’m a'fraid I have to be agoing ¡now. It was 'really 1. How do people get attention, change topics, clarify topics,
terminate topics, take turns, avoid topics and interrupt in your native
a 'pleasure to ¡talk to you.
language? 2. What are some of the major differences between
Some other useful ways may be: summing up a conversation by conversation in your own native language and in English? 3. What
using vOK, vWeIl, etc. or/and making arrangements to speak to the implications for language teaching do these differences hold? 4. What
person at a later time. It is common to end a conversation at a natural are some important conversation rules that are considered important
break in it, such as the end of a story or a topic, or when someone else in your native language? 5. W'hat does the strategy of a conversation
joins it. A speaker who wants to wind down a conversation may also depend on? 6. What opening expressions to get a conversation started
show that by looking at his watch, gathering his things together and exist in your language? 7. Do you think the main rules governing a
so on. However in a business conversation where there is a specific conversation are international? If so, give reasons.
point to be discussed the British generally get to the point quickly. In
this case the conversation winds down after the point has been III. a) Read the conversation to find out: 1) who the speakers are; 2) where it ’s
taking place:
discussed and an excuse is not necessary.
A . Can I help you?
B. Yes, I’d like one of those things, oh, you know.
A. No, 1[m afraid, I don’t.

47
Unit 5 Unit 5

B . You know the sort of thing I mean for holding papers together,
b) Read the dialogue to answer the following questions:
I’ve forgotten what they’re called.
A . Ah, you mean paper clips, don’t you? 1. Can you explain who the speakers are? 2. Do they know each
other? 3. How did the speakers develop the conversation after
B. No, not exactly. A sort of paper clip, er, you know what I
answering? 4. Do the two speakers sound friendly and polite? If so,
mean.
what language shows they are? 5. What sorts of developments did the
A . Sorry, I don’t. first speaker use? 6. What other sorts of developments do you think
B. T h ey’re little wire things you put in a machine and then might have been used in this situation?
press.
V. a) Read the dialogue to find out how M r X feels about learning foreign
A . Ah, you mean staples, I think? languages:
B. Yes, that’s right, I couldn’t remember what they were called.
Sieve: Do you need to speak a foreign language in your job?
Thank you.
M r X: Most definitely. A good economist ought to speak at least
b) Re-read the conversation to answer the following questions: 2 foreign languages.
1. Why do you think the second speaker can’t think of the word Steve: But don’t a lot of the people - you meet speak English?
he wants to use? 2. Does the first speaker try to be helpful? What M r X: That’s true, but of course many don’t ... It’s also a
language shows he does? 3. What oth er language could the first question of politeness, of showing the people that you’re interested in
speaker have used with the same meaning? 4. Do you think both them and in their country.
speakers are polite and patient with each other? 5. Have you ever been Steve: Excuse me for asking, but what foreign languages do you
in a situation like this? 6. What could you have said if you were in the speak?
first speaker’s place?
M r X : Oh, I speak French and German quite well and I’ve been
IV. a) Look at the follow ing lines o f the dialogue. They’re In the wrong order. learning Japanese for the last 6 months.
Rearrange the lines to produce a natural dialogue:
b) Re-read the dialogue to answer the following questions:
1. Yes, please. Do you mind if I open the window?
1. Who do you think Mr X and Steve are? 2. Are they of the same
2. No, I don’t think so. Would you like to look at my timetable?
age? 3. Are they on equal terms? 4. What language in the conversation
3. N o, I don’t think so. Shall I move my bag? shows that they are of different age and status? 5. Are Steve and Mr
4. No, that’s quite all right. The train’s rather crowded, isn’t it? X friendly and polite? What language shows they are? 6. What
5. Yes, I suppose so. By the way, it does stop at Brighton, doesn’t it? language in the conversation shows that Steve is going to ask a
6. Shall I look after your bag for you? personal question?

7. Yes, please. VI. Read the lines o f the mini-dialogues through to find out what so rt o f
developm ents B uses. Find the lines where he 1) follow s his answer with
8. Excuse me, is this seat taken? a question o r an assum ption; 2) closes a certain line o f the conversation;
9. N o, that’s quite all right. I think, I’ll just go for a cup of coffee. 3) leaves the o th e r person to lead; 4) makes a more specific statement:
10. Yes, it is, isn’t it? I suppose it’s because it’s Friday. 1. A. You’ve been to Italy, haven’t you?
B. Yes, I have, I went to Venice last year actually.

48 49
Unit 5 Unit 5
2. A. You know Jack Smith, don’t you? 4. You’re on an underground train. You ask the passenger next
B. Yes, I was at school with him, as a matter of fact. to you to let you know when it will be your stop, "Piccadilly Circus".
3. A. It’s a marvellous day, isn’t it? He tells you and you get ready to get out.
B. Beautiful, isn’t it? Such a change after last week-end. 5. You meet a nice girl/boy outside your Institute. Strike up a
4. A . You saw the programme, didn’t you? conversation with her/him to find out whether: 1) she’s /h e ’s a
student of your Institute; 2) sh e’s /h e ’s fond of philosophy.
B. No, as a matter of fact I didn’t. I had to work late.
6. Ask you friend about a yound m an/young girl who looks
5. A. I thought you said you were going to come with us. familiar to you.
B. Yes, I was, but I’m not really very keen on thrillers.
7. Ask a fellow-student about the new professor who’s giving a
6. A. You’ve read it yourself, haven’t you? lecture.
B. No, not yet. What’s it like? 8. You’re planning to visit Britain. Ask your friends who have
7. A . You can drive, can’t you? already been there what things you should take along and what you
B. Oh, yes, certainly. I passed my test 3 years ago. should wear.
9. You’re planning to travel in your own country. Ask your
VII. Make a natural response to the following remarks, remembering that you
should both answer and develop the conversation: friends about the specific climatic conditions in the areas you’re
planning to visit.
1. You’ve been to London, haven’t you? 2. Have you seen the
10. Your teacher has explained something, but you still don’t
paper today? 3. You’re not English, are you? 4. You work a lot, don’t
understand it very well. Politely ask for clarification.
you? 5. Television’s done a lot of good, hasn’t it? 6. You haven’t got
a minute to spare, have you? 11. It’s your first day in a new group and you don’t know where
to sit. Ask one of the other students politely about the seating
VIII. Ask you fellow -student to repeat what he/she said. Speaking in d istin ctly arrangements.
he/she:
12. A foreign visitor wants to go around Moscow. H e/sh e asks
1. asks you the time; 2. asks you where you live and tells you you whether the bus or the underground would be the better way to
where h e /sh e lives; 3. tells you something about the weather; 4. says travel.
h e /sh e can’t come to your party; 5. h e/sh e is going on holiday to the
13. Some friends come to your door to talk to you about a
south. New-Year party. You are not well. You have a lot of work. Get rid of
IX. Make short conversations in the following situations: them politely,
1. Ask the person sitting next to you some personal questions 14. Someone who has started work in your organization asks you
politely. Try to sound interested when listening to her/him . what the boss is like. You don’t want to discuss ti with him /her.
2. You and your friend are in London for the first time. Find out 15. Your friend keeps a dog that barks loudly, and the other day
what the underground and bus fares are. the dog scratched your door. Your mother is displeased and criticizes
your friend. You don’t want to discuss him /her.
3. You’ve got on the bus. The ticket machine is far away from
you. Ask someone to hand you a ticket.

50
Unit 6 Unit 6

I’m 'really ^sorry.


U N IT 6
I’m a fraid, I 'haven’t 'read this ^book/been at this party, etc.,
Apologies and Excuses ^sorry. (informal)
Look through the text to find out what language the British use to apologize for
serious occurrences as com pared to minor ones. Reacting to apologies unhappily:
Just like in other languages, there are various ways of apologizing fOh, 'dear ('that’s a 'pity), (quite polite)
in English if you feel you’ve offended or upset someone. Note I’m rsorry 'Oh, no! (informal, very strong)
... is not a suitable apology for anything important; it’s no more than an
acknowledgement that someone has been inconvenienced. Making excuses:
I had no in 'tendon of 'hurting
'Oh, sorry! is used in situations when there is no question of
whose fault it was. If you wish to apologize - to show genuine regret - your'feelings, .really. I (ratherfonM l)
for something which you think is your fault, or caused by your I didn’t mean to, ^really.
carelessness, something stronger is used. Usually the other person
It 'really 'wasn’t 'm y,fault, you , see, I 'just 'couldn’t Jieip it.
accepts your apology and reassures you that everything is all right. (informal)
Here are some helpful expressions for you to memorize and use:
Accepting apologies;
Apologizing to someone who knows the situation:
'That’s ('quite) all ,right.
I’m 'terribly/very/aw fully ^sorry for being Jate/troubling
you/disturbing you, etc. (slightly formal, emphatic) 'These 'things ^happen: it 'can’t
be ^helped. I
I’m 'very ^sorry, I’m a fra id I’ve lost your book/overslept this (polite, slightly formal)
morning, etc. (polite) I 'quite under'stand. ( ' Please,
'don’t ,worry).
'Sorry for inter,rupting/com ing so late/breaking your cup,
etc. (informal)
'That’s /I t ’s ,OK.
Sorry, ( I , didn’t | mean ,to). -»
f (direct, informal) 'Never „mind.
Sorry, it was , wrong of me. ’
'T hat/It 'doesn’t , matter.
} (informal)
I a'pologize for 'splitting 'tea on the rtable-cloth/taking your
book home, etc. (formal) Apologizing for changing future plans:
I’m 'terribly/awfully ,sorry (about this) but I 'don’t 'thing I’ll
Apologizing when admitting mistakes: be 'able to ..help (after jall). (polite)
I hope this doesn’t put you out to much, but I’m afraid I won’t
I’m ' terribly ^sorry about , this but I’m a ' fraid to have 'left you
be able to com e after all. (slightly informal)
'book at ^home/kept you waiting/taken you bag, etc. (polite)
You 'know I 'said I/h e /th e y /T o m , etc., [do Ithat,
I’m a'fraid, I’ve 'lost your key/been late for the
lecture/haven’t caught your name, etc. (strong) vWelI, I’m a'fraid (you ¡see) I/h e/A n n 'can’t ¡play/go, etc,
i now. (informal)
52 53
Unit 6 Unit 6

Exercises there? Why? 10. What other obvious differences are there? List these
differences under the headings: Formal or Informal.
I. Discuss the follow ing questions:
III. a) Read the conversation to find out what things the husband has done w rong
1. What are the main ways of apologizing in English? 2. In what and which offend his wife:
way are they similar with those in your own culture? 3. What does the
language of apologies and excuses depend on? 4. Which are the most W. You didn’t ring me last night. You said you would.
polite ways of apologizing in English? 5. What language do the British H . I’m sorry.
use for making excuses in formal situations? 6. Is the language of W. And why were you so rude to me at lunch?
apologies and excuses the same in both informal and formal H . Was I? Sorry. I didn’t mean to be.
situations? 7. How are the ways of apologizing in your own culture W. And why are you yawning now? Are you bored?
different from those in English? 8. What do you thing different forms
H . Forgive m e, darling. I’m terribly tired. (I’m
of apologies and excuses reflect? 9. What forms of apologies and terribly/aw fully sorry.)
excuses do you prefer to use and why?
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions;
II. a) Read the conversation to find out: 1) where it's taking place; 2) who the two
people talking are: I. Do the speakers sound informal? If so, what language shows
S m ith : Late again. Tom. they do? 2. Does the wife talk apologetically? Is she direct? If so, what
language shows she is? 3. What else could the wife have said with the
Tom'. I’m sorry, I’m late, Mr Smith, b u t...
same meaning? 4. Is the husband apologetic to his wife? 5. What
Smith'. Oh, don’t tell me your train was late. difference in the language of apology is there? Why?
Tom : N o, it wasn’t, b u t...
IV. W hat would you say In the follow ing situations?
S m ith : Well, what’s your excuse this time then, Tom?
Tom: The 8.20 train was cancelled so I had to wait for the next 1. You’ve borrowed a book of mine and lost it.
train. 2. We were to meet at the bus-stop at seven o ’clock. You were 20
minutes late.
Smith: Cancelled, was it?
Tom: Yes, just my luck. 3. I was walking quickly along the corridor when you bumped
into me. You didn’t see me.
Sm ith: Well, that’s rather strange. Your colleague got here all
right. He doesn’t seem to have any problem with the trains. 4. You borrowed my textbook yesterday without asking me and
you’ve forgotten to bring it.
b) Look again at th e conversation to answer the follow ing questions: 5. You phoned me at night. I was trying to get to sleep after a
1. Do you think there are other people nearby? 2. What’s the long day and you disturbed me.
problem? Do you think Mr Smith believes Ton’s excuse? 3. Do you 6. You and your friend discover that two men are sitting in the
think Tom is often late? 4. What do you think of the other excuses seats you’ve reserved in the lecture hall.
Tom could have made? 5. Do you think Tom will be able to get away 7. You’re 5 minutes late for the lecture on philosophy. It’s not
with this late arrival again? 6. And what different excuses could Tom the first time you’ve been late.
have given if h e ’d travelled by car? 7. Is Mr Smith impatient? 8. Is
8. While walking back to your seat in the cinema you dropped
Tom apologetic? 9. What difference in the language of apology is
some ice-cream on somebody’s clothes.

54 55
Unit 6 Unit 6
9. You’re a salesgirl. You’ve given a customer the wrong change. 8. The smoke from your cigarette is making one of your
10. You’ve hurt your friend’s feelings. colleagues cough. Apologize and offer to put it out.
11. You’ve forgotten to telephone your friend. 9. Apologize for arriving late for a meeting, giving an excuse.
12. You accidentally step on someone’s foot. 10. A letter sent to your neighbour was delivered to you and you
13. You were rude to a friend and wish to apologize. opened it by mistake. Explain to him /her and apologize.
14. A man in the street is asking you the way to the nearest 11. For the first time in your life you’ve arrived very late, and
U nderground station. You are not able to help him as y o u ’re a you see that your boss is annoyed. How do you apologize?
stranger yourself. 12. Your dog affectionately jumps up to greet your friend
15. A friend of yours is asking you to give her a call tonight. and ladders her tights badly. Apologize to her, offering to replace
You’re unable to do that as you’re not on the phone. them.
16. Your colleague is asking you for the loan of some money. You 13. You borrowed a book from a friend months ago, and now h e’s
are not able to help her. You’re a bit hard up at the moment. asking you to return it. Apologize and promise to do so.

V« Msks short convsrsat 1ofis in trie i o 11o w In q situations.


14. You’ve taken your coat off in the cafe and thrown it over a
chair you thought was empty. In fact it turns out to be somebody
1. You arrive late for your lecture because of a traffic jam. Your else’s seat.
students have been waiting for you for 20 minutes. Make an apology
15. You’re reading your newspaper in the street, and you
and explain the reason. bump into som eone.
2. You had a dental appointment but forgot all about it. Phone
up your dentist to apologize.
3. You’re walking through the park when a small dog runs up to
you and playfully nips your ankle. The owner rushes up and
apologizes profusely. Accept his /h er apology and try to reassure
h im /her that you are not hurt.
4. You have to break a promise to go to a party because you have
to complete an important report. Call your friend and apologize. Your
friend accepts your apology.
5. You’ve broken a vase at the home of a business
acquaintance. It looked rather expensive. Apologize. Your
acquaintance accepts your apology.
6. At a party a few weeks ago you lost your temper with one of
the guests. You’ve just met him /her again and are apologizing for
your behaviour which you think was due to overtiredness. Your
apology is generously accepted.
7. You dropped and broke a glass you were looking at in a shop.
Apologize to the assistant and offer to pay for it.

56
Unit 7
U n it?

U N IT 7 R em em b er: the most important thing about asking favours of


people is how you ask and what intonation you use, rather than the
Requesting actual words you use. When it seems likely that the other person will
R ead the text to find out what expressions the British generally use when asking refuse, the question can be phrased so that refusal doesn’t cause
someone for things or to do something for them. embarrassment. So, when making a polite request, preference should
There are many English expressions you can use when asking be given to so-called pseudo-interrogative fo rm s such as:
someone for things or to do something for you.
'C o u ld /'W ould/'w ill you 'turn 'on the , t d B y / ° P e n the
The choice of the right expression to use depends on 1) how window/retape some music, etc., ¡please?
difficult, unpleasant or urgent the task is; 2) who you are; and 3) who
D o/W ould you mind being here at nine o’clock/coming earlier,
you’re talking to.
etc., please?
When talking to close friends or people you’re on firstname
I wonder if you could be here at nine o ’clock/show me the way
terms with, you may use pseudo-statem ents:
to the station, etc.
'H ey, I 'need some 'change for the ,phone. Do you think you could translate these articles for a week?
'On, 'dear, I 'haven’t ‘got any ,change for the 'tram. 1Won’t you , help me, (please? (warm request)
I ' don’t 'seem to ' have any ^change on me. The usual replies may be:
You may also use tag-questions: ('Y es, ^certainly), (formal)
You 'haven’t 'got this ,book, ,have you? ('Y es, o f,co u rse), (formal)
You 'can ,help him, ,can’t you? 'o 'k .
Another possibility is to use the please-form imperative:
I’m a 'fra id /I’m sorry I 'can’t, (semi-formal, polite)
'Please 'give me this ,book.
N o, I can’t / won’t, etc. (abrupt)
'Give me this , book, ,please.
1Yes, 'here you ,are is used when handing someone, something
"Please" in initial position makes a request more emphatic. they asked for.
R e m e m b e r : the imperative with "please" is not considered polite
enough and may sound rude in particular situations. ' Not at all/not in the least/n ot a bit are used in reply to "Would
you mind ...?"
If the British want to be especially polite they generally avoid
direct ways of asking for favours. Instead of saying "I want you to tell Exercises
m e whether Mrs Brown has booked her room" or "I want to know
exactly when Mrs Brown booked her room" they quite often prefer to I. Look through the text to discuss the follow ing questions:
use more polite forms and put them in the past: 1. What does the choice of the right expression for making a
I 'wantedio 'know exactly when 'Mrs 'Brown 'booked her ,roGm. request in English depend on? 2. What are the most common ways
I was , wondering/thinking if ' Mr ' Brown had Jeft. used by the British when asking close friends for things? 3. What’s
the most important thing about asking favours of people in English?
So British people use rather elaborate roundabout ways of
asking for things, and some forigners therefore may appear rude 4, In what way should your request be phrased in order not to cause
because thev’re more direct than the British tend to be. embarrassment in the case of refusal? 5. What are the most common
forms of request in your own culture? 6. What are the main differences
58 59
U n it? Unit 7

in the use of requests in your own language as compared to that in Tom: May I borrow the car tomorrow night? I’m taking Janet to
a party in Waterberry.
English? 7. What do you think these differences reflect? 8. What
implications for teaching English do they hold? 9. What forms of M r Bradford: Well, let me see ... All right, I ’ll lend you the car,
requests do you prefer to use in your own language and why? Tom, if you don’t drink too much. Then you can drive it home
yourself.
II. a) Look through th is conversation to find out what Mrs Young is asking the
Tom : Thanks, Dad. Can I telephone Janet and tell her it’s all
receptionist for:
right?
Receptionist: Yes, Mrs Young?
M r Bradford: Yes, yes. But before you do, would you mind
M rs Young: I wonder if you could tell me something. I wanted telling your mother I’m home? I’m hungry.
to know exactly when Mr Smith booked his room at the hotel.
b) Scan the conversation to answer the follow ing questions:
Receptionist: Mr Smith? Now let me just have a look.
1. D oes Tom always show great interest in his fath er’s work?
b) Now answer the fo llo w in g questions:
2. Do you think Tom is used to obeying his father? 3. Why do you
1. Is Mrs Young expecially polite? If so, then why? 2. Do you think think h e ’s especially polite to his father? 4. What language does
she could just say "I want to know exactly when Mr Smith booked his Tom use to ask his father for a favour? 5. Do you think Tom
room at the hotel"? If not, explain why? 3. What do you think makes her respects his father? If so, what language shows he does? 6. Is Mr
use "I wanted to know exactly when Mr Smith booked his room at the Bradford close to his son? 7. Is there a generation gap betw een
hotel"? 4. Do you thing it’s more polite to süy I wanted ..., I was Tom and his father?
thinking," "I was wondering” instead of "I w ant...," "I wonder," etc.?
IV. Treat you neighbour as an acquaintance, not a close friend. W ith varying
III. a) Read the dealogues to fin d out what Tom and his fa th e r's relationship is degrees o f politeness ask him /h e r to:
like:
1. help you with English grammar, 2. bring an interesting book for
Tom: Hello, Dad. How did things go at the office today? you to read; 3. show you the way to the nearest self-service cafe; 4. give
M r B radford ( a little surprised at T om ’s interest): Quite well. you a lift to the nearest Metro station; 5. help you with doing the shopping;
Nothing special happened. Is your mother in? 6. buy tickets for the cinema for you; 7. meet you friend at the airport.
Tom : N o, she went across the road half an hour ago to borrow V. Ask one o f your feliow-students to do these things:
som e sugar from Mrs Davies. Shall I go over and tell her you ’re
home? 1. move asid e so that you friend and you could sit together;
2. open the door, it’s rather stuffy in the classroom; 3. move h is/h er
M r Bradford: She’ll be back soon, I expect. I wonder where she
chair; 4. explain to you how to m ake a polite request in English;
put my slippers. 5. open the window half-way; 6. lend you his pen for a minute.
Tom : She probable took them up to the bedroom, Dad. Would
you like me to fetch them for you? VI. Change these commands Into polite requests:

M r Bradford: N o, it’s all right. Here they are. 1. Do me a favour. 2. Call me up at home. 3. Give me a lift to
Tom: Dad, will you do me a favour, please? the Institute. 4. Pick me up at the Institute. 5. Ask your friend for
a loan of 5 roubles. 6. Ask your father for help. 7. Invite my friend
M r Bradford: It depends on what it is.
to the New Year Party. 8. Leave my m essage (a m essage of mine)

61
60
U n it? Unit 7

for you friend. 9. Remind me of this seminar. 10. Give my friend some 10. You want your friend to find out from someone: 1) when
help. the series of lectures on teaching methods will take place; 2) who
is to give a talk in the philosophy seminar. Ask h im /h er to do you
VII. Y ou're staying in a hotel where people who do service fo r you speak English.
a favour.
Ask them to do a fa vo u r fo r you:
11. Your friend and you are at the airport. You need your
1. have a quiet room; 2. bring another towel; 3. buy some
friend’s help in a number of ways: with the luggage, checking in, flight
envelopes; 4. fix the television; 5. wake you up at 6.30; 6. get some
information. Ask your friend to do these things with varying degrees
change for the phone; 7. send the porter; 8. post the letter; 9. bring
of politeness.
an early breakfast.
12. You’re just about to drive away from where you parked when
VIII. Make up sh o rt conversations in the following situations. Ask people to do a man backs into the space in front of you and makes it impossible.
things fo r you in varying degrees o f politeness:
Ask him politely to let you have space to move out.
1. A friend of yours borrowed your book on teaching methods 13. As a passenger you think the driver is going too fast. Tell him
and hasn’t given it back to you. Call her/him and ask her/him politely to slow down, but do it tactfully.
to give it back to you this week. 14. You catch a bus just as the doors are closing and want the
2. You’ve borrowed a disc from a friend months ago, and now driver to wait for your mother who is some way behind you. What do
h e’s asking you to return it. Promise apologetically to do so. you say?
3. Ask your neighbour if you can borrow h is/h er typewriter. 15. A visitor comes to your office and asks to see your boss, but
4. You have to work late, but have an urgent letter to post. Ask h e’s out and won’t be back for two hours. Ask the visitor to come back
a friend who’s leaving to post it for you. later.
5. You’re driving you friends home. You’re a bit tired and your 16. You and your friend are in your student canteen. You’d like
friends are annoying you with their singing. You feel you must say one of your fellow-ctudents to clear the table after a meal.
something. What will you say? 17. You’ve bought a large article in a shop and you would like
6. One of your friends is going to celebrate h is/h er birthday and the shop assistant to carry it out of the shop so that you can put it in
you’re collecting money from the others so you can buy a birthday your car.
present. How do you ask?
7. After a long day at the Institute you’re just about to go home
when your trade-union representative asks if you can stay half an
hour longer to discuss your group’s progress in their studies.
Accept, but give a reason why you cannot stay longer than half an
hour.
8. You’ve been ill for a week and want to catch up on the work
you’ve missed. Ask one of your colleagues to give you some help.
9. You want to ask your friend to lend you the latest issue of
the fashion m agazine "Burda". Call h er/h im and ask if you can
have it tomorrow.

62

\
Unit 8 __________________________ U nitS
i,
'Shall w e/th ey 'h a v e a ,sn a c k /
U N IT S read this article?
Suggestions 'Why 'not 'g oa'b road /see (informal, direct)
R ead the text to find out what ways of making suggestions exist in English: this film, etc.?
If you d on ’t know som eone very well and you want to know 'How does the i'dea of 'playing 'tennis/discussing this matter
them better, the normal thing to do in English is to suggest doing
in class, ec. ap„peal to you? (informal)
som ething together. But the British don’t say it directly - they
d o n ’t, for exam ple, say "Would you like to go to the cinema this Y ou/W e could 'play ,tennis/have a shack, etc. (slightly
evening?" w ithout som e preparation first. H ere are the phrases tentative)
used to make a general question first: I su g 1gest/su p p ose w e/th ey /y o u might/could have a ,snack/go
'Are you 'doing 'anything 'special this ^evening/this home, etc. (tentative)
m orning/tom orrow/at the week-end, etc.? Asking for suggestions:
Are you go going anywhere special? 'w h at would you 'like to „do./to say, etc?
Will you be busy on Saturday/at the week-end, etc.?
I What do you su g ' gest we should „do/write, etc.?
Have you anything on tonight/at the week-end, etc.?
'is 'there 'anything in par'ticuiar you would 'like to ,do?
The re a re three normal ways of replying to the questions like these:
(tentative)
1.1 'don’t 'really 'know what I’m 'going to „do. I haven’t really
'w hat do you 'fancy „doing? (very informal)
thought about it.
Making an alternative suggestion:
2. „Well, „well... I ... (then you should give an excuse, but the
British understand that you mean "I don’t want to come" because of To express an alternative suggestion in a formal way, you may
use one of the following phrases:
the kind of excuse you give. In English a good excuse always involves
someone else - either explicitly: "I’m afraid I’ve promised to drop in 'Couldn’t yo u /w e 'give him /her, etc. a ,ring in stea d ?
and see John this evening," or implicitly: "I’m afraid, I’ve got a lot of Wouldn’t y o u /h e /s h e /w e rather stay at home?
work to do before Monday" (otherwise someone else in the office will Wouldn’t it be better if y o u /w e /h e /s h e went somewhere
be inconvenienced). nearer?
3. You show the other person you would like to get to know them
Might I suggest that you /w e go to the cinema for a change?
better but you have a good reason that you can’t accept the particular (tentative, formal)
suggestion he has made.
I must s a y / i ’d rather take a taxi.
Making suggestions:
Why don’t w e/you go skiing instead? } (direct, informal)
The most useful phrases for making suggestions when someone
invites you to do so are:
Agreeing to a suggestion:
'Let’s dance/have a snack, etc.?
(informal, direct) 'That’s a'good /sp len d id i„dea. 1
'w h y 'don’t w e/you 'go „home/ That sounds like a good idea. -* d irect, informal)
play chess, etc.?

64 3—556 65
Unit 8 Unit 8
That’s certainly a possibility/ not a bad idea, (tentative) M rs Brown: Well, I’d rather have it black, if you don’t mind
^Yes, great!/fine! (direct, informal) M rs Sm ith: Not at all. How much sugar would you like?
M rs Brown: I don’t take sugar, thank you.
Disagreeing with a suggestion: b) Now look thro u g h the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
1. Do you think Mrs Smith and Mrs Brown are on equal terms? If so,
'That’s a 'good i,dea but I’d what language shows they are? 2. Do they speak formal or informal
'rather not. I’ve 'got a 'terrible language? 3. What language does Mrs Brown use to make alternative
^headache. suggestions? Does she sound informal and direct? If so, what language
shows she does? 4. Do you think Mrs Brown polite? If so, what language
'That’s 'not a 'bad i,dea but (slightly tentative) shows she is? 5. What other language might Mrs Smith have used with the
I’m a 'fr a id l 'haven’t 'got a 'minute some meaning in the same situation? 6. And what language with the same
to ^spare. meaning might Mrs Smith have used when talking to her close friends?
III. a) Read the lines o f the follow ing conversation to find o u t what the two
W e/Y ou 'could ,do, but w e/you are 'going for 'Leningrad speakers are talking about:
to-night, (tentative) Peter: Excuse me for asking, are you doing anything special at
I^don’t , think, Ican/could/w ould the week-end?
'stay 'herefor 'two^days. (informai, direct) Mary: Well, I don’t really know what I’m going to do. As a matter
of fact, I haven’t really thought about it.
I’d ' rather ' not d is' cuss this
Peter: Would you like to play tennis with us on Saturday?
'matter at the moment. Mary: Yes, I would. What a good idea!
Peter: Would you like to play singles or doubles?
Exercises Mary: Let’s play singles and then the best boy can play the best
I. Look through the te x t again to discuss the following questions:
girl. Would you like that?
1. What are the most common ways of making suggestions in Peter. Yes, we would. Let’s do that.
English? 2. What are the most common expressions of asking for b) Look through the lines o f the conversation again to answer the follow ing
questions:
suggestions? 3. What language do the British use to make an alternative
suggestion? 4. What are the most common forms of agreeing and 1. Who do you think the speakers are? 2. Are they on equal term s?
disagreeing to suggestions in English? 5. What is the choice of the right 3. Do they know each other well? If so, what language shows they
form of a suggestion determined by? 6. How are the forms of suggestions do? 4. Does Peter sound a bit formal? If so, why? 5. Why do you think
in English different from those in your own language? 7. What do you Peter didn’t make his suggestion directly? 6. What other language might
think these differences reflect? 8. What implications do these he have used with the same meaning? 7. How might Mary haveanswered
differences hold for teaching English as a foreign language? him instead of saying "Well, I don’t really know ..."? 8. Do both Peter and
II. Read the conversation to find out: 1) where It's taking place; 2) who the two
Mary sound polite? If so, what language shows they do?
people talking are: IV. a) Look through the conversation to find out why John disagrees with Mary’s
suggestion:
M rs Sm ith: Would you like some tea?
Mary: Let’s have a party.
M rs Brown: I’d rather have coffe, if it’s no trouble.
John: What a good idea! When shall we have it?
M rs Smith: Would you like it with milk and sugar?

66 3* 67
Unit 8

M ary. What about Saturday evening? 7. You are visiting your aunt who has neither children nor a job.
John: Fine and where shall we have it? She says to you that she is bored. Help her with a few suggestions.
M ary. In your flat. 8. Suggest to the foreign friend who is staying with you that you
John: Oh, you know what my roommate’s like. He won’t let us go out for a walk together. Make it sound attractive.
have a party there. Let’s ask someone else, 9. Suggest various things for your family to do together next
b) Re-read th e conversation to answer the follow ing questions:
week-end.
1. Who do you think the speakers are? Are they on equal terms? 10. You are on holiday with a group of friends or with your family
2. Do the speakers use formal or informal language? 3. Are Mary and at the seaside. Suggest something to do for an evening.
John polite? 4. What language does John use to turn down Mary’s 11. A friend of yours is in hospital. You visit him /her and see
suggestion? 5. Do you think his refusal sounds polite? 6. What h e /sh e is bored. Suggest something to occupy him /her.
language do you think Mary should have used if she had spoken to a 12. Your father has just retired and doesn’t know how to spend
man she doesn’t know very well? his time. Suggest to him that he takes up some hobby which you think
V. A friend o f yours from Leningrad has come to stay with you In yo u r home. he would like.
Suggest ten things you could do together:
13. Your mother works very hard and you think that she should
1. One day we could ... . 2. Another day we ... . 3. If you’re relax. Suggest something.
interested ... . 4. Perhaps we ... . 5. If you like, we could ... . 6. One 14. Your friend has failed h er/h is exam and is looking rather
week-end .... 7. How ab ou t... ? 8. Let’s .... 9. What ab ou t... ? 10. On depressed. You think sh e /h e should have a break from h er/h is
your last evening ..., studies. Suggest something.
VI. Make short conversations in the following situations:
15. After a long day at the Institute you and your friend decided
1. You and your friend are making holiday plans. Your friend to go for a meal at a self-service cafe. Your friend shows indecision.
suggests travelling round Bashkiria. You disagree with her/him on Make you suggestion attractive.
that. You’d like to go to Moldova. Your friend does h er/h is best to 16. Some of your fellow-students are keen on pop music. They
make h er/h is suggestion attractive. In the long run you agree to have decided to hold a party where all your friends are invited. Make
h er/h is suggestion. practical suggestions about the party.
2. You and your friend want to go to a ballet. But sh e/h e makes an 17. You’re going away for the week-end with a close friend. Call
alternative suggestion. She/he prefers the idea of seeing a play. You try
him /her to make suggestions about your week-end: where to go, how
to speak persuasively and your friend agrees to your suggestion. to get there, how long to stay, what to do, etc. Your friend is happy to
3. Someone asks you for suggestions for a birthday party: when spend the week-end with you. H e/sh e agrees to all your suggestions
and where to have it; who to invite; what food to serve; what kind of enthusiastically.
music to have. Make practical suggestions. 18. You’re a trade-union representative. You’re arranging a trade-
4. You are on your summer vacations. A friend who would like to union meeting for your group. You decided to discuss the results of the
spend this summer with you asks you to suggest where to go and stay, examination session. Make practical suggestions about the meeting:
how long to stay, etc. Make suggestions. Try to make them attractive. when to hold it, its agenda, who to invite to the meeting, etc. Try to speak
5. Your group of friends has decided to go to the cinema but persuasively. A friend of yours makes alternative suggestions.
canot decide what film to go to. Make your suggestion persuasively.
6. Your little brother doesn’t know what to do one evening, and
is getting on your nerves. Suggest something that might occupy him.
At first your brother disagrees with your suggestion but then agrees.

68 69
Unit 9 Unit 9

'How about 'coming 'round for a


U N iT 9 ,chat/going to the cinema tonight, etc.?
Invitations Why don’t you come to the disco
with us/spend your holiday abroad/go (informal)
R ead the text to find out what set phrases exist in English to make, accept or reject to a meeting, etc.?
invitations:
There are a lot of set expressions the British use for making, 'w h at about to'morrow evening/
accepting or rejecting an invitation. The choice of the right phrase your phone call/getting things ready
depends mainly on the situation you are in, the importance of an for work, etc.?
invitation and the relationship you have with a person you are talking 'C om e,in , |please.
to. In particular, the imperative form may be used for an immediate (for immediate
'Come 'round fo ra ,ch at/a cup
and unimportant invitation: and unimpor­
of tea, etc. tant invitations)
1Come ,in. 1Come , round for a ,meal.
'Have a 'cup of tea. Accepting an invitation:
It is also quite common in this situation to begin with "You m ust...": ( Yes,) I’d 'like/love ¡to .very ¡much, (enthusiastic, formal)
You must 'drop 'in fo r a 'meal this ¡week. •s
( Yes,) ,very ¡much, (informal)
Whether you accept or reject an invitation, it is usually common
to show pleasure at receiving it and to thank the person who invited 'That would be 'very nice/lovely, etc. Thank you. (formal,
polite)
you.
When rejecting invitations it’s most important to avoid upsetting If you 'want me to 'g o /to do
the person who has made an invitation. It is also considered polite to this, etc. I would.
offer an excuse when rejecting an invitation. However, the excuse can
If y o u (’d) 'like me to go/to (indifferent)
be rather vague or even avoided:
do this, etc. I would 'do my ,best.
I’m ' busy on ^Sunday, but it was ' nice of you to in c ite me.
Thank you.
I 'can’t 'make it JFriday. 'How about ajntother ¡time?
N o t i c e : British people, expecially the younger ones, frequently take bottles of
drink with them to parties and give them to the host on arrival. T hey are then put with
Refusing an invitation:
the other bottles for everybody to drink. A bottle of spirits or wine, o r several bottles of Polite refusals to invitations may be phrased in one of the
beer are suitable. following ways:
Making invitations:
(,N o,) I’m a ' fraid/I’m sorry I ,can’t. I’ve got a lot of work to do.
'Would you ' like to ' come to a ,party/to go out for a m eal/to do
'Thank you/thanks ¡all the ¡same.
the washing, etc.? (possible in all situations)
D ’you want to write some letters/to ring me back/to get ready I’d 'like ¡to, but (I’m a'fraid) I ,can’t. I’m having a little party
tonight.
for tomorrow, etc.? (casual, for close friends only)

70 71
Unit 9 Unit 9

(JSfo,) I’m a'fraid I'c a n ’t. I 'wish I ,cou!d, but I’ve 'got to see shows he is? 3. What would Ann have said if she had accepted Tom’s
a ^doctor to,day. Thank you all the same. invitation?
III. a) Read the lines o f the conversation to find out w hether the speakers are on
' Well, vactually, I’m 'going to the ^theatre to,night. Thank you firs t name terms. If so, give your reasons:
all the same.
A. Hi, Kate! I’m glad I bumped into you. There’s a party at
,N o, I 'wouldn’t/d o n ’t/ca n ’t 'go Steve’s on Friday. D ’you want to come?
for a ^walk now. I ’ve got a lot of work to do. (direct, for close K . Is there? Yes, that sounds great. I don’t think I’m fixed up
i friends only) that evening so I’d love to ... thanks. What time is everyone going?
Certainly ^not.
b) Look at the conversation again:
Exercises
I. Look through the te xt again to discuss the follow ing questions:
1. Does Kate accept the invitation enthusiastically? What
language shows she does? 2. What might Kate say instead of
1. What set phrases do the British use for making invitations to
accepting? 3. Could both speakers have said anything else with the
friends, to the people they are not on equal terms? 2. What do you
same meaning? If so, give possibe variants, 4. Which invitation, in
think different forms of invitations reflect? 3. What forms of
your opinion, might the young man have used if they were not on first
invitations are there in your own language? 4. In what ways is the
name terms? 5. What might Kate have answered in this situation?
language of invitations in English different from that in your own
culture? 5. What implications do these differences hold for teaching IV. a) Read the lines o f this conversation to discuss the follow ing questions:
W here, in your opinion, is it taking place? Who are the speakers? W hat kind
English as a foreign language? o f relationships have they got?
II. a) Read the conversation to answer the following questions: W ho do you th in k Peter. Have you got anything fixed up for this evening, Jane?
the speakers are? Are they on equal terms? Are they o f the same age? W hy
does the girl turn down ail the invitations? Jane: Nothing special.
T, Would you like to come out with me tonight? Peter: What about you, Mary?
A .. Sorry, I can’t. Mary: Well, actually I was going to have a quiet evening at home.
T. Tomorrow night then? Peter: And you, John?
A. I’d like to, but I’m afraid I can’t. John: Well, I’m working at my paper ...
T. Would you like to go to the theatre, then?
A. I wish I could. b) Re-read the conversation to answer the follow ing questions:
T. OK, well, give me a ring then 1. Why do Mary and John decline Peter’s invitation? 2. Do Mary
A. No, I’d better not. and John sound apologetic? If not, what language shows they don’t?
3. What language could Mary and John have used to sound apologetic?
T. Why not?
4 What language should Peter have used if he’d spoken to people he
A. Because 1 don’t think my husband would like it. were not on equal terms with?
b) Re-read the dialogue to discuss the following questions:
1. Does Ann refuse all invitations in an apologetic manner? If so,
what language shows she does? 2. Is Tom polite? What language

72 73
Unit 9 Unit 9

V Look at these answers to fo u r w ritten invitations that Mary Smith received 4. You’ve moved into a new flat. You want to give a house­
recently. W hich do you think were informal? Why? Put in a suitable name warming party to get to know your neighbours. Invite one of them
a fte r "D ear ...” in each letter:
introducing yourself at the same time. Your neighbour accepts the
1. D e a r ... invitation enthusiastically.
Thank you very much for your kind invitation to spend the 5. Some friends have invited you to spend the week-end with
week-end at your house. I would love to come and look forward to it them but you have too much work to do. Decline this invitation
very much. politely.
With best wishes. Mary. 6. You’ve been ill and are on a diet. A friend asks you to have
2. D e a r ... lunch with him /her in a restaurant. Decline, explaining the reason.
Thanks very much for the invitation to your New Year party on 7. A friend of yours invites you to a pop concert. Accept happily.
Friday. I’m afraid I can’t make it as I’m fixed up to go to my mother’s 8. One day you see your mother looking depressed. Invite her to
.birthday party. Very sorry. Hope it goes well. the cinema, with good reasons.
Love. Mary. 9. One day you meet an old school-friend you haven’t seen for
3. D e a r ... a long time. Invite him /her home for supper.
Thanks for the invitation to a film on Saturday. It sounds great, 10. You’re having a party to celebrate moving into a new flat (a
I’d love to come. house-warming party). Invite a friend to the party, giving him
See you soom. Love. Mary. directions which will enable him /her to find the house.
4. D e a r ... 11. You’re holding a children’s party for your little son or
Thank you very much for your kind invitation to dinner on daughter who wants to invite several children from school. Phone the
Tuesday. Unfortunately I’m afraid I can’t come as I’m already going children’s parents.
out that evening. 12. You’re responsible for organizing a sporting competition
With best wishes. Mary. between teams from different faculties of your Institute. Invite a
prominent sportsman to take part in the opening ceremony.
VI. Make sh o rt conversations in the follow ing situations:
13. You’re ill and realize that you will be unable to go to the
1. Accept or decline your partner’s invitations. Then exchange theatre with your friend the following evening. Call her/him to
roles and invite your partner to: the opening ceremony for the new explain and invite her/him to your own house at a later date.
theatre, a motor show, a Fashion’s Show, horse-racing, a football
14. Your friend has invited you to spend a day in the country.
match, the circus, the disco, your bithday party, etc.
You’d like to go very much. Unfortunately, your boss, Mrs Smith,
2. A friend’s car has broken down near your home and your says she can’t let you off, because she would not be able to manage
friend is standing on the pavement looking very cold waiting for the without you. Phone up your friend and refuse his invitation.
mechanic to arrive. Invite him for a cup of tea in your house. Your
15. Your boss is inviting you to h is/h er wedding-party. You
friend accepts the invitation.
would be happy to accept h is/h er invitation but you are not sure if
3. You’ve just come back from your holiday with 150 your husband will be able to go. He is very busy at the moment. Delay
photographs. On your first day back you bump into a friend who is the invitation and explain the reason. Promise your boss to phone
also keen on photography and might be interested in your photos. back to let him /her know if you are coming.
Invite him /h er to your home to look at the photographs.

74
Unit 10 Unit 10

Is there any ,way I could


U N IT 10 ( 1possible) be of 'help? } (tentative and polite)

Offers 'Can I help ¡you? (direct, mainly used by people giving you a
service)
R ead the text through to find out what national traits of the British ch aracter are
reflected in the language of offers: How to offer help:
British people do not particularly like to interfere in other 'Would you 'like me to 'drive
people’s affairs. Of course, just like in other countries there are you ,home?
different people in Briain. They act and speak in different ways.
However, it should be remembered that the British generally tend to 'Could
'Cou I 'get a ,drink for you, if (polite)
offer or turn down help in a pleasant and polite way. If someone offers you ¡like?
help, it is generally viewed as a commitment. If a person cannot give I could meet you at the ^station,
help, he or she usually states it and sometimes an excuse or reason is if you ¡like.
given. Sometimes the British turn down an offer or help in order not
If it 'would be of 'any ,h elp/u se I could/F d be 'rather 'happy
to inconvenience the offerer. A person may offer help twice in order
to show a sincere desire to help. If an offer is turned down twice, it to 'look after your,kids! (tentative)
generally means that the person genuinely does not want help. D ’you want me to type this letter? \
Sometimes British people offer help with some hesitancy, such as I Shall I type this letter for you? J ^*rec^
'could ,help you ... b u t... (+ a reason). Whenever or not to accept a Accepting offers of help:
hesitant offer of help may depend on how much it is needed.
'That 'would be 'very kind of
1May I help you? is used by people who work in offices, shops, you, ,thank you. (tentative, polite)
or other types of business. 1Can I "help you? is a more general offer
I ' would be e x ' tremely grateful
of help. N o, thank you is sometimes not considered a polite way to
if you ,cou!d/would.
turm down an offer of help because it is too abrupt. It is used to turn
down an offer of food, however. vYes, ¡please. ,Thank you (very (direct, used
R e m e m b e r : after the offer has been accepted, the other person m uch)/¡T hat’s 'very in reply to
need not say anything when h e/sh e performs the service. Quite often vkind of you. offers in the form
of a question)
British people just smile, or say 'Here you,are (e.g. on bringing some
food), or 1There y o u , are (e.g. on opening a window, bringing a chair, That’d be ,great. ,Thanks. (direct, informal)
etc.). Here are some other helpful expressions you might use to make, Rejecting offers of help:
accept or refuse offers. 'That’s 'very ,kind of you.
How to express willingness to help:
Thank you ('very 'much) for
'is there 'anything I can do? (polite, tentative)
^offering but I 'think I can ,manage.
j - (tentative and polite)
Fd be ('only 'to) happy to |help.
It’s 'very 'kind o f you to ¡offer.

76 77
Unit 10 Unit 10

'Oh, |please, 'don’t^bother. M ary. Oh, could you, Susan? That’d be great.
Susan: OK.
N o, it’s/th a t’s ('quite) all
fright, Cthank you).
}
f (direct, polite)
David: Is there anything I can d o ...?
M ary. That would be very kind of you David, thanks. Please ...
Expressing unwillingness to help:
I know it’s a bit of a horrible job, but could you possibly move all the
I’l 'like/iove to help but I’m furniture out of the front room and put it here?
a'fraid I’m 'too Jm sy at the ¡moment. David: All right.
I really wish I could help you, but (polite, tentative)
Lucy. Can I do anything?
I’m afraid I must be off.
M ary. No, that’s all right, thanks.
I’m afraid, I can’t help you just now. I’m too busy at the moment,
Lucy. We can manage and I know you’ve got a lot of work to do
(direct, a bit informal)
before this evening.
Expressing indifference:
b) Look through the conversation again and answer the follow ing questions:
'Oh, 'that’s all , right, ,thank you. 1. Where is the conversation taking place? 2. Who do you think
'Please 'don’t , worry. I’m 'sureI can,m anage, (formal, polite) the speakers are? 3. How do M ary’s friends respond to her
remark? 4. Do they offer their help? What language do they use
'Oh, vweli, !don’t ,worry/never mind, (direct, rather informal)
to do it? 5. Does David make a tentative offer to help? 6. Does Susan
Exercises make a very direct offer to help? 7. Does Mary tentatively suggest that
David could help with moving the furniture in the flat? 8. Why does
I. Re-read the te x t to discuss the follow ing questions:
Mary reject Lucy’s offer to help? Is it a direct rejection?
1. What principle are the British guided by when dealing with
people in everyday situations? 2. Why do the British tend to offer help iil. Make the follow ing into mini-dialogues about offers and rejecting them:

in a polite and pleasant way? 3. What language do the British use to E x a m p le : A. type, translation, for you; B. thank you,
express a willingness to help? 4. What ways do people in your own I, can, manage, I, think, myself, but.
culture use to express a willingness to help? 5. In what ways are these A. Shall I type the translation for you?
different from the British ones? 6. What are the most common ways B. Thank you, but I think I can manage
of accepting help in your own culture? 7. And what about the ways of myself.
rejecting offers of help? 8. What implications do the similarities and
1. A. to to the cinem a, with, me, tomorrow; B. have got, to do,
differences in the language of offers of the British and those in your
some work, on W ednesday. 2. A . come round, for a dance, this
own culture hold for teaching?
evening; B. very busy, tomorrow. 3. A ., watch, the game, on TV;
II. a) Read the conversation to find out what Mary, Lucy, David and Susan are B. don’t like, football, very much, the play, this evening. 4. A. go for
discussing:
a walk; B. feel tired, playing chess. 5. A . have lunch, with me, on
M ary. I’m absolutely exhausted and there are so many things to Tuesday; B. have got, to go, to the dentist. 6. A. go South, on holiday,
do before everybody arrives. with a group of friends; B. prefer, to spend, your holiday, where you
David: Well, 1 can get the drink for you if you want. live. 7. A. put up, your friend, for a few days; B. have, to think it over,
Susan: Can I help? to tell you later. 8. A. give money on loan; B. manage, I hate, to throw

78 79
Unit 10 Unit 10

money away. 9. A . help with moving to a new flat; B. manage, a lot of 2. Your father is finding it difficult to start his car. You know a
M ends, promise to come. lot about cars. Offer your help.
IV. Make the follow ing Into minl-dialogues about offers. Y o u r partner should 3. Your little brother is getting on your nerves one afternoon.
e ith e r reject o r accept them in accordance with the stimuli: Offer to take him to the zoo.
E x a m p le : A . You, meet, at the station? B. Yes, if, it’s 4. You’re driving along a street and see a M end waiting at a
not, too much, trouble. bus-stop. Stop and offer him /her a lift.
A. Shall I meet you at the station? 5. You’re a hotel receptionist. A guest asks you how he can rent
B. Yes, please, if it’s not too much trouble. a car. Offer politely to do it for him.
I. A . anything, I, can, get? B. no, all right, can manage. 2. A. if, 6. You’re travelling on the train. An old lady in your
would, any help, could do some cooking; 5 . that, very kind, you, compartment is trying to lift down a heavy suitcase from the rack
thank you. 3 .A . I, go, the shops, you, like; B. I, extrem ely grateful, above. Offer to help her.
be, would. 4. A . can, do, I, anything? B. do favour, get some discs. 7. You and some other people are sitting inside on a rainy day.
5. A . do, think, move, some furniture? B. OK. 6. A. is, any way, be of You’re all bored. Suddenly you see the chess set. Offer to play.
help? B. yes, i wonder, possible, go, the shops, for me. 7. A. shall, 8. You’re the host for dinner at a restaurant. The waiter has
buy, some wine? B. thanks, for offering, think, be all right. 8. A. if, brought the menu and you must offer various dishes to your guests.
would, any help, could, prepare, the food; B. it, very, kind offer, can
manage. 9. Sitting next to you in a plane is a young boy. H e’s having
difficulty with his safety belt. Offer to help him.
V. Make the follow ing into dialogues about offers. Y our partner should decline
them using " I ’d rather ... if you d o n 't m in d /lf It’s no tro u b le ." 10. An old man slips and falls down in the street. You run to help
him. What do you say to him?
E x a m p le : A . like some tea; B. Irave coffee.
A W a i 11ri xrrvm Ulro c rtm a to n ? 11. An elderly lady gets on the bus. There are no vacant seats.
-c. a .
T r V IU J L U j u u n a v O U 1 1 IU t u a •
Offer her yours.
B. I’d rather have coffee if it’s no trouble.
12. You teach English at school. Your life is not easy. At home
I. A . observe a lesson; B. write an essay on the m ethods of you complain because you have so much marking to do. Your sister
teaching in Britain. 2. A. attend the lecture on E nglish history; expresses a willingness to help. You ask her to make supper, even
B . work in the language laboratory. 3. A . be a kindergarten though you know she really hates cooking.
teacher; B . be a doctor. 4. A . go to the circus next week; B . go to
13. Your friend is very depressed because she has had an
th e zoo. 5. A . listen to some records; B. watch the TV. 6. A . play
argument with the principal at the school where you both work.
chess; B. play tennis. 7. A. ride my motor-bike; B. sit in the back 8.
Express a willingness to help.
A . come round for a dance this evening; B. be very busy tomorrow. 9.
A . go for a walk; B. feel tired, play chess. 10. A. go to the cinema; B. 14. You work as an interpreter in a large office. At work you
have to go to the dentist. boss’s wife rings up. She wants to speak to her husband, but no one
seems to know where he is.
VI. Make short conversations in the following situations:
15. An Englishman visiting your country has mislaid his luggage
1. Your friend and you have just finished a game of tennis. Youat the airport. He cannot speak Russian. Offer your help.
both feel tired and thirsty. Make an offer.

80 81
Unit 11 Unit 11

For granting and refusing permission the following phrases may


U N IT 11
be of help to you:
Answering "Yes'
Asking for Permission
Do you mind my buying a new dress? - (N ot at all, ' please ,do.
R ead the text to find out w hat expressions are polite between unequals for asking,
granting or refusing permission: Could I give you a lift if you don’t mind? - 'Please ,do as you
Iwish/like, (reluctant permission)
The British use different ways of asking for permission and of
granting or refusing it. Is it all right if I bring two friends? - Yes, 'that’s ,O K /all right.

,Can I ...? is an expression largely used between equals or by You don’t mind my coming later tomorrow, do you? - 'N o,
someone of a higher status to someone of a lower status. It’s quite 'please ,do.
familiar and informal. Answ ering "No":
,M ay I ...? is used to ask for something you want - but it was A standard refusal covering formal and informal situations
obvious from what you are doing, e.g. moving your hand towards it. would be:
And the answer should be "Certainly" or "Exactly". I’m sorry, I’m a ' fraid ,not. I don’t allow other peope to use my
1D o you mind if I have 'this 'book for 'two 'more ,days? is used books.
when the speaker intends to do what he has asked. Sorry, 'no 'chance of 'giving you a ,lift, (a strong refusal and
The forms which use tags are very frequent: would only ever be used between close friends or equals)
You 'don’t 'mind by ‘leaving 'earlier tO|day, do you? So are N o, o f 'course ,not. "1 (strong and firm refusals used
the sentences which have if you don’t mind at the end: Yes, I do/,wou!d |mind. J in informal situations)
I’ll 'just 'open the,w indow , if you 'don’t,m ind.
N o, it’s not all , right. (rather abrupt)
'Is it O K /all right if I open the window? is usually used between
I’d ' rather you ,didn’t if you 'don’t,mind, (rather strong, direct)
people who know each other fairly well, and for trivial requests. It
generally expects theyes-answ er. These expressions are used mostly Well (I’m sorry, I’m a'fraid) I’d 'prefer you not ¡to, if you
in informal situations when talking to people you know fairly well. 'don’t,m ind, (polite)
In formal situations preference should be given to:
Exercises
Could I ask you two questions if you don’t mind?
Could I possibly tell you about compulsory education in Britain? I. Look through the te xt to discuss the follow ing questions:

Would you mind if I played tennis every morning? 1. What ways of asking permission do the British use when
You 'wouldn’t 'mind my 'giving up teaching, would you? speaking to equals? 2. What expression is preferable when the speaker
intends to do what he has asked? 3. What expression is generally used
Do you think I could call you some day?
between friends for a trivial request? 4. What are standard
I wonder if I could study the systems of primary education in expressions for saying "Yes"? 5. What is a standard refusal covering
Britain.
formal and informal situations? 6. Atre there standard expressions of
These expressions are fairly polite and may be used between asking, granting or refusing permission in your own language? 7. Do
unequals, although they could also be used between equals. they differ in the degree of politeness and formality?

82 83
Unit 11 Unit 11

II. a) Read these lines o f conversation to find out what Tom Is asking M ick fo i Brown: Not at all. Take a seat. Now what can I do for you?
and why: Lucy. I want to leave the department. D ’you think I could put in
T o m : Is it OK if I borrow your texibook on biology? for a transfer?
N ic k : Well, actually I meed it m yself all this week ... Brown: Yes, but why should you want to do that?
T o m : Oh, come on, just for the evening. Lucy. D ’you mind if I speak frankly?
N ick: Look, the answ er’s "No". Anyway you had it m ost of Brown: Not at all. Go ahead.
last week ... L u c y Well, you see, I don’t like the office, I don’t like the staff,
and I’m afraid you and I don’t get on. So, may I put in for a transfer?
T o m : Do you think I could borrow your record tomorrow? I’ve
got a date with this girl, you see, and ... Brown: Yes, I’d be delighted if you did.
N ick: I see. Well, you can have it now as long as you bring it back b) Scan th te x t to answer the follow ing questions:
by 9 .3 0 ...
1. What kind of person is Mr Brown? 2. Do you think he’s
T o m : 9.30. That’s no good. Couldn’t I keep it a bit longer? aggressive? What language shows that he is? 3. And what sort of
N ick: I ’m afraid not, Tom. That’s the best I can do. person is Lucy? 4. Why do you think they don’t get on well? 5. Are
b) Scan th e conversation to answer the follow ing questions: they polite to each other? What language shows they are? 6. Do you
think Lucy is right in putting in for a transfer? 7. What would you say
1. Are Tom and Nick on equal terms? If so, exactly what to Mr Brown if you were in Lucy’s shoes?
language shows that they are? 2. Is Tom polite to Nick? What
IV. Your brother Tom phones you to ask fo r permission to do things. You snouia
language shows that he is? 3. And what about Nick? Does he refuse
either grant or refuse permission:
permission tactfully? 4. Which of them do you think is more polite? 5.
What language does Tom use to get Nick’s permission? 6. What other E x a m p le : bring my girl? borrow your car?
expressions could Tom have used with the same meaning? 7. What Tom: Is it all right if I bring my girl?
would you have said if you were in his shoes?
You: Yes, of course.
III. a) Read th e conversation to find out: 1) why Lucy Smith wants to leave the Tom: And do you mind my borrowing your
office; 2) why M r Brown did not allow Lucy to come in fo r the firs t time:
car to take her home after the party?
( L ucy works as a secretary in a large London firm . You: I’d rather you didn’t. I’ll need it m yself.
H er boss is John Brown.)
1. arrive late? 2. bring a bottle of red wine? 3. bring some beer,
Lucy. May I come in, Mr Brown?
not wine? 4. bring some friends? 5. leave early? 6. bring some discs?
Brown: I’d rather you didn’t, Miss Smith. I’m very busy just 7. wear jeans? 8. come with my two cousins? 9. come early to give a
now.
hand with arranging the furniture in the glat?
Lucy. Can I try later, then?
V. Y ou’re at a frie n d 's house. Ask fo r permission to do things like this;
Brown: Yes, of course.
(A n hour later.) E x a m p le:borrow your tape recorder?
Lucy. Is it all right for me to come in now, Mr Brown? Do you m ind/Is it all right if I borrow’
your tape recorder?
Brown: Well ... Mmm ... I’m still plenty busy, b u t ... all right,
come in. What can I do for you? 1. smoke? 2. have a drink? 3. close the window? 4. turn on the
TV? 5. use the bathroom? 6. borrow a few books? 7. telephone a friend
Lucy. D ’you mind if I sit down?
in Sochi? 8. make some coffee?

84 85
Unit 11 Unit 11

VI. Refuse o r give perm ission in accordance with the stimuli: your birthday. Some friends come to see you. Delicately ask your
grandmother for permission to stay with your friends for an hour.
1. Can I borrow your book for a moment, please? - (Yes). 2. Is it OK
6. You have just learned that your mother-in-law is coming to stay
if I take your car for the evening? - (No). 3. You don’t mind if I come a bil
with you for a week. You need some free time. Ask for your boss’s
later, do you? - (No). 4. (on the tube) May I sit there, please? - (No). 5.
permission to do several things, as to have a longer lunch hour on
Do you mind if I drop in on Sunday? - (Yes). 6. Could I turn the telly up,
please? - (No). 7. Could I give you a lift? - (Yes). Tuesday and Wednesday, have Friday afternoon off, come later to the
office on Monday, work at home instead of in the office on Thursday.
VII. Refuse perm ission and give explanation to be polite:
7. A friend of yours is asking you if you can lend h im /her your
E x a m p le : open the window - get a cold. tape recorder. You want to know when h e /sh e wants it and then give
A. Do you mind it I open the window? your permission reluctantly.
8. A friend of yours is fond of collecting records. It is your hobby
B. I’d rather you didn’t if you don’t mind.
too. H e/sh e has invited your brother to go to a small town not far from
I’m afraid I’ve got a bad cold. Moscow where there will be a big sale of old records. Ask for your
1. borrow your book - need it this evening; 2. come late to dinner - friend’s permission to join them.
important we start on time; 3. turn the record player up - elderly 9. You are sitting hear the window in the classroom. It is wide
neighbours; 4. invite guests to dinner - want to spend a peaceful open. There is a draught which is giving you earache. Ask your
evening at home; 5. visit you on Sunday - want to relax; 6. call you lecturer politely if you can close it.
tonight - my friend and I go out; 7. to stay with my grandparents for 10. You are having a birthday party. Suddenly one of your
a week - school starts.
friends says that h e /sh e is feeling bad. Ask your father’s permission
VIII. Ask your classm ate/your teacher/your cousin/a new student you don’t to use his car to take your friend home.
know very well fo r permission:
11. You have been invited to your cousin’s wedding party. You
L borrow a tape recorder for 2 days; 2. have a testbook on m iiifv 1 1 w i n uc n i u i c i u i i i i ci m e n u u i j ' u u i o jen iw > ) u u . n o x\. ) u u i
teaching m ethods for a minute; 3. make a phone call; 4. open the cousin’s permission to bring your friend.
window; 5. help out with film-projector; 6. switch the television on; 12. Your friend is in hospital. You are going to see him /her
7. make som e coffee; 8. buy tickets to the cinema. today. Ask politely your English teacher if you can leave h er/h is class
IX. Make sh o rt conversations in the follow ing situations: earlier today.
13. You and your husband want to go to see "The Swan Lake"
1. You are travelling by train on a hot day with all the windows
tomorrow evening. You’d like your parents to look after your baby.
shut. Ask politely if you can open one.
Phone them up and ask their permission to bring her to their home.
2. There is one free seat in a crowded lecture-room but it is at a 14. A friend of yours has brought a very interesting book on
table occupied by two students. Ask politely if you can sit there.
audio-visual aids. This book is not available in your library but you
3. Ask your boss, a rather aggressive man, if you can have a day need it badly. Ask delicately for your friend’s permission to take it
off tomorrow. Give reasons why.
home for two days.
4. Ask your Dean for permission to take an examination in 15. Before taking a test in lexicology you were to write a third
theoretical grammar over again.
year essay. It must be given in by April 30th but you did not do it
5. Your grandmother was seriously ill and you had to look after her. because of illness. A.sk politely for your teacher’s permission to give
At present sh e’s feeling better but is still rather weak. You are celebrating vnnr essnv in next week at the latest.

86 87
Unit 12 Unit 12

Are you interested in econom ics/fashion/Indian


U N IT 12 films/collecting stam ps/teaching foreign languages, etc.?
Do you happen to take interest in golf/m odern methods of
Personal Interests teaching/athletics/knitting, etc.? (tentative)
R ead the test to find out why the British prefer to use lentative ways when speaking D o you go in for gym nastics/m usic/growing flow ers/fishing,
about their personal interests:
etc.? (very informal)
The British are known to have a cult of privacy. They generally Possible answers:
prefer to keep to themselves and hate to intrude on other people’s
Yes, 'actually, I 'am /d o, etc.
privacy. As a matter of fact, they don’t particularly like to speak about
their personal matters and interests. And when they do they always 1Well, ,yes, to a 'certain exten t. } (slightly formal)

tend to use tentative and apologetic ways. Apart from that they 'Oh, v e s,'v e r y much. \
generally avoid direct questions and strong dogmatic questions. To . j (direct, informal)
help negotiate a conversation they use "comment words" like as a vWelI, not ^really/ actually ,no.
matter o f fact, actually, quite:
Exercises
I’m quite interested in tennis, what about you?
I. Discuss the follow ing questions:
As a matter of fact 1 quite like to go to the theatre myself, what
about you? 1. What cult do the British have? 2. Why, according to the text,
do the British keep to themselves? 3. What expressions do the British
Here are some ways of speaking about personal interests or use to express personal interests? 4. And what are the most common
preferences:
ways in English for expressing a lack of particular interest in some­
Expressing personal interests: thing? 5. How is the language of expressing personal interests in
I’m 'rather 'interested in/keen on ^sports/roses/pop English different from that in your culture? 6. Do you use the same
m usic/dancing/playing chess, etc. (polite) language with a friend as you do with a complete stranger?
I tend to prefer/to be rather more interested in II. a) Read the lines o f conversation to find out what Mike and Nick have in
b allet/art/cats/readin g in bed/cooking, etc. (tentative) common:

H ike basketball/good books/collecting stamps/travelling, etc. M ike: Do you go in for folk music?
(very much), (direct, the least emotional) Nick: Well, yes, but I like jazz better.
Expressing a lack of personal interests: Mike: Oh, really! I like traditional jazz myself, you know, the
Are you interested in folk music? - vWeII, !not ^really, I 'don’t kind that started in New Orleans.
Jike it. / I ’m not interested in it/not particularly keen on it, actually. Nick: Are you interested in blues?
(tentative) Mike: Well, not really. I go in for rock opera,
Asking about personal interests: b) Look at the lines o f conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:

D o you take much interest in sports/literature/politics/ I. What do you think the speakers are? 2. Are they equals? 3.
playing basketball/singing, etc.? (formal, polite) Do the speakers sound informal? If so, what language shows they

88 89
Unit 12______________________________________________________ Unit 12

do? 4. What could the speakers have said with the same meaning if
b) Look back at the conversation to answer the follow ing questions:
they’d spoken using formal language?
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Do they speak an informal language?
III. a) Read the conversation to find out what the speakers are discussing:
If so, what language shows they do? 3. Have Mary and Jeff got the
Jeff: What’s on the telly this evening? I feel like relaxing. same interests? 4. What are Mary’s personal interests? 5. Jeff doesn’t
M ary. Why ask me that? I don’t like it actually. You know I never share Mary’s interests, does he? If so, what language shows he
watch it. doesn’t? 6. How does Jeff personally feel about TV educational
Jeff: Too busy with the latest hobby, are you? Are you still going programmes? 7. Do you think Jeff is interested in watching
in for knitting socks for your nephews? Or collecting buttons? I wish educational programmes? Give your opinion. 8. What are Jeff’s ideas
I had as much free time as you do. about leisure? 9. How does Mary feel about free time and the way it
should be spent? 10. Do you agree with Jeff that there’re two kinds of
M ary. Men! As a matter of fact, you probably have more than I
people with different ideas about work and leisure? 11. Which of the
do. But you waste it all watching your telly.
kind do you personally belong to?
Jeff: That’s not waste of time. I’ve got to rest sometimes.
IV. Make the follow ing into mini-dialogues about personal Interests:
M ary. Sometimes, maybe, but not all the time. And anyway, I
relax with my hobbies. A change is as good as a rest. E x a m p le : A. like, you, playing chess? B. very much,
Jeff: Well, the telly’s my hobby, and I learn a lot from it. eys, my hobby, actually.
A. Do you like playing chess?
M ary. But it doesn’t teach you anything, does it? You just sit
and stare at it. That’s not learning. B. Yes, very much, it’s my hobby, actually.
Jeff: But I do learn. I’m rather keen on watching educational 1. A . take, interest, politics? B. actually, do. 2. A. are, interested,
programmes. And there are lots of them, you know. dancing? B. well, yes, to a certain extent. 3 .A . happen, take, interest,
Mary: But you don’t watch them, do you? Whenever an pop music? B. well, not particularly, keen, actually, 4. A. you, prefer
educational programme comes on, you either switch over to the other listening, classical music? B. well, but, like pop music, better. 5. A.
channel or go to sleep. are interested, playing tennis? B. well, not, particularly, like, tennis.
6. A. you, happen, much interest, the cinema? B. yes, do, but more
Jeff: When I come home from work, I need to put my feet up, at
interested, going, the theatre.
least for a while. Life’s not all work, you know.
V. Make sh o rt conversations in the follow ing situations:
M ary. Hobbies aren’t work, Jeff. I like putting my feet up, too,
at the end of the day, but I like doing things while I rest. Life’s too 1. You’re reading a newspaper article about space exploration.
short for us to waste time. You ask a friend of yours about h is/h er interest in it. Your friend
Jeff: Mary, dear, as I’ve said many times, we’re different. expresses only a slight interest.
Ther’re two kinds of people in the world ... 2. A colleague of yours wants to know about your interest in
M ary. I know, I know. Those who are never happy unless they’re methodology. You express interest, but show a preference for
running about doing things ... educational technology.
Jeff: That’s right, and those who are never happy unless they’re 3. Your fellow-students ask you about your interest in opera.
doing nothing. You take a slight interest in opera, expressing a preference for more
modern music.

90 91

L
Unit 12 Unit 13

4. You’re meeting a famous actress. Ask her about her interest


in television programmes, music, sport. U N IT 13
5. Your fellow-student is inviting you to a folk music concert.
You express a slight interest, accept the invitation, but show a How to Ask Someone About H es/H er Problem
preference for classical music. Your friend tells you about his interests R ead the text to find out what technique the British use to ask someone about
in music. h is/h er problem in a formal situation:
6. You teach English at school. A colleague of yours wants to As it was said earlier, the British always tend to mind their own
know about your interests in methods of teaching foreign languages. business. They prefer not to interfere in other people’s affairs. They
You express your strong interest, but show a preference for the respect privacy. The accepted code of behaviour doesn’t allow one to
communicative approach in teaching. ask other people about their personal matters in a direct way. When
7. You’ve met your school friend you haven’t seen for ages. Ask the British have to do it they always do it in a sympathetic and
her/him about h er/h is personal interests and preferences. Show your apologetic way. Here are some techniques you may need when asking
preference for sport and television. someone about h es/h er problems in English:
8. You are on a short stay in Britain. You are fond of playing You 'look ,worried/seem a bit upset, ,Kate, this
tennis. You need someone for a partner in a tennis match. Ask your (m orning/today, etc.
new friend if h e /sh e is keen on tennis. H e/sh e shows a great interest
in basketball. 'is 'something the m atter/the problem/anything wrong?
(direct, slightly formal)
9. You are speaking to a student from Great Britain about
personal interests. H e/sh e is interested in pop music and Russian I 'hope you 'don’t 'mind me ^asking this, tMiss ¡Cook, but 'is
opera. Your own personal interests lie in a defferent sphere. 'anything ^wrong/is anything the matter? (formal)
Delicately tell h im /her about that.
E x 'cuse me ^asking, you ' don’t 1seem to be your ' u s u a l'cheery
10. A new friend of yours and you are talking about the methods
'self this ^morning. 'Are you ,certain/quite sure 'there’s 'nothing
of teaching in foreign language learning. H e/sh e is not greatly
interested in modern teaching methods. You show a great interest in ^worrying you?/there’s nothing the matter? (formal)
computer-assisted teaching. iEr ... Jook, ( |M iss |Cook) I 'know it’s 'really 'none o f my
11. Your colleague and you are discussing TV educational ,business/nothing to do with me really, but it 'does
programmes. H e /sh e is dead sure that television instructs and oc'casionally/som etim es 'help to 'talk about 'things, you |know ...
educates children very well. So, h e/sh e shows a great interest in these I might be able to help./Perhaps, I can help, (formal)
programmes. You do not. Your interests lie in the sphere of
programmed learning.
'Something 'worrying you, ,isn’t it?
There’s 'som ething'bothering you, (informal)
.isn’t there?

93
Unit 13 Unit 13

M iss Cook: Oh, yes! It’s ... it’s nothing really.


Exercises
M r Baston: E r ... look, Miss Cook. I know it’s really none of my
I. Look through the te x t again to discuss the following questions: business but it does occasionally help to talk about things, you know.
1. Why do the British hate to ask personal questions? 2. What I might be able to help.
ways do the British use to ask friends about their personal problems? M iss Cook: W ell,... it’s just that my mother phoned up last night.
3. What are the most common ways the British use to ask people they She was in a dreadful state. It seems my father’s had a heart attack.
aren’t in the same boat with about their problems? 4. What language M r Baston: Oh, I’m sorry to hear that, Miss Cook, really I am!
do people in your own culture use in similar situations? 5. Do you use
the same language with a friend as you do with a complete stranger? b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
6. How is the language you use in your own culture different from that 1. Who do you think the speakers are? 2. Where is it taking place?
the British use? 7. What implications for teaching do these differences 3. What makes Mr Baston ask Miss Cook what has happened to her?
hold? 4. Does he do it in an apologetic and polite way? If so, what language
II. a) Read the conversation to find out why Kate looks worried: shows he does? 5. Does Miss Cook tell Mr Baston at once why she’s
worried? If not. why do you think she doesn’t? 6. Do they speak
Paula: You look worried, Kate. Anything wrong? formal English? 7. What else could Mr Baston have said with the same
Kate: N o, not really. meaning? 8. Is he really sympathetic to Miss Cook?
Paula: Now, Kate. I know you better than that. There’s some­ IV. a) Read the conversation to find out w hat’s up with Steve:
thing bothering you, isn ’t there?
Patsy: I hope you don’t mind me asking you this, Steve, but is
Kate: W ell... it’s just that Dave and I had a row again last night
anything the matter?
and ... w e ll... h e ’s decided to break off our engagement.
Steve: Well, it’s just that I’ve failed my exams, so I won’t be able
Paula: Oh, Kate! I’m sorry!
to go to University now.
b) Look at th e converstion again to answer the follow ing questions: Patsy: Oh, I’m sorry to hear that, Steve, really I am.
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on equal terms? If so, what b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
language shows they are? 3. Do you think Paula is friendly and kind
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on friendly terms? 3. Do
to Kate? 4. Why do you think Kate doesn’t want to annoy Paula with
you think they’re of the same age? 4. Do they sound formal or
her problem? 5. Is Paula sympathetic to Kate? What language shows
informal? Give your reasons. 5. Why do you think Patsy says "I hope
she is? 6. Is Kate’s problem really serious? 7. What do you think of
you don’t mind me asking this"? 6. What else could Patsy have said
Kate’s behaviour? 8. What would you do if you were in Kate’s shoes?
with the same meaning? 7. Does Patsy sympathize with Steve? What
III. a) Read the conversation to find out why Miss Cook Is upset: language shows she does? 8. Do you think Steve has got a really
M r Baston: I hope you don’t mind me asking you this, Miss serious problem? 9. Have you ever been in Steve’s shoes?
Cook, but is anything the matter? V. Replace these formal phrases with informal ones:
M iss Cook: N o, of course not, Mr Baston. Why do you ask? 1. May I ask if anything is wrong? 2. I’m pleased to have been of
M r B a s to n :'Vieil, it’s just that you don’t seem to be your usual help. 3. Thank you all the same. 4. Are you quite sure there’s nothing
cheery self this morning. Are you quite sure there’s nothing worrying worrying you? 5 . 1 know it’s really none of my business, but it does
you? occasionally help to talk about things, you know.

94 95
Unit 13 Unit 13

VI. Replace these Informal phrases with formal ones:


tells you that her husband has left for Siberia on business. She has
two kids to look after. On top of that she has to overwork regularly
1. You look worried, anything wrong? 2. Something’s worrying because the other colleague of hers is on sick leave at the moment.
you, isn ’t it? 3. Is there a problem? 4. What’s up? 5. Is something the Express your sympathy and encouragement.
matter?
7. You’re talking to a friend of yours. S h e/h e has just moved to
VII. Make sho rt conversations in the following situations: a new flat. Sh e/h e sounds a bit unhappy and you wonder if everything
1. You’re meeting a school-friend of yours you haven’t seen for is going well in her/his flat. At first sh e /h e doesn’t want to annoy you
a long time. S h e/h e is looking a bit upset. Find out what’s up with with h er/h is grievances but then admits that some of the pipes are
her/him but do it nicely. The friend tells you her/his mother has been leaking in her/his flat. Give your sympathy and advice.
rushed to hospital. Be sympathetic and encourage her/him . 8. You’ve got a problem. You’ve been offered a job singing with
2. Your mother doesn ’t seem to be her usual self today. Ask her, a pop group. If you take the job, you’ll have to give up studying at the
if there’s something bothering her. At first she doesn’t want to tell University because the group spend most of their time touring the
you about her troubles but in the end she admits that she has lost 100 country. A fellow-student, Ann, notices that you’re worried, and asks
roubles. Express your sympathy and encouragement. you what is wrong. You explain, and she offers some advice. You turn
down her first suggestion but agree to think about the second.
3. Your friend looks worried. Find out what it is that bothers
him /her. In reply h e /sh e says that nothing has been going right with 9. Your colleague is worried because sh e/h e had a slight
him/'her lately. The trouble is that h e/sh e was in hospital for a month accident with h er/h is uncle’s car this morning on h er/h is way to
and missed a lot of seminars and lictures. At present h e /sh e is having work, and the left wing of the car was damaged. H er/his uncle is so
problems with general linguistics, philosophy and many other proud of his new car that your colleague doesn’t know how to tell him
subjucts, not to speak of English. Express your sympathy and offer about the accident. You notice that your colleague is upset and offer
him /her your help. advice. S h e/h e turns down your first suggestion but accepts the
4. You teach English at school. At the moment you and a second.
colleague of yours are in the staff room, Your colleague seems to be 10. You teach English at school. At the conference devoted to the
worried. You want to know whether something is the problem. Your communicative teaching of foreign languages you meet a colleague of
colleague admits that there are two things worrying her at the yours. She looks a bit worried. You talk about h er/h is problems.
moment. Her fourteen-year-old daughter isn’t well and then the
head-m aster was unjust with her this morning. Give her your
sympathy and encouragement.
5. You’re a student. At the moment your group is having an
English class. Your lecturer doesn’t seem to be h er/h is usual cheery
self this morning. Ask apologetically if there’s something worrying
her/him . In reply sh e /h e says that her/his scientific advisor has
decided to retire and leave for the Far East. Express your surprise
and encourage your lecturer.
6. You’re talking to your sister on the phone. She sounds worried
and unhappy. You wonder whether something is wrong. In reply she

96 4—556
Unit 14
Unit 14

I like cinem a/this actor/this m useum /skiing/going to the


U N IT 14 theatre, etc. (very much) (the least emotional, widely used form)
Stating Likes, Dislikes and Preferences I prefer/I’d prefer/I’d rather stay at home.
Agreeing with likes:
R ead the text to find out the most common phrases the British use when stating
likes, dislikes and preferences. So do/did/am I actually.
Oh, yes, I am /d o/d id too. It’s great/enjoyable/fantastic/use­
I. Likes and dislikes
ful, etc., isn’t it? (informal)
The Britsh are known to be reluctant to speak about themselves Disagreeing with likes:
and their personal affairs. They protect their privacy and wish equally
for other people to protect theirs. In fact, they have an overriding 1Oh, 'do you ?/real!y?/are you? I must say it’s not something I
respect for the privacy of other people, a feeling that, in the long run, know much about, (rather formal, polite)
people’s likes and dislikes are their own concern and nobody else’s. 'Oh, 'a r e y o u ? /d o you ? /re aiiy ? I’m n o t/d o n ’t really, (rather
That’s why they generally avoid stating likes, dislikes and direct, informal)
preferences in a straightforward way, but rather use polite, tentative
and pleasant techniques instead. Of course, situations vary. In formal Stating dislikes:
situations, the British use more direct ways of expressing likes, (Personally,) I think/find this perform ance/sunbathing/histo-
dislikes, preferences. Nevertheless notice: the grammatical negative rical novels/taking photographs, etc. rather boring/awful/terrible,
"I don’t like ..." sounds too strong and dogmatic. It’s never used in a etc. (direct, slightly formal)
conversation as the natural negative by native speakers. You may say (Personally,) I’m not over particularly/keen on modern
something else instead, e.g. I don’t particularly like ..., etc. It’s architecture/cats/getting up early, etc. (tentative)
important to choose appropriate ways of saying things according to I (really) don’t like holidays by the sea/painting/listening to
the situation you’re in, the relationships you have with the people records, etc. (direct, very strong)
you’re talking to; the mood of the people you are talking to. Here are
I can’t stand horror film s/big hotels/travelling by underground,
some helpful ways you can do that:
etc. (very blunt)
Stating likes: Agreeing with dislikes:
I’m r a th e r/q u ite keen on detective sto ries/c h ild re n /an im a ls/ N either/N or a n /c a n /d o I (actually). "s
playing the piano/going to the theatre, etc. (rather emotional)
'Yes, it’s 'a w fu l/te rrib le , e t c ., isn’t? J (strong)
I enjoy film s/m y classes/swimming/going to the concerts, etc.
(emotional, expresses mostly a feeling of pleasure) (Yes,) I would tend to agree with you here, (tentative)
Personally, I find/think morning exercises/this hobby/driving Disagreeing with dislikes:
a car/keeping pets, etc. rather good/really fantastic/quite
'Oh, ,really? C a n ’t / d o n ’t, are n ’t you? (direct)
enjoyable/extrem ely interesting, (rather formal)
I quite lik e /’m quite keen on sports/ice-cream /sw im m ing/
I’m rath e r/v e ry fond of b a lle t/d ra m a /h o m e-m ad e skating, etc. myself actually, (the most widely used form)
pies/w atching TV /speaking English, etc. (the most widely used form
I like spring/gym nastics/travelling, etc. better, (direct)
to express affection for somebody or something)

98 4* 99
Unit 14 Unit 14

Tactfully? 7. What suggestion does Steve make? Does his suggestion


Exercises sound formal? 8. Does John approve of this suggestion? If so, what
I. Look through the te xt again to answer the following questions: language shows he does? 9. What preference does Steve express? Does
it sound tentative or strong? 10. What else could Steve have said with
1. What does the language of stating likes, deslikes and
the same meaning? 11. Do you think all the speakers sound informal?
preferendes depend on? 2. What is meant by appropriate ways of
12. What kind of language would the speakers have used if they had
saying things? 3. How do the British feel about privacy? 4. What are
been on formal terms to express the same meaning?
the most common ways of stating likes, dislikes and preferences in
your own language? 5. How do you think these ways are different III. a) Read the conversation to find out what the speakers are talking about:

from those the British use? 6. What implications for teaching English A. I tend to be rather keen on ballet myself.
as a foreign language do these differences hold? B. Oh, yes, so do I, and I’m particularly interested in modern
II. a) Read the conversation to fin d out what sort o f music the speakers like: dance.
J o h n : So w e’ll have it on the 23rd then. Good. But now, about A. Oh, really? I’m afraid it’s not something I know very much
the music for the party. Any ideas? about. You see I’m not particularly keen on this abstract type of
dancing though it’s in fashion nowadays.
Cathy: Well, why not have live music? There’re lots of groups
around. We can ask "The Spiders" - you know, the group who plays B. Oh, aren’t you? I know some people don’t like it very much
at the local disco from time to time. but personally I find it fascinating.
Steve: No, thanks, Cathy! I can’t stand them or their music! b) Read the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:

John: Nor me. And anyway, they don’t exactly play the sort of 1. Who are the speakers? 2. Do you think they’re on equal terms?
music you can dance to, do they? If so, what language shows they are? 3. Is the first speaker keen on
Cathy: No, I suppose not, ballet? Does he express his liking for ballet tentatively? What
Steve: How do you feel about having records, as we did last year? language shows he does? 4. What about the second speaker? What are
Most people seemed to quite like it. his particular interests? 5. Does the second speaker express his dislike
for modern dance? What language does he use? Does he put his dislike
John: Well, we could, I suppose, Steve, but I think most of us
in an apologetic way? 6. In what way does the second speaker express
would prefer live music.
his liking for modern dance? Does he put it in a tentative way? 7. What
Cathy. Yes, I agree - expecially since we only had about ten else could the second speaker have said with the same meaning?
records altogether.
IV. Make the follow ing into the sentences o f likes and dislikes:
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
1. I, rather keen, going to cartoon films. 2. Science-fiction
1. Who do you think the speakers are? 2. What arrangements are films, rather boring. 3. I, not find, watching television, very
they discussing? 3. What does Cathy suggest? Do you think she likes interesting. 4. I, not keen, watching documentaries. 5. Personally,
the group who plays at the local disco? 4. Does Cathy sound informal? (don’t) find, documentaries, very enjoyable. 6. I, can’t, stand,
If so, what language shows she does? 5. Does Steve dislike the group? detective films. 7 . 1, not over keen, watching, children films. 8 .1, can’t
If so, what language shows he does? 6. What’s John’s attitude stand, people, smoking in cinemas. 9 . 1, think, documentaries, more,
towards the group and the sort of music they play? In what way interesting, than musicals.
does he express his feelings about the group? Apologetically?

100 101
Unit 14 Unit 14

V. Replace these formal phrases with informal ones: VIII. Make up conversations in the follow ing situations. State your likes and
dislikes to the people below about the subjects given, and they agree or
1. I d o n ’t really like football, either. 2. I m ust adm it I d o n ’t disagree. Pay particular attention to attitude:
like classical music all th a t much. 3. No, I d o n ’t think t h a t ’s such
a good idea, really. 4 . 1 m ust say, I tend to be quite keen on ballet.
5. Personally, I think travelling on trains is rather boring. 6. Well, to 1. your sister (pop m usic); 2. a colleague (a recent film ); 3. your
be honest, I find thrillers really enjoyable. 7 . 1 must say I d o n ’t really head-master (modern teaching methods); 4. an English friend
have any preferences,’both sound equally good to me. (climbing); 5. a friend (holiday photographs); 6. a colleague of yours
(educational technology); 7. your brother (a recent disco); 8. your
VI. Replace the inform al phrases with formal ones:
mother (the latest fashion); 9. your fellow-student (modern
1. Do you fancy going to the cinema? 2. Nor me. 3 . 1 c a n ’t stand painting); 10. a visiting lecturer from Great Britain (communicative
pop music. 4. How about next Monday? 5. Oh, I ’m easy, you know. teaching of foreign languages); 11. your lecturer (the forms of address
6. Well, I'm not all that keen, actually. 7. Yes, me too. in English); 12. your mother (living in cities); 13. your colleague (the
VII. Match the phrases in the column on the left with the answers on the right: responsibility of parents for educating children); 14. your friend
(modern dancing)
1. How about going to 1 . 1 must admit, I ’m quite keen on
Leningrad? musicals. IX. Express your likea and dislikes in the follow ing situations:
2. Weil, could we book tickets in 2. I don’t really like it. It’s just 1. Your friends and you are discussing what to do for the
advance? awful, isn’t it? week-end. One of your friends suggests going to the country for the
3. Well, might I suggest next 3. Oh, I ’m easy. day. The other would prefer to go to an exhibition and asks you if
Thursday? you’re interested. You don’t really mind where you go. In the end you
4. And how do you feel about 4. Yes, why not? decide to go and see an exhibition at the Pushkin Museum of Fine
musicals? Arts.
5. How about the new cinema 5. Yes, th a t’s a splendid idea. 2. Your Dean is speaking to you about the forthcoming visit of a
"Sparkle"?
student delegation from Britain. The delegation will be staying for
6. W ouldn’t you prefer some- 6. Personally, I ’m not particularly
three days. You suggest an excursion to theTretyakow Gallery, a ride
thing a bit more exciting? keen on ballet.
around Moscow. Your Dean thinks that the members of the delegation
7. W h a ta re you doing this week- 7. Yes, I’d like to.
would prefer to see a ballet performance in the Bolshoi Theatre.
end?
8. Do you feel like going to see a 8. I ’d prefer to see something more 3. You’ve decided to invite one of your feliow-students to a
film tonight? serious. concert. Much to your regret h e /sh e doesn’t like classical music.
9. W here do you suggest we are 9. 1 accept whatever you decide. H e/she is rather keen on pop music. Since you’re easy, you’re quite
going? happy to accept whichever concert is decided upon.
10. Which do you prefer better, 10. I ’d prefer to stay at home, 4. You call your cousin to find out where sh e /h e would like to
musicals or ballet? go. Your cousin is aloof. S h e/h e isn’t particularly keen on concerts,
11. Do you fancy going out for a 11. Oh, yes, it’s something we she/h e prefers ballet.
meal? want. 5. You’ve gone into a shop to buy some shoes, tell the assistant
12. Might I make a suggestion? 12. I love musicals. what kind of shoes you’d like to buy.

102 103
Unit 14 Unit 14

6. Some friends suggest going to see a science-fiction film.


You’ve had a long day at the school. You don’t feel like going out. In II. Preferences
fact you don’t particularly like science-fiction films. You’d prefer to Preference is liking one thing better than another. There are
see a cartoon. quite a few expressions of asking for and stating preferences in
7. Your friend is trying to persuade you to go to an exhibition English. They may be divided into formal, i. e. those used when
with the rest of the group on Saturday. You prefer having a peaceful talking to people formally and those used with friends. Here are some
evening at home. helpful phrases you can use to express preferences:
8. Your friend wants to bring his mother with him to your Asking for preferences:
birthday party. You would prefer him not to, so refuse tactfully.
'Which do you prejer/'iike better, tea or ^coffee/football or
9. You’re talking to a colleague of yours who doesn’t particularly
tennis/travelling by air or by sea/sunbathing or swimming, etc.?
like modern teaching methods. Express your disagreement with
(rather formal)
h er/h is dislikes but do it delicately.
What would you prefer, to study arts or science/to go to
10. You’re talking to a fellow-ctudent. S h e/h e is expressing
University or to travel round the world/to get married or to remain
h er/h is dislike of modern fachions. Express your strong
disagreement. single, etc.? (formal)

11. Caroline is a student of Oxford. She has come to this country ! Would you 'like to 'go „out to stay at hom e/to watch video or
on an exchange programme. You’re meeting her for the first time. to 'go to the ,cinema? (rather formal)
She’s interested in pop music, and she likes playing tennis. You are Do you feel like going to work/getting
not very keen on pop music, but you like tennis. She’s interested in up early/being on your own, etc.? . „
films. You’re discussing your likes and dislikes. , (informal)
D ’you fancy being with a big crowd/
12. A journalist is asking you about your interests and likes washing up/going for long walks, etc.? ]
concerning television programmes in this country. You like some
programmes and dislike others. Make it clear that you’re interested
in wildlife programmes. Possible answers:
13. Your parents and you are discussing the things people like vWell, I’m 'not ‘all 'that ,keen,
to do at week-ends. Your mother is fond of working in the garden. iactually.
So, she likes to spend her week-ends in the country. Your father has vNo, 'not,really, I’d 'preferto 'do
different ideas about the way people should spend week-ends. He
housework/to cook/to read detective
prefers to visit exhibitions and museums. You have no particular likes
or dislikes. stories, etc. (polite formal)
14. You have invited some fellow-students for coffee. You are vOh, I 'don’t 'mind being in a ,small
talking now about the ways different people like to spend their igroup/dancing, etc.
holidays. Carry on a conversation of this kind for a few minutes. I’ll 'go a'long 'what you de cide/
suggest.

104 105
Unit 14

II. a) Read the conversation to find out who the speakers are:
v0 h , I’m easy, I’ll ‘do what‘ever you de'cide/suggest.
(informal) Tom: Shall we have some soup first?
vWe!I, I must ‘say I ‘don’t Nick: No, thank-you. I don’t like soup. I’dratherhave some fruit
‘really have any , preferences. juice to start with.
I must ‘say ‘both ‘sound (direct, slightly formal) Tom: OK. And what about the main course? Which would you
I ' rather have, fish or meat?
equally good to me.
Nick: Meat, I think.
vNo, Jhan k you , I’d 'rather ,not
Tom: Don’t you like fish, then?
sunbathe/go to the cinema, etc. (possible in all
I j Nick: I do, but I prefer meat.
I’d rather go sightseeing/reading, situations) Tom: Shall we have some white wine?
etc.
Nick: I’d rather have red wine with meat.
Stating preferences: Tom: What would you like for dessert? Some cheese?
I (’d) pre'fer to ‘live in a ho,tel/to dance/cooding to washing Nick: I’d rather have a coffee, I think.
up/watching TV to going to the cinema, etc. (possible in all Tom: Fine. And ... er, after dinner? Shall we go to a disco?
situations)
Nick: No, thanks, I’d rather go straight home.
I tend to prefer/to be rather more interested in/ playing
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the following questions:
football/having a look round the shoe shop, etc. (tentative)
1. Do the speakers sound informal? If so, what language shows
they do? 2. What does Tom suggest? 3. Does Tom’s suggestion sound
Exercises polite? 4. What else could Tom have said with the same meaning and
I. a) Look thro u g h this mini-dialogue to find out what Frank would prefer to do the same degree of politeness? 5. Does Nick decline Tom’s suggestion
on Friday: in a direct way? If so, what language shows he does? 6. Does Nick
Jill: Do you feel like going to Alan’s party on Friday? state his preference tentatively? What else could he have said with the
same meaning? 7. What does Nick prefer to have for the main course?
Frank: N o, not really. I’d prefer to go somewhere a bit more
dessert? 8. Do you think Nick is direct in declining Tom ’s
exciting. What about you?
suggestions? If not, what langage shows he isn’t? 9. Why do you think
Jill: Oh, I’m easy. I’ll do whatever you decide, Tom makes all the suggestions? Is he the host at the table?
b) Look again at the lines o f conversation to answer the following questions:
III. Replace these formal phrases with informal ones:
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on equal terms? If so, what 1. I must say I don’t really have any preferences. 2. Any
language shows they are? 3. What does Jill ask Frank about? Does she suggestions as to where we can go this evening? 3 . 1 must admit I don’t
sound formal? 4. What else could Jill have said with the same like "Spartak" all that much. 4. Might I suggest going to see "Swan
meaning? 5. Does Frank state his preference politely? 6. What else Lake" at the Bolshoi theatre? 5. No, I don’t think that’s such a good
could Frank have said with the same degree of politeness? 7. And what idea, really. 6. I’m quite happy to accept whichever place is decided
about Jill? Has she got a particular preference about going out on upon.
Friday?

106 107
Unit 14
Unit 14

IV. Replace these informal phrases with formal ones: 5. You’re celebrating your aunt’s birthday. Your aunt offers you
1. Where do you feel like having linch? 2. Do you fancy going to different dishes. You’re a vegetarian and adore fruits. You hate the
the cinema? 3. No, thanks. 4. How about next Friday? 5. Yes, that’s smell of fish. Unfortunately, you’re driving and can’t drink.
an idea, I think. 6. A friend of yours is inviting you to the cinema. H e/sh e
V. Make the follow ing into mini-dialogues about preferences: suggests seeing a science-fiction film. You don’t like that sort of films.
You prefer colour-fiction films. And you are mad about musicals.
E x a m p le : A. like best, sci-fi thrillers, or detective stories?
7. Your friend invites you to spend a week-end with her/him .
B. like better, sci-fi thrillers, rather, find, reading, You have different ideas about your week-end. You’d prefer to go to
enjoyable. the theatre or spend a peaceful week-end at home.
A. Which do you like best, sci-fi thrillers or 8. You and a colleague of yours have decided to learn another
detective stories? foreign language. State your preferences and ask for his/'hers.
B. I like sci-fi thrillers better, reading them 9. A fellow-student and you are discussing preferences. H e/sh e
is rather enjoyable. expresses a very strong preference for modern painting. You aren’t
1. A prefer, better, sunbathing or swimming? B. actually, like, sure that you really like modern painting. You prefer pop music.
sunbathing better. 2. A. would like, go out, tonight? B. not keen, You’re rather tentative when you invite him /her to a pop concert.
actually. 3 .A , I tend, prefer listening, pop music. B. which, like better, 10. You are the host for dinner at a restaurant. The waiter has
jazz or rock? 4. A. would rather what, to do, get married or remain brought the menu and you must offer various dishes. Your friend has
single? B. I’d rather get married. 5. A. feel like, going to the country, no particular preferences as far as food is concerned, but you’re very
at the week-end? B. rather, stay at home.
particular about the wine you drink.
VI. Make sh o rt conversations in the following situations 11. Allan Smith, a television interviewer, is asking you about
1. You're in a shop. You’d like to buy a present for your mother. your likes and interests on television programmes. Express your
Explain to a salesgirl what would you prefer to buy. preferences.
2. Your friend suggests that he’ll help you revise for the English 12. A friend of yours is inviting you to the cinema. You have
exam, but you don’t really want him to. You’d rather revise on your nothing planned for tomorrow. You are rather keen on modern
own. What do you say? dancing. There is a dance on this evening. You would like to go, but
3. You’re the host for a dinner at a restaurant. The waiter has you don’t want to turn up alone knowing nobody. State you
brought the menu and you must offer various dishes. Ask your friends preferences.
politely what dishes they’d prefer to have and what they’d like to 13. You are free this week-end. Your friend suggests you go to
drink. the theatre. You don’t particularly like this idea. You think that a bus
4. You’ve invited your friend to lunch. You and he are planning trip round some of old villages in the area will suit you better.
the meal. You’re enjoying your friend’s visit and looking forward to 14. Your friend and you are discussing holiday plans. You state
a good meal. Your friend doesn’t really have any preferences. Every­ your preferences. Your friend does not agree with you. S h e/h e has
thing sounds good to him. different ideas about h er/h is holiday.
15. You and a friend of yours are discussing music. You state
your preferences about fork music and pop groups.

108
Unit 15 Unit 15
3
!
'w hat 'would you 'do in my po,sition/if you were me?
U N IT 15 (informal) r

Giving advice:
Advice
'Personally, I would ad'vise you
R ead the text to find out the most common ways of giving advice to friends that the to 'go a broad/not to lie too long in the
British generally use.
sun/put on a nice dress, etc.
They say the British don’t particularly like to give advice. In Ppr^nniillv T ihlnk vnnir* hAif pniircp (slightly formal)
1
l-C/l OU lu ll j ^ 1 11ill ilv y U Ul UCot vU fciI uC

everyday life they are guided by the principle of non-interfering in would be to relax on the sofa/to make «
other piople’s affairs. There is an old English saying: "Give not lunch/read to the children, etc.
counsel nor salt till you’re asked." So, if the British give advice they
do it in an apologetic and polite manner. The degree of politeness You may 'not a gree with me, but it 'might be a 'good ivdea if
depends on the situation they are in. As you know, people are formal you 'paint the ,kildhen/feed the baby/go for a meal this evening, etc.
and polite when they discuss something or argue. When people are (tentative)
angry or when they know each other very well they are often informal You 'ought to 'write 'home to
and less polite. Here are some helpful things for you to remember. your parents/leave for Italy, etc.
Giving advice is not comparable to telling someone what to do.
I su g 'g e si/I think you 'should (direct)
When giving advice, it is important to avoid forms such as "You m ust...”.
'goto 'bed early/refuse your friend’s
Suggestion expressions such as "You might apologize for being :
invitation/ring your friends at a good
rude to your mother" and "Why don’t you eat more vegetables?" are time, etc.
both common and appropriate. The advice "I’d recommend you to
work iess" is more formal than listed below and it is generally not used
among friends. If I were you I’d ring him back/ I;';
take the children to the circus, etc.
Asking for advice:
'w h y 'don’t you ex'cuse yourself (direct,
from my class/accept this invitation, etc.? informal) K
!What d’you sug'gest I 'should I would do my homework/write some
'do? letters if I were you. :
(rather formal)
W here/when d’you suggest 1
should go/h ave a goliday, etc.? Per'haps it would 'be a 'g o o d i'd e a to
'Could you 'give me 'som e ad'vice about sports/learning go ,o u t/to call a taxi, etc. (tentative)
foreigh languages, etc.? (polite, rather formal) If I were you I would not leave car
I was 'wondering if you 'could ('possible) 'give me 'some doors unlocked/leave for Italy, etc.
ad, vice about 'areas of 'natural 'beauty I 'should ^see/supermarkets u o n ’t forget to shut the window s/to phone me this evening, etc.
in this area, etc. (tentative) (emphatic)
What shall I/w e do/have for breakfast/buy, etc.? (direct)
j
110 111
Unit 15 Unit 15

I think, you’d better not go to Perer: Are you sure? You don’t seem yourself today somehow.
New Y ork/stay at home. Brian: Well ... I’ve got to find a new flat somewhere. T h ey’re
I advise you to call your friends (formal, emphatic) going to pull down the building where I’m living at the moment.
at a good tim e/to study for a degree Peter: Well, is that such a problem?
in sociology, etc. Brian: Yes, it is - when you’ve only got a week to do it in.
Accepting advice: Peter: A week? That seems like rather short notice.
'That 'sou n d s/seem s 'like a 'good i dea/advice, thank you. Brian: Oh, I’ve known about it for ages, but I haven’t done
(possible in all situations) anything about it until now.
Peter: Oh, I see. Well, Brian, if I were you I’d start looking
,W ell, 'that’s 'certainly a possi bility, (slightly tentative)
through the papers straight away.
R ight,/Y es, I’ll do/try that.
Brian: I have ... every day for the last week.
Thanks. (direct, informal)
Peter: Hmm. I see your problem. Perhaps it would be a good idea
'That’s a 'good i dea, thanks. to put an advert in the paper - you know - saying you’re looking for a
Yes, I think I’ll try that.
flat.
Rejecting advice: Brian: Yes, that sounds like a good idea, thanks. But I suppose,
it all takes time, doesn’t it?
'That’s 'not a 'good i^dea, I’m a,fraid. I’ve already tried that,
(slightly formal) Peter: (a slight pause) Hey! Wait a minute! And why don’t you
ask your cousin, h e’s an estate agent. I think you scould go round and
see him after work.
Exercises Brian: Well, that sounds like a marvellous idea, I must say. I
I. Look thro u g h the te x t again to discuss the follow ing questions: clean forgot about him.
Peter: If I were you, I’d go round right away.
1. Why do the British hate to give advice? 2. What principles are
the British guided by when they are asked for advice? 3. What does Brian: That’s certainly a possibility. I think I’ll try that.
the old English saying comment on? 4. Are there proverbs similar in Peter: OK. Best of luck to you. Bye.
meaning in your language? 5. Is it possible that all human beings Brian: Bye. See you tomorrow, Pete,
share certain common feelings about life? 6. In what manner do the
b) Look at the conversation and answer the follow ing questions:
British prefer to give, reject or accept advice? 7. What does the degree
of politeness depend on when people talk? 8. How is the language of 1. Who do you think the speakers are? 2. Are they on equal
advice in English different from that in your language? 9. When do terms? 3. Where, in your opinion, is it taking place? 4. Is Brian’s
the British tentatively ask, accept or reject advice? What implications problem really serious? Give your reasons. 5. Why do you think Brian
for teaching do the differences between the two languages hold? has not tried to solve the problem? 6. What advice does Peter give him?
7. Is Peter polite to Brian? If so, what language shows he is? 8. Does
II. a) Read the conversation to find out what Brian seems worried about:
Brian reject his advice? 9. What else does Peter advise Brian to do?
Peter: You look a bit worried, Brian. Is anything wrong? 10. Which piece of Peter’s advice does Brian Take? 11. What advice
Brian: N o, not really.

112 113
Unit 15
Unit 15
would you have given if you were Peter? 12. What would you have
the idea. 7. Your friend is always asking you to lend him money, and
done if you were in Brian’s shoes?
you want him to stop asking. 8. You see that your friend has started
• III. Give advice to the people who say these things. Begin with: "Y o u /H e /S h e 'd to write an exercise in pencil, and you know that the teacher wants it
better
written in ink. 9. Your friend tells you he is thinking of changing the
E x a m p le : A. They say it’s getting cold outside. television programme from ballet to boxing and you don’t want him
B. You’d better put your warm coat on. to.
1. I’m homesick. 2. My pen’s broken. 3. I’m a bit depressed after VI. In the follow ing situations accept or reject advice, paying particular attention
the exams. 4. My mother comes home very tired. 5. I’m going on to attitude:
holiday next week. 6. A friend of mine finds English a very difficult 1. You are a senior lecturer of the English language
language. 7. I’m beginning to put on weight. 8. I’ll have to get down department in a U niversity. The head of your department advises
to some serious work again pretty soom. 9. My brother never stops you to go to Britain on an exchange programme. Your mother is
swotting. 10. I can’t help worrying about my mother. She’s not well. seriously ill. 2. Your friend advises you to talk to your neighbour
IV. Make the follow ing into mini-dialogues about advice. Y our friend is going fo r about your problem with the flat. You agree. 3. Your teacher advises
an interview. you to go to the lecture tonight. You cannot. 4. One of your brother’s
E x a m p le : A. what to do, sleep at nights? B. why not, take a friends is interested in becoming a teacher, but he doesn’t know what
walk, every evening. teaching involves, and he wonders if he is the right kind of person to
be a teacher. He asks you for advice. 5. Your cousin is having problems
A . What should I do to sleep at nights?
with her children, who never do anything she says. She comes to see
B. Why don’t you take a walk every evening? you to ask for advice. 6. Your boyfriend has asked you to marry him.
1. A . can, give, som e advice, what to wear? B. well, suggest, You cannot decide what to do, and ask your mother for advice. 7.
wear a suit. 2. A . what, you, say, if, ask, advice? B. well, You’re about to finish your course and you don’t know what to do:
personally, advise, be very careful. 3. A . I, wondering, give, me, whether to study further or whether tov take a job, and if so, what job.
advice, what to wear? B. well, be, good, idea, wore, a suit. 4. A. what, 8. The principal of the school where you’re working advises a few days
wear, you, me? B. well, the best thing, wear, a suit. 5. A. what, say, off because you’re overtired. You accept the advice. 9. After an
you, in my position? B. well, I, you, wouldn’t, talk about, your last argument your friend advises you to try to control your temper. You
job. accept the advice.
V. How would you restrain people from doing these things? VII. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations:

1. Someone is writing notes in a book borrowed from the library. 1. A friend of yours wants to buy a dog. He lives in a small city
2. You’re trying to write an important letter, and your friend flat, and works all day. Give him your advice.
interrupts you every few minutes. 3. Your friend loves eating cream 2. Your fellow-student, a very impulsive girl, has decided to buy
cakes, and sh e’s putting on weight. 4. You enjoy eating cream cakes, a dog, but you’re afraid she will quickly lose interest in looking after
and every time you start to eat another one your friend tells you that it. What sort of advice would you give?
you shouldn’t. 5. You find your friend’s children playing in their 3. A neighbour who has just moved to your district asks if it’s
parents’ bedroom while their parents are out and you see that the’re
better to go shopping in the neighbourhood or in the town centre.
making a mess. 6. Your friend tells you she is planning to invite two
What would you advise?
other people to join you for the evening, but you are not very keen on

114
115
Unit 15 Unit 16

4. Your mother has a lot of old clothing she doesn’t want and
asks you what can be done with it. What would you advise? U N IT 16
5. A tourist in your town asks you to recommend places to visit.
Opinions
Give him your advice, with reasons why.
6. A friend of yours wants to know a good record-shop in your Read the text to find out what ways the British generally use to express
town. Recommend one, describing its good points. disagreement:

7. A friend of yours is going to Britain. S h e/h e has asked your Just like in all the other situations we’ve discussed the British
advice about eating out in London, what clothes to wear, how to get use different set phrases for asking someone’s opinion. The use of
about there, etc. Give advice on the basis of information you have. each particular expression depends on the kind of situation (formal
8. An English speaking foreigner is asking you for advice about or informal) and the relationship the speaker has with a person
the food s h e /h e can have in Moscow. In particular sh e /h e wonders h e/sh e is talking to.
where one can gl for a cheap meal. Give her/him advice. N o tic e : in formal situations you should be more polite than in
informal ones. It’s not usually difficult to agree with somebody else.
9. A friend of yours asks you for advice. S h e/h e doesn’t like
h er/h is job /is short of m oney/doesn’t like the place where sh e /h e It’s much more difficult to disagree in a pleasant way. The British
works. Advise her/him . generally use elaborate and roundabout ways to express
desagreement. And they say that in a tentative and polite way. Here
10. You’ve arranged to buy a small house in a village not far from
are some helpful expressions for you to remember and use:
Moscow but at the last moment the owner decided not to sell it. Ask
your friend for advice. How to ask for an opinion:
11. Your friend has overworked for a long time. Now h e /sh e is 'What 'do you 'think of/ab ou t the 'British/working at night,
suffering from headaches and sleeplessness. As a result h e /sh e can’t etc.? i?li
concentrate on h e s/h er work. Give him /her your advice. What’s your opinion of housework/sports/driving, etc.?
12. A friend of yours invites you to a party. You are not well but (formal)
you’d like to go. Ask one of your fellow-students for advice. How do you find this actor/working in an office, etc.?
13. Some time ago you accepted an invitation from a friend to How do you feel about Britain/English food/the way of life in
travel through Middle Asia. Now you cannot go because your father Britain, etc.? (slightly formal)
is arriving for a short stay. Ask one of your fellow-students for advice.
How to disagree politely with an opinion:
14. A friend of yours has decided to give up teaching to be able
to spend time doing things h e/sh e wishes to. H e/sh e is dead sure that !Do you 'really think 'so?
people should look at work as a positive way to get satistaction. Give
I 'wouldn’t 'go a long with you on |that/there.
him /her advice.
I’m not really sure if I would agree/go along with you there/on
th a t.

I 'wouldn’t a gree.
I !can’t ac cept .that. } (direct)

117
Unit 16

You 'can’t be vserious!


You must be vjoking! I 'couldn’t a'gree,m ore, (direct, strong)
I’m 'not 'so vsure/certain about I’m with you /h im /h er 'there/on ¡that, (informal)
ithat, I’m a fra id . (informal) (Yes,) I entirely/quite agree
vWell, I’m 'not 'really ,sure with you there/on that. I (formal)
you ’re 'right. (Yes,) that’s exactly my opinion/
that’s just how I see it/that’s how I feel.
How to give an opinion:
How to half-agree with an opinion:
('sp eak in g) ^personally I
vYes, I a'gree to a , point/in a way.
'think that it 'really matters if 'people
are 'cruel to 'animals o r , not. vYes, per1haps, you’re 'right.

In my o,pinion/From my point ->M m m ,, possibly.


of view 'modern archi'tecture is ViCiiixv^X IV IL L IC IL /
Yes, I dare say you’re right.
fascinating. I 'don’t 'think, I could'do Jhat.
My 'view is that 'cultural g n n r j f T ’ r n pi frq tH I } (slightly formal)
'differences 'play unim'portant
I don’t agree.
'rolein 'human communi cation. I think that would be a mistake.
(direct)
'if you ,ask m e /if you want my opinion/A s I see it, regular 'W hy'should I? (direct, slightly
exercise is very important to keep healthy, (direct) I Icoa Ivvfiv T ^chnnIHI abrupt)
¥ rla n H
JL <UIVSlil &- If II j JL U llV M IV tl

As 'far as I’m 'able to Judge,


the British and the Russians share Exercises
different personal habits and 1. Look through th te xt again to discuss the follow ing questions:
expectations.
1. What are the ways for asking someone’s opinion in English?
It would seem to me that (tentative) 2. What are the most common ways for expressing agreement with an
understanding a foreign language
opinion in English? 3. What is the choice of the approgriate form of
involves also a knowledge of certain
agreement or disagreement determined by in English? 4. Are there
characteristics of culture.
set phrases for asking an opinion, expressing agreement or
I 'reckon sh e ’s a ,bore. (informal) disagreement with an opinion in your language? 5. Are all these
expressions equally polite? If so, what does the degree of politeness
H owtto agree with an opinion:
depend on? 6. Are there set phrases for expressing disagreement in a
I’d go a long with you/him /H eien , there/on | that. pleasant way in your language? 7. How do you show that you strongly
I 'take y o u r /h is/h e r point, (informal) disagree? Is it what you say or how you say it? Or perhaps something
quite different - for example how you look? 8. Do you use the same
(,Y es,) I’d 'tend to a gree with you/him /th em , (tentative) language with a friend as you do with a complete stranger?

118
119
Unit 16

II. Read the conversation to find out: 1) what situation the speakers are In; 2) what b) Look again at the conversation to answer the following questions:
relationship they have to each other:
1. Does Brian feel strongly about the film? 2. Do you think Brian
Sally: Brian, you’ve seen "Star Wars", haven’t you? puts his opinion nicely? 3. Does Claire strongly disagree with Brian?
B rian: Y es, that’s right. 4. Does Peter completely agree with Claire? If so, what language
Sally: What did you think of it? shows he does? 5. Why does Brian think the film is boring? 6. What’s
Claire’s opinion of the film? What reasons does she give to support
B rian: Weii, I was a bit disappointed, really, I didn’t thing it was
a particularly good firm at all. (justify) ber opinion?
I ____________________
Clare: Oh, I disagree, Brian! I thought it was great! It’s one of III. Make the follow ing into mini-dialogues about opinions.

the best films I’me seen. Don’t you think so, Peter? E x a m p le: A. what, think, pop music? B. it, very good, my
Peter: Yes, I agree up to a point. It was good ... I enjoyed it... but, opinion.
to be honest, it wasn’t as good as I thought it would be ... A. What do you think of pop music?
Brian: T hat’s exactly how I felt. If you ask me, it was just one B. In my opinion it’s very good.
big publicity stunt from start to finish. I. A . how, feel, a new play, in Moscow Arts Theatre? B . it,
Claire: Oh, that’s rubbish, Brian! You’re the first person I’ve m arvellou s, enjoy every m inu te of it, as far as I ’m co n cern ed .
met who h asn ’t enjoyed the film. 2. A . what, opinion, is, modern painting? B, the way I see it, just
Brian: Perhaps I am ... but Sally asked me for my opinion, snd fantastic. 3. A. I, wondering, you, stand, question, the proposal, for
as far as I’m concerned it was pretty boring. a new supermarket, in your district? B. it, a waste of m oney, from
Peter: Ah ... I’m not so sure I’d agree with you there, Brian. I my point of view. 4. A. what, think, Vampilow,s works? B. they, very
don’t see how you can say it was boring. | exciting, personally, think. 5. A. what, opinion, this painting? B. it,
really, quite interesting, as far as, I’m able, to judge. 6. A. how, feel,
Claire: N either do I. It was full of excitement! All the way
through! personally, life, in large cities? B. city life, very enjoyable, if, you,
want, my opinion. 7. A. what, think, school uniform? B. the way I see
Brian: In my opinion it wasn’t. I was bored ... mainly because I it, school uniform, a useful thing, wearing uniform, strengthen,
was expecting so much more to happen, I suppose. discipline at school.
Claire: Oh, come on! A lot happened!
IV. Express your opinions about the follow ing statlments. Try to use as many
Peter: I agree with you, Brian, about expecting a lot more to d iffe re n t phrases as possible:
happen. So did I.
1. Waterskiing is a pointless sport. 2. "Spartak" is a great football
Claire: Oh, you’re both talking nonsense! Don’t listen to them, I team. 3. Canadian football is declining. 4. Football is a boring game
Sally. Believe me, it’s really exciting - you’ll love every minute of it. for people who don’t supprot a particular team. 5. Education is the
In fact, why don’t you and I go and see it tomorrow? responsibility of parents. 6. Television is the greatest invention of the
Sally: But you ’ve already seen it! twentieth century. 7. Rock-and-roll is more alive now than ever.
Calire: So what? This is one film I’d gladly see again. And enjoy V. Express your half-agreement to the follow ing opinion statements using as
it just as much, too! many d iffe re n t phrases as poosible:

1. It d oesn ’t matter if foreigners make m istakes when they


speak English, British people will know th ey ’re foreign and not

120 121
Unit 16 Unit 16

mind. 2. The British are very polite, you need to use so many you wonder whether h e /sh e will go to space, if space travel becomes
unnecessary words when you speak English. 3. The best English is possible for everyone within h is/h er lifetime.
written English, a lot of what people say is wrong. 4. Grammar rules 6. Your cousin and you are discussing a successful marriage and
don’t really help you to speak English. 5. The more works you know what exactly makes it happy. Your cousin thinks that much depends
the more fluently you ’11 be able to speak. 6. English is difficult because on the husband. In h is/h er opinion the husband should be good with
it has so many exceptions. 7. Saying things again and again in a children, possess a good sense of humour and be quite well off. In your
foreign language is a waste of time. 8. You learn more by talking in opinion the ideal busband should be faithful and hard-working. And
class than by doing exercises and listening. 9. Doing the same thing apart from that he should be intelligent, sociable and tidy!
twice is boring.
7. A friend of yours and you are talking about traffic problems
V!. W hich o f these do you agree with and why? in the city you live. Ask for your friend’s opinion about the solution
1. You learn much more from newspapers than books. 2. Cultural of these problems.
content is crucial in foreign language teaching material. 3. Foreigners 8. Your friend is a school-teacher. H e/sh e does not think highly
should try to speak with an "Oxford” accent. 4. It’s hard to convince of the present system of school education. In his/h er opinion children
others when you are not convinced yourself. 5. One should judge should go to single-sex schools, wear uniforms and stay at schools
peopel by appearances not by actions. 6. Money makes the world go until they are sixteen. H e/She wants to know your opinion on that.
round. 7. No news is good news. 8. Life is what you make of it. 9. The 9. Your friend who is 19 years old wants to move out of h is/h er
teacher should always correct every mistake you make. 10. Hard work parents’ home. H e/She has a job, so h e/sh e thinks that h e /sh e can
is the only way you’ll get on. support him self/herself. Your friend’s parents do not approve of
VII. Make sh o rt conversations in the following situations: h is/her intention. Give your opinion.
10. A fellow-student of yours and you are discussing the
1. You’ve made enquiries about a holiday abroad in your trade-
importance of self-instruction. H e/S h e thinks that it encourages
union committee. As a matter of fact there’s a wide choice of package
learners to take on greater responsibility for their own learning.
tours to foreign countries. Phone your friend who’s interested in
going with you to explain what you’ve found out and ask for h is/h er Express your opinion.
opinion. 11. Your cousin is 25 years old. She is a university graduate. She
2. You’re planning to take part in a student construction brigade has met a man who is impatient to marry her. She loves him too but
this summer. The brigade is going to work in the Far North. Ask your she wants to finish postgraduate studies before marriage. She wants
friend who has already been in the North what things, in her/his to know your opinion.
opinion, you should take along and what you should wear there. 12. At a staff meeting you head-master was describing the
possibility of using computers in education. In hes/h er opinion the
3. You want to go to the Far East in the summer. Discuss with
friends what route you should take. use of computers would make it possible to teach foreign languages
more efficiently. A colleague of yours expressed the opinion that it
4. A cousin of yours is planning to come to Moscow. H e/sh e
was sheer waste of time and money. Another colleague spoke in favour
hasn’t been to Moscow before. Tell him /her where, in your opinion,
of computerassisied teaching. Express you point of view.
h e /sh e should go first and what h e/sh e should see.
5. A fellow-studeni and you are talking about space explaration.
You want to know h is/h er opinion about space travels. In particular

122 123
Unit 17 Unit 17

I ap1prove of your sug^gestion/plan, etc. (formal)


U N IT 17 It 'wasn’t a ,bad , m ovie/lecture, etc., /was it? (familiar, mild)
Approval and Disapproval I 'do 'like ,bal!et/pop music, etc. (enthusiastic)

Read the text to find out the ways used by the British to express disapproval Disapproval:
tactfully:
( !N o,) 'that’s 'n ota ('very
The British see self-possession as the highest quality of human 'good i,dea/that’s silly/you shouldn’t \ (di informal)
character. They tend to think that to be self-possessed, to show do that, I ’m a,fraid.
neither positive, nor negative emotions is a sign of good breeding.
^W hat/W hat, ever 'for?
They regard the free display of emotions as indiscreet, vulgar and
anti-social. So they valute highly the ability to remain calm and leave I 'don’t par'ticularly 'like Jolk
things unsaid. These national traits of the British character are |inusic/the way she dresses, etc.
reflected in their language. When British people express disapproval (very much).
or approval of something or somebody they often prefer to do it in a I don’t (much) care for sports/
polite and apologetic way. sweets, etc., actually. (semi-formal)
R e m e m b e r : when you want to approve of somebody or some­ I don’t think much of the orchestra/
thing you need to be quite sensitive to choose an exactly appropriate figure-skating, etc.
way of doing so. Note that to be overpolite can be just as offensive as I don’t think the performance/acting,
being rude. Be very careful in your choice of ways for expressing a
etc., was very good.
disapproval of somebody or something. To be on the safe side it is
better to use only apologetic and polite ways. Here are some helpful 'How could you!
expressions for you to remember and use: W ho'ever 'heard of 'such a ,thing? (strong, slightly
informal)
Approval: You 'should/ought to be a shamed
Good! Not Jaad! Wonderful! (of your, self)!

Excellent! Splendid! 'Good i dea!


Disapproval can often be expressed more tactfully by means of
A 'very 'good i,dea! a question:
'What a 'good i,dea! 'Did you Ihave/need to 'work 'so,late?
('YoS) I 1H ow 'w ise/clever/sen sib le of (direct) 'Why 'did you 'do a 'thing ' like ^that?
you /h im /h er, ets.!
Was it really necessary to be so rude?
1Very ^wise/clever/sensible of ' Don’t you 'think it would have been 'better if you’d ' told me in
you /h er/T om , etc.!
ad,vance?

124
Unit 17 Unit 17

M rs W ilkinson: That’s an excellent idea, Jane!


Getting approval for something:
Jane: Yes, I think that’s a great idea. I could get a suntan, and
D oes anyone object to what I want/am
practise my Italian at the same time.
going to d o /to say, etc.?
M r W ilkinson: Actually, I don’t know if we should have a holiday
Do you /th ey object to m y/his making
at all. Perhaps it’d be better if we stayed at home. Then we could buy
that proposal/going there, etc.?
new carpets.
Do you /th ey have objection to m y/
M rs W ilkinson: Whatever for? Forget about the house for a
his plan/suggestion, etc./doing/saying that? (slightly formal)
while! We’re going to have a holiday abroad this year.
Can I take it you approve of the
Jane: How clever of you, mummy. Come on, let’s talk about
plan/m y proposal, etc. in principle?
where we’re going to go.
No one’s raised any strong objection,
M rs W ilkinson: I don’t really know. I think it’d be best to go
have they?
somewhere more interesting - 1 don’t want to sit on a beach all day.
!That’s ac ceptable, „isn’t it? (informal, polite) M r Wilkinson: Well, what about having a seaside holiday in
Do you approve of this plan/suggestion, etc.? France? Then Jane could get her suntan and we could see a bit of
Are you all in favour of this plan/suggestion, etc.? France.
Is everyone happy about m y/his decision/suggestion, etc.? b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
(informal)
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Do they sound informal? If so, what
Do you ail agree with me that this plan is not very good? language shows they do? 3. Do Mr Wilkinson, Mrs Wilkinson and
So, you think this is a basically good idea, isn’t it? their daughter have different ideas about their holiday? 4. What’s
Jane’s idea about the holiday? 5. Does Mrs Wilkinson approve of
Exercises Jane’s idea of the holiday? What language shows she does? 6. Does
!. Look through the te x t again to answer the following questions: Mrs Wilkinson consider her husband’s idea of staying at home good?
1. What does the language of approval and disapproval express? What language shows she doesn’t? 7. What else could Mrs Wilkinson
2. What does the speaker generally use the language of approval and have said to express her disapproval? 8. Do you think Mrs Wilkinson
disapproval for? 3. What set phrases do the British use to express and Jane will object to Mr Wilkinson’s suggestion to have a seaside
approval? 4. Are there set phrases for expressing approval and holiday in France? 9. What, in your opinion, would Jane and Mrs
disapproval in your language? 5. How is the language of approval and Wilkinson say if they approved of Mr Wilkinson’s suggestion?
disapproval in English different from that in your language? 6. What III. a) Read the conversation to find out what the speakers are talking about:
implications do you think these differences hold for teaching English Jenhy: How have you both been?
as a foreign language?
Mother: Oh, not too bad, dear. Your father’s been feeling a lot
1!. a) Read the conversation to find out what kind o f holiday the W ilkinsons want:
better rectntly.
M r W ilkinson : I think it’d be lovely to get away from London. Father: Yes, the doctor’s put me on a diet.
I’d like to go somewhere peaceful. Jenny: That’s an excellent idea.
Ja n e (his daughter o f 15): It would be better if we went Mother: And h e’s been taking some exercise.
somewhere more exciting. How about Italy?
126 127
Unit 17

Jenny. Very wise of you, father. problems than satisfaction. 8. I’ve applied to do research but I shan’t
Father. Not a lot, just short walks. But you won’t believe this - know whether I’ve been accepted or not until the end of the month.
I’ve given up smoking! VI. Express your approval or disapproval fo r the follow ing statements made to
Jenny: Really! That’s wonderful! I’ve been trying to stop, but I you by a close friend:
haven’t been able to. I’m so glad you’ve been feeling better. Do you 1. I’m going to go on a diet. 2. I’ve decided to spend some money
think you’ll be able to go back to work again? to have my flat redecorated. 3. I’d like to be a nursery school-teacher.
Father: I don’t know. I’m quite happy to stay at home and do the 4 .1 haven’t congratulated my friends on their marriage. 5. 1 teach my
housework, while your mother goes out to work. student to express their feelings and intentions in English. 6. On the
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the following questions:
9th of May I’m planning to take my pupils to the Tomb of the
Unknown Soldier. 7. A friend of mune is tired of noisy pupils. He
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Do they speak formal or informal intends to give up teaching and find another job to his liking.
language? Give your reasons. 3. Does Jenny sound a bit excited? If
VII. Express your approval or disapproval o f the follow ing statiments made by a
so, what language shows she does? 4. What’s the problem with her colleague o f yours:
father? 5. Does Jenny approve of her father’s way of life at the
moment? If so, what language shows she does? 6. What else could 1 . 1 do my utmost to stimulate in children the desire to read.
Jenny have said with the same meaning? 2. I think experience teaches one much, but a teacher’s success
depends a good deal on a broad understanding of children and of their
IV. Get your Dean’s approval fo r the following:
different personalities. 3.1 always try to have my children do things
1. Your group is planning to arrange a New Year Disco. 2. You tidily. 4. I’m so unhappy. My daughter has failed to get into college
intend to invite some well-known teachers from your country to give this year. 5. I’m happy about my daughter’s decision to work this
the students of your faculty a talk on the most important problems of summer. 6. I’m planning to take a course next year on audio-visual
methodology. 3. Your group would like a third foreign language to be methods of teaching. 7 . 1 think people must be educated to make the
introduced into the curriculum. 4. During winter vacations your group best use of their leisure time.
wants to go on a skiing tour for two days. 5. Some of the students in VIII. Make sh o rt conversations in the following situations:
your group have been invited to run foreign language clubs in the
Central Pioneer Palace of Moscow. 6. You’ve decided to take your 1. A friend of yours telephones to tell you of h is/h er plans for
English exam ahead of time. 7. Your group is planning to go to the Far the summer holidays. You approve of some of the plans but not of
East this summer to work on a construction site there. others.
2. Your parents have decided to sell their TV set. They think TV
V. As your friend fo r approval o f the following ideas. H e/she disapproves o f all
your ideas: makes people lazy and passive. So they are sure they’ll be happier
without it and do a lot of useful things. They are planning to spend
1. My ambition is to go to Britain to pick up English. 2. After
more time outdoors and mix with people. But they’d like to get your
graduation from the Institute I’d like to combine teaching and re­
approval. Express your disapproval but do it tactfully.
search. 3. I’m doing research on place names. 4. It doesn’t matter if
I make some mistakes and speak with an accent, as long as people can 3. Your friend is fond of reading. As a matter of fact sh e/h e
understand me. 5. I’m learning hard to know French and English spends all h er/h is leisure time reading. H er/his eyes hurt. You are
equally well. 6. I’d like to work in Britain as an interpreter. 7. I’m sure it’s an eye strain. Disapprove of her/him but do it mildly.
going to give up teaching English at school because it brings more

5—556
128 129

1
Unit 17 Unit 18

4. A friend of yours is not content with her/his life and wants to


change it for something more adventurous and active. Now sh e /h e is U N IT 18
learning a relaxation technique. S h e/h e’d like to go in for pop music.
You think s h e /h e ’ll solve all her problems quite quickly. Express your A nnoyance
approval of all h er/h is plans. Read the text to find out in what way British people express annoyance:
5. At the moment you’ve got three days off. You and your friend
The British have the reputation of being reserved people. If they
have decided to go to Vladimit for two days. Call your friend to discuss
find themselves in situations that irritate them they usually try to
the details of your trip. Your friend approves of your plan.
keep themselves in check. Generally when they’re annoyed they
6. You want to buy a New Year present for your express their irritation in a rather apologetic way. As a matter of fact,
boyfriend/girlfriend. A fellow-student suggests a bunch of flowers.
they expect the same social behaviour from other nations as well. So,
You don’t think it’s a good idea. What do you say?
in order vot to sound rude, you should learn by heart the set phrases
7. A friend asks you to help him move into his new flat over the the British use for expressing annoyance. Of course different people
week-end. Unfortunately you cannot. Your cousin volunteers to help. behave in different ways. Anyhow, if you don’t want to give the
Vi fv. n t h i n k i t ’ o p rrrvrv/t i d o o
u m a m n j a ¿ u u u iu w u .
impression of being rude when expressing annoyance in English you
8. You’re showing a group of foreign students around an art should use set phrases of annoyance in appropriate situations. Here
exhibition. A friend of yours suggests going to look at some nineteen- arte some of the ways in which you might respond to sound normal:
century landscape paintings. You think it’s a splendid idea.
Oh: 'W hata nuisance!
9. You’re in a train compartment. An elderly man is sitting just
i How an noying! 1What a bore!
opposite you. You’re going to smoke. Ask him politely if he finds
smoking objectionable. In reply he says he enjoys cigarette smoke. i How in furiating! 'Hell!
10. You’re going to Britain on a holiday to pick up the language. 'isn ’t that in furiating! Damn! \ (colloquial)
Ask your w ife/husband whether sh e/h e considers it a good idea.
J
iHow maddening! Blast!
11. You’re an English teacher at a school. You don’t particularly
like your work and decide to change it. Your ambition is to go abroad N o l i c e : T he British use short answers Yes o r N o to show they’re annoyed.
as an interpreter. Ask your headmaster whether h e /sh e has any
Exercises
objections to what you’re going to do.
I. D iscu ss th e follow ing q u e stio n s:

1. Do you agree that British people are generally reserved and


polite? 2. What do the British expect from other nations? 3. What
implications has this fact for teaching English as a foreign language?
4. In what way do people show they’re annoyed in your own culture?
Is it what they say or how they say it? Or perhaps something quite
different - for example how they look? 5.1s the language of annoyance
you use at home the same you use at work? 6. How is the language of
annoyance in your language different from that the British use?

5* 131
U nit 18

II. a) Look at th e conversation to find out: 1) where it is taking place; 2) who is


annoyed; IV. a) Look through the conversation to find out what the speakers are taiking
about:
A . Did you hear that flight BE 407 to Rome is delayed?
A: What a nuisance! I’ve been waiting twenty munutes for the
B . Oh, how annoying! bus. Do they always take so long to come?
A . They say the time of departure will be announced as soon as B: In the rush hours, yes, I’m afraid so. Is this the first time
possible. you’ve taken it? I don’t remember you from other mornings.
B . It’s infuriating! I had to be in Rome by five. A: Damn... the first time, yes, and the last, I hope. My car broke
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the following questions: down yesterday. If it weren’t for that I wouldn’t be here. Just my luck.
1. Does the second passenger sound a bit nervous? Do you think B. I used to take my car into town, but I gave that up a long time
he has special reasons for feeling this way? 2. What would you do if ago.
you were in his shoes? 3. Do you think there are other people nearby? A. On! If there were more buses, I might go by bus. But the
4. Do you think they’re annoyed as well? 5. What else could the service is awful, and they always arrive full up. Isn’t that maddening?
passenger have said with the same meaning? 6. In what way might the b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
other passengers have responded?
1. Where do you think the speakers live? 2. Do they commute to
III. a) Look thro u g h th conversation to find out what has happened:
town every day? 3. What kind of service is there in the area they live?
P ete: I’m sorry, Nick, I can’t seem to find that book you lent me. 4. Do you think the second speaker is content with public transport
I must have lost it. facilities in his area? 5. Do you think the first speaker is more
Nick: Oh, no! Don’t say that! annoyed? If so, what language shows he is? 6. What else could the
first speaker have said with the same meaning? 7. Does the first
P ete: But don’t worry. I’ll buy you another one.
speaker sound forma! or informal? 8. And what about the second one?
N ic k : Kell! That’s not the point, Pete. It wasn’t mine to lend in
the first place. I borrowed it from Tom. V. What m ight you say if you ...

Pete: Oh, I see. Well, I’m sorry b u t... 1. couldn’t get into an overcrowded bus to get to the Institute on
Nick: Oh, what a nuisance. It’s a fat lot of good being sorry now, time; 2. lost your flat keys; 3. were late for the cinema. The film had
isn ’t it? What on earth am I going to say to Tom? already started; 4. burned the dinner; 5. locked yourself out of your
flat; 6. broke a new vase; 7. were late for the lecture because of a traffic
b) Look again at the conversation to answer the following questions:
jam; 8. got dirt all over your jeans; 9. failed the exam on general
1. Are the speakers on equal terms? What language shows linguistics.
th ey are? 2. Why do you think Nick said "Oh, no! Do not say that!"? VI. Express your annoyance on finding yourself in the follow ing situations:
3. What difference, in your opinion, would it make if he hadn’t used
this expression? 4. Could Nick have used anything else to express his 1. Your hasband has the habit of dropping cigarette ashes on
annoyance? What set phrases might he have used? 5. What language your tiled floor. You are annoyed.
would you have used if you were in his shoes? 2. You are woken up by noisy neighbours returning to their flat
which is near yours. You are annoyed. You open the door and speak
to them.

132
133
Unit 18 Unit 19

3. You find your little brother cutting a picture out of your


newspaper without your permission. U N IT 19
4. You asked your aunt staying in your house to turn the lights
off in the kitchen before going to bed. The next morning you find that
Reproach
the lights are still on. Read the text to find out why the British don’t particularly like to reproach other
5. You went to bed early, feeling slightly unwell, and leaving people:
som e washing to be done. You go into the kitchen the following As it was said, the British are rather reserved people. They don’t
morning and find that your husband hasn’t done it as you expected, particularly like to reproach other people, they hate to make a row, to
but has left it for you to do. cause a scene. At the same time they are said to be hypersensitive to
6. You teach English at school. Your time-table is planned in the point of touchiness. But this touchiness is carefully concealed from
such a way that you haven’t got free time to spare. You feel annoyed. the outsider. They prefer to keep silence and nurse their grievances
7. You intended to go on holiday with a friend. At the last munute in their hearts. This national trait of British people is reflected in their
s h e /h e said sh e /h e couldn’t go with you. It’s not the first time sh e/h e language as well. However, there are a few set phrases for expressing
has let you down. You fee! a bit annoyed. reproach. The choice of an appropriate way for expressing a reproach
generally depends on the degree to what you have been annoyed by
8. Someone is playing a guitar in the street outside your window
someone’s behaviour, or actions and the relationship you have with
when you want to go to sleep. You are annoyed. What do you say?
other people you are talking to. If you know a person well you may
9. Your brother is very lazy and always wants you to help with usean informal language. When talking to people you don’t know very
his homework. You don’t particularly like it. In fact you are a bit well you should use formal ways for expressing a reproach. Here are
annoyed. One day you decide you have had enough. What do you tell
some ways in which you might do so:
him?
'Why (on 'earth) 'didn’t you 'tell the 'truth/tell me Jane and
10. You have got some revision to do, but a friend of yours wants
you were friends? etc. (strong, direct)
you to go out with him /her and h e/sh e is very insistent. You feel
annoyed. 'What d’you 'mean by 'saying ,that/borrowing my textbook?
11. You are a school-teacher. One of your pupils is always talking etc. (strong, mixed with anger)
to other pupils. You can’t stand it any longer. Express your You *might have phoned me b e, fore/excused vourself from my
annoyance. class, etc. (rather mild)
12. You and your friend are in a restaurant. The waiter in the
You have 'no 'right to be 'so impo­
restaurant doesn’t seem to notice you. Your friend is annoyed. What
does he say? lite/speak to me like that, etc. (very strong,
mixed with anger)
' How dare you d is, turb us/com e
so late, etc.
You 'should(n’t) have 'left for
^Leningrad/invited me, etc. (polite, rather mild)

135
Unit 19 Unit 19

I !wish you’d 's ta y a'm inute after II. a) Read the conversation to find out: 1) where it ’s taking place: 2) who the
^classes/said that earlier, etc. (polite, rather mild) speakers are:

It’s a|b ou t 'time you 'knew A. Why didn’t you tell me you had a girlfriend?
that/worked hard, etc. B. Sorry, I thought you knew.
(rather strong, ■
'Do you 'have to 'make ‘so direct) A. But you should have told me you were in love with her.
'much vnoise/leave so early? etc.
B. Didn’t I?
R e m e m b e r : much of the effect of all these phrases will depend A. You know you didn’t.
on your tone of voice and facial expression.
B. Well, I’m telling you now.
Possible answers for excusing oneself: A. Yes, but you might have told me before.
Sorry! I 'can’t 'ten you 'how 'sorry I ,am. B, I didn’t think you’d be interested.
'I’m %
sorry, I 'didn’t ^realize. A. You can’t be serious. How dare you not to tell me you were
going to marry her?
'Oh, dear,I’m 'most 'awfully ^sorry. I 'just 'don’t 'knowwhat
B. Sorry I didn’t think it mattered.
to 'say, I’m 'so ^sorry!
A. Oh, you men! You’re all the same.
' Sorry ,1 ( do) a | poiogize. (formal) I!
d) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
(I 'hope you’ll) for^give me.
'Sorry, it was 'wrong of me. 1. What relationships do you think the first speaker has with
the other one? 2. What does the first speaker reproach the other
,Why should(n’t) I? (defiant, rude) for? 3. Does he do that nicely? 4. Does the other respond
apologetically? If so, what language shows he does? 5. What would
you do if you were the second speaker? Would you be rude or
Exercises apologetic to your friend? 6. Which of the speakers do you like best?
i. Discuss these questions: Give your reasons.

1. What do British people say when som eone’s behaviour III. a) Read the conversation to find out what relationship Tom has w ith Mary:

annoys them? 2. How do they reproach that person for h is/h e r Tom: What are you doing then with all these books?
actions? 3. What does the language of reproach depend on? 4. Do you
Mary: Well, trying my best to revise things for the exam
think the British use the same ways of expressing reproach when
tomorrow.
talking to friends and colleagues? 5. Is the language for expressing
reproach the British use rich? 6. What do you think the most common Tom: The last-night rush, you mean? Come on, it never works.
ways of expressing reproach in your language are? 7. Do the ways of Why not relaz? Come out to the cinema with me. I’ll treat you. Look
expressing reproach in your language differ much from the ones in how generous I am!
English? Mary: Very generous maybe, but I can’t. I simply can’t leave all
this. Anyway, you might have invited me two months ago when I had
free time.

136 137
Unit 19 Unit 19
T o m : The trouble with you is you don’t plan things properly.
You leave everything till the last minute. Why didn’t you prepare for V. Reproach you colleague:
the exams earlier?
1. H e/sh e has decided to give up h is/h er job to be able to spend
Mary: You have no right to speak to me like that. I’ve been
time doing things h e /sh e wishes to. 2. H e/sh e works for the sake of
preparing for this exam for a month. Actually this time I didn’t put
getting a living and doesn’t look at work as a positive way to get
things off. And, that’s why I’m not going to say yes now.
satisfaction. 3. H e /sh e loathes the idea of having pet animals.
Tom: But why don’t you have a break now? It’d take your mind H e/sh e thinks animals shouldn’t be kept as pets. 4. H e /s h e ’s not
off the exam for a while. It’d do you a lot of good. doing h is/h e r best to encourage h is/h e r children to be inventive.
Mary: No, Tom, thank you very much, but no. The exam comes 5. H e/sh e ’s not sure that learning a foreign language at school is an
first. interesting occupation. 6. S h e/h e spends all h er/h is free time
Tom: All right, all right. Don’t say I didn’t try .... Do you know watching television instead of doing something useful.
what’s wrong with you? You’re a slave to the examination machine.
VI. Reproach your younger brother f o r ...
M ary: What do you mean by saying that? Look, Tom,
seriously, I’ve learnt a lot in this course, and I’d like to get a 1. not trying to study better; 2. doing things at the last minute;
certificate. 3. wasting time; 4. not giving more thought to learning; 5. playing
truant; 6. watching too much television; 7. taking too little exercise
b) Look again at the conversation to answer the following questions: and putting on weight; 8. looking untidy.
1. Do the speakers sound formal or informal? Give your VII. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations:
reasons. 2. Is Tom annoyed with Mary’s rejection of his invitation?
What language shows that he is? 3. Is Tom a bit excited? What 1. You’ve got a lazy colleague who’s always talking instead of
exactly shows he is? 4. What does Tom say to reproach Mary for working. You can’t stand it any longer. Reproach him /her, h e /sh e
not going to the cinem a with him? 5. Does Tom express reproach will excuse himself/’herself.
tactfully or rudely? W hat’s your opinion? 6. D oes Mary excuse 2. You and your friend have arranged to meet outside the
herself? If so, how? 7. What else could Mary have said to excuse metro station "Park Kultury" at 11.30. You’ve told your friend to
herself? telephone you if h e /s h e ’s late. No one telephones you, so you go
!V. Reproach yo u r frie n d who tries to excuse h im self/herself: to the station but your friend isn ’t there. You feel rather angry.
You don’t know what has happened. You go back home. At 12 the
H e/sh e hasn’t... telephone rings.
1. phoned you; 2. let you know your trade-union meeting will be 3. Your friend was supposed to m eet you at Vnukovo airport
tomorrow; 3. invited you to h is/her birthday party; 4. told you but h e /s h e h a sn ’t. You are in Moscow for the first tim e. You
h e /s h e ’s going abroad; 5. phoned you to give h is/h er congratulations telephone but 2131410 turns out to be a shop. You take a taxi
on moving to a new flat; 6. returned the textbook on teaching methods and go to your frien d ’s home. Rem ind your friend of what was
you badly need; 7. contacted you for ages. said in h is /h e r letter and reproach h im /h e r for what actually
happened.
4. You lent a friend some money a long time ago. But h e /s h e
hasn’t paid the money back. Y ou’re sure h e /s h e has forgotten
138
139
Unit 1 9 _________________________________________________ Unit 20

about it. At the moment you’re a bit hard up. Reproach your friend
apologetically. Your friend tries to excuse him self/herself. UNIT 20
5. Your husband loves spending money and in fact he’s Surprise
generous, even extravagant. You have different ideas about spending
money. You think if you carry on spending like this, soon there’ll be Read the text to find out what kind of language the British use to express surprise:
no money left. Reproach him tactfully, he’ll excuse himself. Just like in other languages, there are amy ways of expressing
6. Your husband doesn ’t get on well with your parents. surprise in English. Some of them are informal. Others are mainly
Som etim es h e ’s im polite to them. You think it’s unjust and used in formal situations. It’s important to choose appropriate ways
unfair. Your parents have been and are rather kind to your of saying things according to the situation you’re in. When talking to
fam ily. T hey gave you a help when you were younger and had friends in English it’s quite normal to use informal language. In
little children. official situations the British mostly use formal language which
creates the impression of social distance between people. In many
7. A friend of yours has invited some fellow -students from
situations it’s appropriate to use "normal", "neutral" language you’ll
your group for a drive in the country. You were not at the Institute
find in this Unit. The commonest ways of expressing surprise are
on that day. If y ou ’d known about your friend’s invitation you’d
exclamations:
have joined them. Reproach your friend for not letting you know
about the drive. Do it apologetically. You friend has to excuse 'Oh!
h im self/h erself. ' Good ^heavens!
8. Your son is just mad on watching television. You don’t share 'w h at a surprise! (possible in all situations)
his enthusiasm. You think watching television is a sheer waste of time.
Reproach him for sitting around with an open mouth and watching Goodness!
one programme after another. In deed?
"Really?
To express surprise mildly you can use the following phrases
that sound semi-formal and more or less neutral:
I’m English. - Oh, "are you?
I come from Oxford. - "Oh, "do you?
They don’t work. - Oh, "don’t they?
He wasn’t at school. - Oh, "wasn’t he?
She went to London. - Oh, ^did she?
In informal situations you may say:
You , don’t say (¡so)!
'Fancy ('that)!

141
Unit 20 Unit 20

'Go 'on (with you)! there set phrases for expressing great surprise in your language? If
1Get a'way! so, how are they different from those used by the British?
II. a) Look at the conversation to find out what exactly surprises Tom:
You 1must be joking.
James: What do you think“about Mary then, Tom?
You 'can’t be serious!
Tom: Mary? What do you mean?
Another useful technique for expressing surprise when people
Ja m es: Well, haven’t you heard? She’s just had her first poem
say surprising things is to repeat the words that surprise you, e.g.:
published.
"The 'Rector’s 'office is on the „second ,floor." Tom: Has she really? Well, I never! I didn’t even know she could
"On the ^second , floor?" write.
To express great surprise the British use the following set b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
phrases: 1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on equal terms? 3. Is Tom
'What on 'earth are you doing? (very surprised) surprised when James asks his opinion about Mary? What language
shows that he is? 4. How does James pass on to Tom the news about
Surprisingly/strangely/incredibly/I 'can’t im agine 'how he Mary? 5. Is Tom surprised? What language shows that he is? 6. Could
' managed to 'get a ' way with it for so „long! (rather formal) Tom have said something else with the same meaning? 7. Do you think
I’m 'very sur,nrised/I find it surprising/amazing/astonishing the speakers sound rather informal? Give your reasons.
that he 'managed to 'hide the 'truth from his „friends, (slightly III. a) Look through the conversation to find out what the speakers are talking
formal) about:
M rs Rose: I suppose you’ve heard about Miss Smith, Mr Beak?
I just can’t understand why he/they cam e/didn’t come, etc.
M r Beak: Miss Smith? No, I don’t think so, Mrs Rose. Has
These are just a few ways of expressing great surprise. Note that
something happened?
not only such phrases as "I can’t imagine how ..." and "How on earth..."
but also the use of "managed to” and "was able to!" help to express M rs Rose: Well, apparently, she’s been given the headmaster’s job.
great surprise. M r Beak: Good heavens! That’s a surprise, Mrs Rose. I had no
idea that sh e’d even applied for it.
Exercises
b) Lok at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
I. Now look through the te x t again to discuss the following questions:
1. Who do you think the speakers are? 2. Are they colleagues?
1. What does the choice of the right form of expressing surprise
3. In what way does Mrs Rose pass on to Mr Beak a piece of news about
in English depend on? 2. What are the most widely-accepted ways of
Miss Smith? 4. Is Mr Beak surprised at the piece of news? What
expressing surprise in informal situations? 3. What set phrases of
language shows that he is? 5. Do you think the speakers sound a bit
expressin surprise do the British use in formal situations? 4. What
formal? If so, give your reasons. 6. Do you think Mr Beak could have
ways of expressing surprise are used in your language? 5. How are
said something else to express his surprise? If so, what exactly would
the ways of expressing surprise in your language different from those
he have said with the same meaning?
in English? 6. Are there ways of expressing surprise with a different
degree of formality and politeness in your language? 7. What are the IV. a) Look through the conversation to find out who the speakers are and what
they’re talking about:
most common ways of expressing great surprise in English? 8. Are
Dave: By the way, Kate, guess what 1 heard this morning?
142 143
Unit 20 Unit 20

Kate: What, Dave? What’s it? 1. My friend’s grant is 45 roubles. (You think it’s 36 roubles.)
Dave: Well, just between us, according to Pete, our Dean has 2. It takes me 45 minutes to get to the Institute. (You think it takes
retired. him/her much less.) 3. Having your own car is very expensive. (You
K ate: No! You’re joking, Dave! Our Dean, retired? I don’t think quite the opposite.) 4. It’s easier to lose weight than to stay slim.
believe it. (You think quite the opposite.) 5. I’m very careful with money. In fact
I hate spending money. (You think the speaker is extravagant.) 6. In
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
my opinion the most important thing for a husband is to be handy
1. Do the speakers sound informal? What language shows that about the house. 7. I’ve read that complaining about the trains is a
they do? 2. How does Dave pass on to Kate a piece of news? 3. How national pastime of the English.
does Kate respond? Is she eager to hear the news? 4. Is Kate surprised
VIII. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations:
at the Dean’s retirement? What language shows she is? 5. Could Kate
have said anything else with the same meaning? 1. You’ve just heard that you fellow-student Pete has been
offered a job singing with a pop group. How do you pass on this piece
V. Respond to the statements made be a friend with surprise:
of news to a friend of yours? Your friend expresses surprise.
1 .1 don’t paricularly like teaching at school. 2. I enjoy walking
2. The senior lecturer in the English language department at your
in the rain. 3. I love the sound of traffic. 4.1 ve just swam across the
Insitute has just told you that your Dean - a well known scholar - is
Moskva river. 5 . 1 won 1000 roubles this year. 6. I’d like pop music to
leaving after the New Year to take up painting. You’re greatly
be banned from radio sets in public places. 7. Teenagers prefer folk
surprised. What do you say?
music to hard rock.
3. You’ve been just told that a fellow-student of yours has been
VI. Respond to the statem ents made by a colleague o f yours with surprise:
awarded a medal. You don’t believe it. What do you say?
1. I prefer dull students to bright ones. They are easier to
4. You’re sitting on a train when the person next to you says that
manage. 2. I’d rather work in Siberia or somewhere else than in
according to the news, the temperature in Moscow will be 45°C below
Moscow. 3. Children are getting less and less intelligent these days.
zero next week. You don’t believe it. What do you say?
And what wild things they are! 4. I d o n ’t think it ’s important
5. You’ve just met and have been talking to the teacher whose
for youngsters to learn how to work with paper card-board and
class you used to be in when you were in primary school. She says that
other m aterials, or to study needlework or grow flow ers and
she didn’t particularly like your class. Sometimes it was hard for her
plants. 5. Cultural differences don’t play an important role in human
to manage with you. You’re surprised.
communication. 6. For communication in a foreign language it’s
enough for students to be as grammatically correct as they can. 7. To 6. A friend tells you that "Spartak" was beaten by "Pakhtakor”.
my mind, vocational-secondary schoods should not provide students You’re greatly surprised. What do you say?
with general knowledge. Emphasis should be placed on ideological 7. A friend phones you and says sh e /h e is sick of noisy children.
education, technical and professional skills. She/he has dicided to give up teaching English at school and take up
music instead. Express your surprise.
VII. Respond to the statements below with surprise, by repeating the words that
surprise you: 8. Pass on to a friend a piece of news about someone who works
E x a m p le : "The D ean’s office is on the third floor." with you. Your friend expresses h er/h is great surprise.
(You think it’s on the second floor.)
"On the third floor?"
I

144 6—556 145


U N I T 21 Regret:
There are things about the past, the present and the future you
Disappointment, Regret, Wishes may regret. Here are some common ways for you to do so:
R ead the text ot find out why there are quite a few ways in English to express I’m 'sorry, I 'didn’t 'know about this ,plan.
disappointment, regret, wishes:
It’s a 'pity I 'didn’t 'buy this ,book.
The Biritsh aren’t very open people. They generally tend to
conceal their feelings. To take offense, to express disappointment, I 'wish I had/I hadn’t taken a taxi,
regret, wishes - all this is as deeply distressing to the British as to if 'only I had/hadn’t a 1greed to see her/him , etc.
anyone. However, they have the habit to understate things when
R em e m b e r : the past perfect is used after unrealized wishes. It
expressing their feelings. For example, when the British are
is also used after a mistaken assumption in the past, e.g.:
disappointed they generally state that someone or something was not
quite what they had expected. Their stoic attitude of resignation is I was 'sure he had a 1greed to xsee me (but he hadn’t) .
often portrayed by "I suppose I’ll iust have to put up with it",
Remember, there are quite a few expressions in English you might Wish:
use to show that you are disappointed and expected something When expressing your own wishes, or inviting the wishes of
different. Here are some common ways to express disappointment, others, you can make the wish more tentative and tactful by useng
regret, wishes: "would like", "would prefer", or "would rather":

Disappointment: 'Would you 'like me to 'open these ^letters?


I would/should like to stay in an inexpensive hotel.
I w as/am extrem ely/very/rather
disappointed to find my parents sitting Another way to consult som eone’s wishes is to use a question
alone in the kitchen. with "shall", or more tentatively, with "should/would":
Y o u /S h e/H e/H e le n disappointed me. (direct) Shall I make you a cup of coffee?
H e /S h e /I t/T h e y wasn’t/w eren’t as Would you like a cup of tea?
good/nice, etc. as I’d expected/hoped. What shall we do this evening? Shall we listen to some music?
I’d expected it/h im /her/them to be much/nicer/better, Should we tell him that he’s not wanted?
(tentative) The exclamatory construction "If only ... can" also be used for
You may also use the following exclamations which are very hypothetical meaning:
emotive: If 'only I 'could re'member his ,name!
'How 'very disap pointing! I 'do 'wish I 'could re'member his „name.
That’s rather/very/'extremely/disappointing!
Exercises
1. Look through the text again to discuss the follow ing questions:
1. According to the text, what kind of people are the British?
2. Why do British people tend to conceal their feelings? 3. What are
146 6* 147
Unit 21

the m ost com m on ways of saying in E nglish that you thought Peter: It’s a pity you don’t remember. I wish you did. She wanted
things would be different? 4. What language m ight be used in to know which breed I liked.
form al situ ation s to express disappointm ent? 5. What do you
Dad: Strange that she hasn’t mentioned it to me. Anyway, you
think the best w ays for showing unfulfilled hopes are? 6. What
know what I think about keeping dogs in flats.
language do the British use for consulting som eon e’s w ishes? 7.
Peter: Yes, Mum said you weren’t very keen. It’s a bit
How are the w ays for expressing disappointm ent, regret, wishes
disappointing, really. If only you know! Mum is so lonely when she’s
different from the ones used in your language? 8. What
here all day long with no one to talk to.
im plications for teaching English as a foreign language do these
differen ces hold? Dad: You mean if she had a dog, she could talk to him, do you?
II. a) Read the conversation to find out what makes Joan particularly nervous Peter: Well, Dad, you know what women are. They only want
about her interview: someone to listen to them. And dogs make ideal companions.
J o a n : I wish I hadn’t talked to last year’s students - they’ve b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
really frightened me. Do you know, Gordon, they had four professors 1. Who do you think wants to have a dog most of all? Give your
interviewing them, all at once? reasons. 2. Is Peter disappointed that his father doesn ’t remember
Gordon: So what! You can manage four professors. But I hope what they were talking about? 3. What is Peter’s father’s attitude
you look more confident when you meet them than you do now, or to the idea of keeping dogs in flats? 4. Is Peter disappointed with
th ey ’ll never pass you! his father’s attitude to pet animals? 5. Does Peter wish his father’s
J o a n : Yes, but - do you think they’ll ask me really difficult attitude to keeping dogs in flats was different? What language shows
questions? I do hope not - I’ll just dry up ... he does? 6. What do you think of Peter? What’s he like? 7. Have you
G ordon: I’m sure they won’t. Anyway, don’t worry, you’ll be all ever been in Peter’s shoes? 8. W hat’s you attitude to pet animals?
r ig h t... . Well, I must be off - I’m delivering a baby this afternoon. Have you got a pet? 9. Do you agree with keeping animals in flats?
Bye, hope it goes well. IV. a) Read the conversation to find out who the speakers are and what Mary's
problem is:
b) Read the conversation again to answer the following questions:
Mary: You know, Jim, I’m beginning to think that living in a city
1. During the conversation Joan wishes som ething and hopes
just isn’t worth it. I’mv rather disappointed.
som ething. What? 2. What does Gordon think about interviewing?
3. Is he sure that everything will be all right? If so, what language Jim : I’m sorry to hear that, Mary. Cheer up, it gets us all down
sometimes.
shows he is? 4. What does Gordon mean when he says "I must be off"?
5. Why does Gordon have to leave in a hurry? 6. When Gordon says Mary: It hasn’t just got me down, it ’s more than that. I wish I
"Bye, hope it goes well," what does "it" refer to? could have a change from the life we’re leading now.
III. a) Read the conversation to find out: who the speakers are and what th e y’re
Jim: Poor thing! If only 1 could help! Did you have a bad day at
talking about. school?
Peter: Dad, do you remember last week, when Mum was saying M ary : Oh, no! You’re not going to be the same as the rest of
how sh e’d like a dog, to keep her company during the day? them, are you? Nobody listened to a word I said. They just waited
Dad: My memory may be playing tricks, but no, I don’t politely till I finished, and then told me to relax a bitor get away for
remember. Some time last week she also said something about going a few days. I’d like to get away forever.
back to work, now that you and Ann are at school all day. Jim: To the country, you mean?

148
U nit 21
Unit 21
Mary: Well, I wish someone could tell me where I should go.
3. There are a lot of exgibiiions in Moscow. But you’re so busy
Jim : Well, if I were you, I ’d just have a couple of days off to relax, that you have to miss many of them. You’re sorry you have so little
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions: time.
1. Do you think Mary and Jim are on close terms? W hat language 4. You want to speak to a friend about something urgent and
shows they are? 2. Do you think Mary isn’t content with the life sh e ’s important. But when you phone him /her, h e /sh e is out and you
leading now? W hat language shows she isn’t? 3. Does Jim sympathize express your regret.
with her? If so, what language shows he’s sympathetic? 4. Do you 5. You’ve just arrived in Sochi for a two-week holiday. You’re a
think Mary is just to her colleagues? 5. Does Jim approve of M ary’s bit tired after the flight. You’re looking for accommodation. It’s rather
wish to get away forever? 6. What does Jim advise Mary to do? 7. Does difficult to do. At last you’ve managed to rent a room. But you’re
Jim do it in a tactful and tentative way? 8. Have you ever been in the disappointed. It’s far from the beach and overcrowded. Call home and
mood Mary is in now? 9. Have you ever suffered from stress? 10. Do express regret that you’ve come to Sochi.
you think teachers often suffer from stress?
VII. Express your disappointm ent in the follow ing situations:
V. a) Express your regret about things you are sorry you did or d id n 't do In the 1. A film you expectd to be good was in fact very bad.
past. Use "I wish + the Past Perfect” :
1. You were not serious. 2. You never started learning. 3. You 2. Your holiday hotel is not as good as you expected. Say what’s
— — -t- ~11 - --- : £ I ti a \ f j :j _ j _ _____ „ wrong with it.
ajjcui a n y u u i n i n e p u i y i i i g i u u i u i t u . tt . iu u uiuii i uu y u u f D CS i iu
frvt* a v o m o
i vri. u A d i i i o .
C

\J/m i
i uu
rl i /4n U
uiuii
f a II/ mti
i ldiiuvt j u u t
ttAnK am /4^a a ,4.rl ao
11 t u i t u o a u v i c u . u.
fv V ah
iuu 3. Your husband who usually gives you a present for your
d id n ’t give much thought to learning. 7. You thought too much about bithday didn’t give you anything this year. Tell your friend how you
discos and theatres. 8. You thought highly of yourself. 9. You missed feel.
a lot of lectures and seminars. 10. You didn’t plan things properly. In 4. Your friend and you are staying in Sochi for a week. The hotel
fact you left everything till the last minute. 11. You d id n ’t slave on you’re staying at is not very good. In fact it’s worse than you expected
books to prepare for exams. it to be. It’s noisy, dirty, their food is terrible. Tell the manager how
b) Y ou're back from your summer vacations. You were in Sochi. In general you’re
you feel.
content with your vacations, but there are things you were disappointed 5. You want to let a friend know very urgently that you cannot
w ith. W hat do you say to your friends?
go to his birthday party, but when you phone, someone else answers.
1. T he meals were just horrible and absolutely inedible. 2. The Express disappointment and leave a message.
hotel you lived in was rather noisy. 3. The beaches were always
6. You’re going to the Caucasus on holiday but your plane from
overcrowded. 4. T h e re were few self-service canteens and only two Moscow cannot take off because of fog. Call your wife from the airport
cafes. 5. You had to stand in long queues to get tickets to the cinema. and express disappointment.
6. You were not able to go around the town.
VIII. Express your wishes in the follow ing situations:
VI. Express your regret in the following situations:
1. You don’t know someone’s nddrcss.
1. Yesterday you went to a book shop. You saw a lot of good books
2. You’ve left some important papers at home and you haven’t
but you couldn’t buy them since you only had a little money on you.
got time to go and get them.
You are sorry about it now.
3. Some workmen are making a lot of noise outside your
2. It’s raining hard. You were going out for a picnic lunch in the
window, and disturbing you at your work. What do you say to
country. T h e rain has upset your plans.
them?

150
U nit 21

4. Your friend tells you about a very interesting job she has.
You’d like to be in a similar position. U N IT 22
5. Before you leave the hotel, you give the receptionist your next
address and say what you want done with any mail that arrives for Belief and Disbelief
you after your departure.
R ead the text to find out what, according to the text, makes it easy for us to
6. You live and work in a big city. Your idea of happiness would understand each other when we are using any language:
be to live in the country. How do you express this?
Just like in other language there are culturally accepted ways for
7. Your friend offers to help you clean the flat but you’d like expressing belief and disbelief in English. The choice of the right form
him /her to clean the car instead. is known to depend mostly on the situation you’re in, the relationship
8. You’ve met a group of young tourists from France. You like you have with the person you’re talking to, etc. Remember, one of the
them very much, but you can’t speak French. things that makes it easy for you to understand each other when using
9. Your little brother sees a lost dog with no identification any language is that the listener expects the speaker to use certain
on its collar, and w ants to take it home and keep it. What do you phrases. And the speaker as a rule does use these phrases. If you don’t
say? use what your listener expects, h e’ll be surprised and possibly
10. You regret you are not being able to have a holiday at confused. In a few cases he may be even ammoyed. So you should
present. learn certain set phrases to express belief or desbelief in certain
situations. Here are some helpful ways for you:
11. Your friend tells you about one of the most interesting films
sh e /h e has just seen. You’d like to see it too but you can’t. You are
very busy at the moment.
Belief:
12. You don’t know very much about the history of Britain.
13. You’d like to visit a friend of yours who is at hospital. To your 'Yes, le a n 'easily/quite/w ell b eliev e it/that.
regret you haven’t got a minute to spare. Of course I be lieve it.

Desbelief:

I 'don’t/c a n ’t be lieve it/that.


It/That 'can’t be „true, (direct)
'Surely not!
You 'can’t e x 'p e c tm e to be'lieve that.
You’re 'not serious.

You must be'joking. j (colloquial)


You’re joking.
Unit 22 U nit 22

Ann: Well, I’m not sure wheter it’s true, mind you, but it seems
Saying things you think people may not believe: to be true.
Can you think of him /m e, etc.
3 t' b) Look at the conversation again to answer the following questions:
speaking Dutch?
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on equal terms? 3. Do both
'Strange as it may ,sound but I 'haven’t speakers sound informal? If so, what language shows they do? 4. What
} "v
got any money. piece of news does Ann pass on to Mary? 5. Why do you think Mary
(possible in all expresses disbelief? 6. What language does Mary use to express
It may su rp rise you but I’ve 'got situations)
disbelief? 7. What else could Mary have said with the same meaning? ,
'married at i last.
III. a) Read the conversation to find out what one should do, according to Tom,
You may find this hard to believe but to stop smoking:
I’ve just had another car accident.
Tom: I see that you’re a heavy smoker ... .
Jenny: About twenty a day.
Exercises
Tom: Well, if I were you, I’d stop it immediately.
I. Look thro u g h the te x t again to answer the following questions: Jenny", You’re not serious!
1. What does the choice of the right set phrase to express belief Tom: Well, you may believe it or not, but it’s not so difficult as
or disbelief depend on? 2. What generally happens when we use the you think.
language our listener doesn’t expect? 3. What are the most helpful Jenny: Perhaps, you’re right and I can easily believe i t ... but
ways for expressing belief and disbelief in English? 4. How are these smoking’s enjoyable, isn’t it?
ways different from the ones in your language? 5. What implications
Tom: Of course, quite. But haven’t you heard that cigarettes are
for teaching English as a foreign language do these differences hold?
very dangerous for your health?
II. a) Read the conversation to find out a piece o f news Mary can’t believe: Jenny: Well, people say they are. What exactly do you mean by
Ann: By the way, Mary, you’ll never guess what I heard this dangerous?
morning. Tom: What I mean is that cigarettes cause cancer and heart
Mary: What, Ann? disease.
Ann: Well, I suppose you’ve heard about Dave. Jenny: You can’t deny that many people die of cancer though
they don’t smoke.
Mary: Dave? No. What about him? Oh, do tell me, pease!
Tom: Yes, sure... but heavy smokers die more often, you know...
Ann: Well, don’t spread it around, but, according to Fred, Dave
Have you ever tried to give up?
has just got engaged.
Jenny: Yes, lots of time. But I just find it impossible to stop.
M ary: No, surely not. I can’t believe it.
Tom: You can’t expect me to believe that.
Ann: And after the marriage he’s going to Spain.
Jenny: W'hat shall I do?
Mary: To Spain? You’re not serious. I don’t believe it.

154 155
Unit 22
Tom: First of all you shouldn’t smoke strong cigarettes, you’d language to try to understand what the native speaker expects you to
better smoke milder ones. Second, don’t smoke a lot of cigarettes. do and say in certain situations.
Third, don’t breathe the smoke in. Next, don’t keep the cigarette in
your mouth all the time. And, finally, don’t smoke all the cigarette. VI. Complete the follow ing dialogue using some o f the expressions you have
learned:
The end of the cigarette is the most dangerous part for your health.
A. I only need 4 hours sleep.
Jenny: Do you really think it’ll help me?
B. ...
Tom: Of course, I’m absolutely sure.
A. Sometimes even less.
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the following questions:
B. ...
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are Tom and Jenny on equal terms? A. The less I sleep the better I feel.
What language shows they are? 3. Do they sound informal? If so,
B . ...
what language shows they do? 4. Does Jenny believe sh e’ll be able
to give up smoking? If so, what language does she use to express A. And the more I sleep the less I work.
belief? 5. What else could Jenny have said with the same meaning? B. ...
6. Is Tom sure sh e ’ll be able to give up smoking? 7. Is it easy, according A. The more I learn English the more I like it.
to Tom, to do so? 8. What arguments does Tom give to make Jenny B. ...
realize the danger of smoking? 9. Do you think Tom’s advice is easy
to follow? Give your reasons. A. The more I like English the more time I spend on it.
B. ...
IV. Y ou 're talking to a friend o f yours. He's telling you something you can’t
believe. W hat do you say? A. Well, as a matter of fact, I never stop working.
B. ...
I. I’m rahter keen on booas of literary criticism. 2. After
graduating from the Institute I’d like to work in one of secondary A. Sometimes I work about 5 hours and even more.
schools in Moscow. 3. To my mind a teacher must always look a bit B. ...
old-fashioned. 4 . 1 think a teacher should be neither too strict nor too A. People say I’m not very good at English.
lenient. 5. I will never make a good teacher. 6. I’m dead sure that a B. ...
physically-fit person is always psychologically healthy. 7 . 1 think we
do enough to protect animal life. VII. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations:

V. Express b e lie f or d isbelief in the following statiments made by a colleague of 1. A friend of yours doesn’t like hunting. One day he shows you
yours: a photo of a duck he has shot. Express disbelief.
1 .1 speak 10 languages fluently. 2. I’ve never told a lie in my 2. Your father is a pensioner. One day you see him in a shoe-
life. 3 . 1 never get up late. 4. I’ve just won 10,000 roubles. 5 . 1 must s’n op, wanting to buy some strong climbing walking shoes. He says he
admit my husband is a bit excitable but he never shows his intends to go in for mountain climbing. Express your disbelief.
excitem ent. 6. I think there’s a real chance of Esperanto becoming 3. Your teacher says that h e /s h e loathes the idea of making her
an important universal language. 7. Old people cannot learn foreign pupils repeat the year. Readily express your belief.
languages. 8. It’s very important, when you’re going to speak a foreign

156 157 :
U nit 22 __________________________________________________ Unit 23
_____________________________________________________________________
'-il
4. Your friend is afraid of driving fast. H e/sh e generally drives
quite carefully. Today h e /sh e ’s phoning you to say h e /sh e has been U N ÎT 23
stopped by a militiaman for driving recklessly. Express disbelief.
Sym pathy and Encouragem ent
5. You’ve got a motorbike and a friend has decided to buy the
same model. You know h e/sh e hates driving. Express disbelief. R ead the text to find out the most useful ways of expressing sym pathy and
encouragement: fP
6. Your little brother is very fussy about food and never eats what ■;f! f t
h e ’s given. But today, mother says, he’s eaten practically everything. As is known we generally give symathy and encourage people
Express disbelief. who are in trouble.
7. Some friends of yours are criticizing a person you like very Just like people in other cultures the British often find
much. You don’t believe them. themselves giving their sympathy or encouragement. What do they
say when they want to soften the effect of bad news they have to give
8. One day you meet an old schooi-friend you haven’t seen for
people? How do they attempt to cheer someone up who has had an
ages. He says he has become a pianist. Express disbelief.
accident? As a rule, they usually start with ï ’m 'sorry or something
9. You’re sitting in a bus when the person next to you says that
like that and then give their sympathy or encouragement to the person
according to the news, there will be an earthquake in Moscow. You
they are talking to. To soften the effect of bad news they use the
don’t believe it. What do you say? apologetic introduction:
10 If you want to have a nice holiday, why go to the south?
I’m a'fraidyou 'friend has 'left for xMinsk.
A holiday in the south means trouble with food and accommodation.
Things always go wrong. Your friend recommends you to spend your It also helps to follow up your announcement of bad news by
holiday in the place where you live. He says there will be no problems encouragement and suggesting a practical course of actions, e.g.:
at all if you follow his advice. Do you believe it? I’m afraid you’ve failed your exams. I know how you feel. You
mustn’t let it get you down.
11. Your fiend thinks that having your own car isn’t expensive
but dangerous. He uses his car only at week-ends. Express either Here are some more helpful expressions you might use for giving
belief or disbelief. sympathy or encouragement to someone in all kinds situations:
I am 'sorry.
Fm !so sorry!
I’m 'sorry to hear ¡that.
'w hat 'bad luck!
'That is a bad (luck!
'Never ,mind!
Cheer 'up!
'Don’t worry (about it).
You 'mustn’t worry about ,that.

IM
159 I m
U nit 23 U nit 23

'D on’t 1¡et it worry you. Tom: Yes, what bad luck! But cheer up. It could have been a lot
worse.
'Don’t 'let it 'get you Adown.
John: Could it? They tell me it needs a new engine.
You mustn’t let it get you down.
Tom: Oh, no! I’m sorry. It’ll cost you a fortune.
It could be (a lot) worse.
John: Yes, over 500 I believe.
It’s not the end of the world. M if
Tom: 500! Oh, that’s bad luck. You poor chap.
Let’s hope for the best.
John: Still, as you say, it could have been a lot worse! I might
^There, ,there, it ' might’ve been worse. have been killed.
Exercises Tom: Quite. It’s not the end of the world. But I know how you
1. Look through the te xt again to discuss the following questions:
feel. 500 is a lot of money.
1. Who do we generally give sympathy and encouragement to? b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
2. What do the British start with in situations like these? 3. What are 1. Where is it taking place? 2, Who do you think the speakers
the best ways of giving encouragement and sympathy? 4. In what are? 3. What sort of people are Tom and John? Do you think they’re
ways are these different from the ones used in your language? 5. What well-to-do people? 4. How do we know they’re not actually? 5. How,
implications for teaching English as a foreign language do these in your opinion, does John feel? Is he depressed? If so, what language
differences hold? shows he is? 6. What relationship has John with Tom? 7. Does Tom
II. a) Read the conversation to find out who the speakers are, what they are talking
sympathize with John? If so, what language shows he does? 8. Does
about: Tom try to cheer up John? What language does he use to do that?
Kate: Hello, Mary! How are you this morning? 9. Have you ever been in a situation of this kind? 10. W’hat would you
have done if you were in John’s shoes? 11. What would you have
Mary: Hello, Kate, fine, thanks. And how are you? You’re not
advised John to do if you were Tom? 12. What language would you
looking very well today.
have used to give John sympathy and encouragement?
Kate: Well, no, I’m feeling under the weather this morning. "I
IV. Respond to these remarks made to you by a friend. Try to cheer h im /h e r up:
Mary: I’m sorry to hear that, what’s the matter?
1. My holiday trip to the Caucasus has been cancelled. 2 . 1 have
Kate: I don’t know really, just don’t feel well, that’s all.
to go into hospital for an operation. 3 . 1 have to fly to the Far East next
M ary. I hope it’s nothing serious, but you must be careful. There week, and I’m terribly nervous because I hate flying. 4. My son has
are a lot of colds about just now.
to start his military service next month, and I’m not looking forward
b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions: to it. 5. I’m not feeling too well this morning.
I. Is anything serious with Kate? 2. Does Mary sympathize with
V. Make short conversations In the follow ing situations:
Kate? If so, what language shows she does? 3. Does Mary encourage 1. You teach English at school. At the moment you’re in your
Kate? If so, what language shows she does? 4. What other language staff roo. One of your colleagues is clearly not well. She’s looking a
might Mary use to encourage her friend? 5. What would you have said bit under the weather. Give her sympathy and encouragement. She
if you were in Mary’s shoes? agrees she’s feeling pretty awful. She’s afraid sh e’s got a cold coming.
III. a) Read the conversation to find out what exactly has happened to John: 2. On your way to the Institute you meet one of your fellow-
John: I daresay you’ve heard about my breakdown on the students who looks serious and a bit worried. You want to know the
motorway?

160 161
Unit 23

reason. H e/sh e says h is/h er grandmother is seriously ill. Give


him /her sympathy and encouragement.
UNIT 24
3. You’re just back from work. Your husband looks gloomy and
depressed. Nothing is going right with him. This morning he crashed Complaining
his car. You’re a bit upset and sorry for him. Give him your sympathy
and encouragement. Read the text to find out: why the British don’t like to complain; what patterns they
generally use when criticizing misbehaviour of someone who is or isn’t present:
4. It’s late at night. You’re wanted on the phone. Your friend is
calling. H e/sh e sounds serious and sad. You think something terrible British people are said to be reluctant to complain. As a rule they
has happened. Eventually you find out that h is/h er pet dog has just tend to avoid making a fuss and keep themselves in check. All this
died. helps to explain thir reaction to bad plays, bad performances or bad
service in hotels or restaurants. Except on rare occasions, the British
5. You’re visiting your parents. You’re happy to see them and
do not boo in the theatre, they simply stay away. They don’t whistle
so are they. But you notice your father is rather upset, in fact he
and jeer like an Italian crowd at the opera or a Spanish crowd at a
doesn’t really look himself. You wonder what has happened. He says
bullfight. If the star cricketer scores a duck, if the highly praised
h e ’s not getting on with the boss. Give him sympathy and
encouragement. footballer misses a goal, they will be allowed to leave the ground in
heavy silence. When the British do complain they generally do that
6. You’re discussing with your friends the break-up of your in a rather apologetic manner. In fact, they tend to give the impression
colleague’s marriage.
of being unsure in order to be tactful and diplomatic. Here are some
7. You meet your friend, you haven’t seen for a couple of weeks. useful ways to do that:
You know h e /sh e has just failed his driving test. Try to encourage
him /her. How to complain of misbehaviour of someone who is present:
8. You’re in your staff-room talking to a colleague of yours who
'D o you 'think you 'could 'speak 'less ^loudly/type more
has to retire because of iilness.
quickly, etc.? (polite)
9. You meet a colleague of yours who you haven’t seen for some
time. You ask her about her son - just six months old. Your colleague 'Oh, 'K ate/M ary, etc.! You 'could b e'm orecon siderate/work
says that the boy has been terribly ill for a few weeks. You naturally harder/help your mother more, etc. (direct)
sympathize but your colleague says he’s getting better now. You react Oh, J a n e /T o m , etc.! You could have phoned h er/v isited your
to the new. grandparents/done your room, etc. (strong)
10. You’re talking to your neighbour, a young woman of 23. Her Coplaining of someone who is not present:
husband has to go to hospital. She’s upset. Give her sympathy and
encouragement. Offer your help. I’m beginning to get rather tired of the way Mary is borrowing
11. You’re talking to your friend. She/he has just got married. money all the tim e/talking about her husband, etc.
Her husband/his wife is very careful with money. In fact h e /sh e hates 'D on’t you 'think (that) 'M ary/Tom , etc. 'tends to 'smoke./to
spending money. Your friend is worried and unhappy. Give her complain too ^much? (tentative)
sympathy and encouragement. The trouble with your brother/M ary, etc. is that h e /sh e always
shouts/makes bad jokes/overworks, etc. (direct)
I’m sick and tired of h is/h er m isbehaviour/sm oking/telling
stories about other people, etc. (extremely strong)
162 163
Unit 24 Unit 24

Very often, when the British are told something they disapprove Excuse me, there seem s/appears to be something wrong with
of, they often use only the two-word answer H e/S h e 'would, e. g.: this camera I bought here yesterday, (tentative)
A . He told Dave anyway. ,Look, this 'kind of 'service 'isn’t
B. He would. ivery |good. I’m 'very dis satisfied with it.
(direct, strong,
"Would" shows the speaker’s irritation and resentment. The I’m 'not the 'sort of ^person who slightly formal)
speaker means: "It’s absolutely typical of this thoughtless person."
'normally com p lains, but I’m 'very
When the British are complaining about something people are
doing in public, they blame "them" - an unspecified group who are un1happy about the 'way I’m being ^treated.
responsible.
Accepting a complaint:
They should/ought to 'stop 'people 'smoking in ^trains.
Oh, I’m 'sorry about |that. I’ll 'do my
They shouldn’t let people smoke in trains.
'best to ^help you.
Agreeing:
Sorry 'is it bothering/disturbing you?
'Yes, it is/ca n be a 'problem, ,isn’t it?/can ’t it? (polite) (polite)
I think I can understand how you fool, (tentative) Sorry, I 'thought you'didn’t |fnind.
- I- ! . , Sorry, I 'didn’t 'realize you 'felt 'so
l e s , i Know what you mean.
strongly about it.
Disagreeing:
In response to complaints about services and goods the British
Really? I can’t say I’ve particularly noticed that h e/sh e generally say:
overworks/shouts, etc. (polite)
Oh, I’m 'very'sorry, ¡Sir/M adam /M r Brown, etc. I’ll 'seethat
I can see what you mean but you must remember that h e /sh e is
rather considerate/loves you and children/comes home very tired, 'everything is 'put , right.
etc. (tentative) I’m sorry, Sir/M adam, etc. I’ll see to it. I’ll ask the mechanic to
test your battery.
'Oh, | C o m e 'o n , ,T om /M ary, h e 'isn ’t ,that |bad. (informal)
Delaying a complaint:
How to show dissatisfaction with goods or services
you have received: I sug'gest you leave it with us, and we’ll 'see 'what can be
Exvcuse me, I’m a'fraid this 'radio has ,done/we can do about it. (polite)
'gone ^wrong/my room is dirty, etc. I’m a ' fraid the ' manager 1isn’t 'in at the , moment. 1Could you
I’ve had a lot o f trouble with the TV in 'call/ask later? (polite)
my room /the dar I hired yesterday, etc. lte’ orma
Rejecting a complaint:
Exvcuse me, I’m sorry, I’m 'not at
'all 'satisfied with my ¡room /this earners, etc. vWell, I’m a'fraid there’s 'nothing/isn’t 'much we can do
about it ,actually- (polite)

164 165
Unit 24 Unit 24

Exercises about Kate’s misbehaviour? 4. What about Kate? Does she accept
I. Look thro u g h the te x t to discuss the following questions:
Ann’s complaints? How do we know that she does?
1. In what manner do British people generally complain of the IV. a) Read the mini-dialogue to find out what the customer makes a complaint
about:
misbehaviour of others? 2. What impression do the British tend to give
in order to be tactful and diplomatic? 3. What strong ways of A. Yes, Sir? Can I help you?
expressing complaints are there in English? 4. What do you think are B. Well, y e s ,.... I bought this radio a week ago and there seems
the most common ways for criticizing someone who isn’t present in to be something wrong with it.
formal situations? 5. What are the most commonly accepted patterns A. Well, Sir, I’m afraid there isn’t much we can do about it
for criticizing someone in your language? 6. How are these ways actually.
different from the British ones? 7. What implications for teaching b) Now look at the mini-dialogue again to answer the follow ing questions:
English as a foreigh language do these differences hold? 8. In what
I. Did the customer show his dissatisfaction with the radio h e’d
way do the British show their dissatisfaction with goods or services?
bought politely? If so, what language shows he was polite? 2. What
ii. a) Read the dialogue to find out what Ann isn’t content w ith : exactly was wrong with the radio? 3. Was the customer’s complaint
Ann: I’m sickand tired of the way Tom Brown is always hanging accepted? 4. What language shows it was not? 5. What would you do
around. if you were the customer?
Sally. Yes, I know what you mean. V. a) Read the dialogue to fin d out what things James complains about:
Ann: T he trouble with him is that he never tries to be ( Jam es M orris is tolking to the hotel m anager.)
considerate. Anyway, he’s always unpleasant and rather aggressive.
Manager: I hope you’re enjoying your stay with us, Mr Morris.
Sally: Oh, come on! He isn’t that bad.
Jam es: Yes, very much, but there are one or two little things I’d
b) Re-read the dialogue to answer the following questions: like to mention to you.
1. Are Ann and Sally on equal terms? 2. Is Ann annoyed? 3. And Manager: Oh, yes, Sir? What sort of things?
what about Sally? Does she remain calm? 4. Does Sally accept Ann’s Jam es: Well, the TV in my room doesn’t work very well. Could
complaints?
you ask someone to have a look at it, please?
ill. a) Read the m ini-dialogue to find out what things Ann complains o f to Kate: M anager: Certainly, Sir. Is there anything else?
Ann: I wish you wouldn’t have your TV so loud. Jam es: Well, I don’t want to make trouble, but I really think you
Kate: Sorry! Were you trying to sleep? ought to have a word with that chap behind the bar.
Ann: Yes, and while I think of it please ask when you borrow my M anager: Why, Sir?
textbook on history in future. Jam es: Well, he was smoking while he was washing the glasses
Kate: Sorry! I really ought to have known better. and his cigarette ash fell into one of them. My glass was a little dirty,
b) Look at the m ini-dialogue to answert the follow ing questions: as a matter of fact.
1. Who do you think Kate and Ann are? Are they getting on M anager: I’ll speak to him about that now. Is that all, Sir?
perfectly well? 2. Is Ann com plaining in an apologetic manner? James: Well, no. There seems to be a rather strange couple next
3. What language in the conversation shows that Ann feels strongly door. They must be dancers or something. T h e y make a terrible noise
at about two in the morning. Do you think you could have a word with
them about it?
166 1A7
Unit 24 Unit 24

M anager. Yes, Sir. I’ll see what I can do. Manager: Well, I’m very sorry, Sir, but George has been with us
Jam es: I’m afraid there’s just one more thing. Your new for 20 years and we’ve never had any complaints about him until now.
receptionist is very polite, but he seems a little absentminded. He Albert: And another thing! What are you going to do about those
never remembers to call me in the morning and he must have made a foreigners in number 27? Carrying on all night in that funny
mistake in my bill, because he seems to have charged me too much. language. Shouting, they were. It shouldn’t be allowed.
M anager: Right, Mr Morris. I’ll see what I can do. Is there Manager: If you like, Sir, I’ll have a word with them and ask
anything else? them to be a little more considerate.
Jam es: Well, I know I shouldn’t say this because it’s none of Albert: Yes, do that, will you? Then maybe I’ll get some sleep.
my business, but you have increased your prices very considerably Manager: I’m very sorry you’ve been disturbed, Sir. But are you
since last year, haven’t you? enjoying your stay apart from that?
Manager: I’m sorry, Mr Morris, but we can’t do anything about Albert: Well, I don’t think much of the restaurant. I can’t get a
that! It’s the cost of living, you know. decent plate of fish and chips. It’s all salad and fancy stuff. And the
b) Re-read the dialogue to answer the following questions: service is terrible, too.
I. What exactoly does James think about prices in the hotel? Manager: Well, Sir, I’m sure the waiters try to be as helpful as
2. Is he satisfied with the service he gets? 3. What’s his opinion about they can, but they are very busy at dinner.
the barman? 4. What does James think of the receptionist? 5. James Albert: Well, you should get some more, shouldn’t you? You should
was polite, wasn’t he? 6. What language in the conversation shows be able to afford it. You’re charging enough this year, aren’t you?
that James is polite? 7. What about the hotel manager? He was polite, Manager: I’m very sorry you feel that way about it, Sir. If there’s
wasn’t he? 8. How do we know he’s polite? 9. Does the manager accept anything else I can do to make your stay here more pleasant, please
all Jam es’ complaints? 10. What would you have said if you’d been don’t hesitate to ask me.
James? 11. Would you have been as polite as that? 12. What kind of Albert: Don’t worry, I’.l tell you all right,
man do you think James is? Are all his complaints justified? 13. What
do you think of the hotel James is staying at and the manager of the b) Re-read the dialogue to answer the follow ing questions:
hotel? 1. How does Albert complain about the things he doesn’t like
about the hotel he’s in? 2. He wasn’t very polite, was he? 3. What
VI. a) Read the dialogue to find out what A lbert Is complaining about:
should he have said to be polite? 4. Does Albert complain about similar
Albert: Listen, the heating’s broken in my room. When are you problems to the ones James does? 5. Look at what the manager said
going to come and fix it? to Albert. He was polite, wasn’t he? 6. What could the manager have
Manager: I’m sorry to hear that, Sir. I’ll get someone right away. said? 7. What would you have said if you’d been the hotel manager?
Albert: You’d better. It’s freezing up there. And my room’s a VII. Now complain about some things that annoy you either at home or at the
disgrace. That m aid’s useless. I want her replaced. Institute. D o n ’t fo rg e t to use some o f the phrases you've practised. Talk
about something which you d id n 't enjoy. Tell the others why. If you have
Manager: Well, I’ll speak to the house-keeper about it, Sir, but
been to Britain, talk about something that annoyed or irritated you during
I’m su r e ... . your stay there.
Albert: And that hall porter’s another one. Cheeky devil. You VIII. Complain about the follow ing to another student:
should get rid of him too. Doesn’t know how to treat guests with
E x a m p le: "Mary would think you’ve done that."
respect. And look at the money I’m paying.
"She would."

168 169
Unit 24

1. He would expect you to do that. 2. Of course someone like him 8. This last trick of your fellow-student is just too much.
would do that. 3. She would spread rumours. 4 . 1 knew it. You would Complain to your friend about the things that person has done in the
forget. 5. The car would break down when we need it most. 6. They past, and what you’re going to do, or what you really ought to do.
would turn up just when we were in a hurry. 7 . 1 tried to get away but 9. In a greengrocer’s the assistant gives you underweight twice.
John would keep talking. The first time you thought it was a mistake but the secong time you
IX. Complain about the follow ing things that people are doing in public: dicede to protest. What do you say?
E x a m p le : "I get really annoyed by people who are always 10. A friend of yours has been invited by a group of young people
telling you all the details of what they’ve been to go around the Volga by boat. The journey is to take a month and
doing." costs each member 50 roubles. He would like you to join the group
and so he has borrowed money without your asking and paid for you
They ought to stop telling you all the details of
and himself. You’ve got annoyed because you had different ideas
what they’ve been doing."
about your holidays. Complain to him but do it in an apologetic
1. people smoking in restaurants; 2. people who put their feet on manner.
the seats when they’re on the train; 3. people who used the flash of 11. You work as a secretary at a plant. You like your job, it’s
their camera in the theatre; 4. people who take their dogs into shops;
interesting. The trouble is you don’t get on very well with your boss.
5. people who park near the town theatre; 6. people who leave litter
You think he’s unjust to you. As he puts it, you type too slowly, you
in the countryside; 7. peole who leave their cars in dangerous do the filing too carelessly and speak too much on the telephone.
places; 8. people who take transistor radios on the bus or on the
Complain to your friend about this.
beach; 9. people who turn down the corners of library books.
12. You teach English at an Institute. You’re unhappy with the
X. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations: appearance of one of your students. He always looks untidy. His hair
1. You’ve just bought something and the shop assistant has given is long, his boots are always dirty, his trousers need pressing.
you the wrong change by mistake. Make a complaint. Complain to your colleague about it.
2. You bought a necklace from a jeweller’s but the catch broke 13. You’re just back from your holiday. You spent it on the Black
the first time it was worn. Take it back to the shop. Sea coast. You rented a room there. It was very difficult to find
3. The public telephone on the wall of your hotel seems to be out accommodation not too far from the sea. And when you did, it turned
of order. Talk to the receptionist. out to be very expensive. You had to share a room with another girl.
4. You ordered a taxi for 10.00 a.m. The taxi arrives at 10.30, On top of that you didn’t particularly like the area you were staying
and you risk missing the plane. in. It was too overcrowded. The weather was awful when you stayed
there. You were annoyed. Cmplain to your friends.
5. The woman in the shop refuses to take back your empty
bottles. She says they are all "non-return!" Complain to her. 14. You bought a watch in a shop. There is really something
wrong with it because it is always 5 minutes slow. You complain to a
6. Your neighbours upstairs have a leaking water-pipe in their
shop-assistant and he delays a complaint.
bathroom which is making damp stains on your ceiling. You’re
annoyed. Phone your friend to complain. 15. You’ve just bought a radio-cassette recorder and found that
the start button and the volume control don’t work. You go back to the
7. Your brother has the habit of taking your books without
asking. Criticize him strongly. shopana ask the shopkeeper to exchange it for another one. The
shopkeeper is sure that you haven’t used the recorder properly and
rejects the complaint.

170 171
Unit 25
There’s no need to worry about this man.
U N ÎT 25 You can be quite sure that things will settle one way or another.
I can assure you that things will soon change for the better.
Persuasion Look at it this w ay/another way.
Read îhe text to find out how British people deal with persuasion: Wouldn’t you say/agree, etc. that too much money is spent on
atomic power stations?
Just like in other languages of the world persuasion in English
Don’t you think that the use of nuclear energy should be
suggests convincing a person or people by reasoning. As a rule the
speaker often uses persuasion to influence the attitudes and restricted?
behaviour of the listener. In particular the aim of persuasion may There’s no sense in beating about the bush.
be either to cause people to do or not to do something or change a You shouldn’t/d o n ’t have to blame your parents for that.
particular belief they hold. It is rather common to start persuading
other people or a person you are talking to by expressing your Persuading people to overcome their reticence:
personal opinion of somebody or something. Another useful way is I know you must be reluctant to remember/talk about all this,
to state a generalization. A generalization is known to be a but we should know what has really happened.
statem ent about something that is widely accepted most of the I can appreciate your desire to forget/not to talk about that, etc.
tim e. Then you should state supportive details that relate to the but I’d like to ask you only two questions, if you don’t mind.
topic discussed. T hese may include exam ples, facts and personal
Do you think you can manage to tell us about this accident?
experience.
Here are some ways you might use when persuading other Putting a point very strongly:
people:
I’m convinced/sure that a lot of children
Reassuring: develop late.
It’s quite clear to me that noise in cities
In informal situations you may use a persuasive or insistent
causes stress. (direct)
imperative. It is generally created by the addition of do (with a nuclear
tone) before the main word. Remember it is not impolite to use a I think it’s absolutely wrong/right to
command when you are telling someone to do something for his own approve of this plan/to build some shops in
good: this area, etc.
I must make it clear that we should
Do 'calm 'down, !please. not spend more money on space research.
Do have some more milk, please. I don’t really understand what you’re trying to say. You have got
The other polite ways of reassuring people that are possible in to remember that teaching is a difficult job. (tentative)
all situations are as follows: But I /v e honestly can’t see why you
You can/could say/agree/argue, etc. that a lot of women are are leaving.
tied to the kitchen sink. Don’t let me persuade you, just (informal)
I have no doubt you’ll agree that nonverbal symbols have decide for yourself.
different meanings in different cultures.

172 173
Unit 25 Unit 25

Your behaviour is/w a s/h a s been disgusting/awful/beyond


any criticism, etc. (abrupt) Criticizing attitudes:

I’m 'sure this is 1vvhat/a flat/a holiday, etc. you ,want. (direct, I think you’re being rather unrealistic/optimistic, etc. saying
rather strong) that we have built a new society/new legislation on military service
will be introduced next year, etc.
Putting forward defensive arguments: I don’t think you’re being very helpful/sympathetic/optim istic,
In formal situations you may say: etc.
Let’s look at the whole problem/plan, etc. from a realistic point You don’t seem to realize/understand, etc. that you are behind
of view. the times.
Let’s be realistic about this plan/suggestion, etc.
That’s all very well, but you’ve got to take into account our Exercises
plans/proposals, etc.
I. Look through the text to answer the follow ing questions:
It’s all very well to say but it’s rather difficult to do. 1. What does persuasion suggest? 2. What does the speaker use
Don’t forget about the other side of this problem. persuasion for? 3. What is the aim of persuasion? 4. What are the ways
1 /w e/you have got to think of other sides of this problem as well. of getting persuasion started? 5. What is a generalization? 6. What are
On the 'one ,hand the 'problem is 'vitally im'portant. On the the main ways for persuading people in your own culture? 7. In what
ways are they different from those used by British people? 8. Do you
'other ,hand it’s 'rather complicated.
know how to persuade people? 9. How do you prefer to deal with
You must agree/adm it that communicating with persons of persuasion?
other cultures has become a daily necessity.
1!. a) Read the conversation to find out what Zed Hawks and his friends have
You can’t deny that it would be nice to own a big house. recently been criticized a lot for:
You know I want to find the best way out for the solution of this A n ita : T onight’s guest on "What do you think?" is rock star
problem. Zed Hawks. We’re going to talk about the behaviour of stars and
What I mean is that we should be more forward-looking/the their fans. Zed, you’ve been criticized a lot recently for your own
Olympic Games should become a meeting of professional athletes, behaviour ... .
etc. (tentative) Z e d : Ah, you mean the mid-air party. That’s all been
There’s nothing wrong with having exaggerated.
a party/dancing/singing, etc. (semi-formal, the Anita: It probably has. What really happened?
It’s an exaggeration to say. most frequently used
forms) Zed: It was a New York - London flight. About two hours after
That is/w a s/h a s been exaggerated. leaving London, sorry, I mean New York, we got bored.
That’s none of m y /h is/y o u r business, (rather abrupt) Anita: We?
I don’t know what you mean. I wish/suppose I could, (informal) Zed: Me and my friends. So we had a party - singing, dancing,
you know. It was great. Then someone started throwing food.
Anita: Was that you?

174 175
Unit 25 Unit 25

Z e d : Well, airline food doesn’t taste very nice. Anyway, after a Conductor: But you only gave me 10 p.
while one of the passengers complained and the stewardess asked us
George: No, I didn’t. I gave you 50 p.
to stop. That’s a l l ....
Conductor: Look, here’s the 10 p. you gave me.
Anita-. Yes, but apparently the stewardess told a newspaper that
George: Are you sure?
your behaviour was disgusting.
Conductor: Absolutely sure.
Zed: I don’t know what she means. There’s nothing wrong with
having a party. George: I’m sorry, but I don’t think I did. But anyway, here’s
another 20 p.
Anita: I suppose not. But a lot of people think you should behave
more normally. Your fans imitate you, don’t they? b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:

Zed: That’s none of my business. My fans can do what they like. 1. Who are the speakers? 2. Where’s it taking place? 3. Are the
I ’m not going to tell them what to do. speakers on formal terms? 4. How much money did George give by
Anita: Actually, I didn’t say you should ... . mistake? 5. Did the conductor notice George’s mistake? 6. What did
Zed: Yes, you did. he say to make George know the sum wasn’t sufficient? 7. Do you
think the conductor was polite to George? 8. W’hat else could the
Anita: In fact, I said .... conductor have said with the same meaning? 9. Did George under­
Zed: Rubbish! You journalists are all the same. I’m going .... stand his mistake right away? 10. Why do you think he tried to defend
Anita: Weil, thanks for talking to us. Good-bye. himself? 11. What language of defence did George use to persuade
b) Look again at this interview to answer the following questions: the conductor that he’d paid the right fare? 12. Do you think the
conductor was sure that George was wrong? 13. Have you ever been
1. Who are the speakers? Are they formal and polite? If so, what
in George’s shoes? 14. Do you defend yourself if you know or fell you
language shows they are? 2. What sort of person is Zed? 3. Do you
haven’t done something? 15. What do people in your culture say in
think h e ’s been justly criticized? 4. Do you think he and his friends
similar situations?
behaved badly on the plane? 5. What’s Anita’s attitude to Zed? 6. Do
you think Zed is right in trying to defend himself during the IV. a) Read the conversation to find out what sort o f holiday centre Matona is:
interview? 7. What language does Zed use to excuse himself and his ( Trevor and Margaret are at a travel agency.)
friends? 8. What do you think of Zed’s behaviour on the TV Assistant: Can I help you?
programme? Give your reasons. 9. What does Anita think of Zed’s
Trevor: We’re thinking about a holiday. But we can’t decide
behaviour? Does she express accusal of Zed? If so, what language
where to go.
shows she does? 10. Does Zed admit his fault? 11. Zed says "That’s
Margaret: We’ve been looking at brochures for Italy and Ireland.
none of my business.” What does "That" refer to? 12. Anita says
"Actually, I didn’t say you should ... ." Can you complete her Assistant: I’m glad you came to see me. I’m sure I’ve got the
sentence? holiday you want. If I were you, I’d forget about Italy and Ireland.
The place to go is Matona.
!!!. a) Read the conversation to find out what the conductor accused George of:
Trevor: Hold on a minute. I’ve never ... .
Conductor: Any more fares?
Assistant: You’ll love it there. Matona’s the place everyone’s
George: Oxford Circus, please.
talking about.
Conductor: The fare’s 30 p. now, sir.
Margaret: Yes, but I don’t even know where it is.
George: Yes, 1 know.

176 7—556 177


U nit 25

Assistant: Have a look at hte map in the brochure, madam. Look


V. a) Read the conversation to find out the last argument that made Peter give in
at the photographs. Isn’t it the most wonderful holiday centre you’ve to persuasion:
ever seen? but don’t let me persuade you. Sit down and decide for
Nick: Good afternoon.
yourselves.
Peter: I’m thinking of buying a car. I see that yours is for sale.
Nick: I’m glad you came to see me. I’m sure this is the car you
( Five m inutes later.) want. It’s a marvellous car and the price is only 1,650.
Margaret: Well, it’s got all the things we were looking for! But Peter: I’m not sure. I’m really looking for a small, modern car.
it ’s rather expensive, isn ’t it? It would cost over 1,200 for the
Nick: I’m not saying this is the most modern car you can buy,
five of us.
but it’s certainly the most exciting.
A ssista n t: I’m not saying it’s the cheapest holiday we’ve got, but
Peter: I don’t know. I’d better think it over.
it’s certainly the best.
Nick: You can have it for 1,500.
Trevor: I’m not sure. We’d better think it over for a few days.
Peter: No, I’m sorry, it’s still too expensive.
Assistant: Of course, sir. But don’t forget that Matona’s very
Nick: Well, I’ll cut the price to 1,200 if you buy now.
popular this year. To tell the truth, if you came back next week it might
be fully booked. Peter: All right, I’ll buy it. I hope I’m doing the right thing.
Margaret: Perhaps we should book now. Nick: Y'es, I’m sure you are.
Assistant: I would if I were you, madam. b) Look at the conversation again to answer the follow ing questions:
Trevor: I’d like time to think about it. I. Who are the speakers? Do you think they’re on equal terms?
Assistant: If you book today, madam, I’ll cut the price to 2. Are the speakers well-to-do people? 3. What are the ways that Nick
1 , 000 . tries to persuade Peter to buy his car? 4. Do you think Nick’s car Is
Margaret: All right. I hope we’re doing the right thing. really exciting? 5. Does Peter try to resist Nick’s persuasion politely?
If so, what language shows he does? 6. Peter doesn’t like the way Nick
Assistant: I’m sure you are. Can I have a deposit of
is trying to persuade him, does he? What language do you think shows
110 please?
that? 7. Have you ever been in Nick’s shoes? 8. Do you know how to
b) Look at the conversation to answer the following questions: persuade people? 9. Is it easy to persuade people to do or not to do
1. certain things?
W here is it taking place? 2. Who are the speakers? 3. Do
the speakers sound formal? If so, what language shows they do? V!. a) Read the follow ing mlni-diaiogue to find out what relationship the speakers
4. Do you think the assistant knows how to persuade people? Give have:
your reasons. 5. The assistant says "Don’t let me persuade you”. M rs Smith: Do you really have to go, Mrs Brown? Couldn’t you
But h e does try to persuade them. Make a list of at least four ways at least stay for another cup of coffee?
in which he tries to persuade Trevor and Margaret. 6. Do you M rs Brown: Well, I suppose I could.
think Trevor likes the way the assistant is trying to persuade
M rs Smith: Oh, splendid!
them? If he d o e sn ’t, what are the three ways in which Trevor
shows it? M rs Brown: But I’ll have to go after that, I’m afraid,

178 7* 179
Unit 25

b) Look back at tha minl-dialogue to answer the follow ing questions: IX. Now replace these Informal phrases with forma! ones:
1. Does Mrs Smith persuade Mrs Brown to stay in a polite way? 1. You can stay for a bit longer, can’t you? - Well, OK, then.
If so, how? 2. What else could Mrs Smith have said with the same 2. Ah, well! You are not leaving surely? - Sorry, Mary, but I think I’d
meaning? 3. Does Mrs Brown have to give in to Mrs Smith’s better go now if you don’t mind. 3. Thanks for having us, Mary. Bye. -
persuasion? 4. Does Mrs Brown agree to stay for another cup of coffee Cheerio, Roger. See you around some time. 4. Thanks for the party.
enthusiastically? 5. Does Mrs Brown make it quite clear that she can’t It was great. - What, so soon? Have another cup of tea.
stay long? What language shows she does? 6. Have you ever been in
X. Make the following into the mini-dialogue about persuasion:
Mrs Brown’s shoes? 7. Do you generally give in to persuasion easily?
8. Do you know how to persuade people? E x a m p le: A. Living in the country is rather dull.
B. Very good for health.
VII. a) Read the mlni-dialogue to find out why Pam can’t stay a bit longer at the
party: A. You can’t deny that living in the country is
( Pam is at Sim o n ’s party. She has ju st told him she has to leave.) rather dull.
Sim on: Oh, come on, Pam. You can stay a bit longer, can’t you? B. On the other hand you must admit that it is very
Pam: I’d love to, Simon - really! But honestly, I must go now. good for health.
My mother isn ’t well. 1. A. TV makes people lazy. B. Very entertaining. 2. A. Cars
Sim on: T hat’s a pity, but I quite understand, are dangerous. B. Very useful. 3. A. Travel by air is expensive.
B. Very fast. 4. A. Taxes are expensive. B. Very co n v en ien t.
b) Look back at the mini-dialogue to answer the following questions: 5. A . Physical exercise is very tiring. B. Good for you. 6. A . Living
1. Who are the speakers? 2. Are they on equal terms? If so, whatabroad is rather interesting. B. Difficult if you don’t know foreign
language shows they are? 3. Do the speakers sound informal? If so, languages. 7. A. Modern buildings are very ugly. B . Very
what language shows they do? 4. How does Simon try to persuade comfortable. 8. A. Smoking is enjoyable. B. Very harmful.
Pam to stay? What does he say? 5. What else could Simon have said
XI. A friend o f yours doesn’t get on very well with his fellow-students. You don’t
with the sam e meaning? 6. Does Pam resist Simon have said with particularly like tha way he/she behaves either. Try to persuade h im /h e r that
the sam e m eaning? 6. Does Pam resist Sim on’s persuasion h e /sh e should change h is /h e r attitude to you and other students o f your
politely? 7. What else could Pam have said with the same meaning? group. Accuse h im /h e r o f doing the wrong things listed below. H e/S he has
to defend him self/herself.
8. Have you ever tried to persuade someone to stay at your party?
9. Do you think you know how to persuade people to stay a bit E x a m p le: A. Don’t you agree that the way you spoke to our
longer in your home if you’d like to? lecturer last time was just awful. She doesn’t
deserve that. I must make it clear you should
VIII. Replace these formal phrases with informal ones:
apologize.
1. Couldn’t you at least stay for another cup of tea? - I wish I B. Well, I don’t really understand what you are
could - truly I do. 2. Are you quite sure you can’t stay for a little talking about. Personally I didn’t mean to offend
longer? - Well, I’m awfully sorry. I’m afraid I must be going. 3. Must her really.
you leave now, Mr Brown? - Yes, I’m afraid so. I told my wife I’d be
1. lets you down; 2. borrowed 50 roubles and didn’t pay it back;
home by 11.30 and it’s 10 past 11 already. 4. Well, I’m so glad you
3. regularly phones you at night when you’re getting to sleep; 4. told
came, Mr. Brown. You really must come again, you know. - Yes, I’d
your friend a lie; 5. smoked at the Institute yesterday; 6. spends too
like to very much. Thank you. Thank you.

180
U nit 25
much money on cigarettes; 7. isn’t keen on the English language; 8. children and that school and parents should actively concern
arrives late at the institute; 9. often misses lectures on methodology.
themselves with the problem. It’s a great danger, because it gives
XII. Y o u ’re a school-teacher. A young colleague approaches you with a complaint children a wrong impression of life.
about h is /h e r students and colleagues. Nothing seems to go right with
h im /h e r. H e/S he is very lonely and unhappy. Try to persuade h im /h e r that 4. A friend of yours doesn’t think that married women are right
this is through h is /h e r own fault fo r she sometimes does wrong things some to try to get equality with men, especially with regard to a job
o f which are listed below. H e/She will admit h is /h e r fault. opportunities. H e/She expects a married woman to stay at home and
E x a m p le : doesn’t know how to make h is/her students get on loo! after children. Try to persuade him /her that men and women
A. There’s no sense in complaining. Much depends should share their duties and responsibilities. And quite naturally,
on you, you know. I think you can’t deny that they should have equal job opportunities.
a teacher ought to know how to make his students 5. A friend of yours says that h e /sh e is thinking seriously
get on. about changing h is/h e r job, althought h e /sh e finds h is /h e r work
B. Well, I see what you mean. It’s all very well very interesting and h e /s h e likes h is/h e r colleagues. The trouble
to say but it’s very difficult to do. I’m doing my is that h is/h e r boss is unjust to h im /her and often drives him /h er
best but I haven’t got much experience as yet. mad. Try to persuade your friend that h e /sh e shouldn’t leave
1. doesn’t know how to make h is/her students get on; 2. isn ’th is/h er job but rather improve h is/h e r relations with the boss.
able to maintain a working discipline in h is/her class; 3. comes to 6. A friend of yours and you are going on holiday. At the last
school very late; 4. left the lights on in Ihe staff room yesterday; moment it turns out that you have different ideas about the holiday.
5. didn’t say "hello" to you yesterday; 6. looks down on h is/her H e/She would like to have a really lazy time. You’d prefer an active
colleagues; 7. is not sociable and doesn’t like organized leisure holiday. Try to persuade h im /her that it’s not worth going on holiday
activities; 8. does not try to keep fit. if you just sit around on the beach all the time.
XII!. Make sh o rt conversations in the following situations: 7. A fellow-siudent of yours is overweight. H e/S h e is on a strict
diet now. H e/S h e says that h e/sh e is going to get rid of those extra
1. You teach English at school. One of your students doesn’t
kilos quickly. Persuade him /her that the best way to loose weight is
seem to be interested in the language. He often plays truant.
to get much exercise and eat less.
Sometimes he comes late. He never does a thing to get a satisfactory
mark. Persuade him that it will lead him nowhere if the way he learns 8. Your cousin doesn’t particularly like h is/h er flat. It’s rather
the language remains unchanged. far from the Institute where h e /sh e works. Persuade him /her to
exchange h is/h er flat through an agency which specializes in home
2. A colleague of yours is going to give up teaching foreign
exchanges.
languages. H e/S h e is disappointed in h is/h er work. H e/She thinks
that teaching is a frustration. H e/She regularly overworks but h e/sh e 9. A friend of yours goi married before h e /s h e was 20. Now,
can’t make h is/h er students gel on. Try to persuade him /her that h e /sh e says that h is/h e r marriage has been a failure. H e/S h e
h e /sh e should give more thought to effective methods of teaching such would like to get a divorce. Persuade h im /her that h e /s h e ought to
as computerassisted learning. think twice before doing that, if only because the children will
suffer.
3. A colleague of yours and you are disagreeing on the influence
of mass culture on childrem. Your colleague considers mass culture 10. You have just got married. Your hasband and you workwery
to contribute possitively to educating children nowadays. You try to hard and never seem to have enough money or time. Your parents
persuade him /h er that mass culture has a negative influence on

182
Unit 25 Unit 26

suggest you to buy a house In the country. Persuade them that buying
a house wiil make your life even more difficult. U N IT 26
11. You and your friend are arguing about whether or not
children should be strictly disciplined at school and at home. You tend Discussing Ideas and Opinions
to think they should. Your friend thinks quite the opposite. Try to
Read the text to find out what skills participation in discussions demands:
persuade her/him that you are right.
12. Your friend and you are sitting inside on a rainy day. You Discussion is one of the most common speaking activities in any
are bored. Suddenly you see a chess set. You know your friend is language. Enlish is no exception. Taking part in a discussion is an art
rather keen on playing chess. You suggest playing a game. H e/S h e which demands skill and ability.
says that at the moment h e/sh e doesn’t feel like playing chess. First of all, you should be able to present your ideas in a concise
Persuade your friend. and clear manner. In making an oral presentation you have a special
13. You and your mother have to get somewhere in Moscow. You need to gain and hold the attention and interest of your audience,
know it’s quickest by Metro. Your mother doesn’t particularly like to A useful technigue here is to use appropriate openings. You may either
travel by Metro. Persuade her. focus the attention of the audience on the most interesting aspects of
14. Your fellow-student has a stomach ache. You think he should the subject or state in general terms what exactoy you intend to speak
take some medicine. Persuade him /her to do so. about. Other helpful techniques are the abilities to create a sense of
15. Your friend and you are in the supermarket. You see a very urgency, obtain som eone’s cooperation, suggest alternative actions,
nice dress there. You like ti very much. You’d like to buy it, but you’re attack someone else’s opinions and ideas, etc.
a bit hard up at the moment. Your friend persuades you to buy it and In other words you are supposed to be able to persuade peiole of
you give in to his persuasion. the importance, necessity or correctness of your own point of view and
defend your own position. Discussing someone’s ideas or actions
suggests also reacting to each other’s views and preparing to give theaf
own. When the British discuss they use a lot of special phrases to show
their reactions to what the previous person has said. Here are some
phrases which can be used when you are having a more serious and
perhaps a more formal or intellectual discussion:

Openings:

The problem of teaching intercultural competence is rather


complicated/' urgent/controversial.
This is a very controversial problem.
When speaking about the peculiarities of Russian behaviour
patterns we should take into account the moral values of our people.
At present there’s no doubt that cultural differences play an
important role in a second language learning.

185
Unit 26

As you probably know there’re also some general grounds to It’s obvious that we can’t go on like this any longer.
believe that people try to stereotype other nations. We must have that done right away.
I’d like to raise the subject of cultural behaviour patterns. This is a very urgent matter indeed.
May I make a point about our country’s links with Britain? Honestly, this situation is a disgrace.
I think it’s important to consider the problem of communicative It’s time we did something about schools for bright children.
teaching. The first thing we’ve got to do is to improve teaching foreign
There’s one thing I’d like to suggest. languages in schools.
I’d like to dwell on the main principles of communicative Getting the facts:
teaching.
I want to start with a few remarks about the present system of I think I’ve missed some details concerning this plan.
education in this country. What exactly?
I’ve got a few very brief remarks about the qualities that make Could you be a little more specific/precise?
a good teacher. Could you give us some details about "traditional" a n d
In connection with what has been said here, I’d like to stress that "progressive" schools in your country?
the nature of coomunicative description may be either linguistic or Could you explain the present system education in the USSR?
cultural. I’d like more information about the subjects studied in your
Som e more facts about the definition of culture in a wider sense. schools.

Testing som eone’s reaction to a proposal or an idea I’d like to hear more about out-of-school activities?
you intend to make: Anything else you can tell me about the British system?

How would you feel about the discussion of punishments to Discouraging remarks:
enforce discipline in schools?
That’s just queie impossible, I’m afraid.
I was thinking you might be interested in schools for bright
Thai’s not up to us, i ’m afraid.
children and less intelligent ones.
The outlook’s not terribly bright.
I wonder if you’ve ever considered the possibility of studying
painting. That’s a bit awkward, actually, I’ll tell you why.
You know it might be a good idea to discuss sensitive cross- I can’t say we’re delighted with the prospect/proposals, etc.
cultural differences in your culture. We’re bashing our head against a brick wall here.
Have you ever thought or considered the subjectivity of That rather depends.
perceiving people? I can’t give you a definite answer yet.
Creating a sense of urgency: Encouraging remarks:
Something’s got to be done. That’s exactly what I say.

187
Unit 26
Well, I couldn’t agree more. to do in order to discuss something? 4. What is a useful technique to
I think we might be able to manage just to make an attempt. gain and hold the attention and interest of the audience? 5. What may
There’s no argument then. one say in an opening? 6. What are other helpful techniques to be used
That seem s to be OK/quite good/satisfactory, etc. in a discussion? 7. In what way is the language of openings in English
similar to that in you language? 8. And what about the language of
That’s an excellent idea.
other techniques? 9. Do you think the language of discouraging
I think it would be reasonable/well-grounded/good, etc. if we remarks differs from that used in your culture? If so, what exactly do
discussed your suggestion in detail. you think the difference is?
Bringing a discussion to the point: II. Change the follow ing arguments into arguing agreement. W ork in pairs:

Perhaps we could go back to the main point. A. 1. Space travel is a waste of time and money. The money could
be used to help victims of starvation. Space travel encourages
That’s very interesting, but I don’t think it’s really to the point.
international competition. We don’t learn anything important about
That’s completely irrelevant/off the point. We’re talking about our environment from space travel.
another problem.
2. Space travel teaches us a lot about the universe. Man needs to
I think we’re talking at cross-purposes. learn more about the environment. It provides international co­
Could you stick to the subject/point, please? operation. Sometimes we make a lot of technological discoveries.
B. 1. Boxing is inhuman. Boxers behave ridiculously. Boxing is
Summing up the discussion:
far too violint. It’s horrible to see people eyjoying the spectacle of
Can I go over the main points raised? First, many of you think boxers getting hurt.
that the present system of education in this country chould be 2. Boxing is exciting. A good boxer uses a lot of skill. There are
radically changed. Second, most speakers are in favour of making this strict rules to stop people getting badly hurt. It’s exciting to watch a
system more flexible to meet the demands of the time. competition of strength and skill.
To sum up then. M ost of you consider the reconstruction of C. 1. Planning isn’t as imprtant in teaching as some people may
special schools for less intelligent children to be under way think. Many good teachers seem to be able to enter the classroom with
successfully. no conscious preparation of what they’re going to do. Yet they teach
OK, there seem to be a general agreement about the necessity a good lesson. No plan is so good that we must keep to it. Again in the
of improving schooling in this country, but a considerable area of classroom just as much as in the outside world, things seldom go
conflict has arisen in connection with compulsory schooling. according to plan. A good teacher can manage well without a conscious
In conclusion, I’d say that the discussion was rather plan.
construciive/fruitfui/'usefui, etc. 2. Teachers do need conscious plans. Flexibility, which is a
Exercises charactirestic of every good teacher, doesn’t mean not having a plan,
but being prepared to adapt it to the circumstances as they arise. The
!. Look through the te x t again to answer the foiiowing questions:
teacher may or may not return to his original plan after a diversion
1. Do you think descussion is an art? if so, give your reasons. from it has occurred. Planning makes it possible for a teacher and a
2. What skills does a discussion demand? 3. What should one be able pupil to know exactly where they’re going and to know that they both
188 189
Unit 26 Unit 26

have the same objectives. The teacher who cannot be bothered to wear far too much make-up. I would suggest that we should return to
make a plan is really wasting his pupils’ time. Even apparently the standards of the past.
unplanned lessons are often the result of years of experience with Yours sincerely, ...
planned ones. b) Now look at the lette r again to discuss the following questions:
D. 1. The TV is of a great educational value. It teaches people a
1. What do you think the writer of the letter is like? 2. Does the
lot of things. It broadens your world outlook. Watching TV is rather
author take an extreme or moderate position on schoolchildren’s
enjoyable and relaxing. You can watch TV when you rest. Life isn’t
appearance? Give your reasons. 3. How do you personally feel about
all work. Sometimes you feel like relaxing. the problem raised in the letter? Does it exist in your country? 4. What
2. Watching TV is a sheer waste of time. It makes people passive.arguments can you present to defend the position of the writer of the
You can’t learn much from watching TV. Watching TV is just sitting letter? 5. What counter-arguments can you give to oppose her
there and staring at it. It doesn’t teach you anything. Life is too short position?
for us to waste time.
IV. Make short conversations in the follow ing situations:
E. 1. Money makes the world go round. People should have a
careful attitude to money. They should know how to make it stretch. 1. Yourfellow-students, a friend of yours and you are discussing
In fact if you don’t throw money away, you’ll be able to buy lots of whether people should follow a diet to be fit. One of the students
things. Possession brings a lot of happiness. suggests that people should eat less. You think they should eat
healthier food. Another student suggests that people should also stop
2. It’s too much io say that money makes the world go round.
drinking so much. A friend of yours takes a compromise position on
There are more important things in the world than money. Possession
the problem. You support him /her.
isn’t everything. You can’t buy friendship or health for money. True
2. Your fellow-students, your friend and you are discussing the
friends like you for yourself, not for your money. Your attitude to
importance of vitamins for people. One of the students is not sure
money should be a generous one. If you are generous, you’ll be able
whether taking vitamins does everyone any good. A friend of yours
to enjoy life more. In the long run you’ll probably never be rich but
takes an extreme position on the problem. He believes that with the
you’ll be happy.
right vitamins in the right balance and at the right times, you will have
III. a) Look at the follow ing le tte r printed in a local newspaper in Britain. What more energy and vitality. Another student supports him by saying
argum ents does the w riter o f the le tte r present to protest about
scho o lchild re n ’s appearance in Britain? that vitamins keep one younger-looking and physically fit. You are
taking a moderate position on the issue. You think that essential
Dear Sir,
vitamins are rather important. One needs them to help combat
I’m writing to protest about the appearance of most illnesses and stress.
schoolchildren nowadays. I find the way they dress quite appalling.
3. Your fellow-students, your girl-friend and you are discussing
When I was at school children had to wear uniforms and look the idea of a successful marriage. One of the students says h e/sh e is
neat and tidy. Nowadays, however, a lot of schools do not make their 100 per cent sure that it doesn’t exist at all. Another student is sure
pupils wear uniforms at all. They are allowed to wear clothes of their that a successful marriage depends on the qualities of the husband.
own choosing which are often unpleasant and ridiculous. The boys H e/She thinks the husband should be handy about the house,
seem to prefer having long hair - often unwashed and messy - the girls faithful, hardworking, intelligent and well-educated. You think that
success in marriage is determined by whether or not the husband and

1 AA 101
iyu
U nit 26

the wife are of the same nationality and age. It’s also important that VI. Hold forma! debats on the issues listed below:
they should have the same interests and the same educational
1. Teaching foreign languages in this country should be
background. Your girl-friend is convinced that much depends on the
radically changed.
wife. She thinks that the wife should be good with children, attractive,
kind, sociable, tidy, faithful and handy about the house. You take a 2. The present school reform works fairly efficiently.
compromise position on the issue. You’re sure that a successful 3. People who leave litter in the countryside should be
marriage depends on the qualities of both the wife and the husband. prosecuted.
V. Discuss the follow ing ideas and opinions with your fellow-students: 4. The cinema is less entertaining than the theatre. A number of
cinemas should be closed and more theatres should be set up instead.
1. Life is what you make of it. A better life isn’t going to fly into
your window or ring your doorbell, or dial your number. You are the 5. Teaching is an art. Good teachers are born, not made.
one who’s going to make your life better. Give up being a bystander 6. They say the younger you marry, the sooner you part.
and you’ll be in control of the changes and the pace of change. 7. Cars should be banned from cities because of pollution and
2. Is it better for a child to be part of a large family with many the noise they make.
brothers and sisters or is better to be brought up on your own? Why? 8. Everything comes to him who waits.
3. Would it be better, in your opinion, to tel! a person that he was 9. Youth are the bearers of ideals which will form the basis of
incurable ill and had 6 years to live or would it be better to withhold social relationships in a future society.
the knowledge from him?
10. Work in student construction brigades during summer
4. Do you think regular exercise is important? How can a person vacations should be a duty for every student at our Institute.
who spends most of his time working or studying keep healthy? What
11. As is known, all wise sayings (no matter what language
do you think should be done to keep fit?
people speak) are very similar in meaning. Is it possible that all
5. It should be admitted that we don’t do enough to protect human beings share certain feelings about life in common and this
animal life. On the other hand more and more people come to under­ produces Sike-sounding proverbs?
stand that animals matter a lot in our life. Some people think that 12. One of Dr. Johnson’s favourite sayings was "People require
animals teach us a lot. Apart from that they make the best pets and more often to be reminded than instructed". Do you think that’s true?
people get sentimental about them. Have you ever learnt anything What implications for teaching has it?
from an animal? Do you think animals teach us anything? Do you
13. Which do you think is able to learn more efficiently: a fairly
know of any cases where an animal has done something special for a
bright fourteen-year-o!d or an adult of equal ability and intelligence?
human? Saved his life for example? Do you agree with keeping birds
in cages, or using animals in zoos, circuses or laboratories? Do you
find that animal stories, cartoons, or films reveal something ■I
interesting about human behaviour? ?!
6. Teaching can be very exhausting and disappointing at times.
And more often than not, it’s frustration more than hard work that
makes a teacher dissatisfied.

192
Words and phrases Words and phrases

Words and phrases you might need That’s true. Это правда.
to express various reactions All in good time. Все в свое время.
On my word of honour. Честное слово.
Confirmation
Take my word for it. Уверяю вас/тебя.
Exactly! Just so. Совершенно верно. Именно так. Have it your own way. Пусть будет по-вашему.
You’ve got it to a "t". Вы попали в самую точку. Nothing venture, nothing Попытка не пытка.
I think that’s exactly so. Я думаю, что это именно так. gain.
Yes, I see your point. Да, я вас понимаю. Yes, much about the same. Д а, почти одно и то же.
Things are going smoothly. Все идет как по маслу! Talk of a devil and he’s sure Легок на помине.
How right you are! \ Вы абсолютно правы. to appear.
How dead right you are! J Asking for information
Right you are! Верно! Идет!
Speaking frankly, you’re Говоря откровенно, вы со­ Well and then what? Ну, а что дальше?
quite right. вершенно правы. So what next? И что же?
Yes, much the same. Да, почти такой же. What’s the result/outcom e Что из этого вытекает?
The very thing. Как раз то, что нужно. o f it?
Very weii, just as I thought. Прекрасно, я так и думал. Till when? До каких пор?
That’s the whole point. В этом все дело. What time do you make it? Который, по-вашему, час?
Yes, that’s a mere formality. Да, это пустая формальность. At what time? When? В котором часу? Когда?
To say the least. Чтобы не сказать больше. D on’t mince matters, don’t Говорите прямо, без обиняков.
N o sooner said than done! Сказано - сделано. beat about the bush.
Som ehow it so happens. Как-то так выходит. Why on earth should you do С какой стати ты должен это де­
Weil, if that’s the way it is, that? лать?
Ну, если так, то ничего не поде­
then there’s nothing to be лаешь. What’s the use? В чем смысл?
done. And what do you mean by Как прикажете это понимать?
To one’s heart content. Сколько угодно. that/by saying that? Что вы хотите этим сказать?
Very much to the point. Как нельзя кстати. Who said that? Где это сказано?
Yes, that’s settled. Да, решено. What’s he up to? Что он замышляет?
It’s too much of a good thing. Хорошенького понемногу. What can he mean? Что он может иметь в виду?
Anything that you fancy! Все, что угодно! What in the world does he Что же ему (в конце концов) на­
Beyond any shadow of doubt. Вне всякого сомнения. want? до?
Why won’t she do what you Почему она отказывается делать
In no tim e./In a trice./In a Моментально./В мгновение ока./
jiffy. ask her to do? то, что вы просите?
Мигом.
Sorry?/Pardon? Простите?
As easy as ABC./Chiid’s play. Проще простого. / Пустяковое дело.
Why not? Почему бы и нет?
That’s the beauty of it! В этом вся прелесть.
What do you think of that? Что вы думаете об этом?
Better late than never. Лучше поздно, чем никогда.

194 105
Words and phrases Words and phrases

What exactly would you like Что именно вы хотели бы ска­ I think that’s wise. Я думаю, что это очень ум­
to say? зать? но/разумно.

Expressing one’ satisfaction Consolation, sympathy

I’m very glad. Я очень рад/а. Easier said than done. Легче сказать, чем сделать.
That’s wonderful. Это прекрасно. Easy come, easy go. Дешево досталось, легко по­
All’s well that ends well. Все хорошо, что хорошо конча­ терялось.
ется. Calm down! Успокойся/успокойтесь!
Excellent/wonderfui/splendid. Отлично/чудесно/замеча­ Take it easy. Не волнуйся/не волнуйтесь. Не
тельно. принимайте близко к сердцу.
It goes without saying. Само собой разумеется. Rome was not built in a day. Не сразу Москва строилась.
What luck! Какая удача! Don’t rack your brains over Не ломай/не ломайте себе голо­
What a great piece of luck! Какое счастье!/Какая редкая that. ву над этим.
удача! Come, come, you shouldn’t Ну, ну, не нужно так говорить.
Couldn’t be better! Как нельзя лучше! speak like that.
Just as I thought. Как я и думал. Come, come, don’t be so Ну, ну, не глупи!
It serve him right! Поделом ему! silly!
Good riddance! С плеч долой! What you lose on the swings, Что потеряешь в одном, вы­
you gain on the roundabouts. играешь в другом.
So far, so good. Пока все хорошо.
Got you! What’s done cannot be Сделанного не воротишь.
Ага, попался!
undone.
That’s got him! Это до него дош ло!/Это его заде-
Let’s sleep on it./It’s better Утро вечера мудренее.
to sleep on it.
Approval, encouragement Just you luck! Такое уж твое/ваш е везение.
My luck is out! Счастье мне изменило.
The earlier, the better. Чем раньше, тем лучше. Things will settle one way or Обойдется как-нибудь.
Appetite com es with eating, Аппетит приходит во время еды. another.
While there is life, there is Пока есть жизнь, есть и надежда. A good beginning makes a Лиха беда начало.
hope. good ending.
The game is not worth the Игра не стоит свеч. Desire is stronger than Охота пуще неволи.
candle. compulsion.
To know everything is to Знать все - значит не знать ниче­ Never mind. No harm is Ничего! Не беда!
know nothing. го. done!
How nice of you! Как любезно с вашей стороны! Alas!/UnfortunateIy! Увы!/К сожалению!
How sensible of you! Как это умно/разумно с вашей Poor consolation! Слабое утешение!
стороны! Your have my sym pathies./ Я вам сочувствую.
I sympathize with you.

196 197
Words and phrases
Words and phrases
It was not to be. Видно, не судьба.
There’s no help for it. Тут ничего не поделаешь
On this day of a!! days. Как нарочно. Doubt
Cheer up! Не унывайте! Веселее!
Perhaps/m ay be/possibly. Возможно/вероятно/может
Never mind! Н ичего!/П устяки!/Не быть.
обращайте внимания!
Wei!, I think that’s Я полагаю, что это невозможно.
Surprise impossible.
Weil, no one can say for Нельзя сказать определенно/
What? Что? certain. наверняка.
My, oh, my! Ну и ну! It’s doubtful. Это сомнительно.
is that so? Да ну! It’s (highly) unlikely. Это маловероятно.
Well, I never! Вот те на!. Первый раз слышу. I doubt it. Я сомневаюсь в этом.
We!!, that’s ready something! Вот это да! I’m not really sure of it. Я не уверен в этом.
This is a nice business/m ess! Вот так история! Who knows? Кто знает?
You don’t say so! Да не может быть! Well, it depends. Как сказать.
It’s beyond belief! Невероятно! It remains to be seen. Поживем - увидим.
What? You didn’t know that? Как, вы этого не знали? All is not gold that glitters. Не все то золото, что блестит.
That can’t be true! Этого не может быть! Old wives’ tales! Бабушкины сказки!
What a wonder! П opa зительно!/ Изумительно! Chances are. По всей вероятности./Скорее
Can it really be true? Неужели это правда? всего.
What of it? So what? Что из этого? Well, there’s always a Я полагаю, что всегда есть воз­
Thai’s a fine now-do-you- Вот тебе и раз.'/Веселенькая ис­ chance, I suppose. можность.
do!/T hat’s a nice kettle of тория ¡/Хорошенькое дело! How do I know? Откуда мне знать?
fish! Heaven only knows! Одному богу известно!
What? You’re against me? Как? Вы против меня? For all we know. Почем знать./Кто его знает.
Good graciousi/G ood Господи! Вы уверены? It sounds Нереально. /Невероятно.
heavens! Are you sure? fantastic/unbelievable.
Go on! Tell me another! Ну да! Не рассказыввайте ска­ It’s simply ridiculous! Это просто смешно.
зок! It might be true. Может быть, это и правда.
D o you mean me? Это вы меня имеете в виду? Well, there might be, I Полагаю, что это могло бы
What’s got into him ?/W haf’s Какая муха его укусила?/Что с suppose. быть./Я точно не знаю.
up with him? ним?/Что его задело? I wouldn’t like to say for Я не сказал бы, что я уверен, у
Who are you getting at? На кого ты нападаешь? certain, I have doubts. меня есть сомнения.
My word! Вот те на! You never know, of course. Никогда не знаешь, что будет
Just fancy! Подумать только! завтра.
I’m not certain. Я не уверен.

198
199
Words and phrases Words and phrases

Weil, you never know for Конечно, никогда нельзя быть Read smb. a lecture./Give Прочесть нотацию.
certain, of course. уверенным. smb. a lesson.
Put on airs. Задирать нос.
Negation, negative appreciation
I could not tell you for the Хоть убей, не знаю.
Nothing in particular. Ничего особенного. life of me.
Nothing of the kind/sort. Ничего подобного/вовсе нет. H e’s got something else on У него что-то другое на уме.
N o great shakes./R ather his mind.
Не ахти какой.
poor. Monkey business. Напрасный труд.
Nothing special. Ничего особенного. It can’t be helped. Ничего не попишешь.
Nothing at all/practically Ровным счетом ничего. R u n /sp el!/of bad luck. Несчастливая полоса.
nothing. Throw dust in sm b.’s Пускать пыль в глаза./Втирать
I don’t know a thing. Я ничего не знаю. eyes./P u ll tye wool over очки кому-либо.
Just the other -way Как раз наоборот. sm b.’s eyes.
round./Just the opposite. H e’s not to be trifled Ему пальца в рот не клади.
Of course, not. Конечно, нет. w ith./D on’t make him
angry./B e careful with him.
This is not my fault. Это не моя вина.
Be in a bad w ay./T ake a bad Принять дурной оборот.
Nothing to write home about. Ничего особенного/не ахти ка­
turn.
кой.
D o another person’s work. Отдуваться за кого-либо.
It is out of the question. Об этом не может быть и речи.
One can’t get rid of him. От него не отвяжешься.
It’s not your Не твое дело!/Н е твоя печаль!
concern/business! (rather Evade giving a direct answer. Отделаться отговорками.
aggressive). N ot to give a damn. Относиться наплевательски.
It’s difficult to deal with him. С ним тяжело иметь дело! Far from it. Отнюдь нет.
It’s above me. Это выше моего понимания. H e can’t put two words Он двух слов связать не умеет.
That won’t work/do. Так не пойдет! together.
For no reason at all. Ни с того, ни с сего. On no account/by no means. Ни в коем случае.
Get out of bed on the wrong N o earthly use. Нет никакого смысла./Совер­
Встать с левой ноги.
шенно бесполезно.
side.
It’s no good. Это не пойдет.
This is just too m uch./T his Это переходит все границы.
has gone too far. It’s out of the question. И речи быть не может.
Know which way the wind is Держать нос по ветру. H e’ll stop at nothing. Для него все средства хороши.
blowing. Make no mistake about that. Не обманывайтесь на этот счет.
Poke one’s nose into sm b.’s Совать свой нос в чужие дела. Not for the w orld./N ot for Ни за что на свете.
affairs./B e a N osey Parker. the iife./N ot on your/m y life.
Things are getting worse and Час от часу не легче. Without wasting words. Без лишних разговоров.
worse./T hings are going Things are not always the Раз на раз не приходится.
from bad to worse. same.

200 201
Words and phrases Words and phrases

Once is no custom. Один раз не в счет. Don’t make so much noise! Не шумите так!
Once in a blue moon. Раз в год по обещанию. Don’t you dare do that again! Только посмейте еце раз сделать
it doesn’t require much Невелика премудрость. это!
wisdom. Stop! You can’t do that! Остановитесь! Нельзя это де­
A clever trick. Ловкий прием. лать!
It isn’t done. Это не принято. N o talking! Не разговаривать!
Come to grief/fail. Попасть в беду./Затруднитель­ N o smoking! Курить воспрещается.
ное положение./Потерпеть неу- I won’t let you do that! Я не позволю вам это сделать.
дачу.
Indignation, threat
Such is life. You can’t help it. Такова жизнь. Ничего не поде­
лаешь. Why on earth?/W hy should С какой стати?
It doesn’t make sense. Это не имеет смысла. one?
Shame on you/them , etc. Стыд и срам!
I Prohibition
You ought to be ashamed of Как вам не стыдно!
Not another word! Ни слова больше! yourself!
And no arguments! ВРЯ хПЯ2ГПНП
_ -
---~ ^ жмППР!
.
You dare! Смотри у меня!
Nothing doing!/Y ou won’t Не выйдет./Номер не пройдет. That’s not the point! Это не так!
get away with this. What’s the big idea? Это еще что?
It’s not d on e./It’s not the Это не принято./Так поступать Thai would be the limit/the Этого еще недоставало!
done thing. не полагается. last straw.
It’s time to com e to your Пора взяться за ум. Thai’s all w e/I, etc. needed. Только этого ке хватало!
senses. Thai’s going too far./ That’s Это уж чересчур/слишком.
Watch your step!/H o!d your Легче на поворотах. the lim it./That’s a little too
horses. thick.
That won’t work/do! Так не пойдет! It’s just like him! Это похоже на него!
Don’t hurry./T here’s no Не на пожар, поспеете. Damn it! Тьфу, пропасть!
hurry. H e’ll pay for it. Это ему даром не пройдет.
It’s out of place here. Здесь это неуместно. Let it be a lesson to you. Это тебе наука.
That cat won’t jum p./That Этот номер не пройдет. Leave me alone! Оставь меня в покое.
cock won’t fight. Stop that! Да ну тебя!
Spare me that, please! Увольте меня от этого! A home truth is hard to Правда глаза колет!
That’s enough!/T hat’!l do! Хватит!/Достаточно! swallow./Truth hurts.
Absolutely impossible. Никак нельзя. Just you wait! Ну, погоди!
It doesn’t concern you. Ваше/твое дело сторона. I’ll get even with you. Я тебе это припомню!
You can’t possible do that! Ты/вы этого не сделаеш ь!/сде- Make it hot for smb. Задать кому-либо жару.
лаете!
Don’t do that. Не делайте это.

202 203
Words and phrases Words and phrases

What cheek!/W hat nerve! Какая наглость!/Какое нахаль­ You must see it from our Вы должны посмотреть на это
ство! point of view. нашими глазами.
It’s all your doing! Это дело ваших рук! Considering all the facts... Учитывая (принимая во внима­
Joking apart! Кроме шуток! ние) все факты...
Are you kidding? Шутки шутите? It’s safe to say... Можно с уверенностью сказать...
It’s no laughing matter! Это не шутка! As I see it, the facts are Насколько я понимаю, факты
these... таковы, то...
And don’t you forget it! Запомните это раз и навсегда!
What we have to discuss is... Что мы должны обсуждать, так
Just you wait, here! (a Ну, заяц, погоди! (ш ут ливая
это...
jocular threat) угроза)
I don’t think we’ve Я думаю, мы не рассмотрели...
Argument: bringing back to the point/to order considered...
I’d like to talk about... Я бы хотел поговорить о...
Let’s try to be Давайте попытаемся быть бла­ I’m not talking about... Я не говорю о...
reasonable/sensible./rational, горазумными/рациональными!
I’d like to make some brief Я бы хотел сделать краткие за­
shall we? comments about... мечания по поводу...
Look, let’s not waste any Послушайте, давайте не будем
I have a few /several У меня усть несколько замеча­
more time on this. тратить больше времени на это.
comments about... ний о...
Can we clear this up?/Can Мы можем выяснить это?
In regard/With regard/In В отношении ваших интересных
we get to the bottom of this?
reference to your interesting замечаний...
I’m not clear on the point. Мне этот вопрос не ясен. comments...
You’ve m issed the whole Вы упустили самое главное. These few comments are Эти немногочисленные замеча­
point. prompted by.., ния подсказаны...
That’s not the point. Не в этом суть. My interest in this problem Мой интерес к этому вопросу...
Please com e to the point. Пожалуйста, ближе к делу. is.,.
I’m not worried about that. Меня это не беспокоит. Вопрос, I’d like to call your attention Я хотел бы обратить ваше вни­
The real question is... действительно, в том, что... to... мание на...
Look, the crux of the matter Послушайте, трудность этого I think we have to give a good Я думаю, что мы должны уде­
is... вопроса в том, что... deal of attention to... лять много внимания...
What if we try to look at the Что если нам посмотреть на этот I’d like to raise a question Я хотел бы поднять вопрос о...
problem from another point вопрос с другой точки зрения? about...
of view? One of the problems I have Одной из проблем, которую я
Introducing a point of view, asking questions in mind is whether... имею в виду, является...
Just a question along the Один только вопрос по поводу
Our position can be summed Нашу точку зрения можно lines that you mentioned. того, о чем вы упомянули.
up as follows. резюмировать следующим I’d like to ask about... Я бы хотел спросить о...
образом. I’m going to ask you another Я все же задам еще вопрос.
This is the way we look at it. Вот как мы рассматриваем это. question all the same.

204 205
Words and phrases Contents

The question Fd like to ask Вопрос, который я хочу задать Contents


you has to do with the fact вам, касается того, что... Предисловие ............................................ 3
that...
Предисловие ко второму изданию ..................... 5
Fm always wondering Меня всегда интересует... ли...
Introduction for Students.................................... 7
whether...
Unit 1. The Most Important Words and Phrases
Fd like to know Интересно было бы узнать...
to Make a C on versation........................................11
w hether.../how ..., etc. ли/как... и т. д.
Unit 2. Forms of Address .....................................................19
In answer to your question В ответ на ваш вопрос я хотел бы
U nit3. Greetings, Introductions, Saying Good-bye . . 23
I’d like to say that... сказать, что...
Unit 4. How to Start a Conversation ................................. 32
Unit 5. How Conversation Works .......................... 39
Works cited
Unit 6. Apologies and Excuses ...........................................52
Unit 7. R e q u e s tin g .............................................................. 58
Boardm an R. Springboard.. English through communication. - Unit 8. S u g g estio n s.............................................................. 64
Oxford, 1983. Unit 9. Invitations .............................................................. 70
Carver T. A conversation book: English in everyday life. - Unit 10. O f f e r s ........................................................................ 76
Englewood Cliffs., 1985. Unit 11. Asking for P e r m is s io n ........................................82
Fowler W.S. Practise your English. - Walton-on-Thames, 1972. Unit 12. Personal interests ................................. 88
Unit 13. How to Ask Someone About H is/
Freitas J.F. Survival English. - М., 1982.
Her Problem ........................................................ 93
H alliday M. A Course in Spoken English. - Oxford, 1972. Unit 14. Stating Likes, Dislikes and Preferences . . . 98
H arm er J. Advanced speaking skills. - L., 1978. Unit 15. Advice ........................................................... ПО
H iU J. Lewis. Flexicourse. - Oxford, 1982. Unit 16. Opinions ............................. 117
Jones L. Notions in English: A course in effective communication Unit 17. Approval and Disapproval ................................. 124
Unit 18. Annoyance ...............................................................131
for upper intermediate and more advanced students. - Cambridge,
Unit 19. Reproach ........................................................ 135
1980.
U nir2tT ^Surprise................................................. 141
Low O . Speak English fluently. - L., 1969.
Unit 21. Disappointment, Regret, Wishes ....................... 146
Unit 22. Belief and Disbelief ...............................................153
Unit 23. Sympathy and Encouragemeni ...........................159
Unit 24. Complaining .................................... 163
Unit 25. Persuasion ............................................. 172
Unit 26. Discussing Ideas and Opinions ........................... 185
Words and Phrases You Might Need to Express
Various Reactions ........................................ 194