Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 104

Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации

Департамент научно-технологической политики и образования


ФГБОУ ВПО «Челябинская государственная
агроинженерная академия»

Л. П. Малятова, С. А. Нестерова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ НЕЯЗЫКОВЫХ ВУЗОВ


Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов I и II курсов

Часть I

Челябинск
2015
УДК 811.111
ББК 81.2Англ
М 219

Малятова, Л. П., Нестерова, С. А.


М 219 Английский язык для неязыковых вузов [Текст] :
учеб.-метод. пособие / Л. П. Малятова, С. А. Нестерова. –
Челябинск : ЧГАА, 2015. – 104 с.

ISBN 978-5-88156-716-3

Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для обучения


английскому языку студентов I и II курсов дневного отделения
всех специальностей неязыковых вузов.
Данное пособие содержит материалы для разговорных тем,
диалогов и лексико-грамматических упражнений, которые слу-
жат основой для формирования общекультурной и професси-
ональной компетенций, являющихся основой межкультурной
коммуникации. Познавательный характер текстов и гибкая си-
стема упражнений направлены на интеллектуальное и творче-
ское развитие личности.

УДК 811.111
ББК 81.2Англ

Рецензенты
Ларионова Г. А. – докт. пед. наук, профессор (ЧГАА)
Черушева Н. В. – канд. пед. наук, доцент (ЧГПУ)

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ЧГАА

ISBN 978-5-88156-716-3

© Малятова Л. П., Нестерова С. А., 2015.


© ФГБОУ ВПО «Челябинская государственная агроинженерная
академия», 2015.

2
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Introduction …………................................................................. 4
Unit 1. ABOUT MYSELF………………………....................... 6
Unit 2. HOME SWEET HOME................................................... 21
Unit 3. MEALS. SHOPPING...................................................... 33
Unit 4. EDUCATION................................................................... 49
Unit 5. COUNTRIES AND CULTURES…………………......... 76
Irregular Verbs…………............................................................. 99
Bibliography……….................................................................... 103

3
INTRODUCTION

Среди ранжированных требований, предъявляемых к каче-


ству подготовки специалиста, в настоящее время особое место
занимают экстрафункциональные компетенции, наряду с соб-
ственно профессиональными знаниями, умениями и навыками.
Поэтому цель данного учебного пособия заключается в форми-
ровании у студентов общекультурных и профессиональных ком-
петенций, необходимых специалистам для осуществления меж-
культурной коммуникации в профессиональной среде.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов
неязыковых вузов, прошедших курс английского языка в средней
школе, составлено в соответствии с требованиями программы по
дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для студентов I и II курсов.
При организации учебного материала авторы ставили целью
повторение и обобщение основных грамматических тем и лекси-
ки, пройденных в средней школе, а также углубленное изучение
тех грамматических и лексических явлений, которые необходи-
мы будущим специалистам для осуществления межкультурной
коммуникации в профессиональной среде.
Учебное пособие состоит из двух частей, в I части содержит-
ся 5 уроков-тем, во II части – 6. Основой каждого урока являются
тексты, объединенные общей тематикой, затем следуют вопро-
сы к тексту, список активной лексики и упражнения. По своей
структуре данное пособие приближается к учебникам норматив-
ной грамматики для неязыковых вузов. Однако оно отличается в
основном тем, что грамматические явления излагаются поуроч-
но, справочный материал представленных в пособии граммати-
ческих явлений организован в таблицах.
Упражнения к каждому уроку разбиты на две группы:
1) лексико-грамматические упражнения; 2) упражнения для раз-
вития навыков устной речи. Лексико-грамматические упраж-
нения представляют собой тематические упражнения, предна-
значенные для закрепления лексического и грамматического
материала в аудитории. Упражнения для развития навыков уст-
ной речи содержат расширенный диалогический текстовый ма-
териал. Представленные диалоги рекомендуется заучивать наи-
зусть. Большинство упражнений для перевода с русского языка

4
на английский рекомендуется использовать в качестве внеау-
диторной самостоятельной работы для закрепления лексики и
грамматики. При этом авторы следуют принципу постепенного
усложнения как текстов, так и заданий. Обширная тематика и
большое количество текстов, заданий к ним и упражнений дают
возможность преподавателю варьировать работу в зависимости
от уровня подготовки группы и давать индивидуальные задания
студентам.
Представленные в пособии интерактивные задания ориен-
тированы на доминирование активности студентов в процессе
обучения, что побуждает студентов к самостоятельному поиску
путей и вариантов решения поставленной учебной задачи; обу-
чает проявлять терпимость к любой точке зрения, уважать право
каждого на свободу слова. Учебное пособие обеспечивает прак-
тическое овладение английским языком как средством общения,
формирует у студентов межкультурную коммуникативную ком-
петенцию.

5
UNIT 1
ABOUT MYSELF
Topics for discussions: About myself. Relationships within
the family. About my family. Family duties. Family traditions. My
daily routine. Leisure activities. Hobbies.
Grammar: Nouns. Verbs to be, to have. The Present Indefi-
nite Tense. Indefinite pronouns some, any.
Dialogue: Getting Acquainted.

My Family
I am Alex Sidorov. Alex is my first name and Sidorov is my sur-
name. I am seventeen years old. I want to tell you a few words about
my family. It is not very large. I have got a mother, a father, a brother
and a grandmother. We are five in the family.
Let me introduce my parents. My mother’s name is Helen. She
is a good-looking woman with big grey eyes, long thick lashes, small
turned-up nose and thin lips. She is forty-four but she looks much
younger. My mother is tall and slim. She is always well-dressed. She
has a good eye for colour, good taste and style. My mother is a Music
teacher. She has a good ear for music. She likes jazz and plays the
piano and the guitar very well.
My father is a computer programmer. He is very experienced.
He knows everything about computers. He is the most brilliant man
I’ve ever met. My father is tall, handsome, dark-haired, blue-eyed and
broad-shouldered.
He has a good sense of humour and he is the heart and soul
of every company. My father is good-natured, intelligent, just,
friendly, very energetic and what is more important, he is a loving
father. I’ve got good relationship with him. He is always interested
in what I do, gives me advice which I try to follow and he is always
ready to come to help when I have some problems. I trust him a
lot and I’m sure I can rely on him in any situation. He never lets
people down.
My parents have been married for twenty-six years. They have
much in common but they have different views on music, books, films
and sports. For example, my father likes horror films, thrillers and sci-
ence fiction films and my mother likes feature films, comedies, docu-
mentary films, and love-stories.

6
My father is fond of badminton, skiing and playing chess. My moth-
er doesn’t go in for sports but she likes to watch figure-skating on TV.
My parents are hard-working people. My mother keeps house
and takes care of my father and me. She is very good at cooking and
she is clever with her hands: she can sew, knit and cook.
My father and I try to help her with the housework. I wash the
dishes, go shopping and tidy our flat.
My grandmother is a pensioner. She is sixty-nine but she doesn’t
look her age. She lives with us and helps to run the house. My granny
is fond of knitting and growing flowers.
My brother Nick is twenty-six. He is married and has a family of
his own. His wife is an accountant in a joint venture company. They
have got twins: a daughter and a son. They go to a nursery school.
Nick deals with marketing. He advertises goods his firm produc-
es. I never quarrel with Nick. But if there is some misunderstanding
between us we try to make peace as soon as possible. What I like best
about my brother he is always ready to help and share his knowledge,
thoughts, feelings. I respect him for his fairness, strong will, intellect
and modesty.
We have a pet, a very clever dog, Ermak by name. He is the apple
of our family.
We also have got a lot of relatives: uncles, aunts, nieces, neph-
ews, cousins and we get with them very well.

Questions
1. What is your first name? What is your surname?
2. How old are you?
3. When is your birthday?
4. Is your family large? How many are you in the family?
5. Have you got any brothers or sisters?
6. What are your parents? Where do they work?
7. How long have your parents been married?
8. Do they have much in common?
9. Do you spend a lot of time with your family?
10. What sort of things do you do together?
11. Do you go out with your parents?
12. Who runs the house hi your family?
13. What are your household duties?

7
14. What is your father’s hobby?
15. Can you describe your mother?

Exercises
I. Find English equivalents for the following:
иметь хороший музыкальный слух, любимец семьи, иметь
хорошее чувство юмора, отличный вкус, чувство цвета и стиля,
душа любой компании, заниматься спортом, иметь хорошие
отношения, хорошо готовит, никогда не подводит людей,
совместное предприятие, умелые руки, заниматься маркетингом,
ладить друг с другом, вести хозяйство, мириться, иметь много
общего, рекламирует товары, любящий отец.
II. Choose the correct word.
1. She has a good (eye, ear) for music.
2. He is (the apricot, the apple) of the family.
3. She is clever with her (head, hands).
III. Fill in the blanks with the prepositions.
1. She is a good ... cooking.
2. I can rely ... him.
3. She has a good ear... music.
4. I respect him ... fairness, strong will.
5. He goes … sports.
6. He deals ... marketing.
7. She is clever... her hands.
8. He never lets people ...
9. We get... very well.
10. They have much... common.
11. We have a dog, Ermak... name.
12. They have different views ... music.
13. He is interested ... marketing.
IV. Paraphrase the following sentences using words and word
combinations from the text.
Model: Everybody likes my mum’s apple-pies. – My mum is good
at cooking.
1. My dad knows a lot of jokes and funny stories. When he tells
them, people usually laugh.
2. Everybody in the family loves our dog Ermak.
3. My parents work much.

8
4. Mum usually cooks dinner, washes the dishes, goes shopping
and tidies our flat.
5. Sometimes my brother and 1 don’t understand each other.
6. My mum can do many things: she can sew, knit and cook.
7. My father always keeps his promises.
8. My brother advertises goods his firm produces.
V. Make up your own sentences using the words below.
1. Model:
а) My granny has good relationship with her grandchildren.
b) He never quarrels with my niece.
c) Her uncle is the heart and soul of every company.
d) Their cousin has a good sense of humour.
nephew, niece, father-in-law, mother-in-law, aunt, uncle, cousin,
husband, wife, stepmother, stepfather, granddaughter, child, relatives.
2. Model:
а) I respect my mother for her modesty.
b) What I like best about my niece is her honesty .
fairness, kindness, intellect, sincerity, tolerance, strong Will, po-
liteness, tact, courage, patience, self-controll, good manners.
3. Model:
a) His nephew is interested in jazz.
b) Her son is fond of classical music.
books, foreign languages, chess, football, sport, philosophy, leg-
ends and myths of Ancient Rome, photography, ballet, poetry, science
fiction.
4. Model:
a) My stepmother is good at cooking.
b) Our relatives are fond of English.
playing chess, drawing, singing, dancing, biology, swimming, re-
citing poems, telling jokes and fiinny stories, knitting, skating, sewing.
VI. Complete the sentences, make up your own ones.
Model: His stepfather is a lawyer. He knows everything about
the law.
a) Our friend is a computer programmer.
b) Their sister is an English teacher.
c) My grandpa is a botanist.
2. Model: His broter is a manager. He deals with marketing.
a) Her nephew is a driver.

9
b) His niece is an accountant.
c) Her best friend is a designer.
VII. Read and translate the text, then answer the questions.

My Friend
My best friend’s name’s Nick. We made friends a few years ago.
We are of the same age. We live in the same block of flats, so we see
each other almost every day.
Nick is a tall slender boy. He has got dark hair, large dark eyes, a
straight nose and thin lips. He wears spectacles. He is very honest and
just, understanding and kind. I trust him a lot and I’m sure that I can
rely on him in any situation. He never lets people down.
Nick is only 19 but he is very responsible – he finishes whatever
he starts. He’s got only one shortcoming. He is a bit stubborn, never-
theless he is pleasant to deal with.
Nick’s an only child and his parents love him very much. His fa-
ther is a lawyer. He is the most brilliant man I’ve ever met. He knows
everything there is to know about the law. His mother is a music
teacher. No wonder Nick is so talented. He’s got a very good ear for
music. He likes jazz and plays the piano very well.
We spend a lot of time together. We often watch video or listen
to music. Sometimes we go to the cinema or to the theatre, or walk
around the centre of Moscow, visiting small cafes, museums, art gal-
leries, shops. We talk for hours about all sorts of things (politics, love,
teachers). We discuss films, television, books.
I never quarrel with Nick. But if there is some misunderstanding
between us we try to make peace as soon as possible. What I like best
about him is that he is always willing to help and share his knowledge,
thoughts, feelings. I respect him for his fairness, strong will, intellect
and modesty.
I miss Nick when we don’t see each other for a long time. With-
out him I would feel lonely and uncomfortable. Our friendship helps
me feel strong and sure of myself.

Questions
1. Have you got a lot of friends?
2. What is your best friend’s name?
3. How long have you been friends?

10
4. Where does he (she) live?
5. Do you often see each other?
6. Where did you meet for the first time?
7. What do you do in your free time?
8. What do you usually talk about?
9. Do you quarrel?
10. What do you like best about your friend?
11. Has he got any shortcomings?
12. Do you think friendship depends on shared interests – hob-
bies and leisure activities?
13. Does it mean that if two people don’t have common hobbies
they can’t be real friends?
14. What features do you like (dislike) in people?

VIII. Give English equivalents for the following:


подружиться, ровесники, многоквартирный дом, стройный,
прямой, очки, честный, справедливый, отзывчивый, полагаться
на кого-либо, доверять, подводить, ответственный, что бы
ни, недостаток, упрямый, тем не менее, с ним приятно иметь
дело, единственный ребенок в семье, юрист, замечательный,
блестящий, удивительно талантливый, хороший музыкальный
слух, джаз, видеозапись, кафе, картинная галерея, политика,
политические взгляды, убеждения, ссориться, недопонимание,
помириться как можно скорее, делить, уважать, справедливость,
сильная воля, ум, скромность, скучать без кого-либо.
IX. Paraphrase the following statements using the possessive
case.
Example: The son of our manager – our manager’s son
A 1) the house of Mr. Smith; 2) a doll of the girls; 3) the works
of Rembrandt; 4) a toy of the baby; 5) a meeting of the employees;
6) the bags of those women; 7) the orders of our boss; 8) the books of
the children; 9) the cottage of my parents; 10) a garage of her cousin.
B 1) the mother of Kate and Mary; 2) the children of my aunt
Ann; 3) the paintings by Picasso and Dali; 4) the gun of the command-
er-in-chief; 5) the times of Ivan the Terrible; 6) the speech of the Min-
ister of Foreign Trade; 7) the correspondent of the Herald Tribune;
8) a flat of my father-in-law; 9) the wives of Henry the Eighth; 10) oil
wells of Saudi Arabia.

11
D 1) a cruise which lasts three weeks; 2) work which takes two
hours; 3) a distance of five kilometers; 4) the operation which lasted
four hours; 5) the flight which took three hours.

Спряжение глагола to be
Форма
Число Лицо
Утвердительная Отрицательная Вопросительная
1 I am I am not Am I?
2 You are You are not Are you?
ед. Не He he?
3 She is She is not Is she?
It It it?
1 We are We are not Are we?
мн. 2 You are You are not Are you?
3 Thev are They are not Are they?

X. Write the correct form of the verb to be in Present Simple.


1. I ... a pupil. 2. My father ... not a teacher, he ... a scientist 3.
... your aunt a doctor? – Yes, she .... 4.... they at home? – No, they ...
not at borne, they ... at work. 5. My brother... a worker. He... at work.
6.... you an engineer?-Yes. I.... 7.... your sister a typist? No, she... not
a typist, she ... a student 8.... your brother at school? – Yes, he .... 9....
your sister al school? – No, she... not at school. 10. My ... sister... at
home. 11.... this your watch? Yes, it.... 12. She... an actress. 13. This...
my bag. 14. My uncle... an office-worker. 15. He... at work. 16. Hel-
en... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She
has much paper. It... on the shelf. The shelf... brown. It... on the wall.
Helen has a brother. He... a student. He has a family. His family... not
in St. Petersburg, it... in Moscow.
XI. Translate into English.
1. Я ученик. Я в школе. 2. Мой брат художник. Он не
инженер. 3. Моя сестра на работе. Она врач. 4. Он студент.
5. Вы студент? – Нет, я врач. 6. Моя сестра дома. 7. Мы не в
школе. Мы дома 8. Мой брат ученик. Он в школе. 9. Ваша мама
дома? – Нет, она на работе. 10. Ваш двоюродный брат дома?
– Нет, он в школе. Он ученик. 12. Ваша сестра учительница? –
Нет, она студентка. 12. Твой папа на работе? – Нет, он дома. 13.
Твоя сестра машинистка? – Да. – Она дома? – Нет, она на работе.

12
14. Мой дедушка ученый. 15. Моя мама не учительница. Она
врач.
XII. Translate into English.
1. Чья это ручка? – Это моя ручка. 2. Чья это книга? – Это
ваша книга 3. Чей это стол? – Это стол моего брата 4. Чья это сум-
ка? – Это сумка моей мамы. 5. Чей это карандаш? – Это каран-
даш моей сестры. 6. Это твоя тетрадь? – Да. 7. Это тетрадь твоего
брата? – Нет, это моя тетрадь. 8. Где ваш стол? – Он посередине
комнаты. 9. Где твоя ручка? – Она в моем кармане. 10. Где твоя те-
традь? – Она на столе. 11. Где твоя мама? – Она на работе. 12. Где
твой брат? – Он в школе. 13. Где твоя сестра? – Она дома 14. Чей
это карандаш? – Это мой карандаш. – А где мой карандаш? – Он на
столе. 15. Чьи это часы? – Это мои часы. – А где мои часы? – Они
на столе.

Спряжение глагола to have


Форма
Число Лицо
утвердительная отрицательная вопросительная
1 I I have not I?
2 Have Have
You You you?
ед. Не She he?
3 She Has He has not Has she?
It It it?
1 We We We?
мн. 2 You Have You have not Have You?
3 They They They?

XIII. Open the brackets and write the correct form of the verb to have.
1. He (to have) a lot of experience. 2. She (to have) a bath every
day. 3. She (to have) got a lot of jewelry. 4. They (to have) a lot of rare
plants in their garden. 5. She usually (to have) a rest after dinner. They
(to have) late supper tonight. 7. We (to have) got a lot of problems now.
8. They (to have) a pleasant voyage last summer. 9. Her mother (to
have) a flat in the High Street. 10. The president (to have) a bad cold.
XIV. Give the interrogative and negative forms of the following
sentences.
1. He has a lot of experience. 2. She has a bath every day. 3. She
has got a lot of jewelry. 4. They have a lot of rare plants in their gar-

13
den. 5. She usually has a rest after dinner. 6. They have late supper.
We have got a lot of problems now. 8. They have a pleasant voyage
every summer. 9. Her mother has a flat in the High Street. 10. The
president has a bad cold.
XV. Write out the nouns which are used only in the plural form.
Athletics, cattle, scissors, taxes, pyjamas, economics, police,
news, means, goods, pants, subjects, billiards, darts, outskirts, prem-
ises, mechanics, spectacles, clothes, stairs, maths, shorts, tights,
gymnastics, congratulations, crossroads, patience, scales, lodgings,
foundations, equipment, research, authorities, soap, contents, looks,
countryside, traffic-lights, tongs, toothpaste, headphones, delays, bin-
oculars, electronics, eyes, trousers
XVI. Complete the following table and give the correspond-
ing singular or plural form of the nouns, if any. If there is no the
corresponding form, put a V. The first two words are given as
examples.

Singular Plural Singular Plural


Means means
V scissors

Means, scissors, pence, Frenchman, Roman, photo, physics,


cloth, sheep, halves, news, sleeves, mice, species, contents, athlet-
ics, series, knowledge, feet, phenomena, clothes, bases, headquarters,
Japanese.
XVII. Find the odd word in the chain of the nouns.
1) trousers – spectacles – scales – news; 2) advice – knowledge –
contents – progress; 3) phonetics – vacation – goods – information;
4) mice – men – goats – geese; 5) police – work – weather – furniture;
6) congress – team – government – equipment; 7) water- potato – milk –
bread; 8) time – business – stone – bird; 9) means – species – cross-
roads – wolves; 10) thanks – barracks – congratulations – authorities;
11) diagnoses – roofs – cattle – accommodation; 12) premises – me-
chanics – darts – laughter; 13) success – research – applause – path;
14) journey – voyage – travel – walk.
XVIII. Read and translate the dialogue “Getting Acquainted”.
Nick: Joyce, I’d like you to meet Victor. Joyce Gold-Victor Danin.
Joyce: How do you do?

14
Victor: Hello. It’s a pleasure to meet you.
Nick: Victor is a friend of Franks. He arrived in New York a
couple of weeks ago.
Joyce: Oh, where are you from?
Victor: I’m from Moscow.
Joyce: Are you an immigrant or are you just visiting relatives?
Victor: I’m going to stay for good. It took me eight years to get
my exit visa.
Nick: Excuse me. There are the Millers. I must say hello to them.
Joyce: How do you like America?
V: I like it very much here. But for the time being. I’ve a lot of
problems.
J: Have you come with your family?
V: Yes, I have. With my wife and my son.
J: What are your most urgent problems?
V: First of all. I’ve to get a job.
J: What’s your occupation?
V: I’m electrical engineer. My wife is a pianist.
J: Maybe I can help you to find a job. I’m with an employment
agency. Here is my card. Call me on Tuesday morning if it’s conveni-
ent for you.
V: What’s the best time to call you?
J: After 10 A.M.
V: Thank you so much. I will certainly call you.
J: Your English sounds fine.
V: Americans usually say that. They are just polite.
J: We want to encourage you. You explain things pretty well.
V: Thank you. You are very kind.
J: It’s getting late. I guess you don’t have a car yet. I’d be glad
to give you a ride.
V: I’d appreciate it very much.

XIX. Read and translate the text then answer the questions.

My Week-day
I get up at a quarter to seven. I jump out of bed, switch on the
radio and do my morning exercises to the radio music. Then I go to
the bathroom, wash myself and clean my teeth with, a tooth-brush.

15
This does not take me much time, not more than ten or fifteen minutes.
Then I dress and sit down to table to have my breakfast. I usually have
a cup of tea or coffee, an egg and bread and butter.
After breakfast I go to the technical school. As I live far away,
I go by bus or by metro. It takes me more time to go by bus. If I have
little time, I go by metro. My lessons begin at 9 o’clock. We have six
lessons every day. At a quarter to one we have a lunch hour. As I can-
not get home for lunch, I take it at the dining room of our technical
school. For lunch I have meat or fish with potatoes and a cup of strong
tea or coffee with a pie. At ten minutes to three the lessons are over,
and I go home.
When I get home from the technical school, I have dinner. My
dinner usually consists of three courses. For the first course I have
some soup, then some meat or fish. For dessert I have stewed fruit or
ice-cream. After dinner I help my mother to wash up the dishes. Then I
do my lessons. This usually takes me about two hours. At eight or nine
о clock I have supper. I have some salad, a slice of sausage and bread,
sour milk or cereal. In the evening I listen to the radio or watch TV. If
the programme is not interesting, I go to the cinema or to the theatre.
Sometimes, I go for a walk with my friends. We talk about different
things and usually have a good time. At 11 o’clock I go to bed.
Questions:
1. When do you get up?
2. What do you do in the bathroom?
3. What do you have for breakfast?
4. When do you get home after classes?
5. When do you go to bed?
6. What do you do after dinner?
7. What do you have for dessert?
8. What do you do in the evening?

XX. Complete the sentences with the words from the box using
them in the proper form of the Present Indefinite Tense.
look be start eat have speak
go seem take snow rain win

1. The children _________to school every day. His father him


there in his car. 2. She always _________lunch at school. 3. Rich-

16
ard’s life in Paris is a bit difficult. He only____ English. 4. What’s
the matter? You___very sad. 5. Liz is good at tennis. She____every
game. 6. It______quite reasonable. 7. Winter is warm here. It_____
very seldom. But sometimes it ___. 8. Helen is on a diet. She a little.
9. He________in a hurry. 10. The exams at school ___in April.

Спряжение глаголов в Present Indefinite

Форма
Число Лицо
утвердительная Отрицательная вопросительная
1 I ask I do not ask Do I ask?
2 You ask You do not ask Do you ask?
ед. Не He
Does he/she/it
3 She asks She does not ask
ask?
It It
1 We ask We do not ask Do we ask?
мн. 2 You ask You do not ask Do you ask?
3 They ask They do not ask Do they ask?

XXI. Open the brackets and use the Present Indefinite Tense
1. Linda and I (work) for a company, which (produce) automo-
biles. 2. We both (work) at an office which (be) just in front of the
factory. 3. I (start) work at ten o’clock, and Linda (come) to the office
at nine. 4. She (be) good at typing, she (write) letters and reports every
day. 5. She (not know) French very well, so she often (go) to the sixth
floor where I (work). 6. I sometimes (help) her translate letters, as
I (know) French rather well. 7. Linda also (answer) telephone calls,
sometimes she (show) visitors around the factory. 8. She (do) com-
mon paperwork, she (write) memos, (file) reports, (answer) letters.
9. She often (arrange) meetings for her boss and other managers of
the company. 10. You (understand) what her job (be)? Yes, she (be)
a secretary. 11. But she (not like) her job and (want) to be a manager.
XXII. Open the brackets and use the Present Indefinite Tense.
USUALLY: 1. My sister (to get) up at eight o’clock. 2. She (to
be) a school-girl. She (to go) to school in the afternoon. 3. Jane (to
be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. For
breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. After
breakfast she (to go) to school. 6. It (to take) him two hours to do

17
his homework. 7. She (to speak) French well. 8. My working day (to
begin) at seven o’clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to
do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past
seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight
o’clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor,
she (to leave) home at nine o’clock. In the evening we (to gather) in
the living-room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).
XXIII. Translate into English.
ОБЫЧНО: I. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. 3. Они не работают.
4. Вы работаете? – Да. 5. Он работает? – Нет. Он учится. Мой брат
не учится. Он работает. 7. Моя сестра не читает книг. 8. Наша
бабушка любит спать на диване. 9. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле?
10. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 11. Мой брат не любит читать газеты.
12. Мы спим в спальне. 13. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой
комнате. 14. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 15. Мой дядя
пишет книги. 16. Мы пишем упражнения в школе.
XXIV. Translate into English.
1. Когда вы встаете? – Я встаю без четверти семь. 2. Когда встает
твой брат? – Он встает без двадцати восемь. – А твоя сестра тоже
встает без двадцати восемь? – Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя
сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять
часов. 3. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает двадцать
минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает.
Вечером он отдыхает. 4. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? – Нет.
Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски.
XXV. Translate into English
Мой дядя инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день
начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается,
одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он
работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его
жена врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает
французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка.
Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и
по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает
курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди ученик. Он ходит в
школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.
XXVI. Read the text and make up a dialogue about your spare
time using the questions after the text.

18
Hobbies
Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according
to your character and taste you are lucky because your life becomes
more interesting. Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing
things, making things, collecting things, and learning things.
The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things. It includes
a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to travelling
and from chess to volleyball.
Gardening is one of the oldest of man’s hobbies. It is a well-
known fact that the English are very fond of gardening and growing
flowers, especially roses.
Both grown-ups and children are fond of playing different com-
puter games. This is a relatively new hobby but it is becoming more
and more popular.
Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, de-
signing costumes, handicrafts. Two of the most famous hobby paint-
ers were President Eisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. Some hob-
byists write music or play musical instruments.
Almost everyone collects something at some period in his life:
stamps, coins, matchboxes, books, records, postcards, toys, watches.
Some collections have no real value. Others become so large and so
valuable that they are housed in museums and galleries. Many world-
famous collections started in a small way with one or two items. Peo-
ple with a good deal of money often collect paintings, rare books and
other art objects. Often such private collections are given to museums,
libraries and public galleries so that others might take pleasure in see-
ing them.
No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the
opportunity of learning from it. By reading about the things he is in-
terested in, he is adding to what he knows. Learning things can be the
most exciting aspect of a hobby.

Questions
1. Tastes differ. Can you say the same about hobbies?
2. Have you chosen a hobby according to your character and taste?
3. Which hobby groups do you know?
4. The most popular hobby group is doing things, isn’t it? What
kind of activities does this group include?

19
5. What do you know about gardening?
6. Do you like computer games?
7. Are you fond of making things?
8. Do you know any hobbies of the famous people?
9. Have you ever collected anything?
10. What can be collected?
11. Do you know of any private collections that were given to
museums or art galleries?
12. Do you agree that learning can be the most exciting aspect of
a hobby? Why?
XXVII. Give English equivalents for the following:
характер, вкус, согласно, включать, разнообразие,
занятие, садоводство, взрослый (человек), компьютерные
игры, относительно, сравнительно, рисование, живопись,
скульптура, создавать, моделировать, конструировать, одежда,
костюм, ремесло, ручная работа, любитель, человек, имеющий
определенное хобби, собирать, марка, монета, спичечный
коробок, пластинка, почтовая открытка, ценность, ценный,
дорогой, помещать, в малом масштабе, предмет, много, редкий,
частный, получать удовольствие от, чем бы человек ни увлекался,
возможность, добавлять, увлекательный, аспект.
XXVIII. Fill in the blanks with some, any, no.
1. Unfortunately, they have got ___money. 2. She wanted
stamps, but there were not ___ in the machine. 3. Is there ___ salt on
the table? – No, there isn’t. 4. I’d like to buy ___ new clothes, but
I haven’t ___ money. 5. When would you like to come?— ___ day
would suit me. 6. If you had _____sense you wouldn’t have left your
car unlocked. 7. She did not answer all the letters because she had
___ time. 8. Do you have ___ small change? 9. He returned home
without ___ money. 10. Could you help me? I have ___ problems
with my research.
XXIX. Make sentences interrogative and negative.
He lives somewhere near here. 2. Something fell on the floor
in the kitchen. 3. Somebody from the Department of Education is
here. 4. There is something in what he says. 5. They knew some-
thing about it. 6. There is someone in the room. 7. I want to tell you
something. 8. Someone is knocking at the door. 9. I saw this man
somewhere. 10. Something has happened to her.

20
XXX. Choose the appropriate pronoun.
1. She was said that (someone/anybody) was waiting for her in
the street. 2. He was standing by the window and was looking (nobody/
somewhere) on the right. 3.I don’t remember (someone/anyone) else.
4. Have you read (something/anything) by Oscar Wilde? Could you
give me (something/anything) to eat? 6. If (someone/ anyone) comes,
let me know immediately. 7. I haven’t heard from her for a month. I
am afraid, (nothing/something) has happened to her. 8. Have you read
(something/anything) about this author? – No, I’ve read (something/
nothing). 9. She refused to say (something/anything) because she
thought she was being treated unfairly. 10. What’s the matter? Why
are you crying? Has (anything/something) happened to your moth-
er? She told me she’d had a heart attack yesterday. 11. Would you
like (something/ anything) to drink? Whisky or gin? 12. She is still
(nowhere/somewhere) abroad. 13. I have (anything/ nothing) to add.
14. The sick man was able to get up without (someone’s/anyone’s)
help. 15. (anybody/ nobody) could do this work. It’s very simple.

UNIT 2
HOME SWEET HOME

Topics for discussions: Flat arrangement. Flat description.


My flat. A house of my dream. My native town.
Grammar: there is (there are). The Present Continuous
Tense.
Dialogue: Looking for an apartment. Asking for directions.

My Flat
We live in a new 16-storeyed block of flats in Strogino. It’s
situated in a very picturesque place not far from the Moskva River.
There’s a big supermarket on the ground floor and it’s very convenient
to do everyday shopping.
Our flat is on the fifth floor. It’s very comfortable and well-
planned. We have all modem conveniences, such as central heating,
electricity, gas, cold and hot running water and a telephone. There are
three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a hall in our flat. There’s also
a balcony and we can enjoy a lovely view of the river.

21
The largest room in our flat is the living room and we use it as a
dining room and as a sitting room. In the middle of the room there is a
big table and six chairs round it. Opposite the window there is a wall
unit with lots of books, a TV-set and a video cassette recorder.
There are two comfortable armchairs and a small coffee table in
the right-hand corner. There is also a sofa and an electric fire in our
living room. We like the living room best of all, because in the eve-
nings we gather there to have tea, watch TV, talk and rest.
My room is the smallest room in our flat, but it is very cosy and
light. There is a bed, a wardrobe, a desk, an armchair and several
bookshelves in my room. There is a thick carpet on the floor. The
walls in my room are light-brown and there are some big posters on
them. I like my room very much, but from time to time I change it
round. I quite often move the bed and change the posters on the wall.
Our kitchen is large and light. It is very well-equipped. We have
got a refrigerator, a freezer, a microwave oven, a coffeemaker and a
toaster. We haven’t got a dishwasher yet, because it is very expensive.
But I’m sure we shall buy it in the near future.

Questions
1. Do you live in a house or in a block of flats?
2. Which floor is your flat on?
3. Is your flat well-planned? Is it comfortable?
4. How many rooms are there in your flat?
5. Have you got a dining room (a sitting room, a study)?
6. Where do you usually have your meals?
7. Is there much furniture in your flat? Do you change it round
from time to time?
8. What is there in your room?
9. Are there any pictures on the walls of your flat?
10. What colour are the walls in your room?
11. What is your kitchen like?
12. How often do you redecorate the rooms?

Exercises
I. Give English equivalents for the following:
многоквартирный дом, быть расположенным, живописный,
супермаркет, первый этаж, удобный, уютный, хорошо

22
спланированный, современные, удобства, центральное
отопление, электричество, газ, водопровод, балкон, наслаждаться,
красивый вид на, жилая комната, столовая, гостиная, стенка,
видеомагнитофон, кресло, левый угол, журнальный столик,
электрический камин, светлый, платяной шкаф, письменный
стол, книжная полка, ковер, плакат, менять местами (мебель и
т.п.), хорошо оборудованный, холодильник, морозильная камера,
микроволновая печь, кофеварка, тостер, посудомоечная машина,
дорогой.
II. Open the brackets, chose the correct form of the verb.
1. There (is, are) a large table in my room. 2. There (is, are) three
windows in my room. 3. There (is, are) a table and four chairs in my
sister’s room. 4. There (is, are) a blackboard, six desks and twelve
chairs in our classroom. 5. There (wasn’t, weren’t) a school here in
1980. 6. There (were, was) a lot of children in the park yesterday.
III Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. В нашем городе много школ и несколько университетов.
2. В прошлом году в нашей группе было пятнадцать студентов, а в
этом году только десять. 3. На том столе много журналов? – Нет,
только три. 4. На нашем заводе много инженеров. 5. Пять лет назад
около нашего дома не было школы, а теперь здесь большая новая
школа. 6. В этом журнале много интересных статей. 7. В центре
нашего города расположен театр. 8. В углу большой комнаты
стоит шкаф. 9. Напротив окна находится тумбочка с несколькими
журналами.
IV. Translate the dialogue «Looking for an Apartment»
- Oceanfront Realty. Bob Murphy speaking.
- Hello. My name is Igor Koltunov. I’m calling about the ad.
- Which one.
- The two-bedroom apartment. How much is the rent.
- 700 a month. You have also to pay a 700 dollar deposit that will
be given back to you when you move. The agency’s fee amounts to
one month rent.
- Is there a lease to be signed?
- Yes, there is. It’s a two-year lease.
- When can I see the apartment?
- You can see it today after three o’clock.
- What about four o’clock? Is that all right?

23
- O’kay. I’ll meet you at the apartment. 240 Beach Street, Apt.5A.
- That’s fine, thanks.
- (At the apartment)
- This is the living room.
- It’s rather large. What about bedrooms?
- Let’s have a look at them. They have a beautiful ocean view.
- How many closets are there?
- Two clothes closets and a linen closet.
- Where is the bathroom? (Opens the door to the bathroom.)
- It has a shower and a bathtub. Now lets go to the kitchen. As
you can see it’s modern. It has a new sink and a stove. There’s space
for a dishwasher. The refrigerator is brand new. Do you like the apart-
ment?
- Yes, I do. Unfortunately the rent is rather high.
- You won’t find anything cheaper in this neighborhood.
- I’ll think it over. Thank you.
- You are welcome.
(Two days later)
- I’d like to rent the apartment you showed me two days ago. Is
it still available?
- Yes, it is.
- I’ll take the apartment. I like it.
- Okay. You can sign the lease in my office.
V. Read Paula’s letter and write words instead of the pictures.
VI. Make up a presentation “A House of my Dream”.

VII. Read and translate the text.


My Native Town
My native town is Chelyabinsk. It is located in the heart of Rus-
sia, in the Urals. The Urals Mountains are called «grey mountains» as
they are very old. There are hundreds of minerals representing almost
the whole of Mendeleev’s elements system.
There are more than a thousand lakes in the Chelyabinsk area,
seven of them are in Chelyabinsk City. There are not very many riv-
ers, the main Miass-river is rather small. Mountains, forests and lakes
make the climate milder.
Chelyabinsk City was founded as a fortress in September 1736
on the Miass-river. Till the end of the 19th century the town led a quiet

24
life and only fairs made it more lively. The town was «woken up»
by the locomotive whistle. The transcontinental main line lay across
Chelyabinsk and it became an intersection of railroads.
At the beginning of the 20th century the city had a nickname
«Urals Chicago» as in no time it turned into one of the largest com-
mercial centers of Russia. The city took the first place in sales of bread,
butter, meat and tea.
Later, a number of production plants appeared: the tractor,
the machine building, zink plants and others. The city became one
of the largest industrial centers not only in our country but also
abroad.
During World War II Chelyabinsk had a nickname «Tankograd»,
as one of every two Soviet tanks came from its plants. A number of
local industrial works produced military equipment, shells, bombs and
weapons.
At present Chelyabinsk is a modern city with more than a million
inhabitants. It has 7 districts, 50 communities, more than streets.
Chelyabinsk is the largest transport centre. There is the Trans-
Siberian railway and the Transcontinental motorway. The city has an
international airport.
In Chelyabinsk there are many colleges and universities, some
50 research institutes, 50 schools, 20 specialized schools and 30 vo-
cational schools.
There are 10 theatres, the concert association, the circus, the pic-
ture gallery and a few museums, more than 120 libraries. Chelyabinsk
regional scientific universal library is one of the largest libraries in
Russia. It numbers some 2 million books and one million other edi-
tions. The Chelyabinsk Picture Gallery has a big collection of paint-
ings, icons, manuscripts and books.
The Chelyabinsk Museum of Regional Studies contains a
number of interesting collections: mineralogical, botanical, ar-
cheological, numismatic, collection of rare books, paintings and
chinaware.
Chelyabinsk is the city of open, friendly and hospitable people. It
is always open for new friends and business partners.

25
VIII. Give English equivalents for the following:
на Урале, военное оборудование, монета, прозвище, исследо-
вательский институт, снаряд, редкий, оживленный, в сердце России,
оружие, цирк, гостеприимный, появляться, издание, крепость, маши-
ностроительный завод, рукопись, поселок, за границей, магистраль,
спокойный, житель, ярмарка, представлять, находиться.
IX. Correct the sentences. Make up your own wrong statements.
1. In the nineteenth century Chelyabinsk led a noisy life.
2. During World War II local industrial works didn’t work.
3. Discos made life in Chelyabinsk more lively in the nineteenth
century.
4. Chelyabinsk was founded in 1836 on the Mississippi river.
5. Chelyabinsk is located in Africa.
6. Chelyabinsk is the city of angry and inhospitable people.
26
7. The city was «woken up» by the alarm-clock.
8. There are no minerals in the Urals Mountains.

Спряжение глаголов в Present Continuous

Форма
Число Лицо
утвердительная вопросительная отрицательная
1 I am asking Am I asking? I am not asking
2 You are asking Are you asking? You are not asking
ед. He He
Is he/ she/ it
3 she is asking she is not asking
asking?
it it
1 We are asking Are we asking? We are not asking
мн. 2 You are asking Are you asking? You are not asking
3 They are asking Are they asking? They are not asking

X. Change these sentences into the Present Continuous where


possible, make all necessary changes.
Example: They have parties on Sundays. — They are having a
party now.
1. She has got long dark hair. 2. They have a lot of friends. 3. She
has a shower every evening. 4. Helen often has a chat with Robert.
5. We usually have a good time at the weekend. 6.I have less money
than before. 7. She has a heart for pets. 8. Does she have a telephone
in her new apartment? 9. He has a swim every evening. 10. We have
a lot of fun after work.
XI. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous.
NOW: 1. The boys (to run) about in the garden. 2. I (to do) my
homework. 3. John and his friends (to go) to the library. 4. Ann (to sit)
at her desk. She (to study) geography. 5. A young man (to stand) at
the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 6. The old man (to walk) about
the room. 7. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 8. You (to have) a break?
9. What language you (to study)? 10. Who (to lie) on the sofa?
11. What they (to talk) about? 12. It still (to rain).
XII. Translate into English.
СЕЙЧАС: 1. Я читаю. 2. Он не пишет. 3. Мы не работаем.
4. Вы читаете? 5. Он спит? 6. Коля и Миша играют в футбол.
7. Катя играет на рояле. 8. Она не поет. 9. Моя сестра спит.

27
10. Папа пьет чай? 11. Твои родители пьют чай? 12. Я не сплю.
13. Она сидит за столом. 14. Мы делаем упражнение. 15. Мы не
купаемся. 16. Они играют во дворе? 17. Нина и Аня моют пол.
18. Коля помогает маме. 19. Ты помогаешь папе? 20. Моя сестра
читает интересную книгу. 21. Они идут в школу. 21. Вы идете
в школу? 22. Он работает? 23 . Твоя бабушка идет в магазин?
24. Он покупает конфеты. 25. Что делает твоя сестра? 26. Где
играют дети? 27. Почему ты смеешься? 28. Куда они идут? 29.
Что несут эти мальчики?
XIII. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple.
I (to read) now. He (to sleep) now. We (to drink) tea now. They
(to go) to school now. I (not to sleep) now. She (not to drink) coffee
now. I (to read) every day. He (to sleep) every night. We (to drink) tea
every morning. They (to go) to school every morning. I (not to sleep)
in the daytime. She (not to drink) coffee after lunch. We (not to watch)
TV now. They (not to eat) now. My mother (not to work) now. You (to
work) now? He (to play) now? They (to eat) now? Your sister (to rest)
now? What you (to do) now? What you (to read) now? What they (to
eat) now? What your brother (to drink) now? We (not to watch) TV in
the morning. They (not to eat) at the lesson. My mother (not to work)
at an office. You (to work) every day? He (to play) in the afternoon?
They (to eat) at school? Your sister (to rest) after school? What you
(to do) every morning? What you (to read) after dinner? What they (to
eat) at breakfast? What your brother (to drink) in the evening?
XIV. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple.
1. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise.
2. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morn-
ing. 3. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 4. Your friend (to
go) to school in the morning? 5. Look! The baby (to sleep). 6. The
baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 7. My grandmother (not to work).
She is on pension. 8. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in
the garden. 9. I usually (to get) up at seven o’clock in the morning.
10. What your sister (to do) now? – She (to wash) her face and hands.
11.When you usually (to come) home from school? – I (to come) at
three o’clock. 12. Where your cousin (to work)? – He (to work) at a
hospital. 13. Your sister (to study) at an institute? – No, she (to study)
at school. 14. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 15. My mother
(not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning.

28
XV. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple.
I (to read) books in the evening. 2. I (not to read) books in the
morning. 3. I (to write) an exercise now. 4. I (not to write) a letter now.
5. They (to play) in the yard now. 6. They (not to play) in the street
now. 7. They (to play) in the room now? 8. He (to help) his mother
every day. 9. He (to help) his mother every day? 10. He (not to help)
his mother every day. 11. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 12. My
friend (not to like) to play football. 13. I (not to read) now. 14. He (to
sleep) now? 15. We (not to go) to the country in winter. 16. My sister
(to eat) sweets every day. 17. She (not to eat) sweets now. 18. They (to
do) their homework in the afternoon. 19. They (not to go) for a walk in
the evening. 20. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 21. He (to work)
every day.
Запомните глаголы, не употребляющиеся во временах группы
Continuous: to be, to know, to understand, to think, to recognize,
to want, to like, to see, to hear, to feel, to have (to have – только
в своем прямом значении «иметь». В словосочетаниях типа «to
have breakfast», «to have a lesson», «to have a smoke» глагол lo
have употребляется также и во временах группы Continuous). Эти
глаголы надо употреблять в Present Simple, даже если действие
совершается в момент речи.
XVI. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple.
1. What you (to do) here now? – We (to listen) to tape-record-
ings. 2. You (to want) to see my father? – Yes, I... 3. Michael (to
know) German rather well. Не (to want) to know English, too, but he
(to have) little time for it now. 4. What magazine you (to read)? – It (to
be) a French magazine. There (to be) good articles on sports here. You
(to be) interested in sports? – Yes, I .... But I (not to know) French.
5. We (to have) an English lesson now. 6. Lena usually (to prepare)
her homework at the institute? – No, she .... As a rule, she (to work)
at home. – And what she (to write) now? -Oh, she (to write) an article
for our wall newspaper. 7. Who that man (to be) who (to stand) in the
doorway? – You (not to recognize) him? It (to be) John, my cousin. 8.
I (to have) no time now, I (to have) dinner. 9. Your family (to leave)
St. Petersburg in summer? – Yes, we always (to go) to the sea-side.
We all (to like) the sea. Mother (to stay) with us to the end of August,
but father (to return) much earlier. 10. Where Tom and Nick (to be)
now? – They (to have) a smoke in the garden.

29
XVII. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple.
1. It (to take) me forty minutes to get to school. 2. Hello, Pete,
where you (to go)? – I (to hurry) to school. 3. When your lessons (to
begin) on Monday? – They (to begin) at nine o’clock. 4. Where your
sister (to be)? – She (to do) her homework in the next room. 5. It usu-
ally (to take) me an hour to do my written exercises. 6. Where Boris
(to be)? I (to look) for him. — He (to have) dinner. 7. In the evening
I often (to go) to see my friends. 8. On Sunday we sometimes (to go)
to the cinema or to a disco club. 9. Andrew (to get) up very early as he
(to live) far from school. He (to be) never late. 10. It (to be) six o’clock
in the evening now. Victor (to do) his homework. His sister (to read)
a book. His mother and grandmother (to talk). 11. I (to write) a letter
to my grandmother who (to live) in Novgorod. I (to write) to her very
often.
XVIII. Open the brackets and use Present Continuous or Simple .
One Sunday Agnes and her mother went to the zoo. Agnes was
very excited. She was interested in everything she saw. «Mother,
look!» she said. «There (to be) a monkey in this cage. It (to eat) an
apple. Now it (to give) a bite to another monkey. I (to think) monkeys
(to like) apples very much». «Yes, dear!», said her mother. «Now I (to
want) to go and see the lions and tigers. Where they (to live), mother?»
«In that big house over there. Come along». Agnes enjoyed herself
very much in the lion house. «Mother», she said, «the tiger (to want)
a drink: it (to go) to the dish of water there in the corner. And the lion
(to look) right at me. You (to think) it (to want) to eat me up? When
the lions and tigers (to have) their dinner, mother?». «The keepers (to
bring) them great pieces of meat every day at four o’clock. And they
(to make) a big noise before their dinner time, so everybody (to know)
they (to be) hungry».
XIX. Open the brackets and put the verb into the Present Indefi-
nite or the Present Continuous Tense.
1. Be quiet, please. We (work) at the translation and you (make)
a lot of noise. 2. He always (go) for a walk in the evening. 3. Where
is Jack? – He (meet) his girlfriend at the station. She (come) at
12 o’clock. 4. She (cry). Is something wrong? 5. In the morning I
(have) little time, so 1 (take) a shower in the evening. 6. A decade
(describe) a period of ten years. 7. Her brother (work) in Canada at
present. 8. She always (dream) but (do) nothing to realize her dreams.

30
9. He (be) so suspicious to me at the moment. I wonder why. 10. Hurry
up, Jane! We all (wait) for you. 11. Turn off the gas. Don’t you see the
kettle (boil)? 12. The children are still ill but they (get) better gradu-
ally. 13. Don’t bother her. She (take) her French lesson: she always
(take) it in the morning. 14. The living standards (change). Every
month things (get) more expensive. 15. Tom and Mary (leave) for
the Netherlands tomorrow. 16. I have just started English courses. I
(study) English grammar. 17. Mercury (boil) at 357.23 degrees Centi-
grade. 18. We must buy new plates. – It’s useless. You always (break)
plates. 19. It (surprise) me that they can’t sell their flat. 20. A woman
who (look) after other people’s children is a nanny.
XX. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Питер обычно делает домашние задания перед ужином.
2. Почему ты идешь так быстро? – Я боюсь опоздать (miss)
на поезд. Обычно я выхожу из дома раньше и иду медленно.
3. Какие новые предметы студенты изучают в этом году?
4. Почему он сегодня такой заботливый? Странно, обычно он
ведет себя по-другому. 5. Мистер Томпсон сейчас живет в Праге. –
Что он там делает? — Он преподает английский. 6. Сегодня идет
снег. Обычно зима здесь теплая, и снег идет редко. 7. Я не могу
больше с вами разговаривать. Почему вы всегда критикуете
(criticize) все, что я делаю? 8. Что с тобой? Ты очень бледная.
Как ты себя чувствуешь? – У меня сильно болит голова. 9. Когда
они улетают в Нью-Йорк? – На следующей неделе. 10. Что ты
делаешь? Зачем ты кладешь соль в кофе? 11. Сейчас кризис, и
цены растут очень быстро. 12. Как вкусно пахнет кофе! Сделай
мне чашечку, только без сахара.
XXI. Read and translate the dialogues «Asking for Directions».
1.
- Pardon me, sir. Could you tell me how to get to the bus terminal
(post office, city hall, library etc.)?
- Turn left (right) at the corner.
- Thank you.
- You are welcome.
2.
- I beg your pardon. Where’s the nearest subway station (bus stop)?
- It’s right down the street.
- It’s three blocks from here.

31
- It’s at the second corner.
- It’s at the next corner.
3.
–What is the best way of getting to your place?
-Take the subway. Get off at Lincoln Center, turn right and walk
two blocks.
4.
- Good afternoon. I’d like to ask you how to get to Brooklyn
College?
- Where are you starting from?
- At Jackson Heights.
- Roosevelt Avenue?
- That’s correct.
- Take train number 7, get off at Times Square and transfer there
to train number 2. Get off at the last stop.
- Is Brooklyn College within walking distance from there?
- Yes, it is.
- Thank you.
- You are welcome.
5.
Alexander can’t find his way to Edward’s home. Edward gives
him directions on the phone.
- Hi, Alexander. Where are you? At the corner of Taylor Avenue
and Duke Street? Wait there. I’ll be there in five minutes.
- It’s not necessary. I drove the car from New Haven. Give me the
directions. I’ll find my way.
-All right. Go north on Duke Street to Shore Drive. You can’t
miss the large supermarket there. Turn left there. Continue on Steven-
son Avenue to Fourth Street. Make a right turn and go to the middle of
the block. I’ll wait for you in front of the house.
- I got it. See you soon, Edward.
- I’m afraid we’re lost.
- We’d better ask for directions.
- O’kay. I’ll ask at the next gas station. (Stopping in front of a
gas station).
- How do we get to York Village?
- You’re going west, but you should be going east.
- Should we make a U-turn?

32
- Yes. Make a U-turn and go straight. Then turn to the right at the
traffic lights. That’s interstate 95. Take interstate 95 for about 15 miles
and then get off at Roundview. You can’t miss your destination.
- Thank you very much.

UNIT 3
MEALS. SHOPPING

Topics for discussions: Meals. My meals. Eating at home and


out. Shopping for food and clothes.
Grammar: The Past Simple Tense. Pronouns much, many,
little, few. How much, how many.
Dialogues: At the supermarket. At the restaurant. Shopping
for clothing.

Meals
English people usually have four meals a day: breakfast, lunch,
tea and dinner. In many countries breakfast is just a snack, but the
English breakfast is a full meal.
Some people begin with a plateful of porridge or cornflakes with
milk and sugar. After that they have one substantial course, such as
kippers or bacon and eggs. And then they eat toasts with butter and
marmalade or jam. Finally they have a cup of tea or coffee.
Nowadays most British people have such a full breakfast only
on Sunday mornings. On weekdays it is usually a quick meal: just
cornflakes, toast and tea. English lunch is usually at one o’clock. It
starts with soup or fruit juice. Then comes meat, poultry or fish with
plenty of vegetables. English people are fond of vegetables. They buy
fresh or frozen vegetables at any season. As for bread, they eat much
less bread than the people in Russia. They prefer white bread or rolls
and brown bread made of wheat, not rye. Apple-pie or pudding is a
favourite sweet and an excellent ending to a meal.
Tea, the third meal of a day is between 4 or 5 o’clock. Tea is
very popular with the English. They like it strong and fresh made.
They drink it with or without sugar, but almost always with milk.
They call tea with lemon «Russian tea». At the weekends afternoon
tea is a very pleasant time. Friends and relatives get together for a
cup of tea.

33
Some people like to have the so-called «high tea» – a mixture of
tea and supper. For example: meat, cheese and fruit, bread and butter,
pastries and tea.
Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. It is usually at
seven o’clock when all members of the family get together. The first
course is soup. Then the second course comes: fish or meat, for exam-
ple, the traditional roast beef. Then some people eat the dessert. Some
people in towns and nearly all country people have dinner in the mid-
dle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later between 5
or 6 o’clock – when they have a light meal – an omelette or sausages
or fried fish and chips.
Then before going to bed they may have a light snack – a cup of
hot milk with a sandwich or biscuit.

Exercises
I. Give English equivalents for the following:
булочка, сахар, существенное блюдо, кондитерские изделия,
домашняя птица, каша, приятное время, сыр, пшеница, рожь,
омлет, полная тарелка, в рабочие дни, в выходные, полная трапеза,
свежий, крепкий, десерт, бекон, жареная рыба, предпочитать,
любимый, например, великолепное завершение трапезы.
II. Put the words in the correct order.
1. like, English, tea, people, fresh, and, made, strong.
2. pie, an, meal, apple, ending, a, is, excellent, meal, to.
3. the, popular, English, tea, with, is, very.
4. dinner, seven, members, the, at, together, o’clock, for, of, fam-
ily, the, all, get.
5. start, soup, English, fruit, lunch, juice, with, or.
6. going, light, English, bed, snack, people, before, to, have, a
III. Read and translate the texts answer the questions.

Sandwich
In 1762 there was a very famous English politician. Everybody
knew about him because he enjoyed playing cards so much. One night
he stayed at the card table for 24 hours, and he ate nothing but slices
of bread with meat inside. His name? John Montague Sandwich. The
English name for a sandwich comes from this man. John Montague is
dead but sandwiches live on.

34
Sandwiches were great favourites in Victorian England. It was
the custom to take afternoon tea at about four o’clock, and many rich
families ate sandwiches at this time. Cucumber sandwiches were
very popular. The servants always cut the crusts off the bread, so
the sandwiches were very small and delicate. Sandwiches are less
elegant now and often much bigger. The American comic charac-
ter Dagwood Bumpstead is famous for his «Dagwood» sandwiches
which have up to ten slices of bread packed with different filings
all one on top of the other. The English eat millions of sandwiches
every day. They are a typical «snack» meal because they are easy
and quick to prepare. You can buy sandwiches if you don’t want to
make them yourself.
There are thousands of «sandwich bars» and cafes and even some
restaurants that sell them.

Questions
1. Who was Lord Sandwich? Was he a famous writer?
2. What did he enjoy doing most? What did he eat while playing
cards?
3. Were sandwiches great favorites in Victorian England? When
did many rich families eat sandwiches kinds?
4. Are sandwiches different nowadays? What is a «Dagwood»
sandwich?
5. Why are sandwiches a typical «snack» meal in England?
6. Where can one buy sandwiches?

My Meals
It goes without saying that I prefer to have meals at home. At the
weekend I like to get up late and have a good breakfast of scrambled
eggs, or pancakes, or something like that. But on weekdays I’m al-
ways short of time in the morning. So I just have a cup of strong tea or
coffee and a couple of sandwiches.
As I spend a lot of time at school (usually eight or nine hours) it
is necessary to have a snack at midday just to keep me going. That’s
why I have to go to the school canteen to have lunch. Our school
canteen leaves much to be desired. It has become a tradition with our
canteen to serve chops and watery mashed potatoes every day with a
glass of cocoa or stewed fruit.

35
But I enjoy my evening meal at home. My mother is a wonder-
ful cook and her dinners are always delicious and various. To begin
with, we usually have some salad – tomato and cucumber salad
or mixed salad (I like it very much). For the first course we have
some soup – noodle, mushroom or cabbage soup or maybe some
fish soup for a change. For the main course we have meat, chicken
or fish dishes, for example, steak or fried fish with spaghetti or
potatoes (boiled or fried). We also have a lot of vegetables – green
peas, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers. I prefer meat to fish but my
mother makes me eat fish from time to time. She says it is good for
my brains.
For dessert we have some fruit, fruit juice or just a cup of tea with
a slice of cake.
On Sundays we sometimes go to McDonald’s. I like everything
there: cheeseburgers, hamburgers and Big Macs, apple pies and fruit
cocktails. But unfortunately we can’t afford to go there very often,
because it’s rather expensive for a family and besides, they say it’s not
very healthy to eat at McDonald’s.

Questions
1. How many meals a day do you usually have?
2. What do you usually have for breakfast?
3. Where do you have lunch (dinner)?
4. How many courses does your lunch (dinner) usually con-
sist of?
5. What is your favourite dish?
6. What vegetables do you like?
7. What do you usually have for dessert?
8. How often do you eat out?
9. Have you ever eaten at McDonald’s?
10. Some people say that eating at a restaurant is a waste of mon-
ey. Do you agree?
11. Can you cook?
IV. Read and fill in the gaps with the words instead of the
pictures.

36
37
Спряжение глаголов в Past Indefinite

Для всех лиц Форма


и чисел утвердительная отрицательная вопросительная
She looked She did not look Did she look?
Не saw He did not see Did he see?

V. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of the Past In-
definite Tense.
1. The building of the trade centre (begin) a month ago. 2. It
(be) bitterly cold yesterday. I (put) on my warm coat but I (catch) a
cold still. 3. The postman (bring) the morning mail only at 10 o’clock.
4.1 (see) you the other day coming out of the library with a stack of
books. Are you preparing for the exams? 5. We (have) a picnic yester-
day, but the rain (spoil) the whole pleasure. 6. You (go) to the South
when you (be) a child? 7. As soon as I came up, they (get) into a taxi
and (go) away. 8. What sights you (see) when yon (be) in Egypt? 9.
Every winter Nick (go) to the Swiss Alps to ski. 10. He (come) in,
(take) off his hat, (move) a chair to the table and (join) the conversa-
tion. 11. When he (arrive)? – The plane was delayed and he (come)
two hours later. 12. How much your bag (cost)? -I (pay) $80 for it.
VI. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of Past or Pre-
sent Simple.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o’clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at
ten o’clock yesterday. 3. My brother (to wash) his face every morning.
4. Yesterday he (to wash) his face at a quarter past seven. 5. I (not to
have) history lessons every day. 6. We (not to rest) yesterday. 7. My
brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday. 8. My mother always (to take)
a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday
she (to walk) to her office. 9. You (to talk) to the members of your
family every day?-Yes, I.... But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to
be) very busy yesterday. 10. You (to come) home at six o’clock yes-
terday? – No, I.... Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past
eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After din-
ner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest).
11. Your sister (to go) to school every day? – Yes, she....
VII. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of Past or Pre-
sent Simple.

38
1. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 2. Who (to ring) you
up an hour ago? 3. He (to live) on the third floor. 4. It (to take) you
long to find his house yesterday? 5. When your lessons (to be) over
on Monday? 6. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 7. Her
friends (to be) ready at five o’clock. 8. One of her brothers (to make)
a tour of Europe last summer. 9. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in
1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 10. You always (to
get) up at seven o’clock? – No, sometimes 1 (to get) up at half past
seven.
VIII. Rewrite the following sentences using Past Simple.
On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At
this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to
the blackboard.
He answers well and gets a «five». Pete does not get a «five» be-
cause he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the
canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk.
After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and take a
book. Then I go home.
IX. Rewrite the following sentences using Past Simple.
On Tuesday I get up at half past six. I go to the bathroom and
wash my hands and face and clean my teeth. Then I dress, go to the
kitchen and cook breakfast for my family. At half past seven my son
gets up and has breakfast. I have breakfast with my son. My son eats
a sandwich and drinks a cup of tea. I don’t drink tea. I drink coffee.
After breakfast my son leaves home for school. I don’t leave home
with my son. On Tuesday I don’t work in the morning. I work in the
afternoon. In the evening I am at home. My husband and my son are
at home, too. We rest in the evening. My son watches TV, my hus-
band reads newspapers and I do some work about the house. At about
eleven o’clock we I go to bed.
X. Rewrite the following sentences, using Past Simple.
Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his
watch. It is a quarter to seven. Quick! Boris jumps out of bed and runs
to the bath-room. He has just time to take a cold shower and I drink a
glass of tea with bread and butter. He is in a hurry to catch the eight
o’clock train. At the railway station he meets three other boys from his
group. They all have small backpacks and fishing-rods. In less than an
hour they get off the train at a small station near a wood. They walk

39
very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake.
The boys spend the whole day there fishing, boating and swimming.
They return home late at night, tired but happy.

Местоимения many, much, few, little

Many friends Много друзей Much snow Много снега


A few friends Несколько друзей A little snow Немного снега
Few friends Мало друзей Little snow Мало снега

XI. Transform the sentences.


Example: There is hardly any wine in the bottle. – There is little
wine in the bottle.
The chairman said some words. — The chairman said a few
words.
I. I can’t help you. I have hardly any time. 2. Mr. Brown, can I
come and see you today? I’d like to ask you some questions. 3. It is
no use asking him about it. He has hardly any knowledge of the sub-
ject. 4. I go to the theatre when I have some money and free time. 5.
Is there much chalk in the box? – No, there is hardly any here. 6. He
drank some water and felt much better. 7. There was hardly any tea
in the cup, so he poured some more. 8. Hardly any people understood
what he said. 9. There are some carrots in the box. 10. Mummy, may
I have some ice cream? 11. Many years ago some people realized the
significance of this discovery. 12. There was hardly any doubt that the
problem could be solved in the near future. 13. We didn’t have to take
a porter. We had hardly any luggage. 14. I think he is rather greedy.
He buys hardly any things for himself. 15. We have received some
valuable information. I think it will help us a lot.
XII. Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few, a few.
1. I’d like to make remarks in connection with the topic un-
der discussion. 2. He saw ___ strange people, standing near the car.
3. This student has deep knowledge in English and besides he knows
____French. 4. He is a man of ___ words. 5. Only____names remained
in his memory, for this accident happened more than 20 years ago. 6.
That lecture was so difficult that only ______students could under-
stand it. 7. I had ___hope of getting home tonight because I realized

40
that I had lost my way. 8. The postman doesn’t often come here. We
receive___ letters. 9. I’m having ____trouble fixing this shelf. – Oh
dear! Can I help you? 10. I shall be away for ___days from tomorrow.
11. When you’ve wanted something very badly and it comes at last,
it is somehow_____frightening. 12. It was a cold windy evening, and
there were people in the park. 13. There were no doctors for
the wounded, and to make things worse there was only ___food left.
14. She asked permission to speak to the guest for moments. 15. I
won’t listen to you! I’d like to believe that there is ____hope left.
XIII. Paraphrase the following sentences using the following
words: few, a few, quite a few, little, a little.
1. Only some pupils wrote the test. 2. A small number of people
live to be 80 in Russia. 3. I have not much time for studying. 4. He
had a considerable number of mistakes in his dictation. 5. She has got
some time to prepare for the report.
XIV. Translate into English using little, a little, few, a few.
1. Джим вчера попросил меня починить (repair) машину, но у
меня было мало времени, и мне пришлось отказать ему. 2. Она очень
застенчива (shy). У нее мало подруг. 3. В зале было довольно много
людей, так как фильм был интересный. 4. У меня есть несколько
книг по этой проблеме. 5. У нас нет сахара. Купи немного по
дороге домой. 6. Мало кто понял, что он хочет сказать. 7. Я выпил
немного кофе и смог работать до полуночи. 8. В его переводе было
мало ошибок. 9. Они подошли к небольшой деревне; в ней было
несколько домов. 10. У них оставалось немного времени до начала
спектакля, и они решили пойти перекусить (have a bite). 11. Не думаю,
что он будет хорошим врачом. У него мало терпения (patience).
12. У нас было мало денег, поэтому мы решили поехать автобусом.
13. Довольно много друзей пришли навестить его. 14. У него не
хватает несколько долларов, чтобы купить эту картину. 15. Ты
можешь взять несколько конфет.
XV. Read and translate the dialogue «At the supermarket»
- Do you have the shopping list?
- Yes its in my pocket. I’ll get a cart. We’ll shop together. We
need laundry detergent.
- Is the big size too expensive?
- Not at all. It makes sense to buy a big box of detergent. You
save about a penny for every ounce.

41
- How ?
- You’ve to read not only the price for the item but also the price
for it by weight and volume. It’s cheaper to buy big sizes, especially
for staples that are used for a longer period of time.
- I’ll keep it in mind. What is the next on the shopping list?
- Orange juice.
- There are a lot of various brands of them.
- The store’s own brand is the least expensive one. The quality is
the same, but it’s a bit cheaper.
- Do big supermarkets have their own brands of other things?
- Yes. Always look for the store’s own brands. They are
cheaper.
- What about apples?
- Apples are in aisle eight.
- How much are they?
- They’re 84 cents a pound.
- What do we look for next?
- Let’s get to the meat counter.
- O’kay. I think we need a chicken and some veal. I’ll get both
items.
- It’s February twenty third for the chicken, and twenty second-
for the veal.
- That’s o’kay. Today is February nineteenth.
- What does the date mean?
- The date indicates the last day the store is supposed to sell this item.
- Which foods are dated?
- If foods are perishable, they’ve to be dated.
- You are an experienced buyer.
- What else do we need?
- I’ve to check the shopping list. We need half a pound of butter,
sour cream, and eggs. Dairy products are in aisle 3.
- All right. Here are the eggs. I prefer unsalted butter. Would you
get it?
- I got butter and sour cream. Now we’ve to buy coffee in aisle 8.
- I’ve cut out an ad from the paper. There are special prices
they’ve advertised for instant coffee.
- O’kay. Get the coffee that was advertised. That’s all we need.
Let’s go to the cash register.

42
XVI. Read and translate the dialogue «At the restaurant».
Mr. Smith: Hello. Do you have a table for two, please?
Head waiter: Good evening, sir. Sure. Would you like to have a
drink in the bar first and I’ll bring you the menu?
Mr. Smith: What a good idea. What would you say, John?
John: I don’t mind.
Head waiter: This way, gentlemen. Now, what would you like?
Mr. Smith: Scotch for me, I think. What about you. John?
John: I’ll have the same.
Head waiter: So, two whiskies. Very good. Here is the menu.
Mr. Smith: Now, let’s see. What shall we have to start off with? The
prawn cocktail’s very good or the melon is not bad at this time of year.
John: Yes, sir. I think I’ll have the prawn cocktail.
Mr. Smith: OK. And what shall we have to follow?
John: You know what I’d like? Something typically American.
Mr. Smith: OK, then. How about the roast beef?
John: All right. I’ll try that.
Mr. Smith: That’s settled, then. We’ll have prawn cocktails to
begin with and roast beef to follow.
Head waiter: Very good. What vegetables would you like?
Mr. Smith: Oh, French fries and asparagus, I think. What about
you, John?
John: Is that what one usually eats with roast beef?
Mr. Smith: Yes.
John: I see. Well. I’ll have asparagus but I don’t think I’ll bother
with the potatoes. Got to think of my waistline, you know.
Head waiter: Very good, sir. Your table’s ready when you are
ready.
Mr. Smith: OK. We’ll be along in a couple of minutes, and would
you send the wine steward over?
Waiter: Any coffee, sir?
Mr. Smith: No, thanks, actually. We are in a bit of a hurry. Could
we have the bill straight away, please?
Waiter: Sure. I’ll bring it immediately.
John: Look, Mr. Smith. Let me do this.
Mr. Smith : No, no. This one is on me. You can pay next time.
Here you are, waiter.
John: Well, that’s very kind...

43
XVII. Find the logical order of the following dialogue parts.
Mother: Would you like some bread and ham. Tommy?
Tommy: All right, pass me the brown bread, please.
Mother: Better take some honey.
Tommy: No, thanks. Two soft-boiled eggs would do for me.
Mother: Another slice of bread. Tommy?
Tommy: I’m afraid these are hard-boiled. But you can have half
of the omelet I’ve made. I am sure you’ll find it to your liking?
Tommy: No, thank you. No more for me.
Mother: Very well. Let me pour it out. Some more coffee. Tommy?
Tommy: Thanks, the omelet is pretty good.
Mother: Here your are.
Tommy: May I trouble you for jam?
Mother: A cup of coffee?
Tommy: Yes, please.
Tommy: Oh, no. I never have honey with coffee.
XVIII. Read and translate the text. Act out a situation if you had
a broken coffee maker or any other item.

Shopping: Know your Rights


Complaining about faulty goods or bad service is never easy.
Most people dislike making a fuss. However, when you are shopping,
it is important to know your rights. The following extract is taken from
a leaflet produced by the British «Office of Fair Trading», and it gives
advice to consumers.

Your rights when buying goods


When you buy something from a shop, you are making a con-
tract. This contract means that ifs up to the shop – not the manufac-
turer – to deal with your complaints if the goods are not satisfactory.
What do we mean by satisfactory?
The goods must not be broken or damaged and must work properly.
This is known as «merchantable quality». A sheet, say which had a tear
in it, or a clock that didn’t go when you wound it would not pass this test.
The goods must be as described – whether on the pack or by the
salesman. A hairdryer which the box says is blue should not turn out
to be pink; a pair of shoes the salesman says is leather should not be
plastic.

44
The goods should be fit for their purpose. This means the pur-
pose for which most people buy those particular goods. If you wanted
something for a special purpose, you must have said exactly what for.
If, for instance, the shop assures you that a certain glue will mend bro-
ken china and it doesn’t you have a right to return it.
If the shop sells the faulty goods, it has broken its side of the
bargain.

If things go wrong
If goods are faulty when you first inspect or use them, go back
to the shop, say that you cancel the purchase and ask for a complete
refund. If you prefer, you can accept a repair or replacement.
If the goods break down through no fault of yours, after you have
used them for a time, you may still be entitled to some compensation.
In some cases it would be reasonable to expect a complete refund –
if, for instance, without misuse your shoes came apart after only one
day’s wear, or your washing machine irreparably broke down after
only three wash days. But if your washing machine worked perfectly
for a while and then broke, you could only expect some of the pur-
chase price back. You and the supplier.
You need never accept a credit note for faulty goods. If you do
so, then later find you do not want anything else in the shop or store,
you may not get your money back.
If you have to spend money as a direct result of goods be-
ing faulty, you can also claim this from the shop. You could, for
example, claim the cost of using a laundry while the washing ma-
chine wasn’t working. But you must keep such expenses down to
a minimum.

There are four golden rules:


Examine the goods you buy at once. If they are faulty, tell the
seller quickly.
Keep any receipts you are given. If you have to return something,
the receipt will help to prove where and when you bought it.
Don’t be afraid to complain. You are not asking a favor to have
faulty goods put right. The law is on your side.
Be persistent (but not aggressive).If your complaint is justified, it
is somebody’s responsibility to put things right.

45
Remember:
You can’t complain about defects that were pointed out to you,
or that you could reasonably have been expected to notice.
Stop using the item as soon as you discover a fault.
You are not entitled to compensation if you simply change your
mind about wanting the goods.
XIX. Fill in the blanks with how much or how many.
1.____sugar have you put into my cup? 2. ___spoons of sugar
do you usually take with your tea? 3.___homework do you get every
day? 4.___cups of coffee do you drink a day? 5.___coffee did you
drink yesterday? 6.___foreign languages do you speak? 7. Do you
know money he spent? 8. Tell me please ___time it will take me to
get there. 9. times a month do you go to the theatre? 10. Do you know
______people live in Moscow? 11. I see you are a stranger here. Let
me help you. The customs officer is asking ___perfume you have got.
12. ___cigarettes do you smoke a day? 13.___oil has been extracted
this month? 14.___barrels of oil did the Arab Emirates sell last year?
15.___money does it cost to get there?
XX. Fill in the blanks with much, many.
1. There are a few bananas and ___ apples in the fridge. 2. She put
___ butter in the cake. 3. Have you got_____homework? – Our teacher
always gives us ___ homework. 4. We don’t need ___ eggs to cook
this meal. 5. He’s made ___ progress in such a short time! 6. Are there
___ unemployed people in your country? 7. There are ___ oil deposits
in Siberia. 8. There is ___ time at our disposal. 9. She is very sociable,
that’s why she has got friends. 10. Try to call Mr. Green. He never
gives ___ useful advice, but you can hear ___ valuable information. 11.
One needs ___ money to start a new business. 12. You can’t install ___
equipment in a small shop. 13. He doesn’t want ___ advisors. He thinks
he can solve the problem himself. 14. Be careful with him. He has got
___ projects and desires, but hasn’t got ___ money and patience to real-
ize them. 15. Astronomy studies ___ interesting phenomena.
XXI. Read and translate the dialogues «Shopping for Clothing».
1.
- Can you help me, please?
- Yes, sir. What is it?
- I’m looking for a flannel suit, size 40.
- What color do you want?

46
- I prefer something in gray.
- Here’s an excellent suit in gray flannel. Will you try it on?
- Yes, I will. Where is the fitting room?
- Come this way.
- How does it look?
- It looks great. It’s exactly your size.
- How much is it?
- This suit is on sale. It’s only 115 dollars.
- All right. I’ll take it.
2.
-May I help you?
- Yes, I’m looking for a blouse.
- What’s your size?
- I wear size 12. Could you show me some blouses in solid color?
- What colors do you want?
- Yellow and white.
- They are over here.
- What’s the material?
- It’s fifty percent cotton and fifty percent polyester.
- This white blouse looks nice. I’d like to try it on.
- The fitting room is to your left.
- I think this blouse is all right.
- Very well. Will that be cash or credit card?
- I’d like to give you a check.
- We need at least one piece of identification.
- Here is my driver’s license.
- All right. We can accept your check.
3.
- These shoes are pretty. What colors do they come in?
- Presently we have them in brown and black.
- Could you show me the black shoes in a medium heel?
- We have them in a higher ,lower, and medium heel. Just a
minute. I’ll bring you the pair you wanted to see.
4.
- Yesterday I bought this skirt. I’d like a refund.
- Do you have the receipt with you?
- Yes, I do.
- You’ll get your refund in room 208, on the second floor.

47
XXII. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Мне нужно сделать сегодня кое-какие покупки.
2. Завтра мы идем покупать мне пальто. 3. Как привлекатель-
на витрина этого магазина тканей. 4. Больше всего я люблю
в этом универмаге отдел электротоваров. 5. Я ищу сумку к
этому костюму уже три месяца. 6. Заверните, пожалуйста,
мой старый меховой жакет. Я надену новый (Пойду в новом).
7. Покажите мне, пожалуйста, ожерелье, которое лежит ря-
дом с тем большим кулоном. 8. Имеются ли у вас рубашки
из быстросохнущего материала? 9. Когда открываются (за-
крываются) магазины в вашем городе? 10. До которого часа
открыта аптека? Надо поторопиться. Скоро закрытие. 11. Как
вам нравятся эти ковры? – Выглядят они прекрасно. 12. Я не
могу найти ничего подходящего. 13. Такие костюмы сейчас
в моде. 13. Вот модели последней моды. 14. В этом магазине
товары наилучшего качества. 15. Этот материал не выцветает.
Он не линяет, к тому же. 16. Образцы наших лучших тканей
на втором этаже.17. Мне идут все оттенки зеленого. 18. У ме-
ня с собой только бумажные деньги. Придётся разменять
5-фунтовую банкноту.
XXIII. What is it?
1) a very large self-service shop which deals with foods and
household goods;
2) a shop, which sells liqueurs, spirits and wine;
3) a long flat-topped bench in a shop over which business is con-
ducted with customers;
4) a weighing instrument;
5) a wire-basket on wheels used a shops for transporting custom-
ers’ purchases;
6) a tin container in which food or drink is hermetically
sealed;
7) the space in the supermarket where goods on sale are dis-
played;
8) a machine in shops with a drawer for money, recording the
amount of each sale.

48
UNIT 4
EDUCATION

Topics for discussions: The role of higher education for per-


sonal development. Foreign students’ opinion about their schools.
Educational courses and programs. Qualifications and certifi-
cates. Opportunities for further education. Particularities of stud-
ying in different countries. History and traditions of my Higher
School. Outstanding scientists. Famous scientists and graduates
of my School. Academic mobility. Grants for students in different
countries. Employment and career prospects in engineering.
Grammar: The Future Simple Tense. The Present Perfect
Tense.
Dialogue: Looking for a job.

The British Education System


State Education in Britain
All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pu-
pils with books and equipment for their studies. Nine million children
attend 35.000 schools in Britain. Education is compulsory from 5 till
16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school
or a preschool playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory
education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they
are 11. Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same
class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehen-
sives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and
religious and ethnic groups. Ninety per cent of secondary schools in
England, Scotland and Wales are co-educational.
At 16 pupils take a national exam called “G.C.S.E.” (General
Certificate of Secondary Education) and then they can leave school
if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year-
olds continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at a sixth form
college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A”
level (advanced level) at 18. You need “A” level to enter a university.
Other 16-yearolds choose to go to a college of further education to
study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world
of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics. Universities and
colleges of higher education accept students with “A” levels from 18.

49
Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of
full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their
degree at a special graduation ceremony.

Private Education
Seven per cent of British schoolchildren go to private schools
called independent schools. There are 2.400 independent schools
and they have been growing in number and popularity since the
mid-1980’s. Parents pay for these schools, and fees vary from
about 250 pounds a term for a private nursery to 3.000 pounds a
term or more for a secondary boarding school. Most independ-
ent schools are called prep (preparatory) schools because they
prepare the children for the Common Entrance Exam which they
take at the age of 11. This exam is for entry into the best schools.
The most famous schools are called “public schools” and they
have a long history and traditions. It is often necessary to put
your child’s name on a waiting list at birth to be sure he or she
gets a place, Children of wealthy or aristocratic families often go
to the same public school as their parents and their grandparents.
Eton is the best known of these schools. The majority of inde-
pendent secondary schools, including public schools, are single-
sex, although in recent years girls have been allowed to join the
sixth forms of boys’ schools. Independent schools also include
religious schools (Jewish, Catholic, Muslim etc.) and schools for
ethnic minorities.

Questions:
1. What do state schools in Britain provide their pupils with?
2. What can parents choose?
3. When do children start primary school?
4. When do pupils take a national exam called GCSE?
5. What prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level?
6. How long do students study for a degree?
7. Whom do universities and colleges of higher education ac-
cept?
8. How many independent schools are there in Britain?
9. Why are most independent schools called preparatory schools?

50
Exercises
I. Give English equivalents for the following:
обязательный, начальный, общеобразовательный,
школы совместного обучения мальчиков и девочек,
заканчивать, принимать, обязательное образование, детский
сад, экзамен, предмет, университет, частный, возможность,
давать (присваивать), бакалавр, плата, подготавливать, фунт
(стерлингов), школа-интернат.
II. Read and translate the text.
The Russian Education System
Originally Russian education starts from the early age. Children
can start going to kindergarten from the age of two, but this is not
a compulsory education. It depends on parents’ decision and child’s
wish to attend this institution.
In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory.
Pupils start going to school from the age of seven and till 16. Manda-
tory education in Russia is presented by three types of schools: pri-
mary, secondary and high.
The primary school teaches its pupils elementary skills, such as
reading, writing, counting. Many schools also offer foreign languages
or some other special disciplines at this age.
The most important period is the secondary school, which starts
from the 4th or 5th grade, depending on school. This is the time when
children start learning Biology, Geography, Chemistry, Physics, Com-
puting, and many other new subjects.
At the 9th grade children face a very important period in their
life. They have to choose whether to continue school education, or
to leave for other types of educational institutions, such as college,
specialized schools and else. If the pupil decides to continue studying
in high school, which lasts for two years, he can enter the university
after school graduation.
Of course, it’s only the general pattern of education in Russia,
but there can also be some exceptions nowadays. For example, there
are lots of special schools, where they pay attention only to particular
subjects. Also, apart from state schools, there are a number of private
schools, where education is not free of charge.
When they complete high grades they can either continue to
study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where

51
they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profes-
sion. When school pupils leave school they can try to continue their
education in institutes or universities.
III. Find some additional information from the Internet resources
about education in Russia and in Britain. Divide into 2 teams. The
first team finds the differences and the second one – similar features
between education systems in Great Britain and Russia.
IV. Read and translate the text
Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy
In May 1930 the first Higher Educational Establishment in Chely-
abinsk was set up – the Ural Institute of Industrial Agriculture, which
was renamed in 1945 into Chelyabinsk Institute of Mechanization and
Electrification of Agriculture. In January 1991 it got the status of Uni-
versity. Now its present name – Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering
Academy (ChSAA). ChSAA takes the sixth place among 58 Agrou-
niversities of Russia today. It is one of the leading scientific centers in
the South Urals and Siberia in the sphere of agricultural science and
training of specialists for agriculture and processing industry.
In 1980 the University got the governmental award – the Order
of the Red Banner of Labour for its great services in preparing highly-
qualified specialists and development of agricultural science.
There are about 6000 students of daytime department and extra-
mural department and also more than 100 postgraduates and doctor-
ants at the University today. The University prepares engineers, econ-
omists, agronomists, ecologists, teachers, bachelors and masters in 10
leading specialties:
-Mechanization of Agriculture;
-Electrification and Automatization of Agriculture;
-Mechanization of Agricultural Products Processing;
- Vocational Training;
-Service and Technical Exploitation of Transport and Techno-
logical Equipment;
-Economics and Agroproduction Management;
-Agronomy;
-Agroecology;
-Agroengineering (training of Bachelors and Masters);
-Agricultural Machines and Equipment;
The University consists of:

52
-5 faculties (Mechanization of Agriculture, Electrification and
Automatizaion of Agriculture, Technical Service in Agroindustrial
Complex, Economics, Extra-Mural Education);
-46 Chairs;
-the Institute of Agroecology;
-Research Centre;
-Ural Regional Farmers’ Centre;
-Regional Ecological Training Centre;
-Qualification Improvement Courses;
-Experimental Farm and others;
The University campus has some teaching blocks and students’
hostels. There are a lot of modern computers, connected to Internet.
In 1992 the Institute of Agroecology – the Branch of the Acad-
emy was established. It consists of 8 Departments.
The future specialists get practical experience on experimental
fields and farms. The sphere of graduates’ activity is the agronomical
services of Agricultural enterprises. The Academy has friendly relations
with Agricultural enterprises, organizations and educational establish-
ments of many leading countries of the world. Every year many students
and graduates have their practice abroad: in England, Germany, the
USA, France, Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and Ireland.
Among all the teachers of Agroengineering Academy 64% have
degrees in Science, including Doctors of Science and Professors; full
members and correspondent members of the Russian and International
Academies of Science; teachers have titles «Honoured Teacher of the
Russian Science». The Academy teachers are authors of many impor-
tant textbooks.
The Postgraduate and Doctorant Schools of the Academy train
specialists of 22 scientific professions. The Academy scientists con-
duct actual researches in different spheres of agriculture. They try
to solve ecological problems in agriculture, to improve soil fertility.
They elaborate new chemical means for the protection from corrosion
as well as new technologies and equipment for mechanization, electri-
fication and automatization of agricultural production.
The students of Agroengineering Academy take an active part in
student festivals, such as «Student Spring», in many thematic parties
and concerts. In summer they can have holidays in University summer
camp on lake Elovoe.

53
Most of the students go in for sports. Among them there are the
World Champions as well as the Champions of Europe and Russia in
kickboxing, field and track athletics, cycling, the winners of different
championships and competitions in hockey, basketball, skiing, arm-
wrestling and others.

V. Give English equivalents for the following:


переименовывать, получить статус университета, занимает
шестое место среди университетов, ведущий научный центр, в
сфере подготовки специалистов для с/х, обрабатывающая про-
мышленность, высококвалифицированные специалисты, был
награжден, правительственная награда, научная степень, аспи-
рантура, проводить исследования, дневное, заочное отделение,
общежитие, принимать активное участие, заниматься спортом,
чемпион мира по легкой атлетике, чемпионат, соревнование,
сфера деятельности, выпускник, заслуженный учитель, Венгрия,
Швейцария, разрабатывать новые технические средства и техно-
логии, оборудование, улучшать плодородность почв.
VI. Complete the sentences
1. The first Higher Educational Establishment in Chelyabinsk
was set up ...
2. In 1980 the Academy was awarded …
3. The Academy has friendly relations with …
4. Agroengineering Academy takes ... place among ...
5. Many students have practice …
6. ChSAA is one of the leading …centers of the South Urals in
the sphere …
7. Students and teachers can have holidays …
8. The Academy consists of ... faculties and … Chairs.
9. The students take an active part in ...
VII. Correct the following statements:
1. ChSAA prepares cosmonauts, doctors, shop-assistants.
2. There are 3300 students of nighttime department.
3. The Academy campus has 8 students’ hotels.
4. The future specialists of Agroengineering Academy get practi-
cal experience in libraries.
5. Scientists elaborate new chemical means for the protection
from mosquitoes.

54
VIII. Prove that:
1. The students of Agroengineering Academy are fond of sport.
2. Scientists conduct actual researches in different spheres.
3. The teaching staff of the Academy is highly-qualified.
4. The Academy has wide international relations.
5. Computers play an important role at the Academy.
IX. Let’s speak.
1. Where do you study? What year are you in?
2. How many and what faculties are there at the Academy?
3. When was ChSAA founded?
4. What departments are there at the Academy?
5. Do most of students live in hostels, at home or rent a room?
6. What subjects do you take at the University?
Which of them is – the most interesting? the least interesting? the
most important? the most difficult?
7. Was it easy for you to get accustomed to the University system
of lectures and seminars after school system of classes.
8. Which are more useful in your opinion -lectures or seminars?
9. Do you often work in the library?
10. Do you have to work much to prepare for your classes?
11. What sort of grant do you get – basic or scholarship?
12. How do students spend their free time (holidays)?

Спряжение глаголов в Future Indefinite:


Число

утвердительная вопросительная отрицательная


лицо

форма форма форма


1 I shall (I’ll) ask Shall I ask? I shall not (shan’t) ask
2 You will (you’ll) ask Will you ask? You will not (won’t) ask
един.

He he He
3 She will (’ll) ask Will she ask? She will not (won’t) ask
It It It
1 We shall (we’ll) ask Shall we ask? We shall not (shan’t) ask
множ.

2 You will (you’ll) ask Will you ask? You will not (won’t) ask
3 They will (they’ll) ask Will they ask? They will not (won’t) ask
X. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of Present Con-
tinuous, Present Simple or Future Simple.
1. I (to play) chess tomorrow. 2. I (not to play) chess tomorrow.
3. You (to play) chess tomorrow? 4. He (to play) chess every day.
55
5. He (not to play) chess every day. 6. He (to play) chess every day?
7. They (to play) chess now. 8. They (not to play) chess now. 9. They
(to play) chess now? 10. Nick (to go) to the park now. 11. Nick (to
go) to school every day. 12. Nick (to go) to school tomorrow. 13. You
(to come) to my place next Sunday? 14. You (to read) this book next
week? 15. You (to read) books every day? 16. You (to read) a book
now? 17. I (not to see) him tomorrow. 18. What you (to do) tomor-
row? 19. What your friend (to do) tomorrow? 20. Where you (to go)
next summer? 21. Where you (to go) every morning? 22. Where you
(to go) now? 23. Look! Mary (to dance). 24. She (to dance) every day.
25. She (to dance) tomorrow?
XI. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of Present Con-
tinuous, Present Simple or Future Simple.
1. He (to go) to the theatre tomorrow. 2. We (to go) to school in the
morning. 3. Look! Kate (to go) to school. 4. You (to help) your mother
tomorrow? 5. I (not to play) the guitar now. 6. My brother (to play) the
guitar every evening. 7. They (not to take) care of the garden next summer.
8. You (to like) apples? 9. You (to eat) apples tomorrow? 10. Nick (to
read) many books. 11. Mother (to work) every day. 12. He (not to sleep)
now. 13. Your brother (to go) to the exhibition next Sunday? 14. We (not
to go) to the zoo tomorrow. 15. I (not to learn) the poem now. 16. She
(to live) in San Francisco. 17. My father (to shoot) very well. 18. He is
very strong. Look! He (to carry) a very heavy box. 19. My sister (not to
like) coffee. 20 When you (to go) to bed every day? 21. What he (to read)
now? 22. What he (to read) every day? 23. What he (to read) tomorrow?
24. Where she (to go) tomorrow? 25. You (to give) me this book tomorrow?
XII. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of Present Con-
tinuous, Present Simple or Future Simple.
1. When you (to get) up every day? – I (to get) up at seven
o’clock. 2. My brother usually (not to get) up at seven o’clock. As a
rule, he (to get) up at six o’clock, but tomorrow he (to get) up at seven
o’clock. 3. Why she (to come) home so late tomorrow? 4. We (to go)
to the country the day after tomorrow. 5. Our friends always (to go)
to the country for the week-end. 6. Look! The kitten (to play) with
its tail. 7. Your parents (to watch) TV now? 8. My sister (not to rest)
now. She (to help) mother in the kitchen. She (to help) mother in the
kitchen every day. 9. Where she (to go) tomorrow? 10. She (to go) to
the country with us tomorrow? 11. They (to stay) at home tomorrow.

56
12 What you (to do) now? I (to see) that you (not to read). 13. When
you (to finish) your homework? It (to be) very late, it (to be) time to
go to bed. 14. How you usually (to spend) evenings? 15. What you
(to do) in the country next summer? 16. They (not to drink) tea now.
I (to think) they (to watch) TV. 17. What your father (to drink) in the
evening?
He забывайте употреблять настоящее время вместо
будущего в придаточных предложениях времени и условия после
союзов if, when, as soon as, before, after, till (until).
XIII. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of the verbs
(Present or Future).
1. If you (to translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my
report. 2. If she (to be) in St. Petersburg now, she will meet you at the
railway station. 3. If you (not to hurry), you will miss the train. 4. If it
(to rain), we shan’t go to the country. 5. When my friend (to come) to St.
Petersburg, we shall go to the Russian Museum. 6. What will you be do-
ing when he (to come) to your place? 7. Don’t forget to pay for your din-
ner before you (to leave) the canteen. 8. I shall be able to translate this
article if you (to give) me a dictionary. 9. You will have to work hard at
home if you (to miss) the lesson. 10. Where will you go when you (to
come) to London? 11. The child won’t be healthy if you (not to give)
him much fruit. 12. I shan’t have dinner before mother (to come) home.
XIV. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of the verbs
(Present or Future).
1. When he (to return) to St. Petersburg, he (to call) on us. 2. If I
(to see) him, I (to tell) him about their letter. 3. We (to gather) at our
place when my brother (to come) back from Africa. 4. I (to sing) this
song with you if you (to tell) me the words. 5. I hope you (to join) us
when we (to gather) in our country house the next time. 6. What you (to
do) when you (to come) home? 7. If I (to stay) some more days in your
town, I (to call) on you and we (to have) a good talk. 8. He (to go) to the
Public Library very often when he (to be) a student. 9. As soon as I (to
return) from school, I (to ring) you up. 10. You (to pass) many towns
and villages on your way before you (to arrive) in Moscow. 11.1 (to
stay) at home till she (to come). Then we (to go) to the theatre if she (to
bring) tickets. 12. After I (to finish) school, I (to enter) the University.
XV. Open the brackets and give the proper forms of the verbs
(Present or Future).

57
1. Don’t go away until mother (to come) back. Give her the note as
soon as she (to come). 2. You (to go) to the library with us? – – No, I ... . I
(to stay) here and (to help) Jane with her grammar. I (to come) to the library
after I (to finish). 3. Ring me up before you (to come). 4. I (to speak) to
Mary if I (to see) her today. 5. I (not to speak) to him until he (to apologize).
6. Peter (to introduce) us to his friend as soon as we (to meet) them. 7. We
(to go) to the station to meet Sergei when he (to come) to St. Petersburg.
XVI. Translate the sentences.
1. Я приду домой в шесть часов. 2. Когда я приду домой, я позвоню
вам. 3. Она позвонит нам вечером. 4. Если она позвонит вам, попросите
ее принести мне книгу. 5. Я увижу Тома завтра. 6. Как только я увижу
Тома, я расскажу ему об этом. 7. Я поеду в Париж на будущей неделе.
8. Перед тем, как я поеду в Париж, я позвоню вам. 9. Он не пойдет в
библиотеку сегодня вечером. 10. Если он не пойдет в библиотеку, он
будет дома. 11. Мы будем дома завтра. 12. Если мы будем дома завтра,
мы посмотрим эту программу по телевизору. 13. Ее не будет завтра
дома. 14. Если ее не будет завтра дома, оставьте ей записку. 15. Завтра
погода будет хорошая. 16. Если завтра погода будет хорошая, мы
поедем за город. 17. Когда она приходит в школу, она снимает пальто.
18. Когда она придет в школу, она снимет пальто. 19. Как только он
вспоминает эту смешную сцену, он начинает смеяться. 20. Как только
он вспомнит эту смешную сцену, он начнет смеяться.
XVII. Today we are going to read about one of the most outstand-
ing American inventors. Before reading look at the photo and answer
the questions:

58
1. What is the difference between the discovery and the invention?
2. Who is the man in the picture? What is he famous for? Do you
know any stories about him?

Thomas Alva Edison


Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847. He was sick a lot when
he was young. Edison’s mother taught him lessons at home and only
studied the things he wanted to know. At age ten, he read his first sci-
ence book. After he read the book, he built a laboratory in his house.
Soon, Edison started to invent things. He was interested in the tel-
egraph and electricity. At age twenty-three, he made a special tel-
egraphic machine and sold it for a lot of money. It is said that he
planned to ask two or three thousand dollars for his invention. He was
invited to the meeting of businessmen who were interested in buying
his invention and was very nervous to name a price.
«It is no use asking us a big price» – said one of the business-
men, – «we’ve already decided how much we will pay. Forty thousand
dollars is our limit.» With this money, he was now- free to invent all
the time.
Edison started his own laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He
hired mechanics and chemists to help him. He worked day and night.
Once, he worked on forty-five inventions at the same time. Edison did
not sleep very much, but he took naps. He often fell asleep with his
clothes on. One day, he even fell asleep in the closet!
Did you know Edison invented wax paper, fire alarms, the battery,
and motion pictures? All his inventions were the result of hard work. But
his favorite invention was the phonograph, or a record player. He invented
the phonograph in 1876. His other famous invention was the light bulb.
Edison died in 1931, at the age of eighty-four. He had over 1,300 inven-
tions to his name! Many people say that Edison was a genius – one of the
smartest people in the world! According to him, the idea that a genius
works only by inspiration was absurd. «Genius is 2 percent inspiration
and 98 percent perspiration,» – he often said.
Milanda Brokal Introduction the USA “A Cultural Reader”
XVIII. Match the words and their suitable definitions given below:
Prominent, to be expelled, fortress, science, scientist, scientific, found-
er, nuclear, to establish, incredible, to devote to, defence, entirely, technol-
ogy, common knowledge, device, to transmit, to prove, to disprove, capable,
to list.
59
to mention or write things one after another; something that eve-
ryone knows; well-known; to be officially forced to leave a place, or-
ganization, or school; able to do something; a strong building used for
defending a place; to prove that something is not correct; the study
and knowledge of the physical world and its behaviour; to provide
evidence that shows that something is true; advanced scientific knowl-
edge; someone who is trained in science; to send an electronic signal
such as a radio or telephone signal; relating to science, or based on
the methods of science; a person who starts an organization or institu-
tion; relating to energy that is produced by changing the structure of
the central part of an atom; completely; to make something to start to
exist or start to happen; protection; surprising or difficult to believe; to
spend a lot of time or effort doing something.
XIX. Complete the sentences with one of the following words:
Invent hired closet nap laboratory light bulb
1) Edison liked to ___ things.
2) Edison worked in his______day and night.
3) When you take a short sleep, it is a ____.
4) A place where you hang your clothes is a ____.
5) Edison paid chemists and mechanics to work for him. He ____
them.
6) When the lamp in your house does not work, you may need to
change the ____.
XX. Choose right answer.
1) When Edison was a boy, he ___.
а) made a lot of money
b) built a laboratory in his house
c) invented motion pictures
2) In his laboratory at Menlo Park, Edison ___.
a) worked day and night
b) slept most of the time
c) did not work
3) Edison invented ___.
a) only a record player
b) his name
c) more than 1,300 things
XXI. Number the sentences 1 through 7 to show the correct order.
- He died in 1931, at the age of eighty-four.

60
- With this money he started to invent.
- Edison was ten when he read his first science book.
- In 1876, he invented the phonograph.
- After that, he built a laboratory in his house.
- When he was twenty-three, he made a lot of money.
- He started his own laboratory at Menlo Park.
XXII. Complete the sentences with the Past Tense forms of the
verbs in brackets. EXAMPLE: Edison started his own laboratory in
Menlo Park (start).
1) Edison ____ the light bulb (invent).
2) When he was twenty-three, he____a special machine (make).
3) He______this invention for a lot of money (sell).
4) Edison______chemists to help him (hire).
5) Edison______day and night (work).
6) He often______naps (take).
XXIII. Write an essay about famous scientists and outstanding
graduates of your School.

Спряжение глаголов в Present Perfect


число

утвердительная вопросительная отрицательная


Лицо

форма форма форма


1 I have asked Have I asked I have not asked
2 You have asked Have you asked? You have not asked
един

He He He
3 She has asked Has she asked? She has not asked
It it It
1 We have asked Have we asked? We have not asked
множ

2 You have asked Have you asked? You have not asked
3 They have asked Have they asked? They have not asked

XXIV. Give news about yourself and other people to a friend of yours.
Use the words given to make sentences in the Present Perfect Tense.
1. Example: My sister/get married. —My sister has got married
1. I/find/a new job. 2. My father/retire. 3. Jane and Mike/go to
work/to Australia. 4. I/buy/a new motorcycle. 5. My niece/start to
walk. 6. The Browns/move/to another town. 7. Jack’s Grandpa/die.

61
8. I/join/another football club. 9. Nick and Rita/divorce. 10. John/re-
ceive/ a fortune, he/become/a millionaire.
XXV. Ask your friend who is in the USA questions about what
he or his relatives have seen or done (use the Present Perfect Tense).
Example: You/have/a good journey? — Have you had a good
journey?
1. You/already/see/the Great American Lakes? 2. You/be/to
Broadway? 3. Mike/manage to see/the Statue of Liberty? 3. What/
new places/your brother/show to you? 4. Ann/visit/the White House?
5. Your father/get/ promotion? 6. You/receive/your driving license?
7. Your brother/change/a car? 8. What kind of house/you/buy.
XXVI. Say what you or your friends have not done yet ( this year,
month, etc.).
Example: I/not be/to the theatre/this month. — I have not been to
the theatre this month.
1. Sue/not read/Gone with the Wind/yet. 2. Jill/not enter/London
University/this year. 3. Larry/not produce/ a new film/yet. 4. Peggy
and Paul/not move/to another flat this month. 5. Pete/not finish/his
project yet. 6. My cousin/not get married/this month. 7. Mrs. Brown/
not recover/yet. 8. They/not go/on business/this week.
XXVII. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense,
either the Present Indefinite Tense, the Present Continuous Tense or
the Present Perfect Tense.
1. As a rule, I (have) porridge for breakfast, but this morning
I (order) an omelet. 2. This is the house where I (live). I (live) here
since childhood. 3. Stop smoking! The room (be) full of smoke which
(come) from your pipe. Usually nobody (smoke) here as Mother (not
let) it. 4. I (write) letters home once a week, but I (not write) one this
week, so my next letter must be rather long. 5. No wonder she (look)
tired after the strain under which she (be) for a month. 6. Why you
(not shave) this morning? — I (shave) every other day. 7. Research
(show) that lots of people (absorb) new information more efficiently
at some times of day than at others. A biological rhythm (affect) dif-
ferent people in different ways. 8.1 just (look) at the barometer and
(see) that it (fall) very quickly. 9. Don’t shout so loudly. Father (not
finish) work and he hates if anybody (make a noise) while he (work).
10. I regularly (see) him at the tram stop, but I (not see) him these
two or three days.

62
XXVIII. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense,
either the Past Indefinite Tense or the Present Perfect Tense.
1. You (find) the money which you (lose) yesterday? — Yes, I
(find) it in the pocket of my coat when I (come) home. 2. The rain (stop)
but a strong wind is still blowing. 3. You (see) Nick today? — Yes, but
he already (leave). 4. We never (see) him. We don’t even know what
he looks like. 5. She (meet) them in the Globus theatre last afternoon.
6. How long you (know) him? — We (meet) in 1996, but we (not see)
each other since last autumn. 7. He (live) in St. Petersburg for two
years and then (go) to Siberia. 8. When he (arrive)? — He (arrive) at
2 o’clock. 9. I (read) this book when I was at school. 10.1 can’t go with
you because I (not finish) my lessons yet. 11. The clock is slow. — It
isn’t slow, it (stop). 12. He (leave) for Canada two years ago and I (not
see) him since. 13. This is the fifth cup of coffee you (have) today! I4.lt
is the most beautiful place I (visit). 16 I (not see) Nick lately. Anything
(happen) to him? — Yes, he (get) into an accident three weeks ago.
Since that time he (be) in hospital. 16. Why you (switch on) the light? It
isn’t dark yet. 17. He (do) everything already? — Yes, he (do) his part
of work long ago. 18. The last post (come)? — Yes, it (come) half an
hour ago. 19. When you (meet) him last? 20. You ever (be) to Japan? —
Yes, I (be) there the year when there was an earthquake. 21. The discus-
sion already (begin). Why are you always late? 22. Why you (take) my
pen while I was out? You (break) it. 23. You never (tell) me why you’re
called Tony when your name is John. 24, Her father (die) when she was
a small girl. 25. They (not meet) since they (leave) school. 26. The rain
(stop). Come out, I want to speak with you.
XXIX. Transform the sentences, using Present Perfect.
1. I am eating my breakfast. 2. We are drinking water. 3. He is
bringing them some meat and vegetables. 4. You are putting the dishes
on the table. 5. They are having tea. 6. She is taking the dirty plates
from the table. 7. The children are putting on their coats. 8. The pupils
are writing a dictation. 9. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult
problem. 10. I am learning a poem. 11. She is telling them an interest-
ing story. 12. Kate is sweeping the floor. 13. The waiter is putting a
bottle of lemonade in front of him. 14. Susan is making a new dress for
her birthday party. 15. She is opening a box of chocolates.
XXX. Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense,
either the Present Continuous Tense or the Present Perfect Tense.

63
1. What are you (to talk) about? 2. We have just (to talk) about it.
3. He has just (to say) something about it. 4. She is (to tell) them some
interesting story. 5. He has (to tell) us nothing about it, 6. She has (to
tell) them some stories about dogs. 7. We have (to have) two lessons
today. 8. They are (to have) a meeting. 9. She has not (to speak) yet.
10. They have (to ask) me several questions. 11. He has already (to
learn) the rule. 12. I am (to write) an exercise. 13. What is he (to do)? —
He is (to read) a newspaper. 14. Have you (to read) any stories by Jack
London? 15. What are you (to do) here? — I am (to write) a letter to
my friends. 16. Who has (to write) this article? 17. What language are
you (to study)? 18 We have already (to learn) a lot of English words.
19. What is she (to teach) them? 20. Who has (to teach) you to do it?
21. He has just (to do) something for us. 22. Have you (to find) the
book? 23. What are you (to look) for?
XXXI. Translate, using Present Perfect or Present Continuous.
1. Я только что позавтракал. 2. Он уже позавтракал.
3. Мы еще не завтракали. 4. Они все еще пьют чай в столовой.
5. Я уже сделал свои уроки. 6. Он все еще делает свои уроки.
7. У нас сегодня было три урока. 8. У них только что было собрание.
9. Она еще не читала этой книги. 10. Она все еще читает. 11. Кто
это написал? 12. Что вы ему написали?
XXXII. Translate, using Present Perfect or Past Simple.
1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows
so much because he (to travel) a lot. 3. I (to see) Pete today. 4. She
(to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours
ago. 6. I just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already (to decide)
what to do with the books. 8. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their
grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in
France. 10. She (to live) there last year. 11. The rain (to stop) and the
sun is shining in the sky again. 12. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago.
13. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 14. I (to buy) a pair of gloves yester-
day. 15. The wind (to blow) off the man’s hat, and he cannot catch it.
16. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 17. The wind
(to change) in the morning.
XXXIII. Translate, using Present Perfect or Past Simple.
1. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk.
2. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 3. He just (to come) home.
4. He (to come) home a minute ago. 5. Nick (to play) football yesterday.

64
6. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her home-
work. 7. I (to read) this book last year. 8. I (to read) this book this year.
9. I never (to be) to Washington. 10. You ever (to be) to New York?
11. You ever (to see) the eruption of a volcano? 12. I (not yet to eat) today.
13. He (not to eat) yesterday. 14. You (to play) the piano yesterday?
15. You (to play) the piano today? 16. What you (to prepare) for today?
17. Look at this bird-house. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it
last Sunday. 18. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 19. You
(to see) Mary today? 20. When you (to see) Mary? — I (to see) her last
week. 21. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 22. Look
at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 23. He is not at school today, he
(to fall) ill. — When he (to fall) ill? — He (to fall) ill yesterday.
XXXIV. Translate, using Present Perfect or Past Simple.
1. The sun (not to rise) yet, but the sky in the east is getting
lighter every minute. 2. I (to see) you walking along the street the
other day with a heavy bag. 3. I (not to read) the newspaper today. 4.
It is very late, and trams (to stop) running: we must find a taxi to get
home. 5. How many times you (to be) to St. Petersburg? 6. At last I
(to translate) this article: now I shall have a little rest. 7. We (to go)
to the country yesterday, but the rain (to spoil) all the pleasure. 8.
My watch was going in the morning, but now it (to stop). 9. The lec-
ture (not yet to begin) and the students are talking in the classroom.
10. She just (to go) out. 11. She (to leave) the room a moment ago.
12. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 13. When it all (to happen)?
14. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o’clock the weath-
er (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 15. Show me the
dress which you (to make). 16. Oh, how dark it is! A large black
cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes.
17. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor
because of the wind. 18. When you (to open) the window? — I (to
open) it ten minutes ago.
XXXV. Study the information about the nature of the work of en-
gineers, specialty classification, and their working conditions. Think
about the area you want to be employed in. Speak about your choice.

Engineering Specialties
Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to de-
velop economical solutions to technical problems. Their work is the
link between perceived social needs and commercial applications.
65
Engineers consider many factors when developing a new prod-
uct. For example, in developing an industrial robot, engineers pre-
cisely specify the functional requirements; design and test the robot’s
components; integrate the components to produce the final design; and
evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety.
This process applies to the development of many different products,
such as chemicals, computers, gas turbines, helicopters, and toys.
Most engineers specialize. There are 17 engineering specialties
covered in the Federal Government’s Standard Occupational Classi-
fication system.
Aerospace engineers design, develop, and test aircraft, space-
craft, and missiles and supervise the manufacture of these products.
Agricultural engineers apply knowledge of engineering technol-
ogy and science to agriculture and the efficient use of biological re-
sources.
Biomedical engineers develop devices and procedures that solve
medical and health-related problems by combining their knowledge of
biology and medicine with engineering principles and practices.
Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry to solve prob-
lems involving the production or use of chemicals and biochemicals.
Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads,
buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sew-
age systems.
Computer hardware engineers research, design, develop, test,
and oversee the installation of computer hardware and supervise its
manufacture and installation.
Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the man-
ufacture of electrical equipment.
Electronics engineers, except computer, are responsible for a
wide range of technologies, from portable music players to the global
positioning system (GPS), which can continuously provide the lo-
cation of a vehicle. Electronics engineers design, develop, test, and
supervise the manufacture of electronic equipment such as broadcast
and communications systems.
Environmental engineers develop solutions to environmental
problems using the principles of biology and chemistry. They are in-
volved in water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal,
and public health issues.

66
Health and safety engineers promote worksite or product safety
by applying knowledge of industrial processes and mechanical, chem-
ical, and human performance principles (e.g. identifying and measur-
ing potential risks of fires or the dangers involved in the handling of
toxic chemicals).
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the
basic factors of production – people, machines, materials. informa-
tion, and energy-to make a product or to provide a service.
Marine engineers and naval architects are involved in the design,
construction, and maintenance of ships, boats, and related equipment.
Materials engineers are involved in the development, processing,
and testing of the materials used to create a range of products, from
computer chips and television screens to golf clubs and snow skis.
Mechanical engineers research, develop, design, manufacture,
and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. They
work on power-producing machines such as electric generators, inter-
nal combustion engines, and steam and gas turbines.
Mining and geological engineers, including mining safety engi-
neers, find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and minerals for use by
manufacturing industries and utilities.
Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instru-
ments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and
radiation.
Petroleum engineers search the world for reservoirs containing
oil or natural gas.

Working Conditions
Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or indus-
trial plants. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites and
oil and gas exploration and production sites, where they monitor or
direct operations or solve onsite problems. Some engineers travel ex-
tensively to plants or worksites.
Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead-
lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job, requiring
engineers to work longer hours.
A bachelor’s degree is required for most entry-level jobs.
Starting salaries are significantly higher than those of college
graduates in other fields.

67
Continuing education is critical for engineers wishing to enhance
their value to employers as technology evolves.
XXXVI. Read the text, while reading pay attention to different
categories of skills and competences an engineer should have to com-
ply with demands of employers in modern industry.

Occupational Standards
The Engineering Council’s Standards and Routes to Registration
(SARTOR) details competencies required for engineers.
1) exercise independent technical judgment at an appropriate
level;
2) assume responsibility, as an individual or as a member of a
team, for the management of resources and/or guidance of technical
staff;
3) design, develop, manufacture, commission, operate and main-
tain products, equipment, processes and services;
4) actively participate in financial, statutory and commercial con-
siderations and in the creation of cost effective systems and proce-
dures;
5) utilize effective communication skills and actively participate
in human and industrial relations;
6) make a personal commitment to live by the appropriate code
of professional conduct which recognizes obligations to society, the
profession and the environment.
Educators who train engineers are faced with the problem of sat-
isfying the requirements of the QAA (Quality Assurance Agency) and
employers. The following skills and knowledge have to be acquired
by future technical experts.
(A) Knowledge and Understanding
1) develop an understanding of engineering and commercial
principles and concepts;
2) maintain and manage current technology efficiently;
3) take up a role in society with regard to economic and environ-
ment sustainability;
4) practice codes of professional conduct, recognizing obliga-
tions to society, the profession and the environment;
5) extend specialist knowledge in the application of new tech-
nologies.

68
(B) Intellectual (thinking) skills
1) exercise independent technical judgment at an appropriate level;
2) design, develop and operate products, equipment, processes
and services;
3) actively participate in financial statutory and commercial con-
siderations and the creation of cost effective systems and procedure;
4) use a range of thought processes to identify problems and for-
mulate a number of possible solution.
(C) Practical Skills
1) use laboratory scientific equipment and instrumentation com-
petently and safely;
2) observe, record, manipulate and evaluate data;
3) demonstrate the process of experimentation, prototype build
and manufacturing;
4) prepare descriptive and interpretive technical reports;
(D) Transferable/Key Skills
1) assume responsibility, as an individual or as a member of a team,
for the management of resources and/or guidance of technical staff;
2) utilize effective communication skills and actively participate
in human and industrial relations;
3) utilize Information Technology in the preparation, process and
presentation of information;
4) apply numerical skills in the collection and recording of data,
interpretation and presentation of data and the solving of problems;
5) manage own roles, responsibilities and time in achieving
objectives, learning, performance, new and changing situations and
contexts.
XXXVII. Work in mini-groups. Make up your own hierarchy of
skills and competences necessary for an engineer and show it using
diagrams and pie charts.
XXXVIII. Discuss the necessity of different skills mentioned
above for you as a future engineer. Share your points of view with
your group mates. Say whether all the skills are necessary for a per-
son who wants to stay competitive.
XXXIX. Discuss the following questions with your classmates.
1. Why have you decided to become an engineer? What is your
personal motivation to become an engineer? Use the verbs pertaining
to the semantic sphere of wish (possible variants are given in brackets)

69
- wish: (wish to cure diseases or combat hunger or reduce pollution);
- dream: (dream of developing the next laser, transistor, or vehi-
cle for space travel);
- imagine: (imagine building companies that take advantage of
new engineering capabilities; imagine educating people about science
or engineering in schools or through the media);
- hope: (hope to formulate theories that will lead to new ways of
thinking about the world);
- want: (want to provide advice or shape public policies on issues
of direct relevance to science or engineering).
2. Is it your lifetime dream? Have you ever faced the choice: to
study Humanities or enter the world of Sciences?
3. Do you think that modern society experiences a lack of
skilled engineers? Or vice versa there is no need in so much techni-
cal staff nowadays as everything is computerized and one good tech-
nician is enough to operate complicated electronic systems? Give
your reason.
4. Do engineers work only in the spheres of science and technol-
ogy? What specialists are in great demand on the market? Express
your point of view.
5. Dwell upon skills, habits and competences that are the barest
necessity for engineers. Think about requirements an engineer has to
meet while applying for a job.
6. Make a comment on the quotations given below.
• “Modern science and techniques have taught mankind at least
one lesson: Nothing is impossible.” Lewis Mumford (American phi-
losopher)
• “It is only when they go wrong that machines remind you how
powerful they are.”Clive James (Australian critic)
• “A good scientist is a person with original ideas. A good engi-
neer is a person who makes a design that works with as few original
ideas as possible. There are no prima donnas in engineering.” Freeman
Dyson (English physicist)
XL. Discuss the questions below with your classmates.
1. What is ethics in your opinion? What is professional ethics?
2. Which of the views expressed below do you agree with? Why?
• You should always apply your own ethical standards when do-
ing business, pursuing science or doing anything else.

70
• All you have to do is to adhere to conventional standards of
morality in your professional field.
• Your only ethical obligation is to act within the law.
• Telling only half the truth in advertisements, or exaggerating a
great deal, or keeping quiet about the bad aspects of a product conform
to the basic rules of business – to increase profits, therefore all these
things are justifiable.
3. Do you agree that all the spheres of life (presented in the chart
below) are related to ethics? Give examples of issues that can illustrate
this connection (the first one is done for you).

XLI. Dilemma and Decision.


Work in groups of 3-5 students (“think-tanks”). Look at one of the
situations below and decide how to deal with the dilemma: brainstorm
ideas and choose the best one for the situation. Remember that you are
accountable both to the general public and to your shareholders.
When you are ready, report the final decision to other groups of
the class. Be ready to answer any questions and reason your views.
The rest of the class should vote on whether they think your decision
to be the right one.

71
Situation I
The Chemical Company
You work for the chemical company in one of the regions of
your country. Chemists working in your research lab have recently
discovered small traces of chemicals in samples routinely taken from
the river near the plant.
You are aware of the fact that these substances can have harm-
ful effect on the life in the river. In case the chemicals are accu-
mulated in the fish, it can cause people serious illnesses through
consumption of contaminated fish from the river. At the same time
you know that the amount of the chemicals in the river is so minute
that at present it presents no health hazard for people swimming
and bathing in it.
You do not know how exactly the chemicals got into the water:
through bad purification systems or as a result of accidental release. If
the story gets out, it can ruin you. You could go to public, investigate
the case and limit the damage to your business or you could keep the
whole thing quiet and continue to produce and sell the goods trying to
find out the reason for the contamination.
Situation 2
The Chain of Restaurants
You work for the chain of restaurants in your city. You have
been buying vegetables (carrots, onions, cabbage, tomatoes) from
the local farmers for quite a number of years. But recently the qual-
ity of the vegetables has become a little worse and the farmers have
several times failed to deliver the products in time. They say it is
because of bad weather conditions (a number of storms which are
usually not typical for the region) that influenced the quality and
amount of produce. They also say that they need some time to cope
with the difficulties.
You can continue working with them despite the current prob-
lem, but in this case you can lose money (due to the necessity to
change the menu to adapt to the new scheme of vegetables supply and
worse quality). You can stop buying vegetables from the local farmers
and sign a contract with foreign food producers, whose quality and
price meet you requirements, but in this case the local economy and
agriculture will not benefit and it will be difficult for the farmers to
recover without your support.

72
Situation 3
The Metal Processing Company
You work for a large metal processing enterprise which is plan-
ning to set up a new- processing plant. You have been informed that
a suitable place has been found in one of the distant regions of your
country. The price is reasonable and local labour costs would be far
lower than in your region, taking into account extremely high unem-
ployment rate.
Unfortunately, however, the place is one of great scenic beauty
and environmental value. The natural habitat of many rare species of
wildlife would be harmed, if not totally destroyed, by the building
of the plant. The authorities of that region would not be against your
plans to build, as job creation is the biggest priority compared to na-
ture conservation and environment protection.
XLII. Study the text. While reading focus on different types of
motivations people have when they enter the world of engineering.
Careers in Science or Engineering
People seek careers in science or engineering for many reasons.
Some have specific goals: they wish to cure diseases or combat hun-
ger or reduce pollution; or they dream of developing the next laser,
transistor, or vehicle for space travel; or they imagine building compa-
nies that take advantage of new engineering capabilities. Some choose
careers in science or engineering because they are curious about the
natural world. Others are motivated by the excitement and beauty of
the intellectual world and hope to formulate theories that will lead to
new ways of thinking about the world. Still others imagine educating
people about science or engineering in schools or through the media:
they want to provide advice or shape public policies on issues of direct
relevance to science or engineering. Each of these motivations is le-
gitimate, each is valuable, and each flows naturally from an education
in science and engineering.
Careers in science and engineering are essentially hope-filled ac-
tivities that can improve people’s lives and result in knowledge that all
people can share. As the techniques and products of science and tech-
nology have become more central to modern society, a background
in science and engineering has become essential to more and more
careers. In fact, degrees in science and engineering are becoming as
fundamental to modern life as the traditional liberal-arts degree. The

73
contributions of scientists and engineers already extend beyond re-
search and development and throughout the realms of teaching, busi-
ness, industry, and government. People with bachelor’s, master’s, and
doctoral degrees in science or engineering are forming companies,
managing businesses, practicing law, formulating policy, consulting,
and running for political office. They are forming global communities
of common interests that transcend the differences among individuals,
corporate activities, or nations.
XLIII. Dwell upon the following topics, summarizing the ideas
from the text and taking into consideration your own experience.
• What are the specific goals people have when they seek careers
in science or engineering? Enumerate them. Add your own ideas to the
list. Share them with your partners.
• Interpret the following statement: “Others are motivated by the
excitcment and beauty of the intellectual world”. Develop the idea of
taking the delight in performing scientific work. Have you ever had
such kind of experience? Share your experience with group mates.
• Are all motivations mentioned in the text legitimate or some
of them are groundless from your point of view? Express your
opinion.
• What is the social utility of careers in science and engineering?
• Are people with bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in
science or engineering employed solely in the area of technology?
XLIV. Read and translate the dialogue ‘Looking for a job”
Interviewer: How are you today?
Candidate: I’m fine, thank you. And you?
Interviewer: Isn’t this great weather we’re having?
Candidate: Yes, it’s wonderful. I love this time of year.
Interviewer: Did you have any trouble finding us?
Candidate: No, the office isn’t too difficult to find.
Interviewer: Tell me about yourself.
Candidate: I was born and raised in Milan, Italy. I attended the
University of Milan and received my master’s degree in Economics. I
have worked for 12 years as a financial consultant in Milan for various
companies including Rossi Consultants, Quarto Insurance and Bardi
and Sons. I enjoy playing tennis in my free time and learning languages.
(another variant: I’ve just graduated from the University of Singapore

74
with a degree in Computers. During the summers, I worked as a systems
administrator for a small company to help pay for my education.).
Interviewer: What type of position are you looking for?
Candidate: I’m interested in an entry level (beginning) position.
(other variants: I’m looking for a position in which I can utilize my
experience./ I would like any position for which I qualify.)
Interviewer: Are you interested in a full-time or part-time po-
sition?
Candidate: I am more interested in a full-time position. However,
I would also consider a part-time position.
Interviewer: Can you tell me about your responsibilities at your
last job?
Candidate: I advised customers on financial matters. After I con-
sulted the customer, I completed a customer inquiry form and cata-
logued the information in our database. I then collaborated with col-
leagues to prepare the best possible package for the client. The clients
were then presented with a summarized report on their financial activi-
ties that I formulated on a quarterly basis.
Interviewer: What is your greatest strength?
Candidate: I am an excellent communicator. People trust me and
come to me for advice. One afternoon, my colleague was involved
with a troublesome (difficult) customer who felt he was not being
served well. I made the customer a cup of coffee and invited both
my colleague and the client to my desk where we solved the problem
together.
Interviewer: What is your greatest weakness?
Candidate: I tend to spend too much time making sure the cus-
tomer is satisfied. However, I began setting time-limits for myself, if
I noticed this happening.
Interviewer: Why do you want to work for Smith and Sons?
Candidate: After following your firms progress for the last 3
years, I am convinced that Smith and Sons are becoming one of the
market leaders and I would like to be part of the team.
Interviewer: When can you begin?
Candidate: Immediately.

75
UNIT 5
COUNTRIES AND CULTURES

Topics for discussions: Modern languages of intercultural


communication. The differences between British English and
American English. Way of life in different countries and cultures.
World is a «global village». Laws of society in different countries.
Advantages and disadvantages of urbanization. Russia. Moscow.
Great Britain. London.
Grammar: The Past Continuous Tense.
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It oc-
cupies about one-seventh of the earth’s surface. It covers the eastern
part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17
million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3
oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia
borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azer-
baijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States,
Belorussia, the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of
scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south,
plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, high-
lands and deserts in the east.
There are two great plains in Russia: the Great Russian Plain and
the West Siberian Lowland. There are several mountain chains on the
territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others.
The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
There are over two million rivers in Russia. The biggest river, the
Volga, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers – the Ob,
the Yenisei and the Lena – flow from the south to the north. The Amur
in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world’s deepest lake (1,600
meters) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic Sea, but
there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the
lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the
bottom.
Russia has one-sixth of the world’s forests. They are concentrat-
ed in the European north of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East.

76
On the vast territory of the country there are various types of cli-
mate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. In the middle
of the country the climate is temperate and continental. Russia is very
rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral
resources.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The Head of State is the Pres-
ident. The legislative powers are exercised by the Duma.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is its largest political, sci-
entific, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian
cities.
At present, the political and economic situation in the country is
rather complicated. There are a lot of problems in the national econo-
my of the Russian Federation. The industrial production is decreasing.
The prices are constantly rising, the rate of inflation is very high.
But in spite of the problems Russia is facing at present, there are
a lot of opportunities for this country to become one of the leading
countries in the world. I’m sure that we, the younger generation, can
do very much to make Russia as strong and powerful as it used to be.
Exercises
I. Give English equivalents for the following:
занимать, поверхность, восточный, северный, общая площадь,
квадратный километр, омывать, граничить с, морская граница, едва
ли найдется страна, разнообразие, множество, пейзаж, раститель-
ность, степь, равнина, средняя полоса, тундра, тайга, нагорье, высо-
когорная местность, пустыня, цепь, разделять, впадать, сибирский,
считать, дно, сосредотачиваться, концентрироваться, европейский,
обширный, территория, различный, климат, климатический пояс,
арктический, субтропический, умеренный, континентальный,
нефть, уголь, железная руда, медь, полезные ископаемые.
II. Read the following information.
Ancient Rus
Since the 6th century, Slavic tribes have played an important role
in history. Each tribe lived by itself and at the head of it was a leader
who was called he prince. The main occupations of the Ancient Slavs
were agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing. First they had
a primitive communal system; later when private property, military
campaigns and the expansion of production appeared, they formed the
first Slavonic State, known as Rus.

77
The Ancient Russian State was ruled by the princes and boyars
who were rich landowners. Each prince had his own bodyguard. All
the rest of the people had to pay a tribute to him.
There were 3 State Centers on the territory of Ancient Rus:
- Novgorod Principality;
- Vladimir-Suzdal Principality;
- Galitzk-Volynsk Principality.
The tribes of the Eastern Slavs united in the 9th century and
formed a state which was called Rus. In history, Rus was known as
Kievan Rus, since Kiev was for many centuries the capital of the state.
When Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev, baptized himself in 988,
he forced the Kievans to accept Christianity. Christianity helped unite
the Russian people and develop the written language. It also helped
introduce Byzantine culture to Russia.
Russian matryoshka
Russian matryoshka appeared in Russia from Japan in 1890. It was
a wooden figure of the wise man Fukurumy – a doll with a long head.
Inside the doll you could find several figures – a family of the wise man.

Спряжение глаголов в Past Continuous


Форма
Число
Лицо

утвердительная вопросительная отрицательная

1 I was asking Was I asking? I was not asking


2 You were asking Were you asking? You were not asking
ед. He Was He
3 She was asking he, she, it She was not asking
It asking? It
1 We were asking Were we asking? We were not asking
мн. 2 You were asking Were you asking? You were not asking
3 They were Were they They were not
asking asking? asking

III. Open the brackets and use either the Past Indefinite or the
Past Continuous.
I. We (walk) in silence when he suddenly (ask) me to help him.
2. I just (have) breakfast when the telephone (ring). When I came back
to my coffee, it (be) cold. 3. When I (finish) my letter in the hall, a
tall beautiful woman with red hair (enter). A dog (follow) her. 4. Ann

78
(drop) two cups while she (wash up) last night, but neither of the cups
(break). 5.1 (walk) along the street watching what (go on) around me.
Fast cars (rush) in both directions and it (be) impossible to cross the
street. 6. The old man who (sit) on the bench beside me (keep) silence.
Then suddenly he (turn round) to me and (begin) to speak. 7. I (stand)
near the fence when suddenly 1 (hear) the voices. 8. He well (remem-
ber) the day when he first (go) to school. 9. We (talk) about Jim when
he (run) into the room. 10. The day was marvelous: the sun (shine),
the birds (sing) so we (decide) to go for a walk. 11. Miss Brown’s
telephone (ring) when she (dress). 12. I (light) my pipe and (nod) to
him to show that I (listen). 13. When he (come) into the office the sec-
retary (do) a crosswords puzzle. 14. Why you (not listen) to me while
I (speak)? 15. He (wait) for her, but she never (come).
IV. Open the brackets and use either Present Continuous or Past
Continuous.
1. I (to write) an English exercise now. 2. I (to write) an English
exercise at this time yesterday. 3. My little sister (to sleep) now. 4.
My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday. 5. My friends (not to
do) their homework now. They (to play) volley-ball. 6. My friends
(not to do) their homework at seven o’clock yesterday. They (to play)
volley-ball. 7. You (to eat) ice-cream now? 8. You (to eat) ice-cream
when I rang you up yesterday? 9. What your father (to do) now? 10.
What your father (to do) from eight till nine yesterday? 11. Why she
(to cry) now? 12. Why she (to cry) when I saw her yesterday? 13. She
(to read) the whole evening yesterday. 14. She (not to read) now, 15.
Now she (to go) to school. 16. What you (to do) now? – I (to drink)
tea. 17. You (to drink) tea at this time yesterday? – No, I (not to drink)
tea at this time yesterday, I (to eat) a banana 18. My sister is fond of
reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, and now she (to
read) again, 19. Look! My cat (to play) with a ball. 20. When 1 went
out into the garden, the sun (to shine) and birds (to sing) in the trees.
V. Open the brackets and use either Present Continuous or Past
Continuous.
1. I (to play) computer games yesterday. 2. I (to play) computer
games at five o’clock yesterday. 3. He (to play) computer games from
two till three yesterday. 4. We (to play) computer games the whole
evening yesterday. 5. What Nick (to do) when you came to his place?
6. What you (to do) when I rang you up? 7. I (not to sleep) at nine

79
o’clock yesterday. 8. What he (to do) yesterday? – He (to read) a book.
9. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday? – He (to read) a book.
10. She (to sleep) when you came home? 11. My brother (not to play)
tennis yesterday. He (to play) tennis the day before yesterday. 12. My
sister (not to play) the piano at four o’clock yesterday. She (to play)
the piano the whole evening. 13. When I came into the kitchen, mother
(to cook). 14. She (to cook) the whole day yesterday. 15. We (to wash)
the floor in our flat yesterday. 16. We (to wash) the floor in our flat
from three till four yesterday. 17. You (to do) your homework yester-
day? 18. You (to do) your homework from eight till ten yesterday? 19.
Why she (to sleep) at seven o’clock yesterday? 20. He (to sit) at the
table the whole evening yesterday.
VI. Open the brackets and use either Present Continuous or Past
Continuous.
1. I (to go) to the cinema yesterday. 2. I (to go) to the cinema at
four o’clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to the cinema when you met me.
4. I (to do) my homework the whole evening yesterday. 5.1 (to do)
my homework when mother came home. 6.I (to do) my homework
yesterday. 7. I (to do) my homework from five till eight yesterday. 8.
I (to do) my homework at six o’clock yesterday. 9. I (not to play) the
piano yesterday. I (to write) a letter to my friend. 10. I (not to play)
the piano at four o’clock yesterday. I (to read) a book. 11. He (not to
sleep) when father came home. He (to do) his homework. 12. When
we were in the country last summer, I (to go) to the wood one day. In
the wood I (to find) a little fox cub. I (to bring) it home. I (to decide)
to tame the cub. Every day I (to feed) it and (to take) care of it. I (to
tame) it the whole summer. Now the fox cub is quite tame. It lives in
my house. 13. When I (to go) to school the day before yesterday, I met
Mike and Pete. They (to talk) and (to laugh). They told me a funny
story. Soon I (to laugh), too. I still (to laugh) when we came to school.
After school I (to tell) this story at home. My father and mother (to
like) it very much.
VII. Choose the right variant using the Present Perfect, the Past
Indefinite or the Past Continuous Tense.
While I (was waiting/waited/have waited) for him to call up, he
(had/was having/have had) a good time in the bar. 2. She (has written/
wrote/was writing) this exercise yesterday at 8 o’clock. 3. He (has
invited/was inviting/ invited) me to the party yesterday. 4. I (passed/

80
have passed/ was passing) my exam in history today. 5. He (read/has
read/ was reading) a book two days ago. 6. They (have seen/ saw/were
seeing) this film last week. 7. She (painted/has painted/was painting)
the picture when I came. 8. I (made/ have made/was making) my re-
port when you entered the hall. 9. They (learnt/were learning/have
learnt) the new words yesterday from three till seven. 10. It (rained/
has rained/was raining) this week. 11. She (was having/had/ has had)
a bath at seven o’clock last night. 12. She (was washing/washed/has
washed) dishes already.
VIII. Choose the right variant using Present, Past, Future Sim-
ple; Present, Past Continuous.
1. Look at these children: they (to skate) very well. 2. You (to
skate) last Sunday?-Yes, we (to skate) the whole day last Sunday. We
(to skate) again next Sunday. 3. My brother can skate very well. He (to
skate) every Sunday. 4. What you (to do) now? -I (to wash) the dishes.
5. What you (to do) at three o’clock yesterday? – I (to have) dinner.
6. You (to have) dinner now? 7. Where your brother (to work)? – He
(to work) at an institute. 8. Your grandmother (to sleep) when you (to
come) home yesterday? 9. What your brother (to do) tomorrow? 10. I
(not to go) to the shop yesterday. I (to go) to the shop tomorrow. 11.
Where Kate (to go) when you (to meet) her yesterday? 12. Every day
the boss (to enter) the office at nine o’clock. 13. Yesterday the boss
(to enter) the office at half past nine. 14. When the secretary (to come)
tomorrow? 15. At six o’clock yesterday we (to listen) to a very inter-
esting lecture. 16. When I (to enter) the office, the secretary (to type)
some letters. 17. My friend (to ring) me up at eight o’clock yesterday.
IX. Read the text and answer the questions.
Moscow
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commer-
cial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri
Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of
Moscow’s history. Gradually the city became more and more power-
ful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle of Rus-
sian lands for the liberation from the tartar yoke. In the 16th century
under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united
state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St Petersburg in
1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became
the main target of Napoleon’s attack. Three-quarters of the city was

81
destroyed by fire during Napoleon’s occupation, but by the mid-19th
century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October rev-
olution Moscow became the capital again.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area
is about nine hundred square kilometres (ancient Moscow occupied
the territory of the present-day Kremlin). The population of the city is
over 10 million.
Moscow is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The
heart of Moscow is Red Square. It has more historic associations
than any other place in Moscow. The Kremlin and St Basil’s Ca-
thedral (Vasily Blazheny) are masterpieces of ancient Russian
architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has
become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Krem-
lin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great,
the Palace of Congresses, the Tzar-Cannon and the Tzar-Bell, the
biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil’s Cathedral was
built in the mid-16th century hi memory of the victory over Ka-
zan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects
Barma and Postnik, because he didn’t want them to create another
masterpiece.
There are a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals,
churches and monuments in Moscow.
There are more than 80 museums in Moscow. The largest mu-
seums are the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov
Gallery. Other unique museums in Moscow include the All-Russia
Museum of Folk Arts, the Andrei Rublev Museum of Early Russian
Art, Alexei Bakhrushin Theatre Museum, Mikhail Glinka Museum of
Musical Culture and many others.
Moscow is famous for its theatres. The best-known of them is
the Bolshoi Opera House. Drama theatres and studios are also very
popular.
Moscow is a city of students. There are over 80 higher educa-
tional institutions in it, including several universities.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the
centre of political life of the country.

82
Questions
1. When was Moscow founded?
2. Is there a monument to Yuri Dolgoruky in Moscow? Where
is it?
3. When did Moscow become the capital?
4. In 1712 the capital was moved to St Petersburg, wasn’t it?
When did Moscow become the capital again?
5. Was ancient Moscow a big city? What’s the total area of mo-
dem Moscow?
6. What’s the population of Moscow?
7. What places of interest in the centre of Moscow do you know?
8. What do you know about St Basil’s Cathedral?
9. What can you see on the territory of the Kremlin?
10. What are the most famous Moscow museums? (art galleries?)
11. What theatres in Moscow do you know?
12. What is your favorite place in Moscow?
X. Give English equivalents for the following:
историк, принимать, постепенно, сильный, могуществен-
ный, освобождение, татарское иго, соединенный, объединенный,
оставаться, мишень, цель, объект, нападение, атака, разрушать,
пожар, оккупация, полностью, целиком, реставрировать, восста-
навливать, древний, шедевр, архитектура, архитектор, зодчий,
башня, легенда, ослепить, дворец, особняк, перестраивать, вос-
станавливать, уникальный, единственный в своем роде, драмати-
ческий, театр, театр-студия, высшее учебное заведение.
XI. Read the description and guess the place in Moscow.
1. It was founded by Lomonosov and named after its founder. It
is situated in Lenin Hills.
2. It was laid out in the 15 century and had different names. First
it was called “Torg”, which means a market-place, then “Pozhar”, that
is the place destroyed by a fire. It was also known as “Trinity” because
of the church located there. Now it is called “Red” meaning beautiful.
3. It is in the centre of Red Square by Kremlin wall. Behind it there
is a necropolis of some outstanding statesmen and political leaders.
4. There is a remarkable panorama painting of the Battle at Boro-
dino in this museum.
5. This museum contains ancient arms, the tsars’ crown jewels
and gifts from ambassadors.

83
6. It is world famous. It is associated with the names of famous
singers like Shalyapin, Sobinov, Vishnevskaya and well-known bal-
lerinas like Ulanova, Plisetskaya. Its repertoire includes more than 50
operas and ballets.
XII. Paraphrase the following sentences using the text:
Model: Many people know architectural monuments in Moscow. --
Moscow is famous for its architectural monuments.
1. Pavel Tretyakov presented his collection to Russia.
2. Moscow took the leading place in the political, economical
and cultural life of the Russian people during the whole history of
Russia.
3. Moscow is known as a city of theatres.
4. The Armory exists since the 16th century.
5. The State Tretyakov Gallery shows the whole history of Rus-
sian Art.
6. The most important and best-known place in Moscow is Red
Square.
7. Moscow became the main city of Napoleon’s attack.
8. Peter the Great ordered to convert workshops where arms and
weapons were made into a museum in 1720.
XIII. Read and translate the text.

Great Britain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is
situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large is-
lands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands.
Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.
The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England,
Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London,
Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of
England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland.
But in everyday speech ‘Great Britain’ is used to mean the United
Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by
the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great
Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of
Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south,

84
which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The
north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest – east,
centre and south-east – is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.
Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m).
There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very
long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest
and the most important one.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf
Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole
year round.
The UK is one of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is
over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.
The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as
one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of machinery, elec-
tronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief
industries of the country is shipbuilding.
The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is
the Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The coun-
try is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the
head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of
Lords and the House of Commons.
There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the La-
bour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties.

Exercises
XIV. Give English equivalents for the following:
быть расположенным, состоять из, общая площадь, кило-
метр, соответственно, включать, означать, разделять, омывать,
поверхность, менять(ся), разнообразить, гористый, долина,
огромный, равнина, глубокий, влиять, климат, мягкий, умерен-
ный, круглый год, население, городской, высокоразвитый, произ-
водитель, экспортер, машинное оборудование, электроника, тек-
стиль, самолеты, судоходство, оборудование, главный, основной,
кораблестроение, конституционная монархия, закон, по закону,
глава государства, королева, фактически, на практике, царство-
вать, править, выбирать, правительство, премьер-министр, во
главе, парламент, палата.
XV. Read the following information.

85
Customs and Traditions in the United Kingdom
Every nation and every country has its own customs and tradi-
tions. In Britain traditions play a more important part in the life of the
people than in other countries. Englishmen are proud of their tradi-
tions. Here are some Royal traditions.
The Trooping of the Colour.
The Queen is the only person in Britain with two birthdays. Her
real birthday is on the 21st of April, but she has an “official” birthday,
too. It is on the second Saturday in June. On Queen’s official birthday,
there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It’s
a big parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard
s’ Parade in London. A “regiment” of the Queen’s soldiers, the Guard
s, march in front of her. At the front of the parade is the regiment flag
or “colour”.
The Guards are trooping the colour. Thousands of Londoners and
visitors watch in Horse Guard s’ Parade. And millions of people at
home watch it on television.
The Changing of the Guard.
This happens every day at Buckingham Palace, the Queen’s
home in London. Soldiers stand in front of the palace. Each morning
these soldiers (the “guard”) change. One group leaves and another ar-
rives. In summer and winter tourists stand outside the palace at 11 :30
every morning and watch the Changing of the Guard.
Maundy Money.
Maundy Thursday is the day before Good Friday, at Easter.
On that day the Queen gives Maundy Money to a group of old peo-
ple. This tradition is over 1000 years old. At one time the king or
queen washed the feet of poor, old people on Maundy Thursday. That
stopped in 1754.
The Queen’s telegram.
This custom is not very old, but it’s for very old people. On his
or her one hundredth birthday, a British person gets a telegram from
the Queen.
The State Opening of Parliament.
Parliament, not the Royal Family, controls modern Britain. But
traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. She travels
from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold car-
riage – the Irish State Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen

86
sits on a “throne” in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen’s
Speech”. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown.
She wears other jewels from the Crown Jewels, too.
The Queen’s Christmas speech.
Now here is a modern royal custom. On Christmas Day at 3:00
in the afternoon, the Queen makes a speech on radio and TV. It’s ten
minutes long. In it she talks to the people of the United Kingdom and
the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth is a large group of coun-
tries. In the past they were all in the British Empire: Australia, In-
dia, Canada and New Zealand are among the 49 members. The BBC
(the British Broadcasting Corporation) sends the Queen’s speech to
every commonwealth country. In her speech the Queen talks about
the past year. The Queen doesn’t make her speech on Christmas Day.
She films it a few weeks before. Then she spends Christmas with her
family at Windsor Castle.
The Order of the Garter Ceremony.
The Order of the Garter Ceremony has a long history. King Ed-
ward III started the Order in the 14th century. At that time, the people
in the Order were the 24 bravest knights in England. Now the knights
of the Order are not all soldiers. They are members of the House of
Lords, church leaders or politicians. There are some foreign knights,
too. For example, the King of Norway, the Emperor of Japan. The
Queen is the Sovereign of the Order of the Garter.
Prince Charles and Prince Philip are Royal knights, and the
Queen Mother is a Lady of the Garter.
In June the Order has a traditional ceremony at Windsor Castle.
This is the Queen’s favourite castle. It is also the Home of the Garter.
All the knights walk from the castle to St. George Chapel, the royal
church at Windsor. They wear the traditional clothes or “robes” of the
Order. These robes are very heavy. King Edward VIII once called them
“ridiculous”. But they are an important part of Britain’s oldest tradition.
XVI. Choose the correct variant.
1. On his or her one hundredth birthday, a British person gets (a
present, an invitation to Buckingham Palace, a telegram).
2. At the State Opening of Parliament the Queen wears (a shawl,
a hat, a crown).
3. The Guard changes (every hour, every evening, every morning).
4. The Queen has her real birthday (in May, in June, in April).

87
5. During the Order of the Garter Ceremony the knights wear
(tuxedoes, robes, T-shirts).
6. On Maundy Thursday the Queen gives Money (to students, to
old people, to everybody).
7. The Guards (sing, march, dance) in front of the Queen during
the parade.
8. The Queen travels from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of
Parliament (by bus, in a carriage, on foot).
9. The Changing of the Guard happens at (Windsor castle, Buck-
ingham Palace, Westminster Palace).
10. In Christmas speech the Queen talks about (her problems, the
past year, health).
XVII. Prove the following statements using the information from
the text.
1. A British person on his or her one hundredth birthday gets a
surprise.
2. The Trooping of the Colour is a bright ceremony.
3. The Order of the Garter has a long history.
4. Thursday before Good Friday, at Easter, is an unusual day in
the life of some old people.
5. There are always tourists outside Buckingham Palace every
day at 11 :30.
6. On Christmas Day the people of the United Kingdom and
Commonwealth can see and listen to the Queen.
XVIII. Read some more information about Englishmen. Insert the
proper word.
Clothes, shops, horse, colourful, duty, animals, fireplace, motor-
car, wear, life, look, central heating.
1. Every year a large number of ancient ... drive from London to
Brighton. Some of these veteran cars ... very funny. This run is a ...
demonstration. People are dressed in the ... of those times.
2. The English people like ... very much. They have special ...
selling food, clothes and other things for their pets.
3. Sometimes you will see a group of cavalrymen riding on
black … through the streets of London. They ... red uniforms, shin-
ing helmets, long black boots and long white gloves. These men are
... Guards. Their special ... is to guard the King or the Queen or very
important guests of the country.

88
4. An English family prefers a house with a ... to a flat with ...
XIX. Read the text and answer the questions.

London
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and
commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the
largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is one of the oldest and most interesting cities in the
world. Traditionally it is divided into several parts: the City, Westmin-
ster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each
other and seem to belong to different towns and epochs.
The best known streets here are: Whitehall with important gov-
ernment offices, Downing Street, the London residence of the Prime
Minister, Fleet Street where most newspapers have their offices, Har-
ley Street where the highest paid doctors live, Oxford Street, London’s
main shopping centre.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre.
Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank
of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here,
but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some fa-
mous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them
is St Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in
the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was
founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror.
It was used as a fortress, a royal palace and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London.
Westminster Abbey has more historic associations than any other
building in Britain. Nearly all English kings and queens have been
crowned here. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, po-
ets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens,
Tennyson, Kipling, etc.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace,
or the Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Parliament. The
Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour
bell, known as «Big Ben».
Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It
is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants,

89
clubs, and theatres are situated there. There are splendid houses and
lovely gardens belonging to wealthy people.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was
named in memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory in the battle of Tra-
falgar in 1805. The tall Nelson’s Column stands in the middle of the
square.
On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and
the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum –
the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of an-
cient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc., and is famous for its library.
The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of
factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the build-
ings are unimpressive. The East End is densely populated by working
class families.

Names
the Bank of England – Английский банк
the Stock Exchange – Лондонская фондовая биржа
the Old Bailey – Центральный уголовный суд, находящийся
в Олд-Бейли
St Paul’s Cathedral – собор Св. Павла (главный собор
англиканской церкви)
Sir Christopher Wren – Кристофер Рен
the Tower of London – Лондонский Тауэр
Julius Caesar – Юлий Цезарь
William the Conqueror – Вильгельм Завоеватель, Вильгельм I
(первый король из норманнов в Англии)
Westminster Abbey – Вестминстерское аббатство
Westminster Palace (the Houses of Parliament) –
Вестминстерский дворец (здание английского парламента)
Nelson›s Column – колонна Нельсона (памятник адмиралу
Нельсону)

Questions
1. Is London the largest city in the world?
2. What’s the population of London?
3. Traditionally London is divided into several parts. Can you
name them?

90
4. What do you know about the City?
5. Who was St Paul’s Cathedral built by?
6. Who founded the Tower of London? When was it rebuilt?
7. What is the historic, the governmental part of London?
8. What building has more historic associations than any other
building in London?
9.What is Big Ben?
10. Can you describe Trafalgar Square?
11. Where do the working people of London live?
12. What are the most famous London museums and art galleries?
XX. Give English equivalents for the following:
торговый, население, принадлежать, эпоха, финансовый,
многочисленный, фирма, древний, поразительный, церковь, ос-
новывать, перестраивать, крепость, королевский, дворец, тюрь-
ма, правительственный, ассоциация, короновать, выдающийся,
государственный деятель, ученый, художник, хоронить, башня,
официальная резиденция, богатство, богатый, символ, роскошь,
ресторан, великолепный, в память о, колонна, содержать, бесцен-
ный, рукопись, монета, скульптура, быть знаменитым ..., мастер-
ская, док, узкий, густо, населять.
XXI. Choose the right answer
1. Where are Government offices situated? (Downing Street,
Trafalgar Square, Whitehall).
2. What is the official residence of the Queen? (Windsor Castle,
Buckingham Palace, Westminster Palace).
3. What is the place of Coronations and Royal Weddings? (St.
Paul’s Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace).
4. Where did Sherlock Holmes live? (Piccadilly Circus, Baker
Street, Harley Street).
5. What Street is the residence of the Prime Minister? (Oxford
Street, Fleet Street, Downing Street).
6. Where is the monument to Nelson (Hyde Park, Trafalgar
Square, the Tower).
7. Where are all the newspaper offices situated (Oxford Street,
Fleet Street, Baker Street).
8. Where does the Thames flow into? (The North Sea, the Irish
Sea, the English Channel).
9. Sir Christopher Wren is a famous English (astronaut, archae-
ologist, architect).
91
XXII. Insert prepositions.
1. St. Paul’s cathedral was designed ... a famous English architect
Sir Christopher Wren.
2. The Tower of London was founded ... Julius Caesar.
3. The British Museum is famous ... its library.
4. Trafalgar Square was named ... memory ... Admiral Nelson.
5. Buckingham Palace is the official residence ... the Queen.
6. The river Thames flows ... the North Sea.
7. Over a million people come ... to the City to work.
8. St. Paul’s Cathedral is full ... monuments.
9. The Tower of London was used ... a prison, a fortress.
10. There are many other places ... interest in London.
11. Three Queens of England have been beheaded ... the Tower
... London.
12. London is divided ... the West End and the East End.
XXIII. See the List of Characters and say where and why these
people will go in London.
Model: Dave Brown, a member of the Labour Party.
He will go to Hyde Park, to Speakers Corner. Dave is going to
present some ideas from the program of the Labour party.
List of Characters.
• Susan and Paul (the bride and the groom);
• Peter Ivanov (a journalist from “Moscow News”);
• Tom Morgan (a numismatist from Washington);
• Nancy Burns (a five-year student of Oxford University. Inter-
ested in myths and legends of Ancient Rome);
• Jimmy Brody (a surgeon, works at New York hospital);
• Denis Colt (a businessman, who wants to sell his shares);
• Professor Hopkins (a teacher of History at New York Univer-
sity. Interested in Architecture);
• George Smith (a member of the Liberal Party);
• John Benson (a sculptor from Chicago);
• Vasya Volkov (a student from Chelyabinsk Agroengineering
Academy).
XXIV. Answer the following questions:
1. What river does London stand on?
2. Prove that London is an ancient city.
3. Pick out some facts to show that:

92
-the City is a financial and business centre of London;
-the West End is the richest part of London;
-the best-known streets are in the West End.
4. Explain why there is a monument to Admiral Nelson in Tra-
falgar Square.
5. Say if Hyde Park is popular in London.
6. Say in what way these dates and figures are connected with
London’s History:
-1805 - 1066
-45 -17,5
7. Speak about St. Paul’s Cathedral.
8. Where is the biggest national library in the United Kingdom?
9. Where are great men of England buried?
XXV. Read the quotation and comment upon it.
“A man’s feet must be planted in his country, but his eyes should
survey the world”,
George Santayana, philosopher and writer.
XXVI. Read the following definitions below and express your
opinion on them.
a) Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communi-
cation with people of other cultures. This ability can exist in someone
at a young age, or may be developed and improved due to willpower
and competence. The bases for a successful intercultural communica-
tion are emotional competence, together with intercultural sensitivity.
b) Interculturally competent is a person who captures and under-
stands, in interaction; with people from foreign cultures, their specific
concepts in perception, thinking, feeling; and acting. Earlier experi-
ences are considered free from prejudices; there is an interest and mo-
tivation to continue learning.
Can you say that you are interculturally competent? Are you
prejudiced against any culture? Why? Give examples of most frequent
cases of intercultural prejudices..
XXVII. Read the article below and fulfill the tasks after it.
Cultures can be different not only between continents or nations,
but also within the ns company or even family (geographical, eth-
nical, moral, ethical, religious, political, historical). Here are typical
examples of cultural differences. The perception is different and often
selective:

93
-In Arabic countries the odors (of condiments, coffee etc.) are of-
ten perceived differentiated ways than in, for examples, North America.
- In Asian countries the conception of time is rather past-oriented
(ancestors, values), Latin American countries as well as southern Eu-
ropean countries, rather present-oriented, and in western Europe as
well as North America rather future-oriented (achieving goals).
Behaviour and gestures are interpreted differently:
- Showing the thumb held upwards in the Americas, especially
Brazil and the United States, means “everything’s ok”, while it is un-
derstood in some Islamic countries as a rude sexual sign.
- “Everything ok” is shown in western European countries, espe-
cially between pilots and divers, with the sign of the thumb and fore-
finger an “O”. This sign means in Japan “now we may talk about mon-
ey”, in southern France the contrary –“nothing, without any value”.
- In North America as well as in Arabic countries the pauses be-
tween words are usually not too long, while in Japan pauses can give a
contradictory sense to the spoken words. Enduring silence is perceived
as comfortable in Japan, while in India, Europe and North America it
may cause insecurity and embarrassment. Scandinavians, by Western
standards, are more tolerant of silent breaks during conversations.
- Laughing is connoted in most countries with happiness – in
Japan it is often a sign of confusion, insecurity and embarrassment.
- In the UK and Commonwealth countries the word “compro-
mise” has a positive meaning (as consent, an agreement where both
parties win something); in North America and Ireland it may, at times,
have negative connotations (as both parties lose something) (this phe-
nomenon tends to happen in highly competitive atmospheres where
consensus has broken down).
- If invited to dinner, in some Asian countries and Central Amer-
ica it is well-mannered to leave right after the dinner: the ones who
don’t leave may indicate they have not eaten enough. In the Indian
sub-continent, Europe. South America, and North American countries
this is considered rude, indicating that the guest only wanted to eat but
wouldn’t enjoy the company with the hosts.
- In Mediterranean European countries, Latin America, and Sub-
Saharan Africa, it is normal, or at least widely tolerated, to arrive half
an hour late for a dinner invitation, whereas in Germany and in the
United States this would be considered very rude.

94
- In Africa, Arab cultures, and certain countries in South America
(not in Brazil), saying to a female friend one has not seen for a while
that she has put on weight means she is physically healthier than be-
fore and had a nice holiday, whereas this would be considered an in-
sult in India, Europe, North America and Australia.
- In Africa, avoiding eye contact or looking at the ground when
talking to one’s parents, an elder, or someone of higher social status is a
sign of respect. In contrast, these same actions are signals of deception
or shame (on the part of the doer) in North America and most of Europe.
- In Persian culture, if a person offers an item (i.e. drink), it is cus-
tomary to not instantly accept it. A sort of role play forms with the person
offering being refused several times out of politeness before their offering
is accepted. This tradition is known as ‘tarof’ which in Persian literally
means ‘offer’. A similar exchange happens in many East Asian countries.
- In African, South American and Mediterranean cultures, talking
and laughing loudly in the streets and public places is widely accepted,
whereas in some Asian cultures it is considered rude and may be seen
as a mark of self-centeredness or attention-seeking.
To be interculturally competent means to understand the behav-
iour of others and ways of thinking as well as the ability to express
one’s own point of view in a transparent way with the aim to be un-
derstood and respected by staying flexible where this is possible, and
being clear where this is necessary. It is a balance, situatively adapted,
between three parts:
1. Knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviour)
2. Empathy (understanding feelings and needs of other people)
3. Self-confidence (knowing what I want, my strengths and
weaknesses, emotional stability).

XXVIII. Find some additional information about intercultural


differences and present a report on the topic. Listen to your group
mates’ reports and be ready to evaluate them.
XXIX. Many books about multicultural management suggest that
the world can be divided into three geographical groups:
1) North America
2) Europe, Latin America, Middle East
2) Japan, China, East Asia
Try to match the groups to the descriptions below. Write the
number 1 – 3 in the box.
95
Meetings Business relationships Presentations
a) Objective is to gather information. a) Friendly and informal, but a a) Complicated language may be used
Communication style is often continuing personal relationship is not to show education.
‘monologue -pause – monologue’ so important. Audience expects formality and
rather than dialogue. Arguments are Much business is done over the phone. a logical structure, but a touch of
often indirect, and there are no sudden b) Done on a group basis, although imagination is also appreciated. May
changes of view point in meetings. relationships based on mutual respect want a more personal ‘extra’ talk
Decisions are made by group are important. Often there is an older afterwards where you tell them the
consensus over a long time period. authority figure who rarely appears but ‘truth’.
b) Objective is to make a deal or has ultimate power. b) Indirect, conservative language.
decision. Communication style is c) Personal relationships are very Audience appreciates a quiet, formal
direct, factual, informal and at times important. Some time is needed to presentation with visual aids and lots
96

confrontational. Decisions are based build trust before business can begin. of opportunity to ask questions and
on facts, and are often made instantly Preference for doing business face to check understanding. They expect
in the meeting. face. separate handouts, prepared for
c) Objective is to establish different people, by job function.
relationships, build understanding, c) Direct, simple language. Audience
clarify, and issue instructions. expects jokes, modernity, logic,
Communication style depends on slogans, informality and a hard sell.
national culture. Decisions are made Audience may ask questions or
by key Individuals, outside the interrupt while someone is speaking,
meeting. and will openly question inconsistent
facts.
Does our country match any of the description above? How is it
different?
XXX. Here are some “do’s and don’ts” which may help you in
dealing with the English. Read them carefully and then make up simi-
lar pieces of advice about the Russians.
• Do remember to shake hands on first meetings.
• Do make direct eye-contact with your British counterpart, how-
ever remember to keep it to a minimum or it could be considered im-
polite or rude.
• Do say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ whenever possible. Even when
you get off the bus.
• Do accept a drink if offered. Remember it is your turn to buy
the next round.
• Don’t fold your arms across your chest in a meeting. This indi-
cates boredom.
• Don’t underestimate the importance of humour in all aspects
of business in the UK. And keep in mind: the British do not announce
their jokes. They just tell them.
• Don’t forget that instructions are often disguised as polite re-
quests. “It is quite warm in here,” means “Could you please open the
window? Now”.
• Don’t ask personal questions regarding your British counter-
part’s background, occupation or income.
• Don’t talk in a loud voice or display disruptive behaviour. This
is considered impolite and occasionally scares people. That is, unless
you are in a pub.
• Don`t brag too much about your achievements, income, lan-
guage skills, etc. It is ok to be proud of things, but be so in private.
XXXI. Writing. Make a report on the topic «Why is it important
to be culturally competent in the modern world?» (in not less than 600
words)
XXXII. Read and translate the text.

Education and role of foreign languages


Education is very important in our life. An educated person is one
who knows a lot about many things. He always tries to learn, find out,
and discover more about the world around him. He gets knowledge at
school, from books, magazines, from TV educational programs. The

97
pupils can get deeper knowledge in different optional courses in dif-
ferent subjects and school offers these opportunities. They can deepen
and improve their knowledge by attending different optional courses
in different subjects. The result of the educative process is the capac-
ity for Further education. Nowadays the students of secondary schools
have opportunities to continue their education by entering, gymnasi-
ums, lyceums, colleges.
But the road to learning is not easy. There is no royal road to
learning. To be successful in studies one must work hard. It’s for you
to decide to learn and make progress or not to learn lose your time.
The role of foreign languages is also increasing today. Thanks to the
knowledge of foreign languages one can read books, magazines in
the original, talk to foreigners, translate various technical articles.
Moreover, joint ventures which have recently appeared in our country
need specialists with profound knowledge of foreign languages like
English, German or French. To know foreign languages is absolute
necessary for every educated person, for good specialists. Our country
is transferring to a market economy. Research and innovations should
improve living, working conditions of our people.
English is now the dominant or official language by many newly-
independent states. English is now the dominant or official language
in over 60 countries, and is represented in every continent and in the
three major oceans – Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. It is this spread of
representation which makes the application of the term «world lan-
guage» a reality. The present-day world status of English is the result
of two factors: the expansion of British colonial power, which peaked
towards the end of the 19th century, and the emergence of the United
States as the leading economic power of the 20th century. There are
many different reasons why people study foreign languages, English
in particular. Here are some of them: to travel abroad; to get good job
to have something to do in your spare time; to be better educated; to
be familiar with social and cultural life in other countries; to be able
to participate in conversations with people from English-speaking
countries. English is the language of international air traffic control,
and is currently developing its role in international maritime, policing,
and emergency services English is the chief language of international
business and academic conferences, and the leading language of in-
ternational tourism. English is the main language of popular music,

98
advertising, home computers, and video games. A foreign language is
not just a subject learnt in the classrooms. It’s something which is used
in real life situations.
There are many reasons why we begin to study foreign languag-
es. First of all it’s an effective medium of international communica-
tion. I’m convinced if we are working in any brunch of science we
must read books and magazines in other languages. Learning foreign
languages opens up opportunities and careers that didn’t even exits
some years ago. Knowing foreign languages can help us to find a job
in such fields as science and technology, foreign trade and banking,
international transportation communication, teaching librarian sci-
ence and others. A more general aim is to make our intellectual and
cultures. Learning a foreign language including learning also culture,
traditions and mode of thought of different people. Of course speak-
ing and writing in a foreign language is a difficult art and it has to be
learned. It has replaced French in the world of diplomacy and German
in the field of science.
As for me, I’m completely convinced that to know a foreign lan-
guage is absolutely necessary for all educated person and modern spe-
cialists. Everything depends on our own efforts.
XXXIII. Writing. Make a report on the topic “The differences
between British English and American English”.

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive Past Tense Past Participle Значение


Awake awoke awaked, awoke будить, просыпаться
Be was, were been быть
Beat beat beaten бить
Become became become становиться
Begin began begun начинать(ся)
Bend bent bent, bended гнуть(ся), сгибать(ся)
Blow blew blown дуть
Break broke broken ломать(ся)
Breed bred bred воспитывать, выводить
Bring brought brought приносить
Build built built строить
Burn burnt, burned burnt, burned гореть, жечь
Burst burst burst разрываться

99
Buy bought bought покупать
Catch caught caught ловить, схватывать
Chide chid, chidded chidden, chid бранить, ворчать
Choose chose chosen выбирать
Come came come приходить
Cost cost cost стоить
Creep crept crept ползать
Cut cut cut резать
Dare dared, durst dared сметь
Deal dealt dealt иметь дело
Dig dug dug копать
Do did done делать
Draw drew drawn тащить; рисовать
Dream dreamed, dreamed, dreamt видеть сны; мечтать
dreamt
Drink drank drunk пить
Drive drove driven вести, гнать
Eat ate eaten есть, кушать
Fall fell fallen падать
Feed fed fed кормить(ся)
Feel felt felt чувствовать
Fight fought fought бороться, сражаться
Find found found находить
Fly flew flown летать
Forbid forbade, forbidden запрещать
forbad
Forget forgot forgotten забывать
Forgive forgave forgiven прощать
Freeze froze frozen замерзать, заморажи-
вать
Get got got получать; становиться
Give gave given давать
Go went gone идти, ехать
Grow grew grown расти, выращивать
Hang hung, hanged hung, hanged висеть, вешать
have had had иметь
Hear heard heard слышать
Hide hid hidden, hid прятать
Hit hit hit ударять, поражать
Hold held held держать
Hurt hurt hurt повредить, ушибить

100
Keep kept kept держать, хранить
Kneel knelt knelt преклонить колени
Knit knitted, knit knitted, knit вязать
Know knew known знать
Lay laid laid класть
Lead led led вести
Lean leant, leaned leant, leaned прислоняться
Learn learnt, learned learnt, learned учиться
Leave left left оставлять, покидать,
уезжать
Lend lent lent давать взаймы, одалжи-
вать
Let let let позволить; отдавать
внаем
Lie lay lain лежать
Light lighted, lit lighted, lit зажигать, освещать
Lose lost lost терять
Make made made делать; заставлять
Mean meant meant значить, подразумевать
Meet met met встречать
Melt melted melted, molten таять, плавить
Pay paid paid платить
Prove proved proved, proven доказать; оказаться
Put put put класть
Read read read читать
Ring rang, rung rung звонить, звенеть
Rise rose risen подниматься
Run ran run бежать
Saw sawed sawn, sawed пилить
Say said said говорить, сказать
See saw seen видеть
Sell sold sold продавать
Send sent sent посылать, отправить
Set set set помещать, заходить (о
солнце)
Shake shook shaken трясти
Shoot shot shot стрелять
Show showed shown, showed показывать
Shut shut shut закрывать
Sing sang sung петь
Sink sank sunk, sunken погружаться, тонуть

101
Sit sat sat сидеть
Sleep slept slept спать
Slide slid slid, slidden скользить
Smell smelt, smelt, smelled пахнуть; нюхать
smelled
Speak spoke spoken говорить
Spend spent spent тратить
Spread spread spread распространяться
Steal stole stolen красть
Swear swore sworn клясться; браниться
Swim swam swum плавать
Take took taken брать
Teach taught taught учить, обучать
Tear tore torn рвать
Tell told told рассказывать
Think thought thought думать
Throw threw thrown бросать
Understand understood understood понимать
Wake woke, waked waked, woken, будить, просыпаться
woke
Wear wore worn носить, изнашивать
Win won won выигрывать
Write wrote written писать

102
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Английская грамматика в диалогах: Употребление времен


/ Н. И. Шпекина, Н. И. Цаплина, Е. М. Алексеева и др. – М. :
Высш. шк., 1996.
2. Арбекова, Т. И. Английский без ошибок / Т. И. Арбекова /
М. : Высш. шк., 1990.
3. Беляева, М.А. Грамматика английского языка / М. А.
Беляева. М. : Высш. шк., 1997.
4. Каушанская А. В. Сборник упражнений по грамматике
английского языка /А. В. Каушанская. Л. : Просвещение, 1998.
5. Миньяр-Белоручева, А.П. TOPICS / А. П. Миньяр-
Белоручева / Сборник разговорных тем по английскому языку для
поступающих в вузы. – М. : Высш. шк.,1995.
6. Hornby, A.S. Oxford Student’s Dictionary of Current English /
A.S.Hornby, Christina Ruse. Oxford University Press, 1989.
7. TEMPUS project jep-26093-2005, Communicative approach
in teaching languages (CATCH).

103
Учебное издание

Малятова Лариса Павловна


Нестерова Светлана Александровна

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ НЕЯЗЫКОВЫХ ВУЗОВ


Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов I и II курсов

Часть I

Редактор Вербина М. В.

Издательско-полиграфический центр
Челябинской государственной агроинженерной академии
454080, г. Челябинск, пр. Ленина, 75

Формат 60×84/16. Объем 6,0 п. л.


Тираж 100 экз. Заказ №

ИПЦ ЧГАА