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РЕПЕТИТОР

А. В. Нагорная
ДОМАШНИЙ РЕПЕТИТОР

А. В. Нагорная

Let's Make
Grammar
Interesting

МОСКВА

АЙРИС ПРЕСС

2007
УДК 811.111'36(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-2я721
Н16

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Нагорная, А. В.
Н16 Английские времена в текстах и упражнениях /
А. В. Нагорная. — М.: Айрис-пресс, 2007. — 192 с. —
(Домашний репетитор).
ISBN 978-5-8112-2780-8

В данном пособии рассматривается одна из наиболее важных и


сложных тем английской грамматики — система времен англий­
ского глагола. Отличительной чертой книги является текстовая фор­
ма подачи материала. Тексты разной длины и степени сложности
содержат материал, интересный не только с лингвистической, но и
с фактологической точки зрения. Использование связных текстов
позволяет реализовать принцип коммуникативной направленнос­
ти обучения, показать особенности функционирования того или
иного грамматического явления в реальной речевой практике.
Данное пособие предназначено для учащихся старших классов
школ, гимназий и лицеев, а также студентов младших курсов язы­
ковых вузов. Пособие представляет интерес и для преподавателей
английского языка, так как содержащиеся в нем упражнения и тес­
ты могут использоваться в качестве дополнительного материала при
изучении и повторении системы времен английского глагола. Пред­
ставленные в пособии подробные ключи к упражнениям позволя­
ют использовать его для самообразования.
ББК 81.2Англ-2я721
УДК 811.111'36(075)

© ООО «Издательство
ISBN 978-5-8112-2780-8 «АЙРИС-пресс», 2007
The Active Voice

The Present Indefinite Tense

1. Read the sentences and match each of them with a meaning


below.

1. I sometimes stay up until midnight. 2. Summer follows


spring. 3. I’ve pushed the ‘ON’ button. What do I do now? 4. My
brother is a student. 5. I promise everything will be all right. 6. We
leave London at 11.00 next Monday and arrive in Barcelona at
13.00.
a) a planned future action or series of actions
b) a fact of the present
c) asking for instructions
d) a habitual action
e) a permanent truth
f) a declaration

2. Read the text unscrambling the words in bold type. Ask five
questions about the text.

IT IS SO HARD TO BE AN IRISHMAN!
If an Irishman sescha (1) money, people yas (2) he is mo­
ney-mad; if he epske (3) it, he is a capitalist. If he endssp (4) it,
he’s a playboy; if he vessa (5) it, he’s a miser. If he doesn’t teg
(6) it, he’s a never-do-well; if he doesn’t ryt (7) to get it, he
cksla (8) ambition. If he tsge (9) it without working for it, he’s a
parasite; and if he latesaccumu (10) it after a lifetime of hard
work, people allc (11) him a fool who never got anything out of
life.
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Of course, there is always an Irishman who esmissdis (12)
all that name-calling from his mind and eslaxre (13) over an
after-dinner brandy; but if he sedo (14), he is a damn drunk!

3. Fill in each of the gaps in the proverbs with a suitable verb in the
proper form.

glitter come
blame bite
shut fall
steal wear
make praise
grow see
gather save
pay break
call catch
help (twice)
laugh (twice)
spoil (twice)

1. Too many cooks ... the broth. 2. All is not gold that ... .
3. Every cook ... his own broth. 4. He that ... the piper ... the
tune. 5. Four eyes ... more than two. 6. A bad workman always ...
his tools. 7. He ... best who ... last. 8. The cat ... its eyes when
it ... the cream. 9. The rotten apple ... its neighbours. 10. Con­
stant dropping ... away a stone. 11. Barking dogs seldom ... .
12. A stitch in time ... nine. 13. Fools ... without watering.
14. Between two stools you ... to the ground. 15. The appe­
tite ... with eating. 16. A rolling stone ... no moss. 17. Empty
vessels ... the greatest sound. 18. A cat in gloves ... no mice.
19. God ... those who ... themselves. 20. The last straw ... the
camel’s back.

Choose any proverb you like and make up a short story to illustrate
its meaning.

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4. Match the beginnings with the ends.

1. Mothers only offer advice A. she usually stops listening


on two occasions: to him.
2. Everything is a good idea B. but wonders if it exists.
till
3. The harder you try to hide C. when they fall in love.
something from your
mother,
4. When a man’s wife learns D. your mother finds out and
to understand him, tells you why it isn’t.
5. Before you find your hand­ E. has at least one guy who
some prince, is tired of her.
6. Everyone believes in love, F. when you’re at a party.
7. Your mother is the only G. when you want it and
person who when you don’t.
8. Your parents never fail to H. knows more about you
call you on your cell phone than you know about your­
9. There is no difference be­ self.
tween a wise man and a I. you have to kiss a lot of
fool frogs.
10. Even the most beautiful J. the more she resembles a
woman in the world webcam.

5. Open the brackets putting the verbs in the proper form.

1. The Lord (prefer) common-looking people. That is why


he (make) so many of them. (Abraham Lincoln) 2. Every time a
child (say) ‘I (not believe) in fairies’ there (be) a little fairy some­
where that (fall) down dead. (J.M.Barrie) 3. At 50, everyone
(have) the face he (deserve). (George Orwell) 4. ‘Classic A book
which people (praise) and (notread). (Mark Twain) 5. This (be)
an important book, the critic (assume), because it (deal) with
war. This (be) an insignificant book because it (deal) with the
feelings of women in a drawing-room. (Virginia Woolf) 6. Cats
(seem) to go on the principle that it never (do) any harm to ask
for what you (want). (Joseph Wood Krutch) 7. Ten thousand dif-
5
ficulties (not make) one doubt. (Cardinal Newman) 8. Any man
who (hate) dogs and babies can’t be all bad. (Leo Rosten) 9. There
(be) always one moment in childhood when the door (open)
and (let) the future in. (Graham Greene) 10. A child (become) an
adult when he (realize) that he (have) a right not only to be right
but also to be wrong. (Thomas Szasz) 11. In examinations those
who (not wish) to know (ask) questions of those who cannot
tell. (Walter Raleigh) 12. I never (think) of the future. It (come)
soon enough. (Albert Einstein) 13. Every generation (revolt)
against its fathers and (make) friends with its grandfathers. (Lewis
Mumford) 14. It (take) a lot of imagination to be a good photog­
rapher. You (need) less imagination to be a painter because you
can invent things. But in photography everything (be) so ordi­
nary; it (take) a lot of looking before you (learn) to see the ordi­
nary. (David Bailey) 15. Slang is a language that (roll) up its sleeves,
(spit) on its hands and (go) to work. (Carl Sandburg) 16. Man
(dream) of fame while woman (wake) to love. (Lord Tennyson)
17. All women (become) like their mothers. That (be) their trag­
edy. No man (do). That’s his. (Oscar Wilde) 18. The man who
(make) no mistakes (not make) usually anything. (Edward John
Phelps) 19. We (know) what (happen) to people who (stay) in
the middle of the road. They (get) run down. (Aneurin Bevan)
20. Money (not talk); it (swear). (Bob Dylan)

6. AMAZING FACTS! Read the following in the third person singular.

Example: Elephants never forget. — An elephant never forgets.


• Dolphins sleep with one eye open.
• Whips make cracking sounds because their tips move faster
than the speed of sound.
• Ostriches live about 75 years and reproduce for 50 years.
• Cats sleep sixteen hours a day.
• Months that begin on a Sunday always have a ‘Friday the
13th.’
• Slugs have four noses.
• Worms taste like fried bacon.
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• Baby elephants drink up to 80 litres of milk a day.
• Butterflies taste with their feet.
• Mosquitoes do not bite. They stab. Mosquitoes have no jaws,
that’s why they pierce their victims with their long probos­
cis and suck the blood up through their nasal tube.
• On average people fear spiders more than they do death.
• Vampire bats have fewer teeth than the other bats because
they don’t chew their food. They live on the blood of mam­
mals. Bats do not need to see when they fly, they use sound
to help them figure out where they are going. Bats always
turn left when exiting a cave.
• The largest frogs in the world are called Goliath frogs. Frogs
start their lives as ‘eggs’ often laid in or near fresh water. Frogs
belong to a group of animals called amphibians.

7. Choose any country you like and find as many differences as you
can between its people and your life. Consider the points below.

a) work f) clothes
b) money g) entertainment
c) possessions h) education
d) travel i) religion
e) family life

8. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

A young boy ... (l) his father, ‘What ... (2) you do, Daddy?’
Here is how the father might answer: ‘I struggle with crowds, traffic
jams and parking problems ... (3) about an hour. I ... (4) a great
deal on the telephone to people I ... (5) know. I dictate ... (6) a
secretary and then proof-read what she types. I have all sorts ...
(7) meetings with people I don’t ... (8) very well or like very much.
I eat lunch ... (9) a big hurry and can’t taste- or remember what
I’ve eaten. I hurry, hurry, hurry. I ... (10) my time in very func­
tional offices with very functional furniture, and I ... (11) look at
the weather or sky or people passing by. I talk, but I don’t sing or
dance or touch people. I spend ... (12) last hour, all alone, strug-
7
gling with crowds, traffic and parking.’ Now this same father
might also answer: ‘I am ... (13) lawyer. I help people and busi­
nesses to ... (14) their problems. I help everybody to know the
rules that we all have to ... (15) by, and to get along according ...
(16) these rules.’ Both answers ... (17) true. Why is the first less
recognized than the ... (18)? It might be said that we are trained
to be aware of the goal ... (19) our activities, but not to be aware
of ... (20) is actually happening.
(from ‘The Greening of America’ by Charles Reich)

9. Describe the typical day of:

a) a student;
b) a spinster;
c) a dog;
d) a three-month-old baby;
e) a teacher.

10. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

A restaurant in Germany serve insects on its menu. Chef Lars


Schebuble says that he don’t want to serve typical food any more
and want to try something new. ‘When I travel about the world I
see that people ate insects in many parts of the world. I think it’s
good idea to offer it in Germany, too,’ he says. There is items on
the menu such as cockroach pasta, and maggots with green leaves.
Customers who tries the food say they like it and want come
again. No one complain of stomach problems!

11. Translate the following jokes into English.

1. «Моя собака знает математику». «Правда?» «Да, когда


я спрашиваю ее, сколько будет два минус два, она ничего
не говорит». 2. «У моей жены очень плохая память». «Она
все забывает?» «Нет, она все помнит». 3. «Что вы обычно
даете мужу, когда ему не нравится ужин?» «Его пальто и
шляпу». 4. «Ваши близнецы сильно шумят?» «Вы знаете,
все не так уж плохо. Один из них так шумит, что мы совер­
8
шенно не слышим другого». 5. «Томми, у тебя так много
денег», — говорит гость. «Да, — отвечает Томми. — Моя
мама дает мне доллар в неделю, если я сажусь за стол с чис­
тыми руками». «Доллар — это большие деньги для малень­
кого мальчика». «Да, сэр, но мне приходится много рабо­
тать, чтобы получить их». 6. «Джордж, что такое синоним
(synonym)?» — спрашивает учитель. «Синоним, — отвечает
Джордж, — это слово, которое мы употребляем, когда мы
не знаем, как написать нужное нам слово». 7. «Ваш муж
всегда помнит день вашей свадьбы (wedding anniversary)?»
«Нет, поэтому я напоминаю ему в январе и в июне и полу­
чаю два подарка».

12. Translate the following texts into English.

A. На протяжении всего времени, что мы спим, мы ви­


дим сны. Но на следующее утро большинство людей не
помнят свои сны. Обычно мы запоминаем только те сно­
видения, которые приходят сразу после засыпания или
незадолго до пробуждения. Животные тоже видят сны. Если
понаблюдать за спящей собакой, то можно увидеть, как она
иногда дернет лапкой или гавкнет. Это доказывает, что со­
баки тоже видят сны, и их мозг продолжает работать во сне.
Сновидения — очень странная вещь. Люди в них не такие,
как на самом деле, и события не имеют ничего общего с
реальностью. В наших снах мы летаем по воздуху, как пти­
цы, проплываем огромные расстояния под водой и даже
появляемся в нескольких местах одновременно. Врачи счи­
тают, что наши сны отражают тайные желания и страхи,
которые мы никогда не высказываем наяву. Некоторым
людям снится, что они богаты, другим — что они облада­
ют сверхъестественными способностями. Такие сны нетруд­
но объяснить, но они скорее исключение, чем правило: в
большинстве случаев сны кажутся совершенно бессмыслен­
ными.
B. Трудно объяснить, почему некоторым детям в возрас­
те пяти-семи лет так нравится употреблять нехорошие сло­
9
ва. Видимо, это доставляет им какое-то своеобразное удо­
вольствие, хотя порой они и сами не понимают значения
того, что говорят. Врачи считают, что дети употребляют в
своей речи ругательства, потому что хотят удивить и напу­
гать родителей, привлечь внимание к себе или почувство­
вать себя взрослым. Иногда дети слышат ругательные сло­
ва от своих родителей. Они запоминают их и употребляют
в своей речи. Это нельзя поставить детям в вину: ведь все
они любят повторять слова и действия родителей. Прежде
чем ругать своих детей, подумайте: всегда ли вы следите за
тем, что говорите (govern one’s tongue)?

The Past Indefinite Tense

1. Read the following jokes, translate them and explain the use of
the Past Indefinite Tense.

1. She (tenderly): When did you first know you loved me?
He: When I began to get mad when people said you were
brainless and unattractive.
2. A teacher asked a pupil to get a note from his mother to
explain why he was late for his lesson. The boy went out and
came back in a few minutes with a note. The teacher read:
‘John came late because he broke his leg.’

2. Correct spelling mistakes in the verbs. Provide the necessary


explanations.

1. When John was young he plaid in a football team. 2. The


cat rubed against my leg. 3. Mother knited a new pullover.
4. James visitted his grandparents every Sunday. 5. My Granny
prefered tea to coffee. 6. He payed for the present. 7. Peter de­
nyed his guilt. 8. When I realized I was going to be late I pan­
iced. 9. His opinion differred from mine. 10. Nelson admited
his mistakes.
10
3. Read the text using the verbs in brackets in the Past Indefinite
Tense.

ROALD DAHL
Roald Dahl (be) born on 13th September in Llandaff, South
Wales. His father (die) while Roald (be) still a child. Dahl (at­
tend) Llandaff Cathedral School for just two years. Then from
the age of nine to thirteen he (attend) St. Peter’s Preparatory
School in Weston-super-Mare, England. He (not enjoy) the
school because many of the teachers (be) cruel and often (cane)
the students. Dahl (be) good at cricket and swimming, but he
(perform) poorly in class. He (spend) all his spare time reading
and he especially (like) Rudyard Kipling and H. Rider Haggard.
When Dahl (turn) thirteen his family (move) to Kent in Eng­
land, and his mother (send) him to Repton Public School. Sad­
ly, Repton (turn out) to be even harsher than his old school. The
headmaster (enjoy) beating children and the older students (use)
the younger ones as servants. However, there (be) one good thing
about the school. Every few months, the chocolate company,
Cadburys, (send) boxes of chocolates to Repton for the students
to test. This happy memory (give) Dahl the idea for his most
famous novel, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory.
After school, Dahl (decide) that he (want) to travel. He (get)
a job with the Shell Oil Company and two years later (go) to
East Africa.
In 1939, World War II (start). Dahl (join) the Royal Air Force
and (learn) to fly warplanes. Unfortunately, on his first flight into
enemy territory he (run) out of fuel and (crash) in the Libyan
desert. He (fracture) his skull but (manage) to crawl out of the
burning plane.
Dahl (start) writing in the 1940s while based in the USA.
His first story (be) a newspaper account of his air crash. In 1945
he (move) back home but in the early fifties (return) to America,
where he (meet) his first wife, the actress Patricia Neal. They
(have) five children together but (get) divorced in 1983. Dahl (re­
marry) soon after. The last years of his life (be) very happy and
11
he (write) some of his best books during this period: The BFG,
The Witches and Matilda. Roald Dahl (die) on 23rd November
1990 in Oxford, England.

Work out questions to which the following might be answers.

1. Llandaff. 2. For two years. 3. R. Kipling. 4. Charlie and


the Chocolate Factory. 5. Shell Oil Company. 6. The 1940s.
7. America. 8. Patricia Neal. 9. Five. 10. In 1990.

4. Below you will find a short retelling of one of Roald Dahl’s most
famous stories. Transform it into the Past Indefinite Tense.

LAMB TO THE SLAUGHTER


Mary Maloney is a devoted wife and expectant mother. She
waits happily each night for the arrival of her husband Patrick,
who works at the police station. On this particular night, though,
she feels that something is wrong. In disbelief, she listens as Patrick
tells her that he wants to leave her for another woman. (Actually
Dahl never really says this; the details are left up to the reader’s
imagination.) Dazed, she goes into the kitchen to prepare their
supper and pulls a large frozen leg of lamb from the deep freeze.
She carries it into the living room and without warning hits her
husband on the head with it. As she looks at Patrick lying dead
on the floor, she slowly begins to come back to her senses. Im­
mediately she realizes the consequences of her act. As she doesn’t
want her unborn child to suffer as a result of her crime, she be­
gins planning her alibi. She places the leg of lamb in a pan in the
oven and goes down to the corner grocery to get some food for
‘Patrick’s dinner’ (making sure the grocer sees her normal and
cheerful state of mind). She returns home and screams when she
finds Patrick lying on the floor. She calls the police and informs
them that her husband is dead. Officers search the house and
conduct an investigation. They believe Mary’s story of coming
home from the grocer’s and finding him dead. They search the
house for the murder weapon but they don’t find anything. Mary
offers them some lamb that is ready in the oven. They are happy
12
to have dinner. While they rest in the kitchen and discuss the
case, Mary Maloney sits in the living room and giggles softly to
herself.

5. Use the verbs in the box to fill in the gaps in the text. Use all the
verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense.

perform choose
learn sign
proclaim sentence
unite outlaw (twice)
need take
replace help
fall make
decide

Valentine was a holy priest in Rome, who ... (1) young lov­
ers marry against the will of the Emperor Claudius II. When Clau­
dius ... (2) that single men ... (3) better soldiers than those with
wives and families, he ... (4) marriage for young men. But Valen­
tine ... (5) marriages in secret. When the Emperor ... (6) about it,
he ... (7) Valentine to be beaten with clubs, and afterwards — be­
headed. The event ... (8) place on February 14, around the year
270. Why did such a sad day become a holiday for lovers?
Let’s turn to history. Mid February was traditionally the time
of the Lupercian festival, an ode to the God of fertility and a
celebration of sensual pleasure, a time to meet and court a pro­
spective mate. In AD 496, the Pope of the time ... (9) the pagan
festival, but ... (10) it with a similar celebration that he ... (11)
morally suitable. Therefore he ... (12) a ‘lovers’ saint’ to replace
the pagan deity Lupercus. He ... (13) Bishop Valentine as the
patron saint of the new festival because he ... (14) young lovers,
and also because before his execution, Valentine himself ... (15)
in love with his jailer’s daughter. He ... (16) his final note to her,
‘From Your Valentine’, a phrase that has lasted until today.
13
6. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

Why people shake hands when they meet? Folklore give an


interesting explanation for it. Long ago when a villager meet a
man whom he didn’t recognized, he reached for his dagger. The
stranger does the same. And then they begun to circle each oth­
er. When they decided that the meeting is a peaceful one, they
putted the daggers back and extended their weapon hands as a
token of good will. This also explain why women never devel­
oped the custom of shaking hands. That’s because no tradition
aloud them to carry weapons!

7. Use the appropriate verb in the correct tense form. Make up


sentences of your own with each of the verbs.

A. stay — stand
1. He ... looking at them in silence. 2. He ... at home and
looked after the children. 3. When I was a child, I could ...
on my hands. 4. Jamie ... at the hotel for three days. 5. I have
to ... late at work every Thursday. 6. Their house ... at the
top of the hill.
B. rise — raise
1. The hairs ... on the back of his neck. 2. He ... up and went
to the window. 3. With a shaky hand, he slowly ... the cup
to his lips. 4. A number of children ... their hands. 5. The
aircraft ... slowly into the air. 6. He could hardly ... the in­
jured arm at all.
C. lie — lay
1. We ... flowers on her grave once a week. 2. The castle ... in
ruins. 3. He ... about his age to get into the army. 4. He ...
the table for breakfast. 5. Caren ... her head against my shoul­
der and fell asleep. 6. I ... awake worrying about work.
D. sit — set
1. He ... the house on fire. 2. After lunch, they ... to work
fixing the roof. 3. They ... in silence, unable to look at each
other. 4. My friends and I like to ... together in the canteen.
14
5. They ... the price of the house too high. 6. Matt ... on a
park bench, eating his lunch.
E. find — found
1. Monks ... this monastery in the 10th century. 2. He ...
happiness late in life with his second wife. 3. I ... a ten dol­
lar note on the pavement. 4. Men always ... her extremely
attractive. 5. They ... this organization to help the poor. 6. We
hope to ... the answers to some of these questions.

8. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Греки основали этот город в пятом веке до нашей


эры. 2. Он нашел свою тетрадь под столом. 3. Петр под­
нял руку и дал правильный ответ. 4. Солнце встало в пять
часов утра. 5. Она солгала про свой возраст. 6. Бабушка
прилегла после обеда. 7. Они назначили день свадьбы.
8. Ученики сели за парты и открыли учебники. 9. Мы ус­
тановили декорации на сцене два часа назад. 10. Виктор
остановился в гостинице. 11. Этот монастырь стоял на
горе. 12. Он поднялся со своего места и вышел. 13. Худож­
ник нанёс на холст еще один слой краски. 14. Он возло­
жил всю вину за провал эксперимента на своего ассис­
тента. 15. Пациент был слишком слаб, чтобы вставать.
16. Наш начальник никогда не повышает голос, даже когда
он сердится. 17. Мы должны найти подходящего челове­
ка для этой работы. 18. Мы расставили стулья для гостей.
19. Мой дедушка любил сидеть в этом старом кресле. 20. В
глазах у нее стояли слезы.

9. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

LAZY JACK
Once upon a time there ... (1) a boy whose name was Jack,
and he ... (2) with his mother in a village. They were very poor,
and Jack was so lazy that he ... (3) nothing but bask in the sun
in the hot weather, and sit by the corner of the hearth in the
15
wintertime. So they ... (4) him Lazy Jack. His mother ... (5)
him to find a job. One ... (6) Jack hired himself to a neighbour­
ing farmer for a penny. But after he ... (7) work he lost his money.
His mother was very angry and ... (8) him, ‘Why didn’t you
put the penny into your pocket?’ The next day, Jack went out
again and hired himself to a cowkeeper, who ... (9) him ajar of
milk for his day’s work. Jack took the jar and ... (10) it into the
large pocket of his jacket, and spilt it all long before he ... (11)
home. His mother scolded him again. ‘... (12) didn’t you carry
it on your head?’ she asked her son. The following day, Jack
hired himself again to a farmer, who agreed to give him a cream
cheese for his services. In the evening Jack took the cheese, and ...
(13) home with it on his head. By ... (14) time he got home the
cheese was all spoilt, part of it being lost, and part matted with
his hair. Every time he got something ... (15) his job, Jack lost
it. Once on Monday, Lazy Jack went once more, and ... (16)
himself to a cattle-keeper, who gave him a donkey for his trou­
ble. Jack decided to ... (17) the donkey on his shoulders and
went home very slowly with his prize. Now it so ... (18) that in
the course of his journey he passed a house where a rich man
lived ... (19) his only daughter, a beautiful girl, who was deaf
and dumb. This daughter never laughed and this ... (20) her
father very sad. This young lady looked out of the window and ...
(21) Jack with a big hee-hawing donkey on his shoulders. The
sight was so comical that she burst ... (22) laughing, and mi­
raculously recovered her speech and hearing! Her father was so
happy ... (23) he married her to Lazy Jack who thus ... (24) a
rich gentleman. They lived in a large house, and Jack’s mother
lived with them in great happiness until she ... (25).

10. Translate the following text into English.

ИСТОРИЯ ПОЧТОВОЙ МАРКИ


Первая марка появилась в Великобритании 6 мая 1840
года. А как люди получали почту до этого? Марок и кон­
вертов тогда не существовало. Если человек хотел отпра-
16
вить письмо, он сворачивал (fold) и запечатывал (seal) его,
а тот, кто получал письмо, оплачивал расходы по достав­
ке (delivery costs). Поскольку это было очень дорого, мно­
гие люди отказывались забирать свои письма. Некоторые
даже разрабатывали секретные коды, с помощью которых
они обманывали работников почты. На внешней сторо­
не письма они рисовали тайные значки, каждый из ко­
торых имел какое-то значение. Адресат (addressee) про­
читывал эти тайные сообщения, отказывался забирать
письмо и ничего не платил за него. Тогда правительство
решило ввести предварительную оплату (prepaying) кор­
респонденции. В 1837 году главный британский почтмей­
стер Сэр Роуланд Хилл (The British Postmaster General Sir
Rowland Hill) предложил использовать для этого малень­
кие кусочки цветной бумаги, которые отправитель
(sender) покупал и приклеивал на письмо. Парламент об­
суждал это предложение несколько лет и после серьезных
дискуссий принял его. Так в 1840 году родилась первая
марка.
Сэр Роуланд Хилл сам разработал дизайн первой мар­
ки. Она стоила пенни, и на ней был профиль Королевы
Виктории. Поскольку марка была черной, люди стали на­
зывать ее Penny Black. Спустя несколько лет она стала са­
мой известной маркой в мире.
Новая система отправки почты быстро завоевала по­
пулярность. В 1847 году первая марка появилась в США.
Очень скоро люди начали коллекционировать марки. В
1841 году одна женщина поместила объявление в «Лон­
дон Таймс», в котором она просила помочь ей собрать
марки для того, чтобы оклеить стены ее спальни. Коллек­
ционирование марок стало особенно популярным, ког­
да появились первые памятные (commemorative) марки.
Например, в 1893 году Американское правительство вы­
пустило марку, чтобы отметить открытие Нового Света
Христофором Колумбом. Сейчас такая марка стоит ты­
сячи долларов.
17
11. Think of a continuation for each of the sentences below using
used to and would.
Example: Jack was very naughty as a child. — He used to be
unruly and would always invent different nasty
tricks.

1. James was very stingy when he was young. 2. My mother


was very fond of sport in her younger days. 3. Nick read quite a
lot when he was a child. 4. When Kate was fifteen she wanted to
become an actress. 5. Janet was a hard-working student. 6. So­
phie was very proud of her beauty. 7. When Sam was twenty he
had a lot of bad habits. 8. Neil really liked giving people presents.
9. My grandfather was a great story-teller. 10. When my father
was young he was mad about cars.

12. Make up ten sentences for each of the situations below de­
scribing the changes in the people’s lives using used to.

Example: Agatha got married three months ago and her life is
completely different from what it used to be. — She
never used to cook, but now she has to cook three meals
a day.

a) Nick got into a car accident a year ago and he is confined to


a wheelchair now.
b) Nancy became a pensioner two months ago.
c) Lucy has just had a baby.
d) Mike won one million dollars in a lottery last year.

13. Retell the short text below using used to and would wherever
possible.

Carrie was a writer and she always said that if you want to
be a successful writer you have to have a paper routine. Every
morning she got up at 6.30 and went jogging. After that she usu­
ally took a cold shower and had a light breakfast. Then she went
to her study and prepared all the necessary things for her daily
work: paper, pens, and pencils. Although she had a modern
18
computer she preferred to write her books on paper. She said it
gave her a special feeling. She never threw her drafts away. She
said they might come in handy some day. Carrie never called
her friends or took naps while working. She only stopped at
three and went for a walk in the park. These walks always lasted
an hour and they usually helped her to relax. And sometimes
she found new ideas for her books during her walks. When she
returned home she usually looked through her notes and made
some corrections or changed some parts of the story completely.
And only at 6 she put her writing aside. In the evening she some­
times went to the cinema or to a restaurant with her friends,
and three times a week she went to a fitness club. Twice a month
she had meetings with her publisher where they discussed all
their current affairs. Carrie never went to bed later than 11
o’clock. And the next morning it all began again. You may think
her life was boring, eh? Then let me tell you something: by the
age of thirty Carrie was famous all over the world as the author
of six great best-sellers!

14. Translate the following jokes into English.

1. Жена горько плакала, но муж продолжал читать газе­


ту. В конце концов, она не выдержала и сказала: «Ты
больше меня не любишь! Раньше ты спрашивал поче­
му, когда я плакала!» «Извини, дорогая, но этот вопрос
обычно слишком дорого мне стоил».
2. «Скажите, пожалуйста, исполнилась ли какая-нибудь
ваша детская мечта?» «Да, моя мама имела обыкнове­
ние коротко меня стричь, и я все время мечтал стать
лысым».
3. «Моя жена имела обыкновение много играть на фор­
тепиано, особенно по вечерам. Но теперь, когда у нас
есть дети, у нее нет на это времени». «Дети это утеше­
ние, не так ли?»
4. «Итак, у вас больше нет бессонницы? Это, должно
быть, огромное облегчение». «Это точно. Теперь я
19
полночи не сплю и все думаю, как я от нее когда-то
страдал».
5. Мистеру Смиту надоели посетители. Поэтому, услы­
шав звонок, он обычно надевал пальто и открывал
дверь. Если это оказывался кто-то, кого он хотел ви­
деть, мистер Смит говорил: «Рад вас видеть, я только
что пришел». Если же он не хотел видеть этого челове­
ка, он говорил: «Извините, но я ухожу».
6. Доктор имел обыкновение интересоваться, что паци­
ент ел на обед, и в соответствии с его меню выписы­
вать ему счет за лечение.
7. Молодая жена имела обыкновение кормить всех бро­
дяг, проходивших мимо ее дома. Ей доставляло огром­
ное удовольствие видеть, как человек ест, не придира­
ясь к еде.

The Future Indefinite Tense

1. Read the sentences and match each of them with a meaning


below.

1. Don’t worry, I’ll come again next Wednesday. 2. Shall we


have dinner at that new restaurant? 3. Will you get me some bread
from the shop, please? 4. A subject interesting to the teacher will
bore students. 5. He’ll make a good husband. 6. We’ll go to Ita­
ly next summer.

a) a predetermined event
b) a suggestion
c) a prediction
d) a definite plan or a strong intention
e) a request
f) a promise

20
2. Open the brackets putting the verbs into the proper tense
forms.

1. A man (be) in the city with his wife and four children. He
(decide) to take a taxi home. He (come) up to the driver
and (ask), ‘How much you (take) to drive us to Gravesend?’
‘Two dollars for you and your wife,’ answered the driver. ‘I
(take) the kids along for nothing.’ The man (turn) to his
children and (say), ‘Jump in, kids, and have a nice ride home.
Mummy and I (take) the subway.’
2. ‘Now, men, you (have) a break for smoking and Private Rob­
inson who (be) a doctor in civilian life (give) you a talk on
the harms of smoking,’ (announce) the company command­
er after an exercise.

3. Translate the text into English.

Родители подарили Тимми (Timmie) на день рожде­


ния кролика. Тимми обожал своего питомца. Однажды
утром Тимми обнаружил, что его кролик мертв. Мальчик
был безутешен (inconsolable). Он даже отказывался есть.
Отец решил как-то утешить своего сына. «Послушай,
сынок, — сказал он. — Я скажу тебе, как мы поступим.
Сначала мы сделаем ему маленький гробик (coffin). По­
том мы вместе выкопаем могилу (grave) в саду. Мы поло­
жим на нее самые красивые цветы. После этого ты при­
гласишь всех своих друзей, и я поведу вас в кафе. Мы ку­
пим лимонад, пирожные, мороженое и много других
вкусностей. Я вам всем куплю игрушки. У нас будет заме­
чательная вечеринка!»
Тимми успокоился и начал улыбаться. Отец продол­
жал: «Я возьму гитару, и мы все вместе споем твои люби­
мые песни, как на твой день рождения. А потом я свожу
вас в кино».
Тимми захлопал в ладоши и засмеялся от радости. Не­
ожиданно они услышали писк. Отец и сын повернулись и
увидели, что кролик жив. Тимми посмотрел на кролика,
21
потом на отца, а потом снова на кролика. Он немного по­
думал и сказал: «Папа, давай его убьем».

4. Match the beginnings with the ends.

1. You will lose a lot of weight A. in case it gets colder.


2. You’ll fail your exams B. until you apologize to her.
3. I will always love you C. while I am away.
4. I will take a warm sweater D. after they pass all the ex­
ams.
5. We will stay here E. as long as I live.
6. She won’t speak to you F. if you go jogging every day.
7. The students will have G. before the bell goes.
holidays
8. I’ m sure he’ll come to H. till Mother comes.
see us
9. She will look after my cat I. as soon as he returns from
his trip.
10. The students will hand in J. unless you work harder.
their papers

5. Paraphrase the proverbs referring the actions to the future.


Example: Weep if you choose. — I will weep if I choose.

1. Who breaks, pays. 2. When in Rome, do as the Romans


do. 3. Roll my log and I will roll yours. 4. Scratch my back and I
will scratch yours. 5. Take care of the pence and the pounds will
take care of themselves. 6. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
7. Nothing venture, nothing have. 8. Fling dirt enough and some
will stick. 9. Catch the bear before you sell his skin. 10. Do not
boast until you see the enemy dead.

6. Join the sentences using appropriate conjunctions. Make all the


necessary changes.

1. I will tell my parents about everything. They will return from


work.
2. Jane will pass her exams. She will go to Spain.
22
3. You will help me. The work will only take me three hours.
4. I will take my camera. I will want to take some pictures.
5. I will believe it. I will see it with my own eyes.
6. Kate won’t come to the party. You won’t invite her.
7. Janet will be depressed. She will learn about it.
8. You will plant these apple-trees. You will be absolutely free.
9. You will make tea. I will cut the cake.
10. You will repair my computer. I will be very grateful to you.
11. He will buy toys for his children. He will have money.
12. He will pack all the things. He will call for a taxi.
13. I will take my umbrella. It will rain.
14. I won’t tell you this secret. You will promise not to tell anyone.
15. I will remember it. I will live.

7. Open the brackets using each of the verbs in the proper tense form.

1. A man (say) to a boy, ‘If you (look) into this mirror you
(see) a monkey.’ ‘Ah, indeed,’ (say) the boy, ‘how you (dis­
cover) it?’
2. Mother: It (be) nine o’clock and you (not be) in bed yet!
What your father (say) when he (come) home?
Henry: He (say), ‘Supper! Supper! What’s for supper?’
3. Girl: Please, Mrs. Peters, Mother (say) she (be) glad if you
(come) to tea on Monday.
Mrs. Peters: Thank you very much. Your mother (be) very kind ...
Girl: Oh, no, Mother (say) she (be) glad when it (be) over.
4. ‘I (warn) you!’ (say) the exasperated piano teacher to his
pupil. ‘If you (not behave) yourself, I (tell) your parents
you (have) talent!’
5. Christine: Why you (not marry) Percy?
Catherine: I only (marry) a man who (know) life and its sor­
rows.
Christine: I (see) — a widower.
6. Peck: You (think) you can make a good portrait of my wife?
Artist: My friend, I (make) it so life-like you (jump) every
time you (see) it.
23
7. Struggling artist (to his landlord who wants him to pay the rent):
Let me tell you this — in a few years’ time people (look) up
at this miserable studio and (say), ‘Cobalt, the artist, used
to work there!’
Landlord: If you (not pay) your rent by tonight, they (be
able) to say it tomorrow.

8. People seem to be very fond of predictions about the future. But


not all predictions come true. Some people were badly mistaken
about the future of certain inventions. Read the statements below,
put them into Reported Speech and describe the actual state of
affairs nowadays.

Example: Lord Kelvin (1894): The radio will never become


popular. — In 1894 Lord Kelvin said that the radio
would never become popular, but now it is impossible
to imagine our life without it, as it is one of the main
sources of information and there is a radio set in eve­
ry house all over the world.

Dr. Lardner (the 1850s): ‘Trains will never travel at high speed,
because passengers will die of suffocation.’
Thomas Watson (1943): ‘Computers will never be popular.
There will be a world market for maybe 5 computers.’
Head of Western Union (the 1880s): ‘The telephone will nev­
er replace the telegraph!’
Mark Twain: ‘The telephone will never be of any use!’
Lord Kelvin (1894): ‘People will never fly because heavier-
than-air flying machines are impossible!’
Head of Volkswagen (the 20s of the XXth century): ‘There will
be a world market for only 4 million automobiles because the
world will run out of chauffeurs.’

9. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Ты не сдашь этот экзамен, если как следует к нему


не подготовишься. 2. Собака не укусит тебя, если только
ты ее не разозлишь. 3. Когда Нэнси вернется домой, она
24
расскажет нам о своем путешествии. 4. Как только мы до­
беремся до гостиницы, мы отправим вам телеграмму. 5. Я
надеюсь, рабочие починят крышу до того, как наступит
осень. 6. После того, как Стивен окончит школу, он по­
ступит в медицинский университет. 7. Я подожду, пока он
уйдет. Я не буду говорить при нем. 8. Кейт говорит, что не
будет со мной разговаривать, пока я не извинюсь. 9. Я
возьму с собой немного денег на тот случай, если захочу
купить какие-нибудь сувениры. 10. Уговори его не делать
этого, пока не поздно. 11. Пока я жива, я буду помнить об
этом. 12. Пока его не будет, мы обсудим наши планы. 13. Он
сказал, что купит ребенку новую игрушку, как только у него
будут деньги. 14. Папа сказал, что поведет детей в зоопарк,
если у него будет свободное время в воскресенье. 15. Он
сказал, что одолжит мне денег, если я пообещаю ему вер­
нуть долг вовремя. 16. Он пообещал, что сообщит нам дату
своего приезда, как только купит билеты. 17. Мы решили,
что поедем в лес, если только не будет дождя. 18. Я знала,
что он не откажет, если я попрошу его помочь мне. 19. Он
заверил меня, что я сразу узнаю ее, как только увижу.
20. Питер сказал, что подождет, пока Джейн вернется.

10. Put in will where necessary.

If you ... (1) go to Cyprus this summer, you ... (2) never
regret it. As soon as you ... (3) come there you ... (4) forget all
your worries. You ... (5) marvel at the breathtaking scenery of
the island. You ... (6) feel the beauty of a typical Mediterrane­
an country in the variety of architectural monuments. You ...
(7) see works of local craftsmen and ... (8) try the most deli­
cious food you can imagine! I don’t know if you ... (9) have
enough time to see everything. Perhaps you ... (10) begin your
tour of the island from the Troodos Mountains. If you ... (11)
start at eight it ... (12) not be very hot and you ... (13) feel quite
comfortable throughout the trip. As soon as you ... (14) take
the bus the guide ... (15) begin telling you about the history of
25
Cyprus. I don’t know if you ... (16) like the story, but I per­
sonally find it fascinating. Before you ... (17) go to the moun­
tains you ... (18) pass by the largest waterdam in the country.
And after you ... (19) go through several picturesque villages
and pine forests you ... (20) stop at the centre of the Troodos
Mountains in Platres. If you ... (21) want to eat something or
to have a cup of coffee the guide ... (22) show you a pretty little
tavern. As soon as you ... (23) finish your meal you ... (24) con­
tinue your trip. After you ... (25) pass by the Marathasa valley
you ... (26) arrive at the richest, largest and the most famous
monastery of the island, the Royal Kykkos Monastery. If you ...
(27) go inside you ... (28) see the famous icon of the Virgin Mary
which was painted by St. Luke. I don’t know if you ... (29) be­
lieve it, but it has some rainmaking powers. This autumn if peo­
ple ... (30) have no rain they ... (31) take the icon outside and ...
(32) carry it through the island. Nobody doubts that it ... (33)
help! I am not sure if you ... (34) have some spare time in the
monastery, but if you ... (35) do you ... (36) have an opportu­
nity to visit their famous museum where you ... (37) see a mar­
vellous collection of icons. After it, unless you ... (38) get too
tired you ... (39) visit the Tomb of the first President of Cy­
prus, Archbishop Makarios III. After you ... (40) see this im­
portant place you ... (41) have lunch in a small mountain vil­
lage. I assure you, you ... (42) find the place charming. If you ...
(43) have your camera with you, you ... (44) take some really
nice pictures there. When you ... (45) look at them afterwards
you ... (46) remember this wonderful day in the mountains.

11. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я не уверена, будет ли погода завтра хорошей. Если


пойдет дождь, мы отменим концерт. 2. Я не знаю, когда
Джеймс вернется. Если вы немного подождете, я спрошу у
его секретаря. 3. Он и сам не знает, поедет ли он в коман­
дировку на следующей неделе. Если поедет, он привезет
нам новое оборудование. 4. Я не знаю, поможет ли тебе эта
26
диета. Если ты не похудеешь, тебе придется проконсуль­
тироваться с врачом. 5. Понятия не имею, когда он позво­
нит. Как только я получу от него известие, я немедленно
тебе сообщу. 6. Мама спрашивает, не поможешь ли ты ей.
Если ты не сходишь в магазин, она не успеет приготовить
пирог к приходу гостей. 7. Никто не знает, когда закон­
чится этот глупый сериал. Впрочем, это не имеет значе­
ния, потому что, как только он закончится, они начнут по­
казывать новый. 8. Кто знает, когда состоится конференция?
Если я не буду знать точной даты, я не смогу подготовить
доклад. 9. Мистер Смит хочет знать, будете ли Вы прини­
мать участие в этом проекте. Если вы согласитесь, он пре­
доставит Вам всю необходимую информацию на следующей
неделе. 10. Он не уверен, победит ли он в этом соревнова­
нии. Если он победит, он примет участие в Олимпийских
играх следующим летом.

12. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

Mr. McGlombie and his wife wanted a ride in a plane, but


Mr. McGlombie turned white when he hears the tariff for a taxi-
ride in the air. It was $20. The amused pilot said, ‘I will make
you a proposition, Mr. McGlombie. You and your wife will get
in and I will give you a ride for half an hour. If you won’t say a
single word while we will be up, I will only charge you $5.’
Mr. McGlombie thought it is a fair proposal and he and his
wife climed into the plane. The pilot took them on the wildest
half hour’s ride that could possibly be imagined. He looped the
loop (делал мертвую петлю), rided upside down and went
through dizzying dives. Finally he sat his plane down on the
ground.
‘I didn’t think you will manage to do it, Mr. McGlombie,’
said the pilot. ‘You are a very brave man if you go through all this
without uttering a sound.’
‘Aye,’ said McGlombie, all wet with fear. ‘But you’ll never
know how close I come to talking when my wife fell out.’
27
13. Translate the fairy-tale into English.
УМНАЯ ЭЛЬЗА
Жил да был человек, и была у него дочь. Звали ее Ум­
ной Эльзой (Clever Elsie). Вот выросла она, а отец и гово­
рит: «Отдам-ка я ее замуж, если только найдется такой че­
ловек, что захочет ее взять». И вот пришел, наконец, из
дальних мест человек, звали его Ганс (Hans). Понравилась
ему Эльза. «Ну, — сказал Ганс, — если я увижу, что она и
вправду умная, я на ней женюсь».
Сели они за стол пообедать, а мать и говорит: «А кто
принесет нам пива из погреба (cellar)?» Взяла Умная Эльза
с полки кувшин и спустилась в погреб. И вдруг заметила
Эльза в погребе кирку (pike) на стене. Начала Умная Эльза
плакать и причитать: «Коли выйду я замуж за Ганса, ро­
дится у нас ребенок. Когда он вырастет, пошлем мы его в
погреб за пивом. И когда он придет в погреб, кирка упадет
ему на голову и убьет его». Долго плакала Эльза. Наконец
ее родители с женихом спустились в погреб и увидели Эльзу
в слезах. Ганс спросил ее, что случилось (to be wrong). И
рассказала ему Эльза, что когда она выйдет за него замуж и
родит ребенка, они отправят его в погреб за пивом, и как
только он туда спустится, упадет ему на голову кирка, и
потеряют они своего сына. Ганс решил, что это очень умно,
и сказал, что женится на Эльзе.
Пожила Эльза с Гансом немного, а он и говорит: «Жена,
я пойду поработаю, а ты ступай на поле. А то если ты не
будешь жать пшеницу (harvest wheat), не будет у нас хлеба».
«Хорошо, милый Ганс, — ответила Эльза. — Я так и сде­
лаю».
Ушел Ганс, наварила она себе вкусной каши и взяла с
собой на поле. Пришла туда и сама себе говорит: «Надо мне
сначала поесть, а то если я не поем, я и работать не смогу».
Съела она всю кашу и снова сама себе говорит: «Уж и не
знаю, смогу ли я работать, если сначала не посплю». Легла
она в пшеницу и уснула. А Ганс в это время домой воро­
28
тился, а Эльзы нет. Вот он и говорит: «Какая у меня умная
Эльза, пока работу не закончит, она домой не вернется и
ничего не поест». Вечер наступил, вышел Ганс в поле по­
глядеть на работу Эльзы и увидел, что она крепко спит (to
be fast asleep). Взял Ганс сеть (net) с бубенцами и накинул
ее на Эльзу, а она даже не проснулась. Побежал он домой и
запер двери. Наконец стало совсем темно, проснулась Ум­
ная Эльза, и как только она поднялась, бубенцы на ней и
зазвенели. Испугалась она и призадумалась: а вправду ли
она Умная Эльза? И сама не знала, что ей думать, а потом
решила. «Пойду-ка я домой да спрошу, я ли это, или не я.
Если Ганс меня узнает, значит, я Умная Эльза». Прибежала
она домой, постучала она в окошко и спрашивает: «Ганс,
дома ли Эльза?» «Да, — ответил Ганс, — она дома». Испу­
галась она и говорит: «Ах, боже мой, значит это не я!» и
кинулась к другим дверям. А люди услыхали звон бубен­
цов и не захотели ей отпирать, и нигде не нашлось ей при­
юта. И убежала она тогда из деревни; и никто ее с той поры
больше не видел.
(after the Grimm brothers)

Revision

1. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

A traveller, wet with rain and feeling cold, arrived to a coun­


try inn, which he founded so full of people, that he could not
get near the fire. He said to the landlord, ‘Take some oysters to
my horse!’ ‘To your horse?’ exclaimed the landlord. ‘Your horse
shall never eat them.’ ‘Do as I will ask you,’ answered the travel­
ler. All the people, hearing this, run out to the stable to see the
horse eat oysters. The traveller now had the whole room to him­
self, and so he set down comfortably by the fire and warm him­
self. When the landlord returns, he said to the traveller, ‘I was
29
sure that your horse will not eat the oysters.’ ‘Never mind,’ re­
plied the traveller, ‘put them on the table and when I will be dry,
I will try to eat them myself.’

2. Open the brackets using appropriate tense forms.

THE TURNIP
There (be 1) once two brothers who both (serve 2) as sol­
diers, one of them (be 3) rich, and the other poor. Then the poor
one (decide 4) to become a farmer. He (dig 5) his bit of land, and
(put 6) some turnip seed into it. The seed (come 7) up, and one
turnip (grow 8) there which (become 9) large and strong, and
visibly (grow 10) bigger and bigger until it (become 11) gigantic.
It (be 12) so enormous that by itself it (fill 13) a whole cart, and
the farmer (not have 14) the slightest idea what he (be 15) to do
with the turnip, or whether it (bring 16) a fortune to him or a
misfortune. At last he (think 17), ‘If I (sell 18) it, I (not get 19)
anything important for it. And if I (want 20) to eat, a small tur­
nip (be 21) much better. But if I (take 22) it to the king and (make
23) him a present of it, he (be 24) pleased.’
So he (place 25) it on a cart and (take 26) it to the palace,
and (present 27) it to the king. ‘What a strange thing it (be 28),’
(say 29) the king. ‘I (not know 30) if I ever (see 31) such a big
turnip again. If your turnips (be 32) so big you must be a rich
man.’ ‘Ah, no’, (say 33) the farmer, ‘I (be 34) a poor soldier. I
(have 35) a brother who is rich, but I myself (be 36) as poor as a
church mouse.’ Then the king (feel 37) compassion for him, and
(say 38), ‘I (raise 39) you from your poverty and I (give 40) you
such gifts that you (be 41) equal to your rich brother.’ And in­
deed, he (give 42) the soldier a lot of gold, and lands, and mead­
ows, and herds and (make 43) him immensely rich. Now he was
richer than his brother.
When the rich brother (hear 44) about it, he (envy 45) him,
and (decide 46) that he (do 47) everything possible to come by a
similar piece of luck. He (set 48) about it in a much more cun­
ning way, however, and (take 49) gold and horses and (carry 50)
30
them to the king. He (be 51) sure that the king (give 52) him a
much larger present in return. He (think 53), ‘If my brother (get
54) so much for a stupid turnip, what the king (give 55) me for
my wonderful gifts?’ The king (accept 56) his present, and (say
57) he (have 58) nothing to give him in return that (be 59) more
rare and excellent than the great turnip. So the rich man (be 60)
obliged to put his brother’s turnip in a cart and take to his home.
(after the Grimm brothers)

3. Translate the text into English.

БИТВА С БАБОЧКАМИ
Во время летних каникул Сара (Sarah) и Джимми
(Jimmy) решили заработать немного денег. Они пришли к
фермеру и спросили, нет ли у него работы для них. Ферме­
ру была нужна помощь в саду. Он попросил детей собрать
гусениц (caterpillars) с капустной грядки (cabbage patch). Он
объяснил, что гусеницы поедают капустные листья и пор­
тят урожай. Фермер пообещал заплатить, как только дети
закончат работу. Сара и Джимми взяли ведра (buckets) и
отправились в сад. Капустная грядка оказалась такой ог­
ромной, что дети расстроились. Они поняли, как тяжело
будет заработать эти деньги. Сара и Джимми приступили
к работе. Это было просто ужасно! Толстые гусеницы из­
вивались (wriggle), когда дети дотрагивались до них. Им
потребовался целый час, чтобы закончить первый ряд. И
повсюду вокруг них были капустницы (Cabbage White
butterflies). Неожиданно Саре в голову пришла замечатель­
ная идея. «Джимми, гусеницы появляются из яиц, не так
ли?» — спросила она. Джимми кивнул. «А откуда появля­
ются яйца?» — снова спросила она. «Бабочки их отклады­
вают», — ответил Джимми. «Правильно, — сказала Сара. —
Значит, если мы избавимся от бабочек, больше не будет ни
яиц, ни гусениц». Джимми согласился с сестрой. «Так по­
чему бы нам не избавиться от бабочек?» — спросила Сара.
«Но как?» — удивился Джимми.
31
Неподалеку росли бобы, которые обвивались (climb
up) вокруг бамбуковых шестов (bamboo poles). Сара выта­
щила два шеста, при этом два бобовых растения погибли.
Она дала один шест Джимми, а затем бросилась на капуст­
ную грядку и начала размахивать (swing) шестом, пытаясь
попасть в бабочек. Джимми показалось, что это хорошая
игра, и он отправился за сестрой. Нелегко попасть по ле­
тящей бабочке. Зато довольно легко сделать это, когда ба­
бочка садится на капусту. Вскоре вся земля была покрыта
мертвыми бабочками. Сара и Джимми остановились, что­
бы полюбоваться своей работой. Не осталось ни одной ба­
бочки. Но не осталось и ни одного кочана капусты. Труд­
но попасть в бабочку, когда она сидит на капусте, и не по­
вредить саму капусту. Капустная грядка была похожа на поле
битвы. Дети посмотрели друг на друга. Не говоря ни сло­
ва, они положили шесты на землю и на цыпочках вышли
(to tiptoe) из сада. Они знали, что фермер будет в ярости,
когда увидит их работу, и очень радовались, что он не зна­
ет их адрес.
(after Jake Allsop)

The Present Continuous Tense

1. Match each of the sentences with a meaning below.

1. We are spending next winter in Chicago. 2. She is always


complaining about her health! 3. I am listening to some music
on the radio. I’ll start work in a few minutes. 4. I am being so
silly today! 5. I am wearing sunglasses today because the sun is
very strong. 6. People are becoming less tolerant of smoking these
days.
a) a developing situation
b) a typical behaviour
c) a temporary situation
32
d) an irritating habit
e) an activity or event planned for the future
f) an action which is in progress at the moment

2. Correct spelling mistakes in the verbs. Give the necessary


explanations.

1. Jane is visitting her old teacher at the moment. 2. Mother


is Uniting a new sweater for my younger brother. 3. Poor old Mr.
Higgins is dieing. Doctors are triing to save his life. 4. The kids
are swiming in the pool at the moment. 5. The Joneses are pic­
nicing in the countryside now. 6. My relatives are comeing to see
us this week-end. 7. I am seing my dentist tomorrow morning.
8. Look! Jenny is ridding a pony.

3. Open the brackets using all the verbs in the Present Continuous
Tense.

WELCOME TO THE WORLD OF FUN!


We are happy to see you at PORT AVENTURA, our great
amusement park! We provide our visitors with all sorts of enter­
tainments. Today, as usual, we invite you to our numerous at­
tractions and breathtaking shows. Let’s see what (go on) at this
time of the day.
The Chinese theatre (open) its doors to our visitors. Acro­
bats, magicians and dancers (prepare) for an exciting 45-minute
performance which combines great tricks with a beautiful story
of vivid colour.
Some of our guests (have) a photo session with Shrek at
Woody’s Photo Studio. You still have time to join them.
Maverick already (show) his famous rabbit tricks in his small
theatre.
A concert of country music (begin) in the Far West sector of
the park.
The spirits of the dead (call) the most fearless of you to the
Great Mayan pyramid Templo del Fuego. The show just (begin)!
It (go) to take your breath away!
2-6736 33
The craziest fort of the Far West, Fort Frenzee #99, (wait)
for you for an unforgettable experience. You (go) to see a live-
action stunt of America’s cowboy era. The music already (play)
and the guns (fire).
And who (serenade) near a small café in the Mexico sector?
Ah, of course! Our world-famous band (sing) some of the best
traditional songs for romantic souls!
Some of our youngest visitors (watch) a marvelous Polyne­
sian puppet performance.
And hundreds of our guests (enjoy) exciting rides on our
numerous attractions. The bravest of them (try) the Hurakan
Condor climbing 100 m into the air and enjoying a free fall for 86
metres!

4. Change the sentences into the Present Continuous it possible.


Make any changes you find necessary.

Example: He often listens to music. — He is listening to music


now.
1. This product contains olive oil. 2. They repair this TV
set every week. 3. I read a lot of books in the original. 4. This
proverb belongs to the Chinese. 5. He leaves home at 8 every
morning. 6. He seems friendly. 7. I hear you very well. 8. He
speaks five foreign languages. 9. She cuts her children’s hair.
10. My family owns this house. 11. They translate articles from
English into Russian. 12. They sell fruit here. 13. They always
laugh at you. 14. Does he use this computer? 15. This dog al­
ways barks at strangers. 16. Does she type letters every day?
17. You know what I mean. 18. He lives with his relatives.
19. Something smells strange. 20. He works in the garden from
morning till night. 21. He understands everything perfectly.
22. He plays the piano. 23. He arranges parties every weekend.
24. We always have a great time here. 25. This company builds
houses. 26. This dog weighs 50 kilograms. 27. My mother often
makes cakes. 28. Do you want to speak to her? 29. Mr. Brown
has three cars. 30. Does he believe in ghosts?
34
5. Use the verbs in bold type in the Present Indefinite or the
Present Continuous Tense. Comment on the meaning of the verbs
in each particular case.

a. think:
1. Sam ... of buying a new car. 2. What you ... he wants? 3. ‘Is
James coming tonight?’ ‘I ... so, but I’ m not sure.’ 4. Take
no notice, I just ... out loud.

b. consider:
1. The committee ... my application at the moment. 2. He ...
whether to accept another job offer. 3. We all ... him a hero.
4. He ... buying a house.

c. see:
1. ... you Jane tomorrow? 2. I ... why you’ re angry. 3. She ...
the doctor about her leg tomorrow. 4. A scientist ... things
differently from an artist.

d. hear:
1. I want this mess tidied up now — you ...? 2. I (not)...
anything. I think you just ... things. 3. They ... this case in
court next Thursday. 4. I ... you’ re leaving us.

e. have:
1. She ... dark curly hair. 2. My kids ... a music lesson now.
3. He ... a lot of problems at the moment. 4. Janice ... a dif­
ficult time with her husband.

f. be:
1. He ... a charming person. 2. Mr. Briggs ... usually very
stingy, but he ... very generous today. 3. She ... very beauti­
ful now that she has lost some weight. 4. I don’t recognize
you, Johnny! You ... so naughty today!

g. look:
1. Why you ... at me like this? 2. It ... as if it is going to
rain. 3. She ... about twenty. 4. Susan ... at herself in the
mirror.
2* 35
h. weigh:
1. The baby ... 16 pounds already. 2. Look! They ... your
package. Do you know how much it ...? 3. Karen ... herself
daily and marks her weight on the chart. 4. The judge al­
ways ... all the facts carefully before reaching a verdict.

i. taste:
1. At this moment the visitors ... different kinds of wines in
the gallery. 2. These biscuits (not)... of ginger. 3. What are
you doing? — I ... the soup. I think it’s too salty. 4. Although
the meat is cold, it ... delicious.

j. smell:
1. Why you ... the milk? — I think it’s gone off. 2. This
room ... a bit damp. 3. ... you gas? 4. I can’t put my finger
on it, but something about this deal really ... .

k. expect:
1. We ... good weather at the weekend. 2. Our customers ...
good service. 3. I ... you to understand. 4. I ... visitors this
evening.

l. feel:
1. There are days when I (not)... like going to work. 2. Why
you ... the child’s forehead? Do you think he is running a
temperature? 3. You know, I ... somebody’s presence in the
room. 4. How you ... now?

6. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Indefinite or


Present Continuous Tense.

A: You (look 1) tired today.


B: No wonder, I (not feel 2) very well.
A: You (think 3) of going home?
В: I (not think 4) it’s a good idea. The boss won’t like it if I
leave early. He (expect 5) me to prepare some documents
for him.
A: He (expect 6) some important visitors?
36
В: Yes, he (see 7) his business partners tomorrow. They (con­
sider 8) taking part in a new project.
A: Oh, I (see 9). You (know 10), he (be 11) not quite himself
today. He (be 12) so irritable! Everything (seem 13) to get
on his nerves.
В: I (hear 14) he (have 15) problems with his secretary. She (be
16) very inefficient. He (look 17) for a new one.
A: It (look 18) strange. I (think 19) it was he who took her.
B: Exactly. It (look 20) just like him. At first he (think 21) too
much of a person and then he (get 22) disappointed.

7. For each of the situations below make up sentences to express


your irritation. Use always, forever, continually, all the time.

Example: Mike is a very boring person. — He is forever nag­


ging!
1. My sister is an incurable gossip. 2. Kate is such a chatter­
box! 3. Jim is such a show-off! 4. Jake is very absent-minded. 5. I
have an impression that Polly is stupid. 6. Bob thinks he’s a gen­
ius!?. My neighbour is crazy! 8. Peter behaves like a girl! 9. Nancy
considers herself to be very smart. 10. Harry has some disgust­
ing habits. 11. Miriam is a real book-worm. 12. My mother
doesn’t like anything I do.

8. Translate the following text into English.

Кто знает более ужасного человека, чем Грейс? Кажет­


ся, она отравляет воздух вокруг себя. Вечно она жалуется,
что окружающие ее не понимают. Она все время со всеми
спорит, даже когда сама знает, что неправа. Она считает себя
очень мудрой женщиной, которая знает жизнь, и посто­
янно дает всем какие-то нелепые советы. Она все время
ругается с коллегами, потому что они не хотят поступать
так, как она им советует. Она все время всем рассказывает,
как трудно ей живется, и вечно у всех просит денег. Между
тем в прошлом месяце она купила машину! Она постоян­
но рассказывает всем про свои болезни, хотя я лично не
37
знаю более здоровой женщины, чем она. Она все время
задает нам бестактные вопросы о нашей личной жизни и
обижается, когда мы ей не отвечаем. Она все время расска­
зывает какие-то гадости про нашего начальника. Господи,
почему он ее не уволит?

9. Open the brackets telling the story in the present.

THE STRANGE DOCTOR


Their first summer in New England, a man and his wife
(motor 1) along a strange country road to keep a dinner engage­
ment. They (realize 2) that they (go 3) to be late, so the husband
(drive 4) at top speed. In spite of this he (notice 5) a large house
in bad repair with a sign announcing that a doctor (live 6) there.
Half a mile farther on, something (go 7) wrong with the car
and it (crash 8) against a tree. The husband, unhurt, (lift 9) his
wife from the wreckage and (find 10) her unconscious and seri­
ously injured. He (remember 11) the doctor’s sign, (run 12) back
to this house and (ring 13) the bell. A tall, grey-haired man (open
14) the door and (say 15) he is the doctor. There (be 16) no one
else in the house.
Together, they (carry 17) the woman into a dusty, disordered
consulting room and (lay 18) her upon an operating table. The
doctor (examine 19) her and (declare 20) that her skull is frac­
tured and the only chance to save her life is to operate at once.
He (ask 21) the husband to act as anaesthetist. The husband (help
22) the doctor and several minutes later (leave 23) the room.
Suddenly he (begin 24) to feel that something strange (go on
25). He (hear 26) steps and then he (see 27) three man two of
whom are armed and the third (carry 28) a rope. The husband
(see 29) that they (advance 30) slowly towards the door. ‘For God’s
sake, wait!’ the husband (beg 31). ‘The doctor (operate 32) on my
wife now. If he (not finish 33) the operation, she (die 34)!’
Whispering, one of the men (ask 35), ‘Who you (take 36)
us for?’
‘Thieves.’
38
‘No,’ the man (answer 37). ‘We are attendants from a neigh­
bouring insane asylum (психиатрическая клиника). The man
who (operate 38) on your wife is mad. He (escape 39) two hours
ago.’
The three men (agree 40) to wait until the operation (be 41)
over. Then they (take 42) the madman, who (fight 43) and (scream
44), back to the asylum. They (promise 45) to bring back doctors
and nurses, which they (do 46). The wife (recover 47) and the
husband (take 48) her back to New York. He (place 49) her in a
hospital under the care of a prominent physician. Carefully ex­
amining her skull, the doctor (say 50), ‘Your wife (go 51) to be
perfectly normal again. I (try 52) to find an explanation for it, but
I can’t! Only one operation could have saved her. And there is only
man who (perform 53) it successfully. That (not explain 54) any­
thing, because that particular doctor (go 55) mad years ago, and
now (live 56) in an asylum somewhere in New England.’
(after Charming Pollock)

10. Look at Helen’s diary and make up sentences about her plans.

Example: Helen is meeting her friends on Monday morning.

Monday Meeting with friends. Cinema with James.


Tuesday Prepare documents, pack things.
Wednesday Flight to Copenhagen, 10.15. Tour of Copenhagen
16.00 — 20.00
Thursday Conference. Meeting with teachers from Copenhagen
University
Friday Home! Flight SU 512 15.50. Dinner with James.
Saturday Swimming pool 10.00. Fitness 13.00. Theatre 19.00.
Sunday Visit parents.

11. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Continuous
or Future Indefinite.

1. ‘What you (do) this summer?’ ‘We (spend) a week in


Greece.’ 2. I can’t go to a keep-fit class tomorrow because I
(work) late. 3. ‘We (run) out of salt.’ ‘Ok, I (go) and (buy) some.’
39
4. I (be) back at 9.30. 5. I hope that you (have) a good time to­
morrow. 6. I (believe) it when I see it. 7. He (make) a speech at
the Conference tomorrow. He (put) some finishing touches to it
now. 8. I am not sure I (recognize) him. 9. What role you (play)
in tomorrow’s performance? 10. Our class (go) on an excursion
tomorrow. 11. He (not write) to you unless you write to him.
12. You (help) me with my homework, please?

12. Translate the following jokes into English.

1. «Я слышала, ты художник». «Я надеюсь им стать. Я толь­


ко еще начинаю мою карьеру». «Ну и что же ты сейчас
делаешь?» «Я живу в студии и отращиваю бороду».
2. «Дорогой, неужели ты думаешь, что я собираюсь но­
сить эту беличью шубу (squirrel coat) всю жизнь?» «А
почему бы и нет? Белки носят».
3. Мама спрашивает своего шестилетнего сына: «Джим,
ты что, учишь попугая ругаться?» «Нет, мамочка, — от­
вечает ребенок. — Я просто объясняю ему, какие слова
не употреблять».
4. Муж: «Что? Ужин не готов? Тогда я иду в ресторан!» Жена:
«Подожди пять минут». Муж: «Ты собираешься приго­
товить ужин за пять минут?» Жена: «Нет, я иду с тобой».
5. Солдат пытается придумать причину для увольнения
(extra leave). Все офицеры знают, что он постоянно врет.
Солдат говорит офицеру: «Я хочу получить увольни­
тельную завтра после обеда (to have tomorrow afternoon
off)». «Что, я полагаю, опять у бабушки проблемы?» «Да,
она завтра совершает свой первый прыжок с парашю­
том».

13. Translate the text into English.

Жаркий летний день. Десятилетний мальчик гуляет по


парку. Он идет медленно и пинает камешки. Неожиданно
он замечает какой-то странный предмет на земле. Он на­
клоняется посмотреть и видит, что на него смотрят два боль­
40
ших блестящих глаза. Мальчик пугается, но затем он видит,
что это просто лягушка. Он поднимает ее с земли и подно­
сит к глазам. Он внимательно разглядывает ее, как вдруг слы­
шит голос: «Не пинай меня, пожалуйста!» Мальчик не по­
нимает, откуда доносится голос. Он оглядывается вокруг, но
никого, кроме него, здесь нет. Он снова смотрит на лягуш­
ку и с удивлением видит, что это она с ним разговаривает.
Мальчик потрясен — говорящая лягушка! «Не обижай
меня, — говорит лягушка. — Если ты поцелуешь меня, я
превращусь в прекрасную принцессу». Мальчик ничего не
отвечает на это. Лягушка снова начинает умолять его: «По­
целуй меня, я превращусь в принцессу и сделаю все, чего ты
пожелаешь!» Но мальчик просто засовывает лягушку в кар­
ман и продолжает свой путь. Лягушка начинает яростно
прыгать и пинаться у него в кармане. Наконец мальчик до­
стает ее и снова подносит к лицу. «Ну, чего ты пинаешься?» —
спрашивает он. Лягушка отвечает: «Я же тебе говорила, что
если ты поцелуешь меня, я превращусь в принцессу и сде­
лаю для тебя все, чего ты только пожелаешь, а ты просто
положил меня в карман. Почему?» «Я предпочитаю иметь
говорящую лягушку», — отвечает мальчик.

The Past Continuous Tense

1. Read the following joke, translate it into Russian and explain the
use of the Past Continuous Tense.

Two sea veterans were talking about the wonderful things each
had seen at sea. The stories were growing more and more incred­
ible. At last one of them thought of a winner.
‘Well,’ he said, ‘the most amazing thing I ever saw was when
I was crossing the Atlantic. A fellow dived off the harbour just as
the ship was leaving, and followed us all the way over, arriving at
the port five minutes ahead of us.’
41
But his rival was not to be beaten.
‘Quite right,’ he said, ‘the fellow was me.’

2. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box.

grew was making up


was beginning listened
saw felt (twice)
were happening were coming
was pacing brought
burst was finding
were shaking were chattering

THE FOUNDING OF NARNIA


The Lion ... (1) to and fro about the empty land and singing
his song. And as he walked and sang, the valley ... (2) green with
grass. What was rather alarming was that at each turn he came a
little nearer. Polly ... (3) the song more and more interesting be­
cause she thought she ... (4) to see the connection between the
music and the things that ... (5). When a line of dark firs sprang
up on a ridge about a hundred yards away she ... (6) that they
were connected with a series of long, prolonged notes which the
Lion had sung a second before. And when he ... (7) into a rapid
series of lighter noises she was not surprised when she saw prim­
roses appearing in every direction. Thus, with an unspeakable
thrill, she ... (8) quite certain that all the things ... (9) (as she
said) ‘out of the Lion’s head’ . When you ... (10) to his song you
heard the things he ... (11); when you looked around you, you
... (12) them. This was so exciting that she had no time to be
afraid. But Digory and the cabman could not help feeling a bit
nervous as each turn of the Lion’s walk ... (13) him nearer. As or
Uncle Andrew, his teeth ... (14), but his knees ... (15) so that he
could not run away.
(from ‘The Chronicles of Namia’ by C. S. Lewis)
42
3. Answer the following questions using the verbs from the brackets.

Example: How did you cut yourself? (cut) — I cut myself when
I was slicing the cucumbers.
1. How did James meet his wife? (travel in the mountains)
2. How did Kate break her wrist? (skate)
3. When did you see her last? (walk in the park)
4. When did you lose your wallet? (return home)
5. When did you first hear this expression? (watch a movie)
6. How did you quarrel with Alice? (discuss)
7. How did you find this puppy? (picnic in the country)
8. How did you burn yourself? (make a fire)
9. How did you get lost? (try to find my friend’s house)
10. How did you sprain your ankle? (dance)

4. Open the brackets using the verbs either in the Past Indefinite
or in the Past Continuous Tense.

It was one of the most disastrous days of Peter’s life. When


he (go) to work in the morning he (get) in a traffic jam. While he
(wait) for the jam to disappear he (take) out his business papers
and (begin) studying them. While he (read) the papers he (not
notice) a thief who stole his case from the back seat. Peter (no­
tice) the loss only when he (drive) up to his office. He immedi­
ately (decide) to go to the police station. While he (talk) to the
officer a truck that (pass) by (crash) into his Mercedes. As soon
as Peter (hear) the noise he (rush) out of the police station to
see what (go) on. While he (run) to his mined car he (fall) down
and (lose) consciousness. When he (come) round he (lie) on
the operating table and a doctor (examine) him. He (have) to
stay in hospital for a week. His wife (rest) at the seaside at that
time, so there was nobody to take care of him.

5. Write a report for the police about the crime you witnessed. Use
Past Indefinite and Past Continuous. Choose one of the following:

a) a man on a motorbike snatched a woman’s handbag;


43
b) a teenager stole perfume in a supermarket;
c) a drunken motorist knocked down a child.

6. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я ничего не слышала, потому что когда грабитель


проник в дом, я смотрела телевизор. 2. Автобус, как все­
гда, опоздал, поэтому, когда Джеймс добрался до работы,
все уже сидели на своих местах. 3. Пока Питер ходил вок­
руг одного кинотеатра, его девушка ждала его возле друго­
го. 4. Боже, как холодно! Трудно поверить, что в это самое
время неделю назад мы купались и загорали на пляже.
5. Пока Кейт ждала своей очереди к дантисту, она упала в
обморок от страха. 6. Пока я раздумывала, купить эти брю­
ки или нет, их купил кто-то другой. 7. Пока я делала до­
машнее задание своим детям, они играли в компьютерные
игры. 8. Когда Катя была маленькой, она вечно выдумы­
вала всякие небылицы. 9. Когда Павел сдавал экзамен по
истории, он так волновался, что перепутал все даты. 10. Она
просидела на скамейке три часа, а потом заплакала и ушла.
11. Брэд проработал в фирме около десяти лет, а потом на­
шел другую, более интересную работу. 12. Он сказал, что
собирается бросить курить.

7. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

George Bernard Shaw was ... (1) lunch in a small restaurant


in London. ... (2) he was trying to clear his plate a band ... (3)
playing, or should one say, making a dreadful noise. G. B. Shaw
did ... (4) like garish music, and he felt terrible. The noise was
getting ... (5) and worse. At last Shaw couldn’t put up with it ...
(6) longer. He was going ... (7) ask for his bill when the band
stopped ... (8).
The conductor looked round the room, ... (9) the great writer,
recognized him, came up to him and said with ... (10) smile,
‘Would you like the band to play ... (11) special for you, Sir?’
The answer ... (12) instantly, ‘Of course! I’d like you to play chess!’
44
8. Open the brackets using each of the verbs in the proper tense
form.

‘The chalk! The chalk! Look at the chalk! It (move 1) all on


its own!’
So hysterical and shrill (be 2) Nigel’s scream that every­
one in the place, including the Trunchbull, (look 3) up at the
blackboard. And there, sure enough, a brand-new piece of
chalk (hover 4) near the grey-black writing surface of the black­
board.
‘It (write 5) something!’ screamed Nigel. ‘The chalk (write
6) something!’
And indeed it (be 7).
‘What the blazes is this?’ (yell 8) the Trunchbull. She was
shocked when she (see 9) that an invisible hand (write 10) her
own name on the blackboard. She (drop 11) Wilfred on the floor.
Then she (yell 12) at nobody in particular, ‘Who (do 13) this?
Who (write 14) it?’
The chalk (continue 15) to write.
Everyone in the place (hear 16) the gasp that (come 17) from
the Trunchbull’s throat. ‘No!’ she (cry 18). ‘It can’t be! It can’t
be Magnus!’
Miss Honey, at the side of the room (glance 19) swiftly at
Matilda. The child (sit 20) very straight at her desk. Her eyes
(glitter 21) like two stars.
For some reason everyone now (look 22) at the Trunchbull.
The woman’s face was as white as snow and her mouth (open
23) and (shut 24) like a fish out of water and (give 25) out a se­
ries of strangled gasps.
The chalk (stop 26) writing. It (hover 27) for a few moments,
then suddenly it (drop 28) to the floor with a tinkle and (break
29) in two.
Wilfred, who now (sit 30) in the front row, (scream 31), ‘Miss
Trunchbull is on the floor!’
This (be 32) the most sensational bit of news of all and the
entire class (jump 33) up out of their seats to have a really good

45
look. And there she (be 34), the huge figure of the Headmis­
tress, stretched full-length on her back across the floor, out for
the count.
(from ‘Matilda’ by Roald Dahl)

9. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

A young Air Force just out of school invited his civilian friend
for drink. They spent the whole night drinking. When the pilot
finally regained consciousness, he was laying in a hospital bed
completely swatched in bandages. His booze friend was sit by
his bedside looking at him sadly.
‘What was happening to me, Tom?’ the flier asked.
‘Well, we sitting there very peacefully when suddenly you
jump to the ledge of a window on the tenth floor and cryed, “Now
I fly like a bird over the city.” ’
‘Why you not stop me?’
‘Stop you?’ was the reply. ‘I was thinking you could really
do it.’

10. Translate the following texts into English.

А. КРАСАВИЦА
Однажды по дороге шла девушка. Она была красива,
как фея. Вдруг она заметила, что следом за ней идёт муж­
чина. Она обернулась и спросила: «Зачем ты идёшь за
мной?»
Мужчина ответил: «О, повелительница моего сердца,
ты настолько красива, что мне хочется следовать за тобой
повсюду. Люди говорят, что я прекрасно играю на лютне,
пишу хорошие стихи и знаю тайны любви. А тебе я хочу
сказать, что люблю тебя и готов стать твоим рабом!»
Красавица молча смотрела на него некоторое время, а
потом сказала: «Такты говоришь, что любишь меня? У меня
есть младшая сестра, которая гораздо красивее и привле­
кательнее меня. Она идёт за мной, посмотри на неё».
46
Мужчина остановился, потом обернулся, но увидел
только безобразную старуху в лохмотьях, которая шла за
ними. Тогда он догнал девушку и спросил ее: «Зачем ты
мне солгала?» Девушка улыбнулась и ответила: «Но и ты,
мой друг, тоже не сказал мне правду, когда говорил, что
любишь меня. Ты знаешь тайны любви и делаешь вид, что
твое сердце пылает от любви ко мне. Зачем же ты тогда
обернулся?»

В. НЕСЧАСТНЫЙ СТАРИК
Жил однажды в деревне старик. Он был одним из не­
счастнейших на свете. Вся деревня устала от него: вечно он
ныл, вечно жаловался, вечно ворчал. С годами он стано­
вился все более и более мрачным и все более и более злым.
Все больше и больше людей старались избегать его: несча­
стье становилось заразительным. Он делал несчастными и
других людей. Но однажды, когда ему исполнилось восемь­
десят лет, случилось нечто невероятное. В тот день, когда
старик вышел на улицу, он выглядел счастливым. Он не
жаловался, улыбался, и даже его лицо выглядело по-дру­
гому. Собралась вся деревня. Кто-то спросил старика: «В
чем дело? Почему ты улыбаешься? Почему не жалуешься?»
А старик ответил: «Восемьдесят лет я старался стать счаст­
ливым и ничего не вышло. Тогда я решил обойтись без сча­
стья. Вот почему я счастлив».

The Future Continuous Tense

1. Match each of the sentences with a meaning below.

1. At this time tomorrow, our plane will just be taking off.


2. Will you be going to the party tonight? 3. In a hundred years’
time people will be flying to other planets routinely. 4. We will
be spending this winter in Austria.
47
a) a planned event
b) an action which will occur in the ordinary course of events
c) a polite question about a person’s plans
d) an action which will be going on at a future time

2. Open the brackets using all the verbs in the Future Continuous
Tense.

Most of us don’t know what we (do) a year from now, but


there are people who can predict what the world will be like in
the year 3000!
Dr. Bart Kosko, the author of The Fuzzy Future, says that
pretty soon scientists (re-engineer) the human brain. Initially
they (work) with implants and other supplements but in a hun­
dred years’ time they already (design) outright replacements. With
the help of their new brains people (create) their own personal
worlds. It means that they (live) beyond their biologically allot­
ted time. All the human consciousness will be placed in chips,
and human beings (communicate) directly with other conscious­
nesses in other chips.
Edward de Bono, the author of more than fifty books on
thinking and creativity, doesn’t like the idea of chips. He says
that people (use) their minds in a much more efficient way. They
(speak) a totally different language which will be fifty times as
fast as the one they are speaking now.
Dr. Bruce Murray, a professor of planetary science and ge­
ology at Caltech, predicts that in the near future nations will (get)
closer and closer to one another.
Graham Molitor, coeditor of the Encyclopedia of the Future,
is sure that in the course of the next 200 years people (move) out
into the Universe. In the year 3000, people (communicate) with
extraterrestrials (представители внеземных цивилизаций) on
a wide scale.
And, perhaps the most stunning prediction of all that be­
longs to Dr. Bart Kosko and is supported by many other scien­
tists: English will be the dominant language of the solar system,
if not beyond!
48
AND CAN YOU MAKE ANY PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE
FUTURE?

3. Open the brackets using the verbs either in the Future Indefinite
or in the Future Continuous Tense.

1. She (hate) the party. She doesn’t like celebrations. 2. I can


post your letter. I (pass) the post-office on my way to work. 3. I
know what (happen). They (discuss) their health problems all the
evening. 4. This time next week I (ski) in the Alps. 5. I am abso­
lutely sure he (help) me if I ask him. 6. Peter (leave) for Canada
soon. He has got a job there. 7. You (use) your computer this af­
ternoon? I’d like to type some documents if you don’t mind.
8. You (help) me to wash the dishes, please? 9. Don’t call her to­
night. She (watch) her favourite soap opera. 10. I (not tell) him
about it. He can’t keep a secret. 11. I know that this prima balleri­
na (not dance) tomorrow. Her understudy (dance) instead.
12. They (live) in their country house all the summer. 13. The car
(not start). — Ok, I (give) it a push. 14. By the time the police
identify the criminal he (fly) to Australia. 15. Some scientists think
that in the twenty-second century people (live) entirely on pills.

4. Join the sentences using appropriate conjunctions. Make all the


necessary changes.

Example: I will be cooking dinner. My husband will be walk­


ing the dog. — While I am cooking dinner my hus­
band will be walking the dog.
1. The girls will be swimming in the swimming pool. The boys
will be playing football.
2. You will call at 8. They will be having breakfast.
3. Group 1 will be working in the language laboratory. Group
2 will be writing a test.
4. You will come at 3 o’clock. The children will be rehearsing
the New Year play.
5. The kids will be playing in the yard. Their parents will be
watching them.
49
6. He will return to the city. They will be building a new school
near his house.
7. They will be sitting in the restaurant. We will be shopping.
8. They will be taking an exam. We will be waiting for them.
9. I will be reading this novel. I will be writing out interesting
expressions.
10. My sister will be washing the dishes. I will be taking a
shower.

5. Make up polite questions about your friend’s plans.

Example: use his car; tomorrow — Will you be using your car
tomorrow?
1. go to a café; tonight 2. call his friends; Saturday 3. write
to his girlfriend; tomorrow 4. play the guitar; tonight 5. go on a
picnic; this weekend 6. stay in; this evening 7. travel abroad; this
summer 8. sell his car; this year 9. have a party; tomorrow 10. pass
the supermarket; today.

6. Translate the sentences into English.

1. He приходи ко мне завтра. Я буду очень занята. Я


буду готовить доклад к конференции. 2. Весь следующий
месяц мы будем путешествовать по Италии. Я надеюсь, что
мы посетим все наиболее интересные места этой страны.
3. Ты случайно не будешь проходить мимо аптеки? Ты не
купишь мне витамины? 4. В это время завтра мы будем
подъезжать к Мадриду. 5. Если ты придешь в восемь, мы
как раз будем обсуждать наш новый проект. 6. Пока ты
будешь печь пирог, я буду готовить мясо. 7. Многие думают,
что учителя скоро станут не нужны. Детей будут обучать
компьютеры. 8. Мой друг будет ждать меня возле театра в
восемь часов. Я не должна опаздывать. 9. Я не думаю, что
ты узнаешь ее. На ней будет карнавальный костюм.
10. Завтра дети не пойдут в школу. Они весь день будут
играть с друзьями.
50
7. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Indefinite,
Present Continuous, Future Indefinite or Future Continuous Tense.
All the actions refer to the future.

1. What time the train (arrive)? 2. When you (fly) to


Rimini? 3. I’ll ask the first person who (pass) here. 4. I (see)
John next Friday. 5. If I (get) there late he (be) very angry. 6. He
(not come) to see us on Saturday. He (picnic) in the country­
side. 7. He (leave) his job next month. 8. Professor Jones (give)
a lecture on Lexicography tomorrow evening. 9. I hope she (get)
the job she’s applied for. 10. You (use) your typewriter tomor­
row? I’d like to borrow it for a couple of hours. 11. You (hold)
the door open for me, please? 12. Nancy (give) an important
dinner party this evening. 13. We can’t wait for her any longer.
Our plane (leave) in three hours. — OK, I (leave) a message for
her. 14. The semester (start) on February 7. 15. Very soon com­
puters (do) all the jobs which are now done by people. 16. At
this time tomorrow we (take) our History exam. 17. If you
(come) at 13.00, you (not find) me in. I (have) lunch at the
cafeteria. 18. You (not know) what (happen) at the party? He
(tell) us about his girlfriends all the evening. 19. Don’t miss
the next lesson. The teacher (explain) some new rules to us.
20. If you (come) here at nine the bridge just (open) and you
will be able to enjoy the sight.

8. Translate the following joke into English.

В одной ирландской семье дочь сообщает отцу, что


собирается выйти замуж за англичанина. Отец в ярости. Он
говорит, что никогда не согласится на этот брак. Он
утверждает, что дочь будет до конца своих дней влачить
жалкое существование (be miserable). Дочь пытается убедить
отца, что любовь не имеет ничего общего с политикой или
религией. «Я говорю не об этом, — отвечает отец. —
Англичане глупы! Единственная разница между ними и
обезьянами заключается в том, что обезьяна, по крайней
мере, почистит банан перед тем, как его съесть!» «Но
51
папа, — возражает дочь, — мой жених говорит совсем
другое. Он говорит, что если он решит покрасить дом (have
his house painted), ему придется нанять сто ирландцев. Один
из них будет держать кисть, а остальные девяносто девять
будут поворачивать дом». «Это грязная протестантская
ложь! — возмущается отец. — Если он такой умный,
почему он сам не придет поговорить со мной?» «Он сейчас
в больнице с сорока дырками в голове, — объясняет дочь. —
Он учится пользоваться вилкой».
(from ‘The Lilt of the Irish’ by Henry D. Spalding)

Revision

1. Find and correct five mistakes in each of the texts.

A. Old farmer John returning home from town with a fat hen
under his arm. On his way home he dropped in at the local
bar and got drunk. When he was coming home, his wife took
one look at his crimson nose and bleary eyes and under­
stands everything. ‘What you doing with that pig?’ she
snapped. ‘Are you mad, Hattie?’ he exclaimed. ‘That’s not
a pig.’ ‘Hold your tongue, John,’ she retorted. ‘I talked to
the chicken!’
B. Two men were travelling in the same compartment. Suddenly
an inspector comes to check their tickets. While the first
passenger was showing his ticket to the inspector, the sec­
ond one was putting his ticket into his mouth and began
searching his pockets. He was getting more and more nerv­
ous. ‘Do you look for your ticket?’ asked his fellow travel­
ler. ‘Well, you are hold it in your teeth!’ The inspector
punched the ticket and left. After this the first man said, ‘What
an absent-minded man are you.’ ‘Oh, I am not absent-mind­
ed at all,’ replied the other passenger. ‘I was chewing off last
week’s date.’

52
2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper tense forms.

THE MAN WHO COULD WORK MIRACLES


Until he (be 1) thirty years old, Fotheringay (not believe 2)
in miracles. In fact he (discover 3) his own unusual powers at the
moment when he (claim 4) that miracles were quite impossible.
He (have 5) a drink at his local inn, and Toddy Beamish (drive
6) him to the limits of his patience by disagreeing with every­
thing he (say 7).
‘So you say,’ (answer 8) Beamish whenever Fotheringay
(speak 9).
There (be 10) present, besides these two, a very dusty cy­
clist; the innkeeper, Cox; and fat Miss Maybridge, who (serve
11) behind the bar. She (stand 12) with her back to Mr. Fother­
ingay, washing glasses; the others (watch 13) him.
‘Listen, Mr. Beamish,’ (say 14) Fotheringay, annoyed by
his opposition. ‘We (talk 15) about real miracles, aren’t we? And
what (be 16) a miracle? It’s something that (happen 17) against
the laws of nature. You (do 18) it by the power of Will. It never
(happen 19) unless you (will 20) it.’
‘So you say,’ (say 21) Mr. Beamish.
The cyclist (agree 22) with Mr. Fotheringay, but the innkeeper
(not express 23) an opinion.
‘For example,’ said Mr. Fotheringay, ‘look at this lamp. You
(think 24) it still (bum 25) if we (put 26) it upside down?’
‘No,’ said Beamish at last. ‘No, it won’t. It is against the
laws of Nature.’
‘Very well,’ said Mr. Fotheringay. ‘Imagine that here (come
27) someone, perhaps myself, and (stand 28) here, perhaps, and
(say 29) to that lamp, as I might do, collecting all my will —
“Turn upside down without breaking, and go on burning stead­
ily,” and — Hullo!’
And at this very moment the impossible (happen 30). They
(see 31) that the lamp (hang 32) upside down in the air. It (burn
33) quietly with its flame pointing down. It (be 34) as solid as
ever a lamp was.
53
Mr. Fotheringay (stand 35) with a finger stretched out and
the troubled face of one who (expect 36) a terrible crash. The
cyclist, who (sit 37) next to the lamp, (jump 38) away. Miss
Maybridge (turn 39) and (cry 40) out. For nearly three seconds
the lamp (remain 41) as it was. A faint cry of pain (come 42)
from Mr. Fotheringay, ‘I (lose 43) my strength. It (go 44) to fall
down.’ The lamp suddenly (fall 45), (break 46) on the floor, and
(go 47) out.
(after H. G. Wells)

3. Translate the following text into English.

РОМАН БИРЖЕВОГО МАКЛЕРА


Ровно в девять часов Гарви Максвелл (Harvey Maxwell)
вошел в свой офис вместе со своей молодой секретаршей.
Питчер (Pitcher), служащий, который сидел за своим сто­
лом, посмотрел на них с улыбкой. «Доброе утро, Пит­
чер», — сказал Максвелл и поспешил к своему столу, где
его ждала целая кипа писем и телеграмм. Начинался рабо­
чий день.
Но молодая секретарша не торопилась. Она стояла ря­
дом с Максвеллом и наблюдала за ним. Человек, который
сидел за столом, больше не был человеком. Это была ма­
шина, которая считала, продавала и покупала.
«Ну, в чем дело?» — нетерпеливо спросил Максвелл.
«Ничего», — ответила секретарша. Она выглядела обижен­
ной.
«Мистер Питчер, — сказала она служащему, — Вы уже
ищите новую секретаршу?» «Конечно, — ответил Пит­
чер. — Мистер Максвелл попросил меня об этом вчера».
«Ну хорошо, я буду работать, как обычно, пока она не при­
дет».
Это был напряженный день. Телефоны без конца зво­
нили, люди все время бегали туда-сюда. Неожиданно в офис
вошла молодая девушка. Питчер подошел к столу Макс­
велла и представил девушку. «Это наша новая секретар­
54
ша», — сказал он. «Какая еще секретарша?» — спросил
Максвелл. «Вы же вчера велели мне найти новую секретар­
шу», — сказал Питчер. «Ты что, смеешься надо мной? —
спросил Максвелл. — Мисс Лесли (Miss Leslie) — очень
хорошая секретарша. Я не собираюсь менять ее». С этими
словами он снова начал читать письма, которые лежали
перед ним на столе.
Девушка пожала плечами и ушла. Питчер сказал кол­
легам, что начальник с каждым днем становится все забыв­
чивее и забывчивее.
Наконец наступил обеденный перерыв. Максвелл от­
крыл окно, и в кабинете запахло сиренью. Этот запах о чем-
то напомнил Максвеллу. «Я сделаю это прямо сейчас, —
сказал он самому себе. — Завтра я опять буду целый день
работать, и мне будет некогда. А сейчас у меня есть пять
минут».
Он выбежал в соседнюю комнату и подошел к секре­
тарше. Она посмотрела на него с улыбкой. В руках он дер­
жал несколько телеграмм, а за ухом у него торчала ручка.
«Мисс Лесли, — начал он торопливо. — Я хочу Вам кое-
что сказать. Вы будете моей женой? Я люблю Вас. Пожа­
луйста, говорите быстрее». «Боже, о чем Вы говорите?» —
воскликнула девушка. «Разве Вы не понимаете? — нетер­
пеливо сказал Максвелл. — Я хочу жениться на Вас. Вы
выйдете за меня, мисс Лесли? Ой, меня зовут к телефону.
Пожалуйста, отвечайте быстрее».
Сначала секретарша выглядела удивленной. Ее глаза
наполнились слезами. Но затем она улыбнулась и, к удив­
лению Максвелла, обняла его. «Теперь я понимаю, — ска­
зала она нежно. — Бизнес заставляет тебя забыть обо всем.
Но разве ты не помнишь, Гарви, разве ты не помнишь, что
мы поженились вчера в восемь часов вечера в Маленькой
Церкви За Углом (the Little Church Around the Conrner)*?»
(after O’Henry)

* the name of a church in Manhattan


55
The Present Perfect Tense

1. Read the following joke and explain what kind of mistake Francis
was always making.

All the members of the O’ Keefe family were very educated


people. But twelve-year-old Francis was having some difficulty
in maintaining the family tradition. His great weakness was gram­
mar. ‘Francis,’ scolded his teacher, ‘I have told you repeatedly
not to say “I HAVE WROTE”. Now, I want you to write, “I
have written” one hundred times.’
Dutifully, Francis finished the task and left the completed
pages on the teacher’s desk — together with a note: ‘I have wrote
“I have written” one hundred times like you said, and I have
went home.’

2. Open the brackets using all the verbs in the Present Perfect
Tense. Mind the word order. Pick out sentences which have one of
the meanings below.

a) a recent action which has a result in the present


b) a repeated or habitual action
c) a piece of news
d) an action occurring in an incomplete period

DIGORY AND HIS UNCLE


Before Digory could say anything, Polly touched the ring
and suddenly she disappeared!
‘What (happen) to Polly?’ he asked Uncle Andrew indig­
nantly. ‘Congratulate me, my dear boy,’ said Uncle Andrew, rub­
bing his hands. ‘My experiment (succeed). The little girl (van­
ish) right out of this world.’ ‘What you (do) to her?’ ‘I (send)
her to — well — to another place.’ ‘What do you mean?’ asked
Digory.
Uncle Andrew sat down and said, ‘Well, I’ll tell you all about
it. You ever (hear) of old Mrs. Lefay? She was my godmother.
Before she died she gave me an ancient box and told me to bum
56
it with certain ceremonies. But, of course, I didn’t do it.’ ‘That’s
jolly rotten of you, ’said Digory. ‘My Mother always (teach) me
to keep my promises.’ ‘Oh, my dear boy, as long as the world
(exist) there never (be) rules for people who possess hidden wis­
dom. I opened the box and found some magic dust in it. For
years I made countless tests and now I (come) to the conclusion
that this stuff is from another world. I (make) several magic rings
from this dust. Actually, I already (try) them on different crea­
tures like guinea-pigs. And now at last I (manage) to send a hu­
man being into Another World.’
‘But why didn’t you go there yourself?’ Digory asked. ‘Uncle
Andrew looked offended. ‘Me? Me?’ he exclaimed. ‘At this time
of my life and in my state of health? I never (hear) anything so
preposterous in my life! Think what Another World means —
you might meet anything — anything.’ ‘And I suppose you
(send) Polly into it then,’ said Digory angrily. ‘And all I can say,’
he added, ‘is that you (behave) like a coward, sending a girl to a
place you’ re afraid to go to yourself. Are you going to bring Pol­
ly back?’ ‘She will get back if someone else goes after her and
gives her a green ring.’ ‘Very well. I’ll go. But there is one thing I
want to tell you first. I never used to believe in magic. Now I see
it’s real. And you’ re simply a wicked, cruel magician like the ones
in the stories. Well, I never (read) a story in which people of that
sort weren’t paid out in the end, and I bet you will be. And serve
you right!’
(from ‘The Chronicles of Narnia’ by C. S. Lewis)

3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper present tenses.

(Qi Wang is a Chinese student who is now taking a course at


Plymouth University. He is giving an interview to UK Life.)
I (be) in the UK for two years already. During this time I
(meet) a lot of Chinese friends, most of whom (be) staff or stu­
dents of the University. I (feel) at home in this foreign country. I
(be) the chairman of the Plymouth Chinese Students & Schol­
ars Association for a year. We (have) a good partnership with the
57
Universities International Office, together with which we (or­
ganise) the Chinese New Year Party every year for local Chinese
students. The research work I (do) now is on the cutting edge of
mobile wireless systems. I (do) quite a lot already. And my su­
pervisor, Dr. Mosa, always (help) me. We usually (have) a for­
mal one-to-one research meeting every week. I (like) such regu­
lar and dedicated meetings, which (keep) my research going
smoothly. My dear wife just (come) here to stay for the summer.
We now (live) in a flat quite near the city centre. Plymouth (be) a
costal city and (have) a splendid sea view. Every evening we (walk)
in the historical Barbican or Hoe. In summary, I really (enjoy)
living and studying in Plymouth.

4. You are touring Italy. The program of your tour is given below. It
is Thursday today. Make up sentences about what you have already
done, what you are doing today and what you are going to do
during the next three days.

Monday San Marino.


Tuesday A tour of Rome.
Wednesday The Museums of the Vatican.
Thursday Naples and Pompeii.
Friday Siena. The central part of the city. A bus to Pisa.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
Saturday The museums of Florence. A walking tour.
Sunday The boat to Florence.

5. Paraphrase the sentences using the construction This is the


first time + Present Perfect.

Example: I have never tasted such delicious icecream before. —


This is the first time I have tasted such delicious
icecream.
1. I have never seen such an interesting play before. 2. Jim
has never been abroad before. 3. We have never heard such a beau­
tiful song. 4. He has never been late before. 5. Jake has never missed
a plane before.
58
6. Translate the following jokes into English.

1. «Джесси, я уже много раз говорила тебе, что ты долж­


на молчать, когда взрослые разговаривают. Ты должна
подождать, пока они остановятся». «Я уже пыталась,
мама. Они никогда не останавливаются».
2. Во время парада генерал спрашивает солдата: «Как дол­
го вы уже в армии, рядовой Браун?» «Слишком», —
отвечает он. «Что слишком?» — спрашивает генерал.
«Слишком долго», — отвечает рядовой.
3. Джеймс хочет купить собаку и спрашивает ее владель­
ца: «А вы уверены, что эта собака верная (loyal)?» «Ко­
нечно, — отвечает тот, — я продавал ее уже пять раз, и
каждый раз она возвращалась домой».
4. Мама: «Ну, девочка моя, ты уже перестала плакать?»
Дочь: «Нет, не перестала. Я просто отдыхаю».
5. Пациент жалуется доктору на бессонницу (insomnia):
«Доктор, я перепробовал уже все. Я не только пере­
считывал овец, я стриг (shear) их, прял (weave) шерсть,
делал из нее костюмы, открывал магазины, терял все
деньги. Но я так и не могу уснуть!»
6. Стивен пишет письмо своей любимой девушке: «Мэг­
ги, я уже второй раз прошу тебя выйти за меня замуж.
Если ты не хочешь быть моей женой, пожалуйста, верни
это письмо нераспечатанным!»

7. Find a proper way of continuing each of the sentences in column


A with a sentence or a phrase in column B.

A В
1. I have read the instruc­ a) I didn’t understand them.
tions.
2. I read the instructions. b) I don’t understand them.
3. Tom has had a bad car a) He is in hospital now.
crash.
4. Tom had a bad car crash. b) He recovered soon.

59
5. I haven’t seen Jane this a) It is 6 PM now.
morning.
6. I didn’t see Jane this b) It is 11 AM now.
morning.
7. The lift has broken down. a) It didn’t work for two days.
8. The lift broke down. b) We have to use the stairs.
9. I have seen wolves in this a) Walking there might be
forest. dangerous.
10. I saw wolves in this forest. b) It was a long time ago.
11. John Smith has written a) Most of them were pub­
a number of stories. lished after his death.
12. John Smith wrote a num­ b) Now he is writing a script
ber of stories. for a movie.
13. I am fond of horse-riding. a) Did you ever fall off a horse?
14. I used to go in for horse- b) Have you ever fallen off a
riding. horse?
15. I have planted fourteen a) so far this morning.
rose-bushes
16. I planted fourteen rose­ b) on Sunday.
bushes
17. I haven’t visited my aunt a) for a long time.
18. I didn’t visit my aunt b) last summer.
19. I have passed my driving a) without any problems.
test
20. I passed my driving test b) at last.
21. Michael hasn’t appeared a) last week.
on TV
22. Michael didn’t appear on b) before now.
TV
23. He has lived here all his a) He never left the town for
life. more than a week.
24. He lived here all his life. b) He knows everybody here.
60
8. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Perfect and
Past Indefinite Tense.

1. It seems they already (decide) without consulting us.


2. I often (wonder) why he (decide) to become a teacher. 3. I
(have) a headache ever since I (get up). 4. She (change) her
job three times in the last five years. 5. Last year she (change)
all the furniture in her house. 6. I (be) a fan of Manchester
United for ten years. 7. I (be) a fan of this team until they
(lose) three games running. 8. You ever (see) the Queen? —
Yes, I (see) her at the opera. 9. When you (buy) this suit? — I
(buy) it last year. I (buy) another one since then. 10. You
(work) with this computer program before? — Yes, I (work)
with them all. 11. This is the third time Kate (miss) a meet­
ing. 12. This is the best pizza I ever (eat). 13. Since I (meet)
her I never (see) her lose her temper. 14. Since we (know) each
other he always (be) tactful. 15. I (make) a lot of friends since
I (come) here. 16. I (meet) many interesting people since I
(be) here. 17. We (not see) Neil since he (begin) seeing his
new girlfriend. 18. As long as I (know) him he always (be) very
friendly. 19. Since they (install) new computers the work of
accountants (become) much easier. 20. Bill (ask) me this ques­
tion five times today. 21. Kate (tell) me about it when we
(meet). 22. We just (buy) a very pretty vase. 23. You (see) my
umbrella anywhere? — It (be) here just now. 24. I am afraid I
(leave) my bag in the bus. 25. Great news! Andrew and Angela
(get) married!

9. Choose the correct words from the brackets.

1. I haven’t spoken a word of German (for a long time / long


ago). 2. We haven’t discussed the matter (so far / by now). 3. I
am sorry, I can’t give you the book. I haven’t read it (already /
yet). 4. How long (before / ago) did you graduate from the Uni­
versity? 5. Mike and Nancy quarrelled last month. They haven’t
spoken to each other (after that / ever since). 6. I have met James
quite often (lately / late). 7. It’s a long time (since / when) I had
61
a good rest. 7. We have finished the project (now / yet). 8. Lily
has been very ill (for / since) the last week. 9. The weather has
been awful (for / since) last Friday. 10. I bought a new car (late­
ly / last week).

10. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я не виделась с ним с тех пор, как он женился.


2. Где ты купила это кольцо? Я впервые вижу такой ин­
тересный дизайн. 3. Мы знакомы очень давно. 4. Мы по­
знакомились давно, около 10 лет назад. 5. Я всегда зна­
ла, что он честный человек. 6. Прошло уже три месяца с
тех пор, как они уехали, а я до сих пор не получала от
них никаких известий. 7. Слышали новость? Мой млад­
ший брат выиграл приз в конкурсе детской поэзии. 8. Ты
выкурил уже третью сигарету! Разве ты не помнишь, что
сказал доктор? 9. С тех пор, как я посмотрела этот фильм,
мне снятся кошмары. 10. В последнее время Стивен
очень рассеянный. 11. Прошло уже три года с тех пор,
как Питер последний раз был за границей. 12. Я пока
проверила только три работы. У меня ушло на это пол­
часа.

11. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Indefinite,
Present Perfect and Future Indefinite Tense.

1. After I (work) here for a year I (have) a better salary.


2. When we (pass) all the exams we (go) to the seaside. 3. You
(not watch) TV till you (finish) your homework. 4. We will
leave the museum only after we (look) at all the pictures. 5. I
(show) you some interesting pictures when you (come) to see
me. 6. I (allow) you to get up only after you (take) all your
pills. 7. When he (leave) I (tell) you the latest news. 8. You
(know) how to use this device only after you (read) all the
instruction carefully. 9. You (find) it easier after you (prac­
tise) a little. 10. They (get) married as soon as he (graduate)
from the University.
62
12. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

A country boy, who ... (1) driving his wagon peacefully along
the bank of the Shannon, suddenly ... (2) a frantic cry for help.
There, in the water, he ... (3) a drowning man who was strug­
gling and flailing about. It ... (4) clear that the man could ... (5)
swim. So, our hero jumped ... (6) from his wagon, leaped into
the river, and brought the half-dead man safely to shore.
‘You have ... (7) my life,’ said the stranger. ‘Permit me ... (8)
reward you.’ He reached into his gold-filled purse and hand­
ed ... (9) rescuer a six-pence.
‘Sir,’ replied the country boy, looking the man straight in
the eye, ‘I’ m afraid you ... (10) overpaid me!’

13. Translate the text into English.

МЕДОВЫЙ МЕСЯЦ
Лили и Мартин решили провести свой медовый ме­
сяц на каком-нибудь экзотическом острове. Они разрабо­
тали детальный план. Они заранее купили билеты первого
класса на самолет. Они забронировали самый шикарный
отель. Они купили красивую, но удобную одежду для пу­
тешествия. И, наконец, они приготовили довольно боль­
шую сумму денег.
Когда они приехали в аэропорт, Мартин сказал: «У
меня такое чувство, что мы что-то упустили (overlook). Да­
вай-ка проверим все пункты по списку. Мы захватили все
сумки?» «Да», — ответила Лили. «А ты взяла билеты?» «Да,
я только что их проверила». «А деньги и чековая книжка?»
«Я положила их тебе в карман пиджака перед тем, как мы
вышли из дома». Мартин вздохнул с облегчением. Лили
обняла его и нежно прошептала ему на ухо: «Дорогой, я
совершенно уверена, что мы все подготовили должным
образом. У нас будет замечательный медовый месяц». Вдруг
Мартин изменился в лице (Martin’s face fell). «Не думаю», —
сказал он. «Что случилось, дорогой?» — спросила Лили.
«Мы забыли пожениться!»
63
The Past Perfect Tense

1. Fill in the gaps in the text with words from the box using them
in the Past Perfect Tense. Change the word order where neces­
sary.

go
contract
want
be
search
change
unpack
disappear
see
not get over

THE LADY VANISHES


In 1889 an Englishwoman and her daughter, on a visit to the
Great Exhibition in Paris, checked into one of the most expen­
sive hotels of the city. Each of them had her own room. The daugh­
ter ... (1) always to see the sights of Paris. That’s why after she ...
(2) her suitcases she went for a walk. But her mother who was
very tired after the trip, wanted to sleep and went to bed.
The daughter returned to her mother’s room six hours later,
but she found it empty. There was no sign that her mother ... (3)
ever there. The whole room ... (4)! When she asked the managed
he insisted that no one at the hotel ... (5) her or her mother check
in. The mother ... (6)! The desperate girl ... (7) for weeks before
she finally returned to England. She died several years later in a
mental hospital. She ... (8) ‘losing’ her mother.
So what was the explanation? After the daughter ... (9) sight­
seeing, her mother complained to the hotel doctor that she felt
ill. It was obvious that she ... (10) the plague (чума). The local
officials instructed the hotel staff not to say a word to anyone
64
about this, in case visitors left the city and the Great Exhibition
ended in disaster. The hotel staff quickly redecorated the moth­
er’s room and a new visitor moved in. No one knows what hap­
pened to the mother.

2. Join the sentences using after, before, when, till. Make all the
necessary changes.

1. I revised the grammar rules. I did the exercise. 2. We came


to the cinema. The film began. 3. We visited the exhibition. We
had lunch. 4. I waited. Mr. Black signed the documents. 5. Car­
rie came to the railway station. The train left. 6. I left the house.
I closed all the windows. 7. I fed the puppies. I cleaned the mess.
8. He gave me her telephone number. I asked him several times.
9. Mr. White greeted the audience. He introduced the first speaker.
10. We went to Italy. We booked the hotel.

3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Past Indefinite or Past
Perfect Tense.

1. They (not see) their nephew for years when he suddenly


(call) from Italy. 2. The meeting already (begin) when they (come)
into the hall. 3. After Mike (finish) the painting, he (meet) Paula
for dinner. 4. Eva (write) many books before she (win) the prize.
5. Jake (be) round the world and (visit) many countries; but he
(not know) the way to the theatre in his home town. 6. I just
(finish) writing a letter when the doorbell (ring). 7. The examin­
er (say) he (hope) we (read) the instructions carefully. 8. Although
I never (meet) him before, I (know) him instantly. 9. I (not rec­
ognize) him at first because he (put on) a lot of weight. 10. When
John (want) to buy a bar of chocolate he (discover) that he al­
ready (spend) all his money. 11. We all (wait) till the guard (check)
our documents. 12. That was the first time I (eat) oysters. 13. The
boss (sign) the documents only after he (read) each of them care­
fully. 14. Jim (know) everything there was to know about the
company as he (work) in it for more than twenty years. 15. When
we (wake up) in the morning the rain already (stop).

3-6736 65
4. Match the beginnings with the ends.

1. No sooner had he recov­ A. when Mother sent me to


ered the shop.
2. Hardly had it stopped B. than he forgot it.
raining
3. Scarcely had he got the C. than the teacher noticed it.
money
4. No sooner had he learnt D. when the children ran out­
the rule doors.
5. Hardly had the children E. when they felt hungry again.
had dinner
6. Scarcely had I bought a F. than they got married.
new dress
7. No sooner had Jane G. when he spent it all.
opened her textbook
8. Hardly had I come H. when he got in a car crash.
home
9. Scarcely had he begun I. when I put a stain on it.
driving
10. No sooner had they met J. than he fell ill again.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. He успел прозвенеть звонок, как дети выбежали


из класса. 2. Едва он нашел работу, как поссорился с на­
чальником. 3. Не успела мать прилечь, как ребенок сно­
ва заплакал. 4. Едва мы вышли на улицу, как пошел дождь.
5. Не успели мы приехать в лес, как заблудились. 6. Едва
мы купили новый компьютер, как он сломался. 7. Едва
мы вошли в дом, как хозяйка пригласила нас к столу. 8. Не
успела певица закончить свою знаменитую арию, как зал
разразился аплодисментами. 9. Не успел поезд тронуть­
ся, как пассажиры достали бутерброды и принялись есть.
10. Не успел ребенок открыть рот, как мама поняла, чего
он хочет.
66
6. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

THE STAR TALERS

Once ... (1) a time there lived a little girl. Her father and
mother ... (2) died, and she was very poor. ... (3) she had sold
everything she could, she no longer had a room to live in, or bed
to ... (4) in. And at last she had nothing else but the clothes she ...
(5) wearing and a little bit of bread in her hand which some char­
itable soul had ... (6) her. She was good and pious, however. And
as the whole world ... (7) forsaken her, she went forth into the
open country, trusting in the good God.
Then a poor man met her, who said, ‘Ah, I haven’t ... (8)
anything for three days. Give me something, I am so hungry.’
She handed ... (9) the whole of her piece of bread, and said, ‘May
God bless you,’ and went onwards.
No ... (10) had she made ten steps than she met a child who
moaned and said, ‘My head ... (11) so cold, give me something
to cover it with.’ So she took ... (12) her hood and gave it to him.
And when she ... (13) walked a little farther, she met another child
who had no jacket and ... (14) frozen with cold. Then she gave
him her own, and a little farther on one begged for a frock, and
she gave away that also.
At length she got into a forest and it had ... (15) become dark,
and there came yet another child, and asked for a shirt, and the
good little girl thought to herself, ‘It is a dark night and no one ...
(16) see me, I can very well give my shirt away,’ and took it off,
and gave away that also.
And hardly had she done it ... (17) stars began to fall down
from heaven, and they were nothing else but hard smooth piec­
es of money, and although she had just ... (18) her shirt away,
she had a new one which was of the very finest linen. Then
she ... (19) the money into it, and ... (20) rich all the days of
her life.
(after the Grimm brothers)

3* 67
7. Open the brackets using appropriate past tenses.

THE MOUSE AND HENRY CARSON


One evening deep in June a mouse (run 1) into the office of
the Educational Testing Service. The students just (finish 2) writ­
ing a test. The mouse accidentally (touch 3) the apparatus just
as it (score 4) Henry Carson’s results. Henry always (be 5) an
average secondary school pupil, uncertain of himself and of his
talents. His scores (be 6) average or below so far, but the mouse
(change 7) all that, and the computer obligingly (produce 8)
amazingly high scores. The news about Henry’s extraordinary
abilities soon (spread 9) throughout the school. Everybody (talk
10) about him. His teachers (look 11) at him in a new light, won­
dering why they always (underestimate 12) his abilities. Coun­
sellors were puzzled at how they (miss 13) his obvious talent,
and college administrators (compete 14) with one another to win
Henry for their colleges.
For Henry the world (change 15), and he (grow 16) as a per­
son and as a student. For the first time he (recognize 17) his po­
tentialities, and (gain 18) in confidence, beginning ‘to put his
mind in the way of great things’ . So was born one of the best men
of his generation.

8. Translate the following text into English.

Смиты жили в одном из пригородов Лондона. Когда они


проснулись однажды утром, они увидели, что их машина
исчезла. Они немедленно позвонили в полицию и сообщи­
ли о краже. После этого они поехали на работу на автобусе.
Когда они вернулись домой вечером, они с удивлением об­
наружили, что вор вернул машину и припарковал ее на обыч­
ном месте возле дома. Под одним из дворников (windscreen
wiper) был маленький конверт. Смиты быстро открыли его и
нашли в нем записку. Человек, который ее написал, изви­
нялся за то, что «позаимствовал» их машину. Он объяснил,
что у него самого нет машины, а у его жены ночью начались
68
роды (go into labour), поэтому он взял их машину без разре­
шения, чтобы отвезти ее в больницу. В конверте также были
два билета на известный мюзикл на субботу. Смиты очень
обрадовались, потому что они давно хотели посмотреть это
шоу, но им не удавалось достать билеты.
Это был прекрасный вечер. У них были лучшие места,
и представление было даже лучше, чем они ожидали. Сми­
ты были в таком хорошем расположении духа, что после
того, как мюзикл закончился, они решили поужинать в
своем любимом итальянском ресторане. Когда они, нако­
нец, добрались домой, их ждал новый шок. Пока они были
в театре, кто-то пробрался в их дом и унес все ценные вещи.
На столе лежала записка. Едва они взглянули на нее, как
поняли, кто ограбил их квартиру, потому что этот почерк
они уже видели раньше. «Надеюсь, вам понравилось пред­
ставление!» — говорилось в записке.

The Future Perfect Tense

1. John is taking some New Year resolutions. He is determined to do


everything he has planned. Say what he will have done by next year.

Example: I am going to buy a new car. — John will have bought


a new car by next year.
I am going to:
1. lose 10 kilos 2. give up smoking 3. finish my thesis 4. find
a better job 5. buy some new furniture 6. take a course in creative
writing 7. redecorate my apartment 8. read twenty Italian books
in the original 9. change my hair style 10. save $3000 for a holi­
day abroad.

2. Join the sentences using by the time and before. Make all the
necessary changes.

1. We will clean this mess. Our parents will return.


69
2. Sue will cook dinner. Her husband will come home from
work.
3. Bobby will finish his homework. His favourite serial will begin
4. Mary will lose 7 kilograms. Summer will come.
5. Paul will find a well-paid job. He will get married.
6. Harry will check everything five times. He will go to the air­
port.
7. James will write out all interesting expressions. He will re­
turn the book to the library.
8. Nancy will consult several lawyers. She will buy this house.
9. Stephen will write five books. He will be twenty-five.
10. The train will leave. We will reach the station.

3. Describe the changes which will have happened in your family’s


life by the year 2020.

Example: I suppose both my sons will have got married by 2020.

4. Open the brackets using the verbs in the appropriate future


tenses.

LEARN YOUR HOROSCOPE FOR THE COMING WEEK!


ARIES: You (work 1) really hard for the first four days of the
week. The situation (change 2) by Friday. On this day you (have
3) some pleasant surprise. By the weekend you (save 4) enough
money for a nice relaxing evening in a restaurant with your family.
TAURUS: Your mind (be 5) on entertainment rather than
work. All the week through you (have 6) fun. But be careful, oth­
erwise you (spend 7) all your money by the weekend.
GEMINI: This week (change 8) your life. Along-lost friend
(call 9) you this Wednesday.
CANCER: Don’t plan anything serious: you (laze about 10)
all the week. Even if you decide to do something, all your at­
tempts (fail 11). Relax! You (have 12) enough problems later.
LEO: By Thursday you (find 13) the way out of the situa­
tion which has troubled you for such a long time. You (be 14)
generously rewarded for all your efforts.
70
VIRGO: You (not have 15) much time for yourself. You (help
16) your family to solve some urgent problems all the week.
LIBRA: One of these days you at last (meet 17) your soul­
mate. You (need 18) your intuition in order not to miss your
chance.
SCORPIO: All the week you (generate 19) new ideas like a
computer. By Friday you (work 20) out an original plan which
(help 21) you to reorganize the working process in your office.
SAGITTARIUS: This week (bring 22) you some unpleasant
surprises. People (bother 23) you with their problems all the time.
Don’t lose your temper, otherwise you (get 24) into trouble on
Friday.
CAPRICORN: By Wednesday you finally (get 25) rid of the
relationship you are fed up with. You (make 26) some really in­
teresting aquaintances at the end of the week.
AQUARIUS: By Tuesday you (make 27) some important
decisions which (influence 28) all your future life.
PISCES: If you try hard enough, you (finish 29) all the
week’s work by Thursday, and you (have 30) a nice weekend with
your family and friends.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я совершенно уверена, что закончу проект к концу


следующей недели. 2. К тому времени, как ты придешь, мы
уже все обсудим. 3. Прежде чем уйти на работу, я покормлю
щенков. 4. Поторопись, иначе к тому времени, как мы
доберемся до театра, спектакль уже начнется. 5. Боюсь,
ребенок не выучит это стихотворение к пятнице. 6. К тому
времени, как тур подойдет к концу, я сделаю пятьсот
фотографий. 7. К тому времени, как Том проснется, его
родители уже позавтракают. 8. Я не уверена, что прочитаю
эту книгу к субботе. Я сейчас очень занята. 9. К первому
июля студенты сдадут все экзамены и будут совершенно
свободны. 10. К концу следующего месяца мы закончим
ремонт и переедем в новую квартиру.
71
Revision

1. Find five mistakes in each of the jokes below.

1. A young midshipman (курсант военно-морского


училища) report to the captain for duty. The captain sized up
the young man and said, ‘Well, young one, I have supposed that
as usual they’ve send the fool of the family to sea.’ ‘Oh no, sir,’
replied the young man. ‘They changed all that since you have
been young, sir.’
2. Brendan Behan, a famous Irish writer, had a cutting tongue,
and he always knows how to use it. At a party one night he was
staying in a comer sipping his drink and looking at the people
who have gathered there. He was plainly bored with them. He
was tired of their idle chatter. Suddenly the hostess came up to
him. ‘Have not you met any interesting people?’ she asked teas­
ingly. ‘Not yet,’ answered Behan. ‘But then, I am here only for
five hours!’

2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the appropriate tense


forms.

THE MAN, THE BOY AND THE DONKEY


A Man and his son once (go 1) with their Donkey to the
market. As they (walk 2) along by its side a countryman (pass 3)
them and (say 4), ‘You fools, why you (not ride 5) your don­
key?’ So the Man (put 6) the Boy on the Donkey and they (go
7) on their way. But soon they (pass 8) a group of men, one of
whom (say 9), ‘You ever (see 10) anything like this? That lazy
youngster (ride 11) while his father (walk 12)!’ So the Man (or­
der 13) the Boy to get off, and (get 14) on himself. Hardly they
(do 15) so when they (meet 16) two women, one of whom (say
17) to the other, ‘Shame on that lazy man! He (let 18) his poor
son trudge along!’ Well, the Man (not know 19) what to do, but
at last he (take 20) his Boy up before him on the Donkey. By this
time they (come 21) to the town, and the passers-by (begin 22)
72
to laugh at them. The Man (stop 23) and (ask 24) what they
(laugh 25) at. The men (say 26), ‘Aren’t you shamed of your­
selves? You (overload 27) the poor donkey!’ The Man and the
Boy (get 28) off and (try 29) to think what to do. They (think
30) and they (think 31), till at last they (cut 32) down a pole, (tie
33) the donkey’s feet to it, and (raise 34) the pole and the don­
key to their shoulders. They (go 35) along amid the laughter of
all who (meet 36) them. When they (come 37) to Market Bridge,
the Donkey who (get 38) one of his feet loose, (kick 39) out and
(cause 40) the Boy to drop his end of the pole. In the struggle
the Donkey (fall 41) off the bridge and was drowned. ‘That' (teach
42) you,’ (say 43) an old man who (follow 44) them, ‘please all
and you (please 45) none.’

3. Translate the following text into English.

ДАМА, КОТОРАЯ НИКОГДА


НИЧЕГО НЕ ВЫБРАСЫВАЛА
Мисс Дарби всегда была загадкой для жителей своего
городка. Она жила одна в огромном доме. Хотя никто из
соседей никогда не был у нее, все знали, что дом полон
ценных вещей: антикварной (antique) мебели, дорогих ков­
ров и картин. Ее родители, которые давно умерли, сдела­
ли состояние на добыче угля в графстве Стаффордшир.
Больше про нее никто ничего не знал. Дети, бывало, со­
чиняли разные истории про мисс Дарби. Одни говорили,
что она ведьма, и они видели ее на крыше в окружении
черных кошек. Другие рассказывали, что когда-то, много
лет назад, она была обручена, но ее жених умер. А были и
такие, кто говорил, что у нее шесть детей и она держит их
взаперти в темном подвале.
Мисс Дарби очень редко выходила на улицу, и никто
не навещал ее. Единственным человеком, который при­
ходил к ней, была ее экономка (housekeeper). Как-то раз
она рассказала соседям: «За всю свою жизнь мисс Дарби
ни разу ничего не выбросила! В доме полно каких-то ста-
73
рых газет. Я несколько раз пыталась их выбросить, но она
каждый раз приносила их обратно. Года через два она со­
берет уже столько газет, что ей самой негде будет жить!»
После ее смерти оказалось, что у мисс Дарби было два
племянника, которые унаследовали (inherit) все: и деньги,
и дом, и все, что в нем находилось. Все думали, что пле­
мянники будут жить в этом доме, но они объяснили сосе­
дям: «Мы не собираемся сюда переезжать. Мы живем в
Лондоне. Мы приехали просто забрать кое-какие вещи и
выбросить ненужный хлам».
В течение нескольких следующих дней они приезжа­
ли несколько раз и вывозили вещи на огромном грузо­
вике. Кроме того, они вывезли из дома старые газеты, ко­
торая их тетя отказывалась выбрасывать. Их было очень
много. Дети, которые играли во дворе, попросили раз­
решения взять одну из пачек (bundle) газет. Газеты оказа­
лись очень старыми. Детям было очень интересно читать
о событиях, которые произошли более 50 лет назад. Ког­
да они развернули газеты, оказалось, что в каждой из них
была картина. Мисс Дарби положила только в одну эту
пачку двадцать пять ценных картин! Каждая из них сто­
ила, по крайней мере, 500 фунтов. Мисс Дарби хранила
свое главное сокровище в старых газетах! К тому време­
ни, как племянники узнали об этом открытии, они уже
выбросили все газеты.
(after Jake Allsop)

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Sort out four jokes matching the beginnings with the ends. Pick
out all the sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense and
divide them into two groups: a) describing an action which began
in the past and is still continuing; b) describing an action which
began in the past and has already finished.

74
1. ‘Why does a woman say A. ‘Oh, about a dozen sit­
she’s been shopping when tings.’
she hasn’t bought a thing?’
2. ‘You have been watching B. ‘No wonder, I’ve been
me for three hours. Why practising all night.’
don’t you try fishing your­
self?’
3. ‘You cough more easily C. ‘And why does a man say
this morning.’ he’s been fishing when
he hasn’t caught any­
thing?’
4. ‘For how long have you D. ‘I haven’t got the pa­
been learning to skate?’ tience.’

2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Perfect Continu­
ous Tense.

1. One evening Oscar Wilde called upon his friend James Whis­
tler and saw that his friend had drunk too much. ‘I see you
(drink) whiskey,’ observed Wide. ‘Sure I (drink) whiskey!’
exploded the Irish-American painter. ‘What else would I be
doing with it?’
2. ‘You know,’ said the lady whose motor-car had run down a
man, ‘you (walk) very carelessly. I am a very careful driver. I
(drive) a car for seven years.’ ‘Lady, you’ve got nothing on
me. I (walk) for fifty-four years.’

3. Answer the questions using the Present Perfect Continuous


Tense.
Example: Why is your hair wet? — I have been swimming.

1. Why are you eyes red? 2. Why are your clothes wet?
3. Why do you look so tired? 4. Why are you out of breath?
5. Why are you so sleepy today? 6. Why are you so irritable
today? 7. Why are your hands dirty? 8. Why are your trousers
greasy? 9. Why do you want to take a day off? 10. Why are you
late?

75
4. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Perfect or
Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1. I think it’s time to wake the baby up. It (sleep) for four
hours already. 2. The baby already (sleep). It’s time to take it for
a walk. 3. I (wait) for him for two hours already! I (wait) long
enough. 4. I (write) five letters this evening. 5. Harry (work) part-
time for the last two years. 6. We already (work) out a detailed
plan. 7. I (read) all of Irving’s novels several times. 8. I (read)
this novel for the last four days. 9. You (hear) the news? Jane
(have) a baby! 10. You (hear) from them regularly? 11. We (try)
to find a solution to this conflict for quite a long time. 12. We
already (try) this scheme. It’s ineffective.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Погода сегодня превосходная. Целый день светит


солнце. Давай пойдем на пляж! 2. Мы ждем тебя уже три
часа! Где ты был все это время? 3. Мальчики, чем вы здесь
занимались? Вы что, курили? 4. Я уже неделю пытаюсь
достать билеты на этот концерт. 5. Я сижу в приемной уже
сорок минут. Доктор пока еще не пригласил меня в каби­
нет. 6. Я очень устала. Всю неделю я работала по 14 часов в
сутки. 7. Ребенок очень плохо спит последние десять дней.
Сегодня он совсем не спал. 8. Ну наконец-то мы встрети­
лись! Мы так давно не виделись. У меня такое чувство, что
ты меня избегала все это время. 9. Мой дедушка всю жизнь
выращивает розы. Это всегда было его основным увлече­
нием. 10. Разве ты еще не закончила этот свитер? Ты вя­
жешь его уже месяц!

6. Open the brackets using appropriate tense forms.

THE STORY OF THE THREE BEARS


Once upon a time there (be 1) Three Bears who (live 2) to­
gether in a house of their own, in a wood. One day, after they
(make 3) the porridge for their breakfast, and (pour 4) it into
76
their porridge-bowls, they (walk 5) out into the wood while the
porridge (cool 6). And while they (be 7) away a little girl called
Goldilocks, who (live 8) at the other side of the wood, (pass 9)
by the house, and (look 10) in at the window. She (see 11) that
there (be 12) nobody in the house, so she (open 13) the door and
entered. And well pleased was she when she (see 14) that some­
body (leave 15) porridge on the table. As she was an impudent,
rude little girl, she (set 16) about helping herself.
First she (taste 17) the porridge of the Great Big Bear, and
then the porridge of the Middle-sized Bear, but she (like 18)
neither of them. And then she (go 19) to the porridge of the Lit­
tle Wee Bear, and (taste 20) it, and she (like 21) it so much that
that she (eat 22) it all up, every bit!
Then Goldilocks (sit 23) down in the chair of the Great Big
Bear, and then she (sit 24) down in the chair of the Middle-sized
Bear, but neither of them (suit 25) her. But the Little Wee Bear’
chair was just right. So she (seat 26) herself in it, and there she
(sit 27) till the bottom of the chair (come 28) out, and down she
came, plump upon the ground; and that (make 29) her very cross,
for she was a bad-tempered little girl.
Then Goldilocks, who (get 30) quite tired by that time, (go
31) upstairs into the bedchamber in which the Three Bears (sleep
32). And first she (lie 33) down upon the bed of the Great Big
Bear, then she (lie 34) down upon the bed of the Middle-sized
Bear, but she (like 35) neither of them. But she (find 36) the
Little Wee Bear’s bed just right. So she (cover 37) herself up com­
fortably, and (lie 38) there till she (fall 39) fast asleep.
At this time the Three Bears who (think 40) that their por­
ridge already (become 41) cool (come 42) home to eat their break­
fast. They (see 43) that somebody (come 44) into the house
during their absence and (leave 45) a spoon standing in the Great
Big Bear’s porridge. ‘Somebody (eat 46) my porridge!’ said the
Great Big Bear in his great, rough, gruff voice. Then the Middle-
sized Bear (look 47) at his porridge and saw the spoon (stand
48) in it too. ‘Somebody (eat 49) my porridge!’ said the Mid­
dle-sized Bear in his middle-sized voice. Then the Little Wee
77
Bear (look 50) at his, and cried, ‘Somebody (eat 51) my por­
ridge and (eat 52) it all up!’
Thee Three Bears (begin 53) to look about them. Now the
careless Goldilocks (not put 54) the hard cushion straight when
she (rise 55) from the chair of the Great Big Bear. ‘Somebody
(sit 56) in my chair!’ the Great Big Bear said. And the careless
Goldilocks (squat 57) down the soft cushion of the Middle-sized
Bear. ‘Somebody (sit 58) in my chair!’ the Middle-sized Bear
said. ‘Somebody (sit 59) in my chair and (sit 60) the bottom
through!’ said the Little Wee Bear.
Then the Three Bears (decide 61) to search the house in case it
was a burglar, so they (go 62) upstairs into their bedchamber. Now
Goldilocks (pull 63) the pillow of the Great Big Bear out of its place.
‘Somebody (lie 64) in my bed!’ said the Great Big Bear. And Gold­
ilocks (pull 65) the blanket of the Middle-sized Bear out of its place.
‘Somebody (lie 66) in my bed!’ said the Middle-sized Bear. But
when the Little Wee Bear (come 67) to look at his bed he (cry 68)
out, ‘Somebody (lie 69) in my bed — and she still (lie 70) in it!’
And his voice was so sharp, and so shrill that Goldilocks
immediately (wake 71) up. Up she (start 72), and when she (see
73) the Three Bears she (run 74) to the window. Goldilocks (jump
75); and whether she (break 76) her neck in the fall, or (run 77)
into the wood and was lost there, or (find 78) her way out of the
wood and (get 79) whipped for being a bad girl no one can say.
But the Three Bears never (see 80) anything more of her.

7. Translate the jokes into English.

1. «Послушайте, официант, я только что нашел пугови­


цу в супе». «Спасибо, сэр, я ищу ее все утро».
2. Продавец был уволен с работы, потому что он невеж­
ливо обращался с покупателями. Месяц спустя менед­
жер увидел его на улице. На нем была полицейская
форма. «Я вижу, вы теперь в полиции», — сказал ме­
неджер. «Да, — ответил бывший продавец. — Я всю
жизнь искал такую работу. Здесь клиент всегда неправ».
78
3. Джон отдыхал в летнем пансионе. Как-то раз он спро­
сил администратора (receptionist): «Я живу здесь уже
две недели. Почему все это время ко мне пытается зай­
ти эта старая свинья?» Маленький сын администрато­
ра объяснил ему: «Видите ли, это ее комната на зиму».
4. Один американский генерал говорит другому: «Что-
то с Вами сегодня не так. Ах, да, теперь я вижу. Вы все
время носили все свои медали, а сегодня на Вас их нет».
Генерал посмотрел себе на грудь: «Боже мой! — восклик­
нул он. — Я забыл снять их со своей пижамы (pajamas)».
5. «Сынок, почему весь твой новый костюм в дырках?»
«Понимаешь, мама, мы только что играли в магазин,
и я был куском голландского сыра».
6. Отец говорит дочери: «Дорогая, если тебе нужен хоро­
ший муж, выходи за мистера Смита. Он действительно
тебя любит». «Почему ты так уверен, папа?» — спраши­
вает дочь. «Потому что я регулярно занимаю у него деньги
последние шесть месяцев, а он продолжает ходить».

8. Read the joke and comment on the use of the present tenses.

During World War II there was once an air raid warning


(воздушная тревога). Mr. and Mrs. Brown rushed off for the nearest
air raid shelter. Suddenly Mrs. Brown said that she needed to return
home. ‘I’ve forgotten my false teeth. I’ve been wearing them for ten
years and I can’t do without them. I’ m going back to get them.’
‘What do you need your teeth for?’ shouted Mr. Brown. ‘What do
you think the bombers are throwing, sandwiches?’

9. Open the brackets using the verbs in the appropriate present


tenses.

‘Dear Kate, I am sorry I (not write 1) you for such a long


time, but I (be 2) very busy lately. You (hear 3) the news? My
dog (give 4) birth to fourteen puppies! This is the fourth time
she (have 5) puppies, but she never (have 6) quite so many be­
fore. For the last ten days I (do 7) nothing but take care of them.
79
I (not sleep 8) all this time, because the happy family now (live
9) in my room, and the puppies always (squeak 10), (whine 11)
and (make 12) all sorts of other noises. My doggy (seem 13) quite
reluctant to perform her mother’s duties, so I (have 14) to clean
both the puppies and the mess they (make 15) myself. So every
evening I (give 16) them a bath and then I (dry 17) them with my
hairdryer as I (not want 18) them to catch a cold. Sometimes I
(think 19) I had fewer problems with my own twins! My dog (not
feel 20) very well since the puppies were born, so she (keep 21)
to a diet all this time. It (mean 22) that I (cook 23) special por­
ridges for her three times a day. We (see 24) our vet about her
problem tomorrow. The small fur balls (grow 25) bigger and big­
ger with every passing day. They (go 26) to open their eyes with­
in four or five days. They are just adorable! I (look 27) forward to
the day when they are big enough to play, although I (realize 28)
how many problems I (go 29) to have with them then. I am very
tired. I (think 30) of taking a holiday for at least two weeks. But
to tell you the truth I (not know 31) what I am going to do when
we (give 32) all of them away!’

10. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Вечно ты плачешь! Что случилось на этот раз? 2. По­


чему бы тебе не помочь сестре? Она делает это упражнение
уже два часа. 3. Хотя Петр учит английский язык уже два
года, он выучил всего несколько фраз. 4. Мы подумываем
о том, чтобы поехать на море этим летом. Мы давно хоте­
ли хорошо отдохнуть. 5. Что за песню ты поешь? Я никог­
да не слышала ее раньше. 6. Наш поезд отходит через час, а
ты все еще упаковываешь чемодан. Поторопись, я уже выз­
вала такси. 7. Все то время, что я наблюдаю за этим ребен­
ком, он ведет себя безобразно. 8. Сколько я здесь живу, он
ни разу со мной не поздоровался. 9. Комиссия рассматри­
вает мое заявление уже два месяца. 10. Сколько раз я тебе
говорила, что у меня сменился номер телефона. 11. Катя
все время звонит мне посреди ночи и просит немедленно
80
к ней приехать. Вечно у нее какие-нибудь проблемы.
12. Мы всегда отмечаем папин день рождения дома, но в
этом году мы идем в кафе. 13. В последнее время мы часто
ссоримся. Нам все труднее и труднее понимать друг друга.
14. Мой брат женится в следующем месяце. Он уже разос­
лал приглашения всем своим друзьям. 15. Проблема, ко­
торую они сейчас обсуждают, касается всех нас.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Match the beginnings with the ends putting the verbs in brack­
ets into the Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

1. I knew by the look on A. she (cook) all day and was


their faces very tired.
2. When I looked at the B. although he (think) about
papers on my desk it for a long time.
3. The boy jumped out of C. she (work) for Brown Ltd.
the wardrobe for seven years.
4. He didn’t find a solution D. I realized that somebody
to the problem (look) through them.
5. The birthday girl was not E. Jim (phone) her every
in the mood to celebrate night for a whole week.
because
6. He (try) to get her on the F. that they (talk) about me.
phone for three hours
7. Jenny was annoyed, G. by the time she appeared
at the office.
8. When I first met Kate, H. where he (hide).

2. Open the brackets using the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Con­
tinuous Tense.

When Nancy came home from work she asked her children
what (do) all day. Her son John said that he (do) his homework.
81
Nancy understood at once that he (tell) a lie, because John (for­
get) to switch off his computer. Actually he (play) computer
games all day and (not learn) a single subject. Nancy was very
upset because he (promise) her many times not to play the com­
puter until he (finish) his homework. Her daughter Mary said
she (tidy up) her room all afternoon. In fact she (chat) with her
friends over the telephone and even (not wash) the dishes. Nan­
cy’s elder son Patrick said he (repair) the car in the garage, but
actually he (sleep) all day and even (not make) his bed. Nancy
got quite angry and said that (work) hard all day, she was very
tired and if they wanted dinner they would have to cook it them­
selves!

3. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Мы ехали уже два часа, когда вдруг вспомнили, что


оставили еду дома. 2. Петр сказал, что работает в этой ком­
пании уже двадцать лет и не собирается уходить. 3. Экза­
менатор сказал, что преподает этот предмет уже тридцать
лет, но еще никогда не слышал такого блестящего ответа.
4. Мы не пошли в поход, потому что с раннего утра шел
дождь, и становилось все холоднее и холоднее. 5. Виктор
не пошел с нами в кино, потому что он весь день работал
в саду и очень устал. 6. Катя взяла письмо, которое она
писала все утро, и разорвала его. 7. Когда Борис открыл
дверь, я сразу поняла, что он спал, а я его разбудила.
8. Преподаватель знал, что последние три дня студенты
репетировали свое выступление и не подготовились к за­
нятию. 9. Мы все знали, что Соня уже много лет кол­
лекционирует плюшевых медведей, поэтому нам было
совсем не трудно выбрать ей подарок. 10. Было совершен­
но очевидно, что мальчики только что дрались, хотя они
оба это отрицали. 11. Когда Мария вошла в комнату, она
сразу почувствовала запах дыма и поняла, что ее сыновья
курили. 12. Я считала овец три часа, прежде чем мне уда­
лось уснуть.
82
4. Choose the most appropriate variant.

A. Sean Murphy, the Boston roofer, (1. fell / has fallen / had
fallen) from a housetop where he (2. worked / was working / had
been working), and was quickly taken to a hospital. Fortunately,
he was not badly injured.
‘Can you give me an idea about when the accident (3. oc­
curred / has occurred / was occurring)?’ asked the doctor in the
emergency ward.
‘That I can,’ replied the patient. ‘It (4. was / is / had been)
six o’clock.’
‘How can you be so sure?’
‘Because I (5. was looking / looked / had looked) through a
window while I (6. was falling / fell / had been falling) down and
(7. had seen / saw / have seen) people at dinner.’
B. He (8. fished / was fishing / had been fishing) patiently for
several hours but with no result when a small boy (9. had come /
came / has come) up to him. ‘Any luck, mister?’ he (10. calls /
called / had called) out. ‘Run away, boy,’ answered the angler
gloomily. ‘No offence, sir,’ said the boy as he (11. walked / had
walked / has walked) away, ‘only I just (12. wanted / have want­
ed / was wanting) to say that my father (13. is keeping / has been
keeping / keeps) a fish shop down to the right, sir.’

5. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

Mick had seriously contemplating marriage when he hap­


pened to overhear a coversation that almost shocks him out of
the notion of matrimony. Several women discussed their hus­
bands, concentrating mainly on their vices and how they had
succeed in curing their bad habits.
‘By the way,’ said one of the ladies to a very pretty matron
staying besides her, ‘I am hearing that your Patrick had given up
smoking and drinking — and after all these years, too! That must
have taken a strong will.’
‘It certainly does,’ acknowledged the young matron in grim
tones. ‘But that’s the kind of will I’d got!’
83
6. Translate the following text into English.

Когда Каштанка услышала свое имя, она вышла из-


под верстака (workbench), где она спала, и побежала за хо­
зяином. Заказчики Луки Александровича жили очень да­
леко, поэтому, прежде чем хозяин дошел до них, он за­
шел в несколько трактиров (pub). Каштанка помнила, что
по дороге она вела себя крайне неприлично. Она прыга­
ла, лаяла на прохожих, гонялась за собаками. Она помни­
ла, что хозяин все время на нее кричал, а один раз даже
ударил ее. После того, как Лука Александрович побывал
у заказчиков, он пошел к сестре, где он опять начал пить
и закусывать. Потом пошел к приятелю, потом опять в
трактир. Одним словом, когда Каштанка оказалась на
незнакомой улице, уже совсем стемнело, и столяр
(carpenter) был пьян. Неожиданно заиграла музыка. Каш­
танка оглянулась и увидела, что по улице идут солдаты.
Музыка ее напугала, и она бросилась на другой тротуар.
Когда она успокоилась, музыка уже не играла, и солдаты
ушли. Она перебежала дорогу к тому месту, где оставила
хозяина, но столяра там уже не было. Она стала искать его
повсюду, но хозяин исчез. Она стала обнюхивать троту­
ар, чтобы найти его по запаху его сапог, но какой-то че­
ловек только что прошел там в новых резиновых галошах
и все запахи перемешались. Каштанка бегала взад и впе­
ред, но не находила хозяина. К этому времени стало уже
совсем темно. В окнах домов зажглись огни. Шел круп­
ный снег. Мимо Каштанки безостановочно шли люди.
Они все куда-то спешили и не обращали на нее никакого
внимания. Каштанка подошла к какому-то дому и нача­
ла горько плакать. Она очень устала и замерзла. К тому
же она было очень голодна. За весь день она поела только
два раза: украла немного клейстера (paste) у хозяина да
нашла колбасную кожицу в одном из трактиров. Каштан­
ка была в отчаянии.
(по А. П. Чехову)
84
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

1. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with the words from the box.
Use all the verbs in the Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

rain teach
live drive
use write
save go out
lecture operate

1. By September 11 ... at this University for fifteen years.


2. By next month David ... this car for twenty years. 3. The doc­
tor ... on Mrs. White for two hours by the time his assistant
comes. 4. By tomorrow it ... for exactly three weeks. 5. By next
month Jim ... his novel for three years. 6. By next month Pro­
fessor Johnson ... on Byron for forty years. 7. By next week John
and Liz ... together for two years. 8. We ... in this house for ten
years by next autumn. 9. By January I ... this watch for five years.
10. By the end of next week we ... money for a new car for three
years.

2. Put the sentences into the Future Perfect Continuous Tense.


Add appropriate adverbial modifiers of time.

Example: We have been writing this test for two hours. — In


10 minutes we will have been writing this test for
2 hours.
1. The child has been sleeping for eight hours. 2. This play
has been running in the local theatre for twenty years. 3. It has
been snowing for a week. 4. I have been working on this report
for two weeks already. 5. The boys have been learning Japanese
for five years already. 6. Victor has been travelling in Europe for
six months already. 7. Smith has been painting this picture for a
year. 8. I have been going to this fitness club for a year.
85
3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Future Perfect or
Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

1. By June 5 my parents (be) married for thirty-five years.


2. In ten minutes we (fly) over the Atlantic Ocean for three hours.
3. Call me on Friday. I (hear) the results of your blood test by
then. 4. By this time next year James already (graduate) from
the University and (find) a job. 5. By next week we (discuss) this
problem for three months already. 6. The inventor (design) a new
washing machine for a year by next week. 7. By next Monday
our boss (sign) this contract. 8. By next week members of the
Parliament (debate) this new law for half a year. I am not sure
that they (adopt) a resolution by the end of the year. 9. In ten
minutes our professor (examine) the students for exactly six
hours. 10. By the beginning of next month Kate (take) this med­
icine for three years already.

4. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В следующем месяце исполнится уже три года, как


они строят этот дом. Они говорят, что закончат его к нача­
лу следующего года, но я так не думаю. 2. Лекции по исто­
рии языка закончатся к 15 мая. 3. Давай позвоним ей в
шесть часов. Я совершенно уверена, что к этому времени
она уже выяснит все детали этого происшествия. 4. Через
пять минут будет уже три часа, как ты готовишь ужин. Что
это за рецепт? К тому времени, как ужин будет готов, я уже
потеряю весь аппетит. 5. В следующем месяце исполнится
ровно два года, как мы реставрируем эту картину. И не­
удивительно, это очень трудная работа. 6. В феврале ис­
полнится ровно сорок лет, как мистер Смит коллекцио­
нирует марки. К этому времени он соберет более тридцати
тысяч марок. 7. Послезавтра исполнится шесть месяцев, как
мы работаем над этим проектом. Я надеюсь, что мы закон­
чим его к новому году 8. В марте исполнится десять лет,
как Джек играет в этой хоккейной команде. 9. Завтра ис­
полнится ровно год, как мы ищем подходящую квартиру.
86
10. В следующем месяце исполнится ровно год, как Анна
сидит на этой диете. Она надеется, что к этому времени она
потеряет десять килограммов.

5. Open the brackets using appropriate tenses.

1. The wind is so strong that it probably (cause) some dam­


age before long. 2. Don’t call them at seven. They (not get up)
by this time. 3. What you (think) (happen) if we (push) this but­
ton? 4. I am sorry that you (lose) your job. What you (go) to do
now? 5. Some people think that by 2050 the population (go up)
so much that everyone (live) in small plastic houses. 6. He (not
come) to see us on Saturday. He (prepare) for his exams all day.
7. You (help) me to do the shopping please? 8. After we (dis­
cuss) the plan with the architect we (give) you a report. 9. There
(be) plenty of time for entertainment after you (pass) all the ex­
ams. 10. By Thursday we (redecorate) our apartment for a year!
I don’t know when we (move) in. 11. At this time next week I
(swim) in the ocean! 12. I am afraid it (go) to be a boring party. I
am sure they (talk) about computers all the evening. 13. By the
time you (come) we (write) the test for an hour. You (not have)
enough time to do it. 14. Who knows when Judith (return) from
her business trip? If she (not come back) on Monday she (not
prepare) her report by Wednesday. 15. You (drive) home soon?
You (give) me a lift?

6. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Поверить не могу, что к пятнице я сдам все экзаме­


ны и буду совершенно свободна. 2. Я не пойду с вами на
вечеринку. Я весь вечер буду готовить доклад к завтрашне­
му семинару. 3. К тому времени, как он позвонит, мы уже
узнаем ее адрес. 4. Пятнадцатого января исполнится трид­
цать лет, как мы живем в этом городе. 5. Я все время буду
думать о тебе. Возвращайся поскорее. 6. Вы можете ска­
зать, что вы будете делать завтра в это же время? Я, напри­
мер, никогда не могу спланировать свой следующий день.
87
7. Вы получите эту работу, только если вы успешно прой­
дете собеседование. 8. Мы пока не знаем, когда начнется
конференция. Как только мы узнаем время, мы немедлен­
но вам сообщим. 9. Я возьму с собой путеводитель на тот
случай, если захочу посетить какие-нибудь интересные
места без гида. 10. Я надеюсь, ты погуляешь с собакой, пока
я мою посуду. 11. Если свет снова отключится, я не приго­
товлю ужин к приходу гостей. 12. Если ты мне поможешь,
я закончу работу к восьми часам. Я если не поможешь, я
буду работать до самого утра. 13. Следующим летом испол­
нится двадцать лет, как он играет в теннис. 14. Я не буду
извиняться перед ней до тех пор, пока она не объяснит,
чего она хочет. 15. Я сегодня буду проходить мимо аптеки.
Тебе нужны какие-нибудь лекарства?

Revision

1. Find and correct five mistakes in each of the following jokes.

1. At mail call a soldier got a letter from home. He opened


the envelope and taken out a white sheet without a word on.
‘What’s that?’ his friend asked. ‘My wife’s letter.’ ‘Why does
not she write anything?’ ‘We had a quarrel a month before and
we hadn’t been talking to each other from.’
2. An army general came to watch the results of a practice
on the rifle range. The results were terrible. The general, forget­
ting that he himself had been getting out of practice, jumped out
of his car and grabbed a gun away from one of the soldiers.
‘I show you how to do this thing,’ he said. He carefully took
aim and fired several times. Every shot was a complete miss. It
was an embarrassing moment for everybody but the general fi­
nally had saved the situation. He said, ‘That’s what you’ve do­
ing, you fools. Now learn to do it right.’ Then he had jumped
into his car and disappeared in a cloud of dust.

88
2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper tense forms.

A GATEWAY TO ‘THE OTHERWORLD’


You ever (hear 1) about Ballyboley Forest? People (tell 2)
creepy stories about this place in Northern Ireland for centu­
ries. According to the legends there (be 3) a Druid village here
many centuries ago. Scientists (study 4) the phenomenon of the
Ballyboley Forest for more than fifty years. By now they (find 5)
a lot of distinctive marks (circular trenches and stone formations)
in the north east part of the forest. During the 15th, 16th and
17th centuries a number of local people (disappear 6) in this for­
est. Even today the place (send 7) shivers down the spine. Peo­
ple (try 8) not to wander off the tracks. Many times local people
(see 9) shadowy figures walking among the trees and (hear 10)
strange animal-like noises. The local council (open 11) this place
as a national park several years ago, they (lay 12) down paths for
walking routes, but very few people (go 13) there now. There (be
14) quite a few modem events in the forest, that (give 15) the
place a bad reputation. In 1994 a young couple (picnic 16) in
the area. Hardly they (choose 17) a suitable place when they (see
18^ a massing of black smoke and (hear 19) the sounds of scream­
ing voices quite near the point where they (plan 20) to stay. Need­
less to say, they immediately (leave 21) the forest. In 1997 there
(be 22) an article in the local newspaper about two men who (wit­
ness 23) a strange phenomenon in the forest. They (walk 24)
across it for some time when they (hear 25) a loud flapping sound.
They (think 26) nothing of it at first but as they (continue 27)
walking they (start 28) to hear strange sounds like a lady moan­
ing in pain. They (think 29) someone (get 30) into trouble and
(leave 31) the track to find the distressed lady. Their horror (be­
gin 32) when they (come 33) to a place where there was a lot of
blood on all the trees. It (look 34) as if the druids (perform 35)
their cruel rituals there. The men (find 36) no lady but the strange
sounds (start 37) again very close to their position. As they (flee
38) in terror one of the men (look 39) behind him and (see 40)
four human figures in the place where he just (stand 41). Some
89
people (say 42) that the forest (contain 43) a gateway to what the
Druids (call 44) ‘The Otherworld’. Many people also (say 45)
that when they (come 46) to the forest they (have 47) a feeling
that someone (watch 48) them. It’s difficult to say if all of the
stories (be 49) true, but something definitely (happen 50) there
for the last 500 years to scare local people and to give the place
such a reputation.

3. Translate the following text into English.

ДОЛГОЕ ОЖИДАНИЕ
Это случилось в маленьком отеле на берегу океана.
Спускались сумерки. Во всей деревне зажигались огни. В
гавани рыбаки готовились к ночной рыбалке. В отеле было
тихо. Здесь мало кто останавливался. Только туристы иног­
да приезжали сюда.
Но один человек жил там уже очень давно. Его звали
мистер Скорцени (Skorzeny). Он приехал неизвестно от­
куда пять лет назад, и все это время жил в отеле. Он ни с
кем не общался. У него был собственный распорядок дня.
Каждое утро он плавал в океане перед завтраком. Потом
он исчезал в своей комнате и появлялся только на обед. По
вечерам он сидел на веранде и пил. Иногда он засыпал пря­
мо в своем кресле и спал там до самого утра. Никто не знал,
откуда он приехал. Но он регулярно платил по счетам, по­
этому его никто не спрашивал.
Однажды вечером в гостиницу приехал человек в со­
ломенной шляпе, который спросил мистера Скорцени. Это
был первый посетитель, который был у Скорцени за все
эти годы. Он был очень похож на Скорцени — те же свет­
лые волосы, то же квадратное лицо и сильные плечи. Ми­
стер Скорцени пригласил его на свое любимое место на
веранде.
Двое мужчин сидели друг напротив друга и разгова­
ривали. «Итак, вы, наконец, приехали», — сказал Скор­
цени. «Завтра исполнится ровно двадцать лет, как я вас жду.
90
Вы знаете об этом?» «Я надеюсь, все будет тихо, — сказал
посетитель. — Мне не нужны неприятности. Отдайте мне
ваш паспорт». Как только он это сказал, он показал Скор­
цени пистолет. «Да возьмите его, — ответил Скорцени и
протянул человеку паспорт. — Я тоже не хочу неприятно­
стей. Я даже рад видеть вас здесь. Я ожидал визита от ва­
ших людей с тех самых пор, как сбежал двадцать лет назад».
«Тогда давайте поедем. Нам потребуется два часа, чтобы
добраться до столицы. Нам пора уезжать». «Послушайте, я
ждал вас двадцать лет. Вы же можете подождать полчаса,
не так ли? Я хочу выпить здесь в последний раз».
Он подал знак бармену, который стоял неподалеку все
это время, и попросил два коктейля. Мистер Скорцени и
его посетитель выпили. Скорцени заказал еще напитки.
Незнакомец поднялся, чтобы полюбоваться гаванью. Пока
он стоял там, Скорцени что-то положил ему в бокал. Они
снова выпили и сели поговорить.
Час спустя человек в соломенной шляпе поднялся из-
за стола и быстро пошел к автомобильной стоянке. Дру­
гой человек остался за столом на темной веранде. Скорце­
ни завел мотор и уехал по направлению к аэропорту. В его
кармане был паспорт на имя Любельски (Lubelski), кото­
рый он взял у своего посетителя. Он знал, что к тому мо­
менту, как они обнаружат Любельски, он уже будет два часа
лететь над океаном. Но куда, он и сам не знал.
(after Alan Maley)
Check Your Knowledge

Test 1. Present Tenses

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. We have been touring England for ten days already. 2. It


usually takes him twenty minutes to get to his office. 3. This is
the first time I have driven a car. 4. Peter is going to discuss his
plans with his family. 5. Kate is always nagging.

2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper present


tenses.

1. I (sell) this bicycle. You (want) to buy it? 2. What you


(think) you (do)? 3. I (not understand) what he (say). He (speak)
Spanish or Portuguese? 4. We (stay) in this hotel since last Mon­
day and we (not have) a decent meal during all this time. 5. I
(live) with my friends now as the workmen (not repair) yet the
roof in my house. 6. John and Polly (be) married for fifteen years
already. They (go) to celebrate their wedding anniversary this Sat­
urday. 7. This is the first time I (hear) this expression. 8. James
always (want) to become an actor and now his dream (come) true.
9. Why you (smell) the milk? — I (think) it (go) off. 10. It (rain)
for five days already. The weather (get) worse and worse.

3. Choose the correct variant.

1. I’ve heard about it quite often ... .


a) lately
b) from time to time
c) already
d) now
92
2. We haven’t seen each other ... the last month.
a) since
b) for
c) in
d) from

3. I’ve finished my test ... .


a) so far
b) of late
c) yet
d) at last

4. James is ... asking me for money.


a) whenever
b) continuously
c) forever
d) usually

5. They have been discussing this problem ... last Monday.


a) since
b) on
c) from
d) for

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. I know James for three years. 2. The boy has eaten three
ice creams since I am here. 3. Jill’s eyes are red because she has
cried. 4. The plane is arriving at the airport at 2 o’clock. 5. Pam
forever asks stupid questions.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Этот дом принадлежит нашей семье уже больше


тридцати лет. 2. Я наблюдаю за ним уже два часа. Все это
время он ведет себя очень странно. 3. Мы подумываем о
том, чтобы провести эти выходные за городом. 4. Моя ба­
бушка любит рассказывать разные истории и знает мно-
93
жество смешных анекдотов. У нее была интересная жизнь.
5. Кто знает, когда Виктор собирается жениться? 6. Мы
работаем над этим проектом уже два года, но пока еще не
закончили его. 7. Теперь я понимаю, почему эта книга так
популярна. 8. Анна сейчас проходит собеседование. Она
тщательно к нему подготовилась, потому что она хочет
произвести хорошее впечатление на своего будущего ра­
ботодателя. 9. Почему бы тебе не воспользоваться слова­
рем? 10. Почему ты так на меня смотришь? Я что-то не то
сказала?

Test 2. Past Tenses

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. Kelly used to smoke a lot. 2. No sooner had I learnt the


rule than I forgot it. 3. Hardly had the rain stopped when we
went for a walk. 4. Mary was sleeping when the doorbell rang.
5. We hardly knew her.

2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper past tenses.

1. When he (return) the book I (understand) at once that


he (not read) it. 2. Hardly the actor (finish) this famous mon­
ologue when the audience (begin) applauding. 3. After I (col­
lect) all the documents I (check) them thoroughly. 4. When
James (be) small he always (cry). 5. Kate (punish) her son
because he (tell) her a lie. 6. Mother (lay) the table for break­
fast when I (wake) up. 7. When the clock (strike) twelve eve­
rything around us (begin) to change. 8. When we (go) out the
rain already (stop) and the sun (shine). 9. Professor Black (say)
at the conference that he (work) at this problem for more than
ten years and (not find) a solution yet. 10. Before I (visit)
Italy I (read) everything I could find about the traditions of
this country.
94
3. Choose the correct variant.

1. I learnt about it ... .


a) for a long time
b) long ago
c) long time ago
d) long before
2. I read this announcement ... .
a) just now
b) lately
c) just
d) already
3. We haven’t met since we ... from the university.
a) graduated
b) were graduating
c) have graduated
d) had graduated
4. She didn’t talk to me ... I had apologized to her.
a) before
b) after
c) until
d) because
5. Who ... this book?
a) has written
b) writes
c) would write
d) wrote

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. Scarcely had we got the money than we spent it all. 2. Only


after I had been reading the letter three times I understood what
it was about. 3. She was sitting on the bench for three hours and
then she left. 4. He usedn’t to be so greedy when he was young.
5. We had waited till she packed her suitcase.

95
5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Я не знала, что Павел уже пришел и ждет меня в ко­


ридоре. 2. Я как раз собиралась вставать, когда зазвонил
телефон. 3. Петр сказал, что собирается устроить вечерин­
ку в субботу, и пригласил нас прийти к нему. 4. Мальчик
сказал, что весь день учил уроки, хотя на самом деле он
играл в компьютерные игры. 5. Он был очень счастлив,
когда узнал, что сдал экзамен на «отлично» и стал студен­
том. 6. Он сказал, что никогда не видел более странной кар­
тины. 7. Мария сказала, что она впервые летит самолетом.
8. Не успели они познакомиться, как поженились. 9. Рань­
ше Джеймс не занимался спортом. 10. Пока гости танце­
вали, хозяйка убирала со стола.

Test 3. Future Tenses

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. If you take this medicine you will feel better. 2. By the


time Mother comes we will have put the room in order. 3. If he
comes on time we will have dinner together. 4. I will be sleeping
all day tomorrow. 5. By September 1 Mary will have been teach­
ing at this University for ten years.

2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper future tenses.
Use present tenses where necessary.

1. I (not know) when we (finish) the redecoration. But as


soon as everything (be) ready we (move) in. 2. Don’t call me at
five. I (have) an English lesson. 3. By the time the holidays (be)
over you (forget) all your grammar. 4. They (give) the job to
the first person who (come) through this door. 5. By the be­
ginning of next month we (work) at this project for a year. 6. We
(take) this course till the end of the year. 7. By the time we (get)
96
to Scotland we (drive) over six hundred miles. 8. If Mike (not
write) his report by Monday he (have) problems with his tutor.
9. While you (shop) I (do) the laundry. 10. I (hope) Tom (re­
pair) my computer by six o’clock and I (be able) to continue
my work.

3. Choose the correct variant.

1. John will love Jill ... he lives.


a) while
b) till
c) as long as
d) until

2. I will remind him about the date ... he has forgotten.


a) after
b) incase
c) unless
d) until

3. We will talk about it ... .


a) the other day
b) on days
c) these days
d) one of these days

4. ... you remember the password you will be in no danger.


a) Provided
b) Providing
c) If you provide
d) On provision

5. ... me to wash the dishes?


a) Shall you help
b) Do you help
c) Will you be helping
d) Will you help
4-6736 97
4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. I am sure he will have known everything by this time. 2. He


will send us a telegram as soon as he will get there. 3. He will go
on working unless he is seventy. 4. They will have repaired the
fireplace by Wednesday in condition you pay them extra money.
5. When we will come he will be sleeping.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. He звони мне в восемь. Я буду смотреть мой люби­


мый сериал. 2. Я совершенно уверена, что к концу следу­
ющей недели вы решите все ваши проблемы. 3. Я возьму
зонт на тот случай, если пойдет дождь. 4 Я надеюсь, что вы
сегодня же сообщите мне о своем решении. Я буду ждать
вашего звонка. 5. Катя не придет на вечеринку, если толь­
ко ты не пригласишь ее лично. 6. Завтра исполнится ров­
но двадцать лет, как мы живем в этом доме. 7. Она не пове­
рит тебе до тех пор, пока ты не предъявишь ей документы.
8. Никто не знает, когда он получит водительские права.
Если он не будет готовиться к экзамену должным образом,
он снова его провалит. 9. На следующей неделе исполнит­
ся два месяца, как мы участвуем в этом эксперименте. К
этому времени мы получим первые результаты. 10. Весь
следующий год Катя будет учиться в Англии.

Test 4. Mixed Tenses

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

I. I have been working in the Complaints Department since


I came to this travel agency. 2. The more you sleep the better
you will feel. 3. We are taking our swimming things in case there
is a swimming pool there. 4. It took us ages to paint the fence.
5. He has told me about it three times this week.
98
2. Open the brackets using appropriate tenses.

1. I (wait) for you for the past hour! What you (do) all this
time? 2. While I (walk) to the bus stop I (realize) I (leave) the
cooker on. 3. I just (finish) writing a letter when the doorbell (ring).
I immediately (go) to answer it because my neighbour (tell) me
she (call) round. 4. I (share) a flat with two friends since I (come)
to England but I’d like a place of my own. 5. Don’t worry. I (give)
Mr. Brown your message as soon as he (come) in. 6. We (go) to
America for our holiday this year. We think it (be) a complete change
because we usually (go) to Europe. 7. The company (not pay) me
until I (work) for them for a month. 8. Henry! Good Lord! I (for­
get) you (come) for supper. I (not buy) anything to eat at all! 9. I
(hear) five new jokes since I (be) here. 10. By this time next month
we (pass) all the exams and we (be) quite free.

3. Choose the correct variant.

1. They have been arguing about it ... eight о’clock.


a) for
b) since
c) from
d) at

2. We ... in silence for ten minutes, then he began to talk.


a) sat
b) set
c) seat
d) seated

3. At this time yesterday I ... on the beach.


a) was laying
b) lay
c) was lying
d) laid

4. I had a wonderful adventure.


a) The other day
4* 99
b) One of these days
c) Lately
d) Of late
5. I have looked through only three articles ... .
a) so long
b) as yet
c) at last
d) so far

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. He asked what they are looking for. 2. We knew each oth­


er since we began working here. 3. When have you gone to the
UK? — Five years ago. 4. It snowed when he left home. 5. This
is the first time I eat oysters.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Когда я сдавал вступительные экзамены, я еще не


знал, как трудно учиться в этом университете. 2. Мы были
когда-то хорошими друзьями. Мы рассказывали друг дру­
гу все секреты. 3. Он уверял меня, что мы не знакомы, но я
была уверена, что уже где-то его видела. 4. Ты выглядишь
уставшей. — Ничего удивительного. В этом месяце я очень
много работала. Думаю, мне пора отдохнуть. 5. Мы с вами
не виделись с тех пор, как вы переехали в другой район.
Чем вы все это время занимались? 6. Когда мы шли вмес­
те, у меня было такое чувство, что мы думаем об одном и
том же. 7. Не успели они пожениться, как он заявил жене,
что не позволит ей больше встречаться с друзьями. 8. Люди
часто совершают ошибки, и иногда уходят годы на то, что­
бы их исправить. 9. Он все еще спит? Разве он забыл, что
ему нужно успеть на семичасовой поезд? Если он не вый­
дет из дома через двадцать минут, он опоздает. 10. Она уве­
ряет, что в январе исполнится десять лет, как она работает
в школе. — Не верь ей, она окончила университет только
шесть лет назад.
100
Test 5. Mixed Tenses

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. I always ask my parents for advice when I am in trouble.


2. This is the third time I have heard this story. 3. He is doing a
course in Nuclear Physics. 4. We go to the seaside every sum­
mer. 5. I used to wake up early when I was younger.

2. Open the brackets using appropriate tenses.

1. I (use) (ride) a lot but I (not have) a chance to do any since


I (come) here. 2. If you (leave) out the epilogue you can’t really
say you (read) the whole book. 3. As the ship (sink) fast he (jump)
overboard, together with the rest of the crew who (be) still alive.
4. The police still (interrogate) the criminal whom they (catch)
yesterday. 5. The problem of hunger (exist) for centuries. 6. When
I (present) him with this album he (be) very surprised. He (say)
he (look) for it everywhere for a very long time. 7. Call me on Sat­
urday. I (find out) her new address by then. 8. I just (finish) cook­
ing dinner when the children (come) from the stadium. 9. He
(work) for Brown & Co. for only two months and then he (find) a
better-paid job. 10. What you (do) lately? We (not met) for ages!

3. Choose the correct variant.

1. Who ... this city?


a) found
b) founded
c) has found
d) has founded

2. I don’t think the child has ... seen a live panda. Why don’t
you take him to the zoo?
a) ever
b) never
c) already
d) yet
101
3. We have been out four times ... .
a) last month
b) yesterday
c) this week
d) the other day
4. ... we get to the cinema the film will have started.
a) As soon as
b) Once
c) Until
d) By the time
5. I don’t talk to him very often ... .
a) recently
b) now and again
c) in our days
d) nowadays

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. He left after he has said goodbye to everybody. 2. I will


never forget the day when I have passed my test. 3. Amn’t I
clever? I’ve done the crossword puzzle! 4. I wear my sunglasses
today because the sun is very strong. 5. He sees his lawyer to­
morrow.

5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Тебе плохо удается врать. Не успел ты открыть рот,


как я уже поняла, что ты говоришь неправду. 2. Он соби­
рается бросить курить. Он курит уже двадцать пять лет, и в
последнее время он чувствует себя очень плохо. 3. Он ска­
зал, что собирается обсудить со мной какую-то важную
проблему. Я сразу поняла, что он имеет в виду, но промол­
чала. 4. Как только он обнаружит, что бумаги исчезли, бу­
дет страшный скандал. 5. Какой ужасный дождь! К тому
моменту, как мы доберемся до дома, мы промокнем на­
сквозь. 6. Телефон зазвонил в два часа ночи. Я спала и не
102
сразу услышала звонок. 7. Он говорил какие-то странные
вещи, и я едва могла понять, чего он хочет. 8. Где студенты,
которые только что сдавали экзамен? — Они уже ушли.
9. Тебе следует быть более энергичным. Если ты ничего не
будешь делать, ты никогда не добьешься успеха. 10. Рань­
ше мы встречались с ним каждый день, но сейчас я вижу
его намного реже.
The Passive Voice

The Present Indefinite Tense

1. Read the following text and fill in the blanks with the expres­
sions below. There are some extra expressions that are not nec­
essary. Point out all the sentences in the Present Indefinite Pas­
sive.

THANKSGIVING
In the year 1620, a ship named the ‘Mayflower’ brought 102
English men, women and children to the coast of America. These
Pilgrims — ... (1) — came to an area uninhabited by other Eu­
ropeans. They came to America to begin a new life. In October
1621, the Pilgrims held a feast to celebrate their first harvest. They
thanked their God for his blessings. The story of that Pilgrim
feast ... (2) among Americans. ... (3) every year to young chil­
dren in schools as one of the major American holidays approach­
es. The holiday ... (4) Thanksgiving Day and ... (5) on the fourth
Thursday of November.
Other nations have days of thanksgiving, too, but Thanks­
giving Day has a special significance for Americans because ...
(6) to that group of people who were among the first to come to
the new World in search of freedom. Thanksgiving Day ... (7) by
families gathering together to enjoy a traditional dinner of roast
turkey, and to speak to one another of the things for which they
are thankful.
a. is now observed f. it is traced back
b. are congratulated g. is well known
c. is marked h. it is told and retold
d. as they are usually known i. is called
e. is prepared j. is introduced
104
2. Mark the sentences which cannot be used in the Passive Voice.
Put the rest of them into the Passive.

1. Champagne corks kill more people than poisonous spi­


ders. 2. Human blood travels 60,000 miles per day. 3. People spell
the word ‘taxi’ in exactly the same way in English, French, Ger­
man, Swedish, Portuguese, and Dutch. 4. Postmen deliver 166,
875,000,000 pieces of mail each year in the United States. 5. On
average, every chocolate bar contains at least three insect legs.
6. Americans eat 18 acres of pizza every day. 7. People burn 26 cal­
ories in a one-minute kiss. 8. 259,200 people die every day. 9. We
use 43 muscles for a frown and 17 muscles for a smile. 10. Your
ears and nose continue to grow throughout your entire life.

3. Match the beginnings with the ends to form English proverbs.


Give a Russian equivalent for each of them.

1. The belly is not filled A. is never found again.


2. The devil is not so black B. by the company he keeps.
3. Don’t cry out C. with fair words.
4. Easily earned money D. is half hanged.
5. He that serves everybody E. is not felled with one stroke.
6. Lost time F. before you are hurt.
7. An oak tree G. as he is painted.
8. A public hall H. by its fruit.
9. When a thing is done I. is paid by nobody.
10. A tree is known J. is quickly spent.
11. A man is known K. advice comes too late.
12. He that has an ill name L. is never swept.

Find a suitable proverb for each situation given below. Make up


similar situations for the rest of the proverbs.

1. Jake did nothing all day and when he tried to finish his work on
time he realized he would be late. Then he said to himself ...
2. Alex quite helpless when he began preparing for the exam.
But he worked hard and after he had passed his exam and
got ‘excellent’, his parents told him, ‘Now you see ...’
105
3. Jim won 3,000 dollars in a lottery. The sum seemed incred­
ible. He invited all his friends and they went to the best res­
taurant in the city. Jim bought dozens of knick-knacks for
his girl-friend. Great was his surprise when he discovered
that only 50 dollars was left. No wonder, ...

4. You are the Headmaster of a language school. Work out an


advertisement for it. The questions below will help you.

1. Where is the school situated? 2. What subjects are taught there?


3. What foreign languages are taught there? 4. What methods are used
in this school? 5. How are the lessons conducted? 6. What is usually
done at the lessons? 7. What equipment is used at the lessons? 8. How
often are examinations taken? 9. What are the students allowed to
do? 10. What extra opportunities are they given?

5. Make the following passive.

1. They cook meals in the kitchen. 2. One uses milk for making
butter and cheese. 3. One praises a student when he works hard. 4. They
make progress every day in the world of science. 5. They take exami­
nations in January and in June. 6. People speak English all over the
world. 7. They write examination-papers at the end of each term.
8. They hold conferences every year. 9. They teach foreign languages
at this university. 10. They bring mail early in the morning. 11. Do
they give the students every opportunity to study languages? 12. Do
they sell TV-sets in this shop? 13. Do they show the tourists all the
monuments of the city? 14. Do people often visit this place? 15. Do
they take medicine regularly? 16. Do they often invite you to such
parties? 17. Do they often ask you for advice? 18. They don’t use
this equipment. 19. They never discuss such problems. 20. They don’t
often clean this window. 21. They never make such mistakes. 22. They
don’t take the child to the nursery school.

6. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Игрушки для маленьких детей делают из безопасных


материалов. 2. Студентам обычно задают много вопросов
106
на экзаменах. 3. Это помещение проветривают дважды в
день. 4. Лекции по истории языка читают по-английски.
5. Этот магазин закрывают в десять часов. 6. По-английс­
ки говорят во всем мире. 7. Мясо подают с овощами. 8. Это
лекарство принимают до еды. 9. Такие книги издаются толь­
ко за рубежом. 10. Профессию выбирают в соответствии
со способностями. 11. Это выражение часто используется?
12. Тебя часто просят о помощи? 13. Такие вопросы часто
задают? 14. Как часто убирают эту комнату? 15. В какое
время принимают посетителей в этом учреждении? 16. По­
чему ребенку не дают мороженое? 17. Зачем его так часто
посылают за границу? 18. Здесь разрешено курить? 19. Где
продают билеты? 20. Эта пьеса основана на исторических
фактах? 21. Мне не часто дают подобные задания. 22. Ему
не разрешают выходить из дома так поздно. 23. В этом ма­
газине телевизоры не продают. 24. Ему никогда не ставят
хороших отметок. 25. Такие статьи не помещают на пер­
вой странице. 26. Студентам не разрешается брать книги
из читального зала. 27. Этого ребенка никогда не водят в
театр. 28. Такие новости не часто услышишь. 29. Это сло­
во не часто используется в современном английском. 30. В
нашем университете испанский не преподают.

7. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper voice form of
the Present Indefinite Tense.

Note: cacao is the name of the tree, cocoa is the name of the
powder made from cocoa beans.
HOW CHOCOLATE IS MADE
Cacao (cultivate) in tropical climates. The cacao tree (like)
climates within 10 to 20 degrees of the Equator. The trees (need)
warm weather and rich soil. They (prefer) shaded sunlight. That’s
why banana trees, rubber trees, or coconut palms (plant) beside
the cacao tree in the orchard. Three main varieties of cacao beans
(grow) today. Cacao trees (harvest) twice a year. Workers (use) a
machete to cut the pods off the trees. They (place) on banana
107
leaves in large wooden boxes. They (leave) to ferment for several
days. During fermentation the beans (become) darker and (lose)
their bitter taste.
After fermentation the beans (sun-dry) for several days. Then
they (pack) in sacks and (ship) to factories. When the beans (ar­
rive) at the chocolate factory they (sort) and (clean). The beans
(roast) at 250 to 350 degrees for thirty minutes to two hours.
The time (depend) on the type of bean. The cacao beans (give)
off a wonderful aroma during the roasting process.
After roasting the outer shell of the beans (remove). The shells
(sell) as animal food. The inner nib (очищенное от шелухи
зерно какао) is then (crush) and (heat) to melt the cocoa but­
ter and (grind) to a thick paste. This paste (call) chocolate liq­
uor, but it (contain) no alcohol. Dark chocolate (make) by com­
bining chocolate liquor with sugar, cocoa butter, and vanilla. To
make milk chocolate chocolate liquor (combine) with cocoa
butter, sugar, and milk solids or powder. White chocolate (make)
without chocolate liquor. It is the cocoa butter that (give) it the
chocolate flavour.

8. Retell the following stories using the Passive Voice wherever


possible.

A. A farmer goes to a large city to see the sights. They give him a
room at a hotel. Before retiring he asks the clerk at what time they
serve the meals. ‘We serve breakfast from 7 to 11, lunch from 12 to 3,
and dinner from 6 to 8 t h e clerk explains. ‘Look here,’ the farmer
asks in surprise. ‘What time do you expect me to see the town?’
B. Donkeys on the small island of Re, which belongs to France,
wear trousers in public. People take off the trousers before they bring
the donkeys to their stables. When you ask people of the island to
explain this, they cannot give the reason for this strange custom.

9. Translate the following texts into English.

А. В Великобритании и некоторых других странах суще­


ствует традиция делать генеральную уборку весной. Конеч­
108
но, у домохозяек круглый год есть работа. Но есть вещи,
которые трудно делать ежедневно или каждую неделю.
Например, только весной сдвигают тяжелые шкафы и про­
странство за ними очищают от пыли и грязи. Делается все
возможное, чтобы тщательно вычистить весь дом. Иногда
мебель полностью выносится из комнаты, и комнату ре­
монтируют.
Это особенно напряженное время для женщин: выби­
ваются ковры и половики, полируется мебель, переклеи­
ваются обои. И через несколько дней такой тяжелой рабо­
ты дом выглядит как новый. Используется любая возмож­
ность избавиться от лишних предметов, а также купить
что-то необходимое.
Хотя началом года считается январь, по-настоящему
год начинается весной. Возможно, поэтому это время года
обычно выбирают для того, чтобы сделать дом особенно
чистым и уютным.

В. Для большинства семей в Великобритании Рожде­


ство — самый важный праздник в году. Отмечается он 25
декабря. В воскресенье перед Рождеством в храмах прово­
дится специальная служба, где исполняются особые гим­
ны. На дома вывешиваются украшения из бумаги и остро­
листа (holly). В каждом доме устанавливается елка, кото­
рую украшают игрушками и гирляндами. С Рождеством
связано множество традиций, но, наверное, самая важная
из них — это традиция дарить подарки. Подарки завора­
чивают в красивую бумагу и кладут под елку. Дети остав­
ляют у подножия кровати длинный носок или чулок на­
кануне Рождества, 24 декабря, в надежде, что Санта Клаус
спустится по трубе и оставит им маленькие подарки, фрук­
ты и орешки. Обычно они не бывают разочарованы! На
праздничный ужин в Рождество обычно подается индей­
ка и рождественский пудинг. Поздно вечером по телеви­
дению показывают Королеву, которая поздравляет граж­
дан своей страны с Рождеством.
109
The Past Indefinite Tense

1. Practise reading the following poems and learn any you like by
heart.

1. For want of a nail, the shoe was lost;


For want of the shoe, the horse was lost;
For want of the horse, the rider was lost;
For want of the rider, the battle was lost;
For want of the battle, the kingdom was lost.
And all for the want of a horse shoe nail.

2. There was an old woman had three sons.


Jerry, and James, and John.
Jerry was hanged, James was drowned.
John was lost and never was found.
And there was an end of her three sons,
Jerry, and James, and John.

3. Hector Protector was dressed all in green,


Hector Protector was sent to the Queen.
The Queen did not like him,
No more did the King;
So Hector Protector was sent back again.

2. Read the text, point out the passive constructions and do the
task that follows.

You know that Egyptian Pyramids are among the wonders


of the world. All the tourists who come to Egypt are always tak­
en to see these huge monuments that surprise everyone by their
size and weight.
A tremendous effort was needed to build such pyramids and
they were built with so few aids. It is hard to believe that huge
stone blocks weighing as much as ten tons were pushed into po­
sition with levers and rollers. Each pyramid was built on a foun­
dation of huge rocks. It is interesting to note that the huge pyr-
110
amids were planned so that each edge faced a point of the com­
pass.
There is good reason to think that as well as forming the
tombs of kings, these huge structures were used to observe the
stars and planets, which was of tremendous importance for the
agriculture.

Here are some answers. Work out the questions.

1. They are surprised by their size and weight. 2. Next to no


instruments were used. 3. It was done with levers and rollers.
4. They stood on huge rocks. 5. They were planned in such a
way that each edge faced a point of the compass. 6. To observe
stars and planets.

3. Open the brackets using the verbs either in the Active or in the
Passive form of the Past Indefinite Tense.

The Tower of London has a very interesting story behind


it. It (begin) by a man who was not even English, William of
Normandy. At the time he (be) the cousin of England’s King
Edward. It all (start) because William (become) outraged when
Edward (back) down on his promise to give the throne to Wil­
liam and (end) up giving the throne to his English brother-
in-law, Harold. William (sail) his army across the English
Channel to conquer England. On October 14, 1066 Harold
(defeat) in the Battle of Hastings and England (conquer) by
the Normans. On Christmas Day later that year, William who
now (call) William the Conqueror — (crown) King of Eng­
land. Immediately after William (take) over as king, forts
(build) everywhere. Some of them later (rebuild). For exam­
ple, the fort that (stand) in the southeastern corner of Lon­
don, near an old Roman wall on the north bank of the Thames
River (remove) in 1078 and (replace) by a huge stone strong­
hold. It (mean) to become a symbol of William’s power, a for­
tress for his defense, and a prison for his enemies. It (name)
the Tower of London.
111
The Tower (finish) twenty years later. A chapel, apartments,
guardrooms, and crypts (build) inside. The Tower (protect) by a
wide ditch, a new stone wall, the old Roman wall, and the river.
This (do) to secure the fact that this tower (be) a prison that no
prisoner would escape from.
Several monarches (die) in the Tower of London. One was
thirteen-year-old King Edward V who (take) to the Tower to­
gether with his younger brother, the Duke of York, and (mur­
der) in the Garden Tower, which later (rename) the Bloody Tower.
Two of Henry VIII’s six wives, Anne Boleyn and Catherine
Howard, (condemn) to death and (behead) here.
In 1603, during the reign of King James I, part of the Tower
of London (turn) into a museum.

4. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Самая высокая температура в мире (+63 °С) была заре­


гистрирована в Эфиопии.
2. Первым романом, который был напечатан на машин­
ке, был «Том Сойер». Он был написан Марком Твеном.
3. Старейший университет в мире был создан в Египте.
Он был основан как академия в 989 г. В это время там
преподавались такие предметы, как математика, аст­
рономия, медицина и география.
4. Старейший национальный флаг в мире был принят в
Дании в 1218 году.
5. Знаменитый мемориал Стоунхендж (Stonehenge) был
построен между 1800 и 1400 годами до нашей эры для
наблюдений за небом. Каждый из камней, из которых
он состоит, достигает высоты 4—4,6 метров. Ученые
полагают, что некоторые камни были принесены с рас­
стояния в 31 километр от этого места.
6. Эйфелеву башню (The Eiffel Tower) построили в память
о выставке, проходившей в Париже в 1889 году. Баш­
ню назвали в честь Александра Густава Эйфеля (Alex­
andre Gustave Eiffel) — человека, построившего ее. Она

112
была построена за поразительно короткий срок — все­
го лишь за 17 месяцев. Сегодня она используется для
многих целей: для рекламы, как маяк для самолетов, а
также в качестве радио- и телепередатчика.
7. Что такое Версальский дворец (The Palace of Versalles)?
Это жилище использовалось как охотничий домик ко­
роля Франции Людовика XIII (Louis XIII). По приказу
короля Людовика XIV его превратили в великолепный
дворец и перенесли сюда королевский двор. Дворец был
обставлен самой красивой мебелью, украшен скульп­
турами и картинами. Почти ежедневно здесь устраива­
лись развлечения для короля и его придворных.
8. Статуя Свободы — это символ Америки, страны сво­
бодных людей. Однако сделана она была во Франции.
Ее привезли в Соединенные Штаты в качестве подар­
ка от дружественного народа Франции. В 1886 году ее
торжественно открыл президент США Гровер Клив­
ленд (Grover Cleveland).

5. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper voice form of
the Present Indefinite and Past Indefinite Tense.

Note: This text is an extract from the novel ‘Brave New World’
written by Aldous Huxley. The book is set in an imagi­
nary future 600 years on. In this new world humans are
bred and conditioned by scientific methods to create a
society in which people have peaceful, reasonably hap­
py lives. People are divided into classes (Alphas, Betas,
Gammas and so on), each of them performing their own
functions in the Society. The extract describes the Cen­
tral London Hatching and Conditioning Centre where
humans are made.
The Director (give) the students a brief description of the
modern fertilizing process; (speak) first, of course, of the oper­
ation necessary for the beginning — ‘the operation which (ac­
cept) willingly for the good of Society, not to mention that those
on whom it (perform) (pay) six months’ extra salary’ . He (de­
113
scribe) how the eggs after removal from the body (keep) alive and
developing; (mention) the liquid in which they (keep); and lead­
ing the students to the work tables, (show) how this liquid (take)
from the test tubes; how, drop by drop, it carefully (examine) on
specially warmed slides; how the eggs (examine) to make sure
they were normal and then (count); how they afterwards (trans­
fer) to a container which (and he (take) them to watch the oper­
ation) (place) in a warm solution in which the male fertilizing
agents (swim) freely; at least one hundred thousand of them in
every thousandth of a litre of solution; how, after ten minutes,
the container (lift) out of the solution; how the fertilized eggs
(go) back on their shelves. There the Alphas and Betas (remain)
until definitely bottled, but the Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons
(bring) out again, after only 36 hours, to be treated by
Bokanovsky’s Process.

6. Supply suitable verbs in the Active or the Passive form and finish
the story. You will have to use some of the verbs several times.

A LACONIC ANSWER

be remain
bring want
know need
break invade
destroy send
give live

The Lacons ... (1) in a part of Southern Greece called La­


conia. They ... (2) for their bravery and simplicity. They ... (3)
just and honest, they never ... (4) a promise or a law. One of their
rules ... (5) always to speak briefly, using no more words than ...
(6). The best example of this ... (7) the reply the Lacons ... (8) to
Philip of Macedon.
Philip ... (9) to become master of all Greece. When only
Laconia ... (10) unconquered by him he ... (11) a letter to the
114
brave Lacons, saying: ‘If I ... (12) your country, I ... (13) your
great city.’ In a few days an answer ... (14) to him with only one
word in it —
WHAT WAS THE WORD IN THE LETTER?

7. Answer the following questions in the Passive.

Note: The Passive Voice is sometimes used for emphasis. For


example, a subject-question in the Active is often an­
swered by a Passive, so that the important information
(i.e. what the questioner wants to know) is emphasized
by being put at the end.
Example: Who wrote ‘Jane Eyre’? — ‘Jane Eyre’ was written
by Ch. Bronte.
1. Who discovered America? 2. Who invented the radio?
3. Who wrote ‘Robinson Crusoe’? 4. Who printed the first book?
5. Who created the famous St. Paul’s Cathedral? 6. Who found­
ed Moscow University? 7. Who was the first to use the expres­
sion ‘veni, vidi, vici’? 8. Who performed the first space flight?
9. Who opened the most famous art gallery in Moscow? 10. Who
shot the first movie? 11. Who invented paper and powder?
12. Who wrote ‘David Copperfield’? 13. Who discovered peni­
cillin? 14. Who conquered Britain in 1066? 15. Who killed Ab­
raham Lincoln?

8. Study the examples below and fill in the blanks with by or with.

He was killed by a falling stone.


He was killed with a knife.

Which of the prepositions denotes the method? Which of them


denotes the doer of the action?

l. Who was the monument designed ... ? 2. All these little


wooden houses were built ... very simple tools. 3. A lot of dam­
age was done ... the flood. 4. The last match was won ... the Shef­
field team, wasn’t it? 5. What were the shelves fixed ...? 6. The
child was covered ... a blanket ... his mother. 7. This note is writ­
115
ten ... a very bad pen, that’s why you can’t read it. 8. Can you
open the door of your apartment ... this key? 9. Many beautiful
old buildings in cities are replaced ... modem ones. 10. The mu­
sic that was composed ... Beethoven towards the end of his life is
very different from his early music. 11. The room was filled ...
smoke that was coming from his pipe. 12. The lock was covered
... paint, and we couldn’t open the door. 13. Much of London
was destroyed ... fire in the 17th century. 14. The man was bitten
... a snake, and the doctor had to give him a serum. 15. He was
saved from bankruptcy ... the kindness of a friend.

9. Fill in the blanks with prepositions and adverbs.

A. DEATH COMES TO THE SQUIRE


Along time ago, ... (1) a small English town, this story was
told. It was a hot summer Sunday. The squire and his wife were ...
(2) Church. The squire was put to sleep ... (3) the monotonous
voice ... (4) the priest. He dreamed that he was a French noble­
man ... (5) the time ... (6) the Revolution. He was condemned ...
(7) death and was waiting ... (8) the guillotine to fall. ... (9) that
time his wife noticed that he was asleep and tapped him sharp­
ly ... (10) his neck ... (11) her fan. The shock was so great, that
the squire immediately fell ... (12) dead.
B. THE HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
The Hanging Gardens ... (1) Babylon were considered ... (2)
the ancient world to be ... (3) the wonders.. (4) the world. Their
construction is usually ascribed ... (5) Nebuchadnezzar
(Навуходоносор), the king ... (6) Chaldea. According ... (7) the
legend the gardens were built ... (8) his favourite wife who had
come ... (9) the flat plains.. (10) Babylon ... (11) a hilly land.
The gardens formed a square ... (12) an area ... (13) nearly four
acres, and rose ... (14) terraces, supported.. (15) arches, ... (16)
the height ... (17) 75 feet. They were irrigated ... (18) a reservoir,
built ... (19) the top, ... (20) which the water was lifted ... (21)
the Euphrates. Groves ... (22) palm trees and tree-ferns were
116
planted there, and the gardens were filled ... (23) the finest flow­
ers ... (24) the land.

10. Make the sentences Passive. Give two Passive constructions


wherever possible. Mention the agent where necessary.

1. A drunken motorist knocked her down. 2. They feed the


seals at the Zoo twice a day. 3. Who wrote it? 4. He expected us
to offer him the job. 5. They showed us the easiest way to do it.
6. Lightning struck the old oak. 7. What did he write it with?
8. Did the idea interest you? 9. The lawyer gave him the details
of his aunt’s will. 10. Most people opposed this. 11. A rainstorm
flooded the gypsies’ camp. 12. The postman clears this box three
times a day. 13. Someone turned on the light in the hall and
opened the door. 14. We never saw him in the dining-room. A
maid took all his meals to his bedroom. 15. Someone left this
purse in a classroom yesterday; the cleaner found it. 16. We build
over 1,000 new houses a year. Last year we built 1,500.17. Pas­
sengers leave all sorts of things in buses. The conductor collects
them and sends them to the Lost Property Office. 18. The po­
lice arrested the man. 19. They invited Jack, but they didn’t in­
vite Tom. 20. The guests ate all the sandwiches and drank all the
beer. They left nothing. 21. Why did no one inform me of the
change of plan? 22. Tom Smith wrote the book and Brown &
Co. published it. 23. They didn’t pay me for my work; they ex­
pected me to do it for nothing. 24. She didn’t introduce me to
her mother. 25. An earthquake destroyed the town.

11. Retell the following text using the Passive Voice wherever
possible.

Note: The prepositional object cannot become the subject in


the Passive Voice. E.g.: He suggested an interesting plan
to us. — An interesting plan was suggested to us. (We were
suggested an interesting plan is impossible.)
Our students began learning the Passive Voice last week. First
Mrs. Smith explained the main rules to us. Then she demon­
117
strated to us how to use the Passive Voice with different classes
of verbs. She described to us typical situations which require the
use of the Passive constructions. She also mentioned some diffi­
culties which we might have with phrasal verbs. Then she dictat­
ed several sentences to us, and we translated them to the teacher.
Mrs. Smith pointed out to us all the mistakes we had made. At
the end of the lesson she recommended some reference books to
us and announced the marks which each of us had got.

12. Translate the following text into English.

Моя свекровь отказывалась видеть во мне самостоя­


тельную мать семейства и считала меня глуповатой малень­
кой девочкой, которая ничего не умеет и нуждается в ее
советах. Мне объяснялось, как правильно готовить суп и
регулярно диктовались какие-то фамильные рецепты. Мне
демонстрировалось, как правильно стирать носки и как
гладить рубашки. При мне обязательно упоминалось о ка­
кой-то исключительно талантливой девице, которая все
делает лучше, чем я. Мне рекомендовалось несколько се­
риалов, в которых были показаны примеры правильных
семейных отношений. Мне предлагалось сразу несколько
идей по поводу того, как сделать мужа счастливым. Ска­
жите, пожалуйста, есть ли такая женщина, ко горой все это
могло бы понравиться?

13. Retell the following text using the Active Voice wherever pos­
sible.

An old man had many sons who were always quarrelling. One
day the sons were called before their father. A bundle of sticks was
given to them and they were ordered to break it. Each of the sons
tried with all his strength but the bundle wasn’t broken. At last it
was untied by the old man and each son was given one stick. Of
course, the sticks were broken easily. ‘My sons,’ said the old man,
‘if you are together, live in friendship and help one another, you
can always be strong and needn’t be afraid of any enemies.’
118
14. Translate the stories into English.

A. Выражение «двуликий Янус» (two-faced Janus) связа­


но с именем одного из римских богов. В Риме Янус счи­
тался богом входов и выходов. Изображение Януса поме­
шалось у дверей и в переходах. Янус изображался с двумя
лицами, обращенными в противоположные стороны: одно
лицо смотрело вперед, а другое назад. Янус также считался
богом любого начинания: поутру он открывал ворота
Олимпа, а вечером запирал их. Им решались и вопросы
войны и мира. Храм Януса, обращенный одной стороной
на восток, а другой — на запад, открывался только в дни
войны. Интересно, что в течение семи веков, пока суще­
ствовал храм, его ворота закрывались только три раза.
Двуликим Янусом называют двуличного, лицемерно­
го человека.

B. Единственным строением, возведенным на фунда­


менте из золота, являются ворота храма Пурандхар
(Purandhar) в Индии. Радже (rajah), который приказал по­
строить их, сказали, что выбранное им место — трясина,
и возвести там ворота невозможно. Вскоре он увидел сон,
в котором ему был дан совет построить ворота на осно­
вании из золота. Были вырыты две большие ямы 12 фу­
тов глубиной. 50 ООО золотых кирпичей были положены
в землю, и на этом фундаменте были построены ворота.
Эти ворота существуют и поныне и охраняются монаха­
ми, живущими в монастыре.

The Future Indefinite Tense

1. Read the following joke and translate it into Russian.

During an opera a spectator turns to his friend: ‘That tenor


is driving me mad.’ ‘Shall we leave then?’ ‘Certainly not. In the
119
third act he will be killed and I can’t deny myself the pleasure of
seeing it.’

2. You are planning to create your own TV program for students of


English. Tell your friends about your project.

1. How often will your program be broadcast? 2. Who will


it be designed for? 3. Will the listeners be offered a wide choice
of information? 4. What information will be used there? 5. What
form will the program be given in? 6. What problems will be dis­
cussed in it? 7. Who will be invited to take part in the program?
8. Will movies and interviews with movie-stars be shown in your
program? 9. Will special reference books be advertised in your
program? 10. Will suggestions for further programs be welcomed?

3. Divide the following dialogue into separate sentences and ex­


plain the use of tenses.

Landlord: In one word, when are you going to pay your


debts?
Hard-up writer: “Your demands will be satisfied as soon as I
receive the money which I will be paid if the publisher accepts
the novel I am going to send him as soon as the work is finished
which will be begun when I have found a suitable subject and the
necessary inspiration.

4. Open the brackets using the appropriate tense and voice form.
All the actions refer to the future.

1. You (inform) as soon as the telegram (receive). 2. The


children (give) their dinner before their father (come) home.
3. They (astonish) when they (see) how slowly he (work). 4. I
(go on) doing it until I (tell) to stop. 5. The refrigerator (go on)
making that noise till it (repair). 6. The car (not move) till the
brake (take off). 7. When all his newspapers (sell) he (go) home.
8. You (not let out) till you (finish) your homework. 9. When
everybody (leave) the park the gates (lock). 10. The goods (send)
to you as soon as your cheque (receive). 11. The room doesn’t
120
look particularly attractive now but when it (clean) and (paint),
it (look) quite different. 12. Tom (start) as soon as the invita­
tion (get). 13. When I (work) here for fifteen years I (entitle) to a
pension. 14. What (happen) if this button (press)? 15. Unless
that radio (turn of!) I (go) mad. 16. If that bottle of port (shake)
it (not be) fit to drink. 17. If you (wear) a false beard you (not
recognize). 18. If he (not pay) the fine he (send) to prison. 19. I
don’t think he (refuse) if he (offer) a good job. 20. He (arrest) if
the police (catch) him. 21. Your car (steal) if it (leave) unlocked.
22. Ice (turn) to water if it (heat). 23. If Tom (help) us the work
(finish) in half an hour. 24. Unless you (put) the passport into
the inside pocket it (lose). 25. If the project (finish) by Monday
you (give) a bonus.

5. Join the sentences making all the necessary changes. Use the
Passive Voice wherever possible.

Example: Something extraordinary will happen. They will in­


form you. — If anything extraordinary happens you
will be informed.
1. They will pass the examination. They will go to the seaside.
2. They will send you abroad. You will have to prepare all the
necessary documents beforehand.
3. You will exceed the speed limit. They will fine you.
4. They will ask me for help. I won’t refuse to come.
5. They will forget this rule. They won’t be able to translate
the sentences.
6. You will return from your trip. They will ask you a lot of
questions.
7. He will finish his speech. A discussion will take place.
8. They will discuss the problem. They will take the final deci­
sion.
9. He will injure his arm. They will take him to hospital.
10. You will break your car. They will repair it.
11. She will blackmail her boss. They will arrest her.
12. Everything will be ready. They will invite you.

121
6. Put the following sentences into Reported Speech.

1. The students will be asked a lot of questions at the exam.


2. The computers will be installed in our office as soon as they
are delivered. 3. Tickets for this play will be sold next week. 4. This
machine will be put in motion by solar energy. 5. If anything
unexpected happens some extra measures will be taken. 6. The
construction will begin as soon as the project is adopted. 7. If he
exceeds the speed limit again he will be sent to prison. 8. If you
disobey you will be punished. 9. The work will be finished on
time if the weather doesn’t change. 10. I don’t know if I will be
invited to the party. 11. I am not sure if this soap opera will be
shown next year. 12. Who will be sent to the Conference? 13. Will
the lecture be followed by a discussion? 14. What equipment will
be used for this experiment? 15. How will the elephant be trans­
ported to the Zoo? 16. Will the article be translated into French?
17. Will he be warned about it in time? 18. What job will he be
offered at this office? 19. What language will the lecture be de­
livered in? 20. When will the champion be interviewed?

7. Translate the following text into English.

Однажды Марка Твена спросили, помнит ли он, как


заработал свои первые деньги.
«Да, — сказал он, — это было в школе. Мальчишки ча­
сто рисовали на партах и вырезали на них надписи. Нако­
нец было решено ввести жесткое правило: каждый, кто
портит парты, будет публично высечен перед всей школой,
или ему придется заплатить штраф в размере 5 долларов.
Однажды я нарушил запрет, и мне пришлось сказать об этом
отцу. Отец сказал: «Сэм, будет очень плохо, если имя Кле­
менс (Clemens) будет опозорено перед всей школой, по­
этому мы уж лучше заплатим штраф. Но ты все же будешь
наказан, поднимайся наверх». Я поднялся наверх и был
выпорот. Но наказание не показалось мне таким уж суро­
вым, и я решил, что не будет ничего страшного, если меня
еще раз высекут в школе. Меня действительно высекли, и
122
мои пять долларов остались целыми. Это были первые за­
работанные мной деньги».

Phrasal Verbs in the Passive Voice

1. Look up the following phrasal verbs in the dictionary and learn


them.

Ask for, break into, break in, break up, bring up, call off, call
up, take care of, carryout, clear away, cut down, cutoff, cutup,
do up, find out, hand in, hold up, look after, look into, look for,
look through, make up, mix up, operate on, pick up, pull down,
put forward, put off, run over, send for, speak of, think over, take
for, work out, pay attention to, see off, take notice of, object to,
lose sight of, refer to, rely on, put an end to, laugh at.

2. Match the verb from column A with its definition in column B.

А В
1. bring up a) attribute wrong identity or qualities to
someone
2. call off b) demolish
3. carry out c) summon for military service
4. do up d) postpone
5. take for e) perform (duties), fulfil (threats)
6. pull down f) educate and train children
7. call up g) redecorate
8. put off h) cancel something not yet started
9. cutoff i) drive over accidentally
10. run over j) disconnect

3. Fill in the gaps with prepositions and adverbs.

1. As the president was ill, his visit to France was put ... .
2. His departure wasn’t taken notice ... . 3. Though this scien­
tist is rather famous his articles are rarely referred ... . 4. I am
123
often taken ... my sister. 5. The papers were handed ... after the
bell had gone. 6. The audience was made ... of very young chil­
dren. 7. The older members of the committee are inclined to veto
any suggestions, which are put ... by the younger ones. 8. All
the actors are made ... before they appear on the stage. 9. All the
photos were looked ... and at last the best one was selected.
10. The room was done ... , the walls were painted cream. 11. If
expenses are not cut ... we’ll be getting into debt. 12. Her chil­
dren were brought ... to be truthful. 13. I was asked ... a book to
read. 14. When I was away my parrot was looked ... by my neigh­
bours. 15. This sort of practice was put an end ... .

4. Paraphrase the sentences using suitable phrasal verbs.

1. The bus was delayed, because a tree had fallen across the
road. 2. All the buildings in this district were demolished last
year. 3. Soon the ship was not seen in the fog. 4. The drunk man
stepped into the road right in front of the oncoming car and was
killed. 5. The instructions were not followed. 6. When the fog
got thicker the search was abandoned. 7. The house was entered
by force when the owner was on holiday. 8. When the pony is
trained well enough, you’ll be able to ride him quite safely. 9. We
were disconnected in the middle of our conversation. 10. All the
papers were removed after the work was finished.

5. Find a verb suitable for all the sentences within the same group.

A.
1. The story was so exciting that I was completely ... in.
2. When he was small he was often ... for a girl.
3. A hearty argument had taken place before the final decision
was ... .
4. Don’t worry. The children will be well ... care of.
5. Fortunately, the boy wasn’t ... notice of.

B.
1. The dog was ... for everywhere but it was never found.
124
2. The article was ... through and all the necessary informa­
tion was picked out.
3. The doctor promised that the patient would be properly ...
after.
4. Wherever she appears she is always ... at.
5. The pronunciation of this word was ... up in the dictionary.
C.
1. It had been raining since early morning so the match was ...
off.
2. Their argument was ... an end to only when their boss took
the decision.
3. The thief was caught when he was leaving the room and all
the property was ... back before the hostess returned.
4. A new monument was ... up in the square last week.
5. In April all the clocks are ... forward an hour.

6. Put the sentences into the Passive Voice. Use the agent only
where necessary.

1. Everybody speaks well of this student. 2. She will look af­


ter the little girl well. 3. They left the book behind. 4. Somebody
left the light on all night. 5. People will laugh at you if you put on
this silly hat. 6. The fog held up the trains. 7. You are to leave this
here. Someone will call for it later on. 8. We called in the police.
9. They didn’t look after the children properly. 10. Then they called
up men of twenty-eight. 11. All the ministers will see him off at
the airport. 12. They threw him out. 13. Her story didn’t take them
in. 14. Burglars broke into the house. 15. The manufacturers gave
away small plastic toys with each packet of cereal. 16. The crowd
shouted her down. 17. People often take him for his brother. 18. The
boy had a high temperature and they sent for the doctor. 19. They
listened to him with great interest. 20. They looked for him eve­
rywhere. 21. I know they will object to this proposal. 22. When
the cat had pneumonia they took care of it. 23. They referred to
this article twice. 24. They lost sight of the car. 25. They pulled
down the old building and built a new theatre.
125
7. Fill in the blanks with prepositions.
SPARTAN UPBRINGING
The citizens ... (1) Sparta, an ancient Greek city, were fa­
mous ... (2) their bravery, discipline and endurance. The lives ...
(3) Spartans were arranged ... (4) iron laws to make a nation ...
(5) soldiers. They were brought ... (6)... (7) the State ... (8) the
spirit ... (9) self-denial, hardship and obedience. Much atten­
tion was paid ... (10) physical training. Their sports and exercis­
es were regulated ... (11) the severest discipline, and made ...
(12) ... (13) labour and fatigue. They went about barefoot, their
heads were shaven, and they fought ... (14) one another naked.
The Spartan men were dauntless and faced danger and hardship ...
(15) fear. If a child was bom weak no attempt was made to bring
him ... (16). Handicapped children were simply thrown ... (17) ...
(18) a high cliff. The phrase ‘Spartan upbringing’ is used to de­
scribe a very severe upbringing.

8. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. В этом доме не живут. Его скоро снесут. 2. Его уход ос­


тался незамеченным. 3. У меня часто просят совета, хотя, как
мне кажется, моим советам никогда не следуют. 4. Матч был
отложен, потому что с раннего утра шел дождь. 5. Собрание
отменили, потому что председатель заболел. 6. На эти дан­
ные часто ссылаются. 7. В дом проникли, и все ценные вещи
были украдены. 8. Если ты будешь переходить улицу здесь,
тебя задавят. 9. Против этого предложения будут возражать.
10. Не беспокойтесь. О вашем ребенке позаботятся. 11. В сле­
дующем году расходы будут сокращены. 12. Нас прервали в
середине важного разговора. 13. Этот план так и не был осу­
ществлен. 14. Вашу статью просмотрят и вернут Вам во втор­
ник. 15. Если за вами пришлют, не отказывайтесь прийти.
16. Почему над ним всегда смеются? 17. Этой практике был
положен конец. 18. На эту проблему никогда не обращают
внимания. 19. Работы были сданы после того, как прозвенел
звонок. 20. Когда он был маленьким, его часто принимали за
126
девочку. 21. На первом курсе много внимания уделяется фо­
нетике. 22. Пожалуйста, никому не говори об этом. Боюсь,
над тобой просто посмеются. 23. Если все указания будут со­
блюдены, работа будет выполнена успешно. 24. Об этом сту­
денте хорошо отзываются. 25. Как только ему исполнилось
18, его призвали в армию. 26. Лекция была посвящена про­
блеме защиты окружающей среды. Приводились интересные
данные, и лектора слушали с большим вниманием. 27. Не могу
сказать, что за детьми хорошо присматривают в детских са­
дах. 28. Это предложение было выдвинуто председателем ко­
митета. 29. Вскоре корабль скрылся в тумане. 30. Уверяю вас,
ваше предложение будет тщательно обдумано.

The Present Continuous Tense

1. Read the following jokes and translate them into Russian.

1. Photographer: ‘Now, Madam, you are being photographed.


Please, look pleasant, and in a minute you may resume your
natural expression.’
2. A man studied the French menu in a restaurant for a time,
and then not wishing to appear ignorant before his best girl,
said, ‘I think we’ll have some of that, waiter.’ The waiter
looked where the man was pointing and said, ‘I’ m sorry, sir,
but that’s what is being played by the band.’

2. Make all the sentences Passive.

Let’s have a look at what is going on in our school at this very mo­
ment.
1. In the biology classroom the students are carrying out an im­
portant scientific experiment. They are examining the vital or­
gans of the frog. They are documenting the results carefully.
2. In the maths classroom the teacher is explaining some new
rules to the students.
127
3. In the next room the teacher is reading a fairy-tale to the
children.
4. In the English classroom the students are writing a compo­
sition.
5. In the small studio on the second floor the students are paint­
ing some very nice pictures in water-colours.
6. In the music classroom the children are learning the words
of a new song.
7. In the school swimming pool the coach is teaching some
small girls to swim.
8. In the gym the teachers are holding a competition for the
first-graders.
9. The children are preparing the Assembly Hall for the New
Year Party. They are decorating the New Year Tree. Some
children are rehearsing the New Year play.
10. In the Staffroom the teachers are checking test papers.

3. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Active or the Passive
Voice of the Present Indefinite and Present Continuous.

The University of Cambridge is a complex organization that


(include 1), among other establishments, four museums: the
Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the University
Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, the University Mu­
seum of Zoology and the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences.
Collections of international importance (preserve 2) in Cam­
bridge University’s museums. They (consider 3) to be an inter­
national resource for research and lifelong learning. The collec­
tions (provide 4) a unique source of historical and ethnographic
data. The results of this work (make 5) available by publication
in scientific journals and the popular press.
All the collections (keep 6) in carefully controlled condi­
tions. A great deal of conservation work (do 7) right now at the
Zoology Museum. Some old storage equipment (replace 8), and
a new air-conditioning system (install 9).
The collections perfectly (document 10). Good catalogu­
ing and systematic storage are essential if you (look 11) for one
128
specimen among several million! All the catalogues now (trans­
fer 12) to computer databases to make this information available
for researches all over the world.
But the collections not just (keep 13) in display cases or on
storage shelves. They (use 14) in many ways for University teach­
ing. The University Museums (visit 15) by nearly 60,000 peo­
ple every year. Among them are school students who (bring 16)
here by their teachers to see interesting artefacts and specimens
from all around the world. Children (encourage 17) to explore
the museums. Different kinds of activities (offer 18) to them.
Right now a group of ten-year-olds (show 19) the collection of
scientific and musical instruments from the Middle Ages in the
Whipple Museum. The guide (explain 20) to them how this or
that instrument (work 21). The children (allow 22) to touch eve­
rything with their own hands. Some of them (take 23) photos,
others (draw 24) sketches in their note-books.
Each year the museums (visit 25) by a large number of researchers
from different countries. The museum collections (use 26) for var­
ious types of research. Some projects (deepen 27) our knowledge of
objects in the existing collections, others (build 28) up new collec­
tions. Right now two serious research projects (carry out 29) in the
Museum of Archeology and Anthropology: ‘Archeological Herit­
age Management’ and ‘Social Anthropology and Museums’. Di­
verse projects from the conservation of wildlife to exploring the prim­
itive cultures of Africa (support 30) by the museums.
The museums (preserve 31) archives dating back to the six­
teenth century. These (include 32) letters and notebooks of sig­
nificant figures in the development of the human and natural
sciences, as well as important photographic collections. A new
exhibition of documents from the personal archives of Charles
Darwin now (prepare 33) by the museum experts.
The museums (arrange 34) a whole number of educational
programs for children and grown-ups. They (include 35) public
talks and special events as well as workshops, project sessions,
and a summer school for international students. Some of these
(run 36) in conjunction with the University’s Institute of Con-
5-6736 129
tinuing Education. At this very moment a meeting of the Young
Archeologist Club (hold 37) in the Museum of Archeology and
Anthropology. Some new finds from archeological sites now
(demonstrate 38) to the children.
The museum displays and collections (value 39) by artists,
authors and film makers.

4. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Обычно документы подписывают утром. Ваши до­
кументы сейчас просматривают, и вы их скоро получите.
2. Не могли бы ли вы немного подождать? Ваше платье как
раз дошивают. 3. Посмотри! Строят новый мост через Вол­
гу. 4. Почему ты не на машине? — Она в гараже. Ее сейчас
ремонтируют. 5. Пожалуйста, не заходите в зал. Там сейчас
репетируют новогоднюю пьесу. 6. Вчера поймали опасно­
го преступника. Его сейчас допрашивают. 7. Ваш паспорт
сейчас проверяют. Через минуту его Вам вернут. 8. Скоро
вы получите свой экземпляр договора. Его сейчас печата­
ют. 9. Два часа назад она попала в автомобильную катаст­
рофу. Ее сейчас оперируют. Я надеюсь, что ее спасут.
10. Слышишь эти шаги? За нами идут! 11. Майкла сейчас
учат кататься на велосипеде. 12. Сейчас ребенка купают.
Потом его уложат спать. 13. Результаты футбольного мат­
ча все еще обсуждаются. 14. Сейчас студентам объясняют
новое правило. 15. Я не могу работать, потому что в моем
кабинете устанавливают новое оборудование.

The Past Continuous Tense

1. Read the following joke and explain the use of the Past Contin­
uous Passive.

From time to time a class of small boys and girls played a


game they liked very much. In turn they made sounds to imitate
130
an animal and the others were to say what animal was being im­
itated.
Once the Inspector came, and he liked the game too. ‘Now
shut your eyes,’ he said, ‘and listen well.’ He made sounds to
imitate a bird and then asked, ‘Well, what was I doing?’ A boy
answered, ‘Kissing the teacher, sir.’

2. Answer the questions describing the actions in the Past Contin­


uous Passive.

1. There was a great fire in the street next to yours. What was
going on there at the moment you came to the place? (Peo­
ple were being evacuated. Valuable things were being carried
out, etc.)
2. Your friend’s family were going on vacation. What was go­
ing on in the house at the moment you came there?
3. It was the day of the dress rehearsal. What was going on on
the stage when you came to the concert-hall?
4. There was a murder in your house. What was going on there
at the moment you came home from work?
5. Your friend was returning home from hospital with her new­
born baby. What was going on in the house at the moment
you dropped in?

3. You returned to your native town after three years of working


abroad. You didn’t recognize the place as there was a lot of activity
everywhere. Turn the sentences into the Passive Voice.

1. They were constructing a new shopping centre. 2. They


were pulling down your old school. All the children of the dis­
trict were watching the process. 3. They were repairing the roads
in the centre. 4. They were putting billboards and banners every­
where. 5. They were building a big amusement arcade near the
park. 6. They were rehearsing a big carnival in the central square.
7. They were modernizing the old stadium. 8. They were putting
up a monument to the founder of the city near the Central De­
partment Store. 9. They were planting trees everywhere. 10. They
were cleaning the streets.
5* 131
4. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Когда мы подъехали к картинной галерее, выстав­


ку как раз открывали. 2. Пока готовился ужин, он смот­
рел телевизор. 3. Я зашел на кухню и почувствовал какой-
то вкусный запах. Готовился мой любимый пирог. 4. Я не­
много опоздал, и когда я зашел в класс, эта проблема как
раз обсуждалась. 5. Зал готовили к празднику: украшали
елку, развешивали гирлянды, расставляли стулья. 6. Он
так и не смог забрать свою фотографию, потому что ее
все еще печатали. 7. Когда я пришел домой, по телеви­
зору показывали новый фильм. 8. Это был самый инте­
ресный номер в представлении. Показывали карточные
фокусы. 9. Когда я, наконец, пришел, студентам дикто­
вали новые правила. 10. Она не понимала, что над ней
смеются. 11. Полиция сообщила, что преступника все
еще ищут. 12. Я стал оглядываться вокруг: у меня было
такое чувство, что на меня смотрят. 13. К сожалению, мы
не смогли посетить Собор Святого Павла, потому что его
реставрировали. 14. Доктор ничего не мог сказать о со­
стоянии пациента, потому что его все еще оперировали.
15. Актеру пора было появиться на сцене, а его все еще
гримировали.

The Present Perfect Tense

1. Read the following jokes and translate them into Russian.

1. She: I’ve been asked to get married lots of times.


He: Who asked you?
She: My Mother and Father.
2. Diner (to Headwaiter): Can you tell me why portions have
become a lot smaller lately?
Headwaiter: Just an optical illusion, sir. Now that the res­
taurant has been enlarged, they look smaller, that’s all.
132
2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Present Perfect Pas­
sive.

‘How do you like your new publicity agent?’ asked the movie
star’s friend.
‘Oh, he’s wonderful,’ she cried, beaming with enthusiasm.
‘We (to rob) twice, our house (to burn), our car (to wreck), and
I (to threaten) by an anonymous enemy since we employed him.’

3. Turn all the sentences of the story into the Passive Voice.

People have achieved impressive results in the world of sci­


ence. They have found solutions for numerous problems and
puzzles which for ages troubled the human race. Even m the ar­
eas where they haven’t realized complete solutions, they have
made much encouraging progress. People have unlocked secrets
of the atom. They have made worldwide transportation and com­
munication readily available to the public. They have explored
the solar system. They have avoided a serious war. People have
unravelled many complex mysteries of the living cell. They have
developed cures for many diseases. But still they haven’t found
a scientific, naturalistic explanation for the origin of things.
(from ‘Darwin’s Enigma’ by Luther D. Sunderland)

4. What will you say if you see the following? (Use a phrase in the
Present Perfect Passive.)

1. You look down at the floor and see that the mirror is in pieces.
2. When you left your room this morning it was very dusty.
Now, when you come back, it isn’t.
3. When you were in London last there wasn’t a theatre by the
river. Now there is.
4. You are in the garden. You notice a bird on the ground with
its feet in the air.
5. You are on your way to work after a terrible storm. One house
has no roof.
6. There was a beautiful antique vase in that shop yesterday. It
isn’t there now.
133
7. You left your bag in the corridor 15 minutes ago. When you
return there you can’t find it.
8. You’ re a bit late for the performance. But when you come to
the theatre you see nobody there.

5. Fill in each of the gaps with one suitable word.

Thousands of objects are left ... (1) London Transport vehi­


cles every year. ... (2) of them are handed in ... (3) are kept at
London Transport ... (4) Property Office. Some of the ... (5) items
are claimed and those ... (6) are not are auctioned. Umbrellas, ...
(7) and toys are the most ... (8) items, but some very strange items
have ... (9) found. A stuffed life-size gorilla ... (10) left sitting in
an underground ... (11). An invalid’s chair ... (12) left in a bus.
Human bones, which ... (13) wrapped in brown paper, were ...
(14) in to an astonished bus ... (15). Spectacles and false teeth
are ... (16) found and this can create ... (17) problem when the
owner comes ... (18) collect them. One man arrived ... (19) claim
atop set of ... (20) teeth. Hundreds of sets were tried on ... (21)
he found the set ... (22) matched his bottom set.

6. Put the following into the Active Voice.

1. I have been robbed! 2. This room is used only on special


occasions. 3. In some districts of France pigs are used to find
truffles. 4. The light was switched on and the door was opened.
5. I’ve been warned about it. 6. Each of us was asked about his
movements on the night of the crime. 7. He has been told to re­
port for duty at nine. 8. The paintings will be exhibited till the
end of the month. 9. Nothing more will be said about the matter
if the stolen gun is returned. 10. It is high time he was told to
stop behaving like a child. 11. He was given two weeks in which
to pay the fine. 12. These artificial flowers are made of silk. 13. A
special edition has been written for children. 14. Children under
16 won’t be admitted. 15. The exam results haven’t been an­
nounced yet. 16. I’ m afraid all the copies of this book have been
134
sold, but more have been ordered. 17. The letter hasn’t been
stamped. 18. This room hasn’t been used for ages. 19. He has
never been invited to their parties. 20. The old theatre has al­
ready been pulled down.

7. Open the brackets using each verbs in the proper tense and
voice form.

A. Of all the symbols which (associate 1) with Easter, the egg,


the symbol of fertility and new life, is the most important. The
customs and traditions of using eggs (associate 2) with Easter
for centuries. Originally Easter eggs (paint 3) with bright colors
to represent the sunlight of spring and (use 4) in Easter-egg roll­
ing contests or (give 5) as gifts. After they (colour 6) and (deco­
rate 7) with various designs the eggs (exchange 8) by lovers and
romantic admirers, much the same as valentines. In medieval
time eggs traditionally (give 9) at Easter to the servants. In Ger­
many eggs (give 10) to children along with other Easter gifts.
Since then different ways of decorating Easter eggs (develop
11) by different cultures. Red eggs, to honor the blood of Christ,
(exchange 12) in Greece. In parts of Germany and Austria green
eggs (use 13) on Holy Thursday. Slavic peoples (decorate 14)
their eggs in special patterns of gold and silver. Austrian artists
(design 15) patterns by fastening tiny plants around the eggs,
which then (boil 16). The plants then (remove 17) revealing a
striking white pattern. In Germany and other countries eggs which
(use 18) for cooking (not break 19), but the contents (remove
20) by piercing the end of each egg with a needle and blowing the
contents into a bowl. The hollow eggs (dye 21) and (hang 22)
from trees during the Easter Week. The Armenians (decorate 23)
hollow eggs with pictures of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and other
religious designs.
B. The story of Lady Godiva who (ride 1) naked through the
streets of Coventry in the year 1040 is a well-known legend. It
(tell and retell 2) for many centuries. But why she (do 3) it, in an
age when women almost (hide 4) from society is perhaps not so
135
well known. Lady Godiva was the wife of Leofric, Earl of Mer­
cia, one of the powerful lords who (rule 5) England under King-
Canute. Godiva (know 6) to be very religious and charitable and
she (care 7) much for Mercia and its people. Leofric, on the other
hand, (be 8) a tyrant who (care 9) for neither the Church nor
people. By his order heavy taxes (impose 10) on the people of
Coventry. Godiva (quarrel 11) frequently with her husband over
his merciless behaviour and (beg 12) him to change his ways.
During an argument one day, Leofric (make 13) the extravagant
promise that the tax (remit 14) if Godiva (ride 15) naked through
the streets of Coventry on market day. He was absolutely sure
that his wife never (do 16) it. But Leofric (not understand 17)
how much Godiva (love 18) her people. She (mount 19) her horse
and (make 20) her famous journey. She (clothe 21) only by her
beautiful long blonde hair. Leofric (keep 22) his promise and the
people of Coventry never again (have 23) to pay the taxes. Leof­
ric and Godiva (make 24) up their differences and together they
(found 25) a monastery, where they both eventually (bury 26).
The story of Lady Godiva first (record 27) in Latin in the twelfth
century by Roger of Wendober, a monk from St Albans in Hert­
fordshire. He (hear 28) the tale from travellers who were resting
at his abbey on their way to London. This story (adapt 29) by
various historians since, but there (seem 30) to be no reason to
doubt that she (ride 31) naked. Some stories (say 32.) that peo­
ple (stay 33) indoors behind shuttered windows as Lady Godiva
(request 34) except for a man called Tom, a tailor — who couldn’t
resist having a peep and immediately (strike 35) blind. Ever since
the incident he (know 36) as ‘Peeping Tom’, a name as famous
as Lady Godiva.

8. Translate the texts into English.

А. Султан Мухаммед ибн Дауд (Sultan Muhammad Ibn


Daud) правил Ираном в XI веке. За время своего правле­
ния он завоевал большую территорию и собрал огромные
богатства. Он умер в 1072 году. Как только его похорони­

136
ли, было создано много легенд о его жизни и смерти. В
одной из них говорилось, что вскоре он поднимется из
могилы, сядет на коня и поведет своих солдат к новым за­
воеваниям и славе. Эта вера сильна до сих пор. На протя­
жении уже многих веков у его могилы держат коня, кото­
рый ждет, когда султан поднимется из мертвых.

В. Пизанская башня (The Tower of Pisa) известна во всем


мире. Ее строительство началось в августе 1173 года и про­
должалось около 180 лет. Многие считают, что башня была
специально спроектирована как наклонная (leaning), но к
настоящему времени точно установлено, что это не так.
Башня не может стоять вертикально, потому что ее фун­
дамент был возведен на песке. Наклон впервые заметили,
когда был построен четвертый этаж. К настоящему време­
ни пред принято немало попыток остановить падение баш­
ни. Для этого использовались специальные приспособле­
ния, много раз заменялись колонны и другие поврежден­
ные части, несколько раз ремонтировался фундамент. Ровно
стоит только колокольня наверху башни — она была по­
строена гораздо позднее. Пизанская башня стала одним из
символов Италии, и в настоящее время делается все воз­
можное для того, чтобы сохранить ее на многие века.

The Past Perfect Tense

1. Read the following joke and translate it into Russian. Point out
the sentence in the Past Perfect Passive.

Doctor: Why, how is this, my dear sir? You sent me a letter


stating you had been attacked by measles and I find you suffer­
ing from rheumatism.
Patient: Well, you see, doctor, it is like this: there wasn’t a
soul in the house that knew how to spell rheumatism.

137
2. Finish the sentences using the Past Perfect Passive.

Example: I didn’t go to the party because ... (to invite). —


I didn’t go to the party because I hadn’t been invited.
1. At last I decided to buy the dress, but when I came to the
shop I discovered that ... (to sell).
2. The project was adopted only after ... (to discuss).
3. We had to wait in the corridor till ... (to sign).
4. Nobody wanted to watch the movie because ... (to show).
5. The document was looked for but was not found. It was clear
that ... (to lose).
6. I fumbled in my pocket but I could find neither the key nor
the money. I understood that ... (to rob).
7. When I came up to my house I saw that the door was open.
I understood at once that ... (to break into).
8. I didn’t recognize his house. ... (to repair, to paint).
9. The boy looked sulky. I understood at once that ... (punish).
10. He could speak French quite fluently because ... (to bring
up).

3. Answer the following questions using the Past Perfect Passive.

1. Why didn’t you go to the concert? 2. Why did you have


to call in the police? 3. Why didn’t you use your car yesterday?
4. Why did you change your job? 5. Why were you late for the
lessons? 6. Why didn’t you mail the letter yesterday? 7. Why
weren’t you present at the lecture? 8. Why didn’t you buy that
dress? 9. Why wasn’t the project adopted? 10. Why did he have
to go to hospital?

4. You are going to buy a house. When you looked at it for the first
time you asked Mr. Jackson, the owner, to do some repairing and
redecorating. Now the owner describes to you what has been
done. Report his speech to your friends putting all the sentences
into the Passive Voice.

Example: Mr. Jackson assured me that the house had been ful­
ly prepared for sale.
138
We have fully prepared the house for sale. We have mended
the roof. We have replaced all the leaky pipes. We have tiled all
the three bathrooms. We have installed a proper heating system.
We have changed the floorboards in the upstairs bedroom. We
have checked the wiring thoroughly. We have built a fireplace in
the living-room. We have converted the loft into a billiards-room.
We have cleaned the cellar and the attic. We have papered the
walls in all the rooms. We have painted the house. We have
changed the locks on all the doors. We have equipped the house
with a burglar alarm. We have even trimmed the flowerbeds in
front of the house.

5. Make the following sentences Passive.

1. I didn’t come to the lecture because nobody had warned


me about it. 2. We saw that previous climbers had cut steps in
the ice. 3. When I returned to the hotel, the maid had cleaned
my room. 4. The guide explained to us that somebody had
slashed the picture with a knife. 5. The police discovered that
the burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door. 6. Eve­
rybody knew that the terrorists had lolled him. 7. People left
the village because someone had warned them about the flood.
8. There was a peculiar smell in the kitchen, as nobody had
aired it. 9. They had sent all the invitations by September
15. I0. The guard let them in only after they had shown him
their documents. 11. We were quite free as we had passed all
the exams. 12. We suddenly realized that they had cheated us.
13. We knew that the company had offered her a good job.
14. They said that someone had given them a map of the area.
15. It turned out that his father had left him a fortune. 16. He
saw that nobody had slept in that bed. 17. I was glad that they
had locked up that dangerous maniac. 18. I saw that they had
taken down the notice. 19. After the government had spent a
million pounds on the scheme they decided that it was im­
practicable and gave it up. 20. Jane told me that the crowd had
shouted the speaker down.

139
6. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper tense and voice
form.

A. Timur I, known in history as Tamerlane, (be 1) a conqueror


of three countries. His armies (order 2) to drink no water which
(not boil 3). As boiled water is tasteless, Tamerlane (try 4) fla­
vouring it by boiling tea leaves in it. Tamerlane’s experiment in
boiling water (forget 5) long, but tea (become 6) the favourite
drink in the countries which he (conquer 7), such as China and
India.
B. Bronze Age Pompeii found! Yesterday Professor Stefano De
Caro (give 1) an interview to The Daily Telegraph. He (say 2) that
Italian archaeologists (find 3) what might be the best preserved
Bronze Age village in the world. The professor (explain 4) that
the settlement (bury 5) during an eruption by Mount Vesuvius
centuries before Pompeii (wipe out 6). He (stress 7) that the find
at Nola already (describe 8) as sensational by experts. The pro­
fessor further (explain 9) that the mud from the volcano (fill 10)
and (surround 11) all the buildings creating a plaster cast mould
of them. The Daily Telegraph (report 12) that some very impor­
tant artefacts (find 13) in the ancient village. Among the finds
(be 14) bones of hams, a decorated hat and even a kiln in which
a pot (fire 15) when disaster (strike 16). Professor Caro said, ‘In
other words, we (find 17) life in progress.’

7. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Мы так и не узнали, что ему было приказано сде­


лать. 2. Я его сразу узнал, потому что мне хорошо описали
его внешность. 3. Она сказала, что с ней еще никогда так
не разговаривали. 4. Я понял, что меня обманули. 5. Пе­
реговоры так и не начались, потому что не были подготов­
лены необходимые документы. 6. Я была уверена, что вра­
ча уже вызвали, и не понимала, почему он не идет. 7. Ей
показалось, что это предложение перевели неправильно.
8. Он сказал, что ему предложили место управляющего в
крупном банке. 9. Он принял неверное решение, потому
140
что ему неправильно объяснили ситуацию. 10. После того,
как нам объяснили новое правило, мы перевели несколь­
ко предложений. 11. Полиция сообщила, что преступник
пойман. 12. Мы не хотели смотреть этот фильм, потому
что его показывали уже три раза. 13. Джеймс очень расстро­
ился, когда узнал, что его предложение было отклонено.
14. Экскурсовод сообщил нам, что эту церковь несколько
раз перестраивали. 15. Нам сообщили, что места в гости­
нице уже зарезервированы.

The Future Perfect Tense

1. A big toy company is planning a major renovation. Look at the


plan below and make up sentences according to the example.

Example: Employing a new Creative Director, March — A new


creative Director will have been employed by March.
Developing new ideas next January
Building new shop floors in a year
Employing new staff in 3 months’ time
Raising the salaries by 50 per cent next June
Opening new toy shops in all big cities in 3 years’ time
of the country
Cutting down production costs by
10 per cent in 2 years’ time
Creating and patenting new safer materials 3 years
Buying new equipment by September
Designing new models of toys by July
Changing the symbol of the company by next month

2. Open the brackets using each of the verbs in the proper tense
and voice form.

The Sagrada Familia (Собор Святого Семейства) in Bar­


celona is the only Cathedral in the world which still (build 1). It
141
only (fund 2) by churchgoers and devotees, and through ticket
revenue. Its architect, Antonio Gaudi, (devote 3) much of his
life to this project. At the time of his death in 1926, only one of
the towers (complete 4). The continuation of Gaudi’s project
now (become 5) an unmistakable symbol of Barcelona, not just
because of its spectacular size, but because it (reveal 6) the spirit
of a city which always (commit 7) to building its future. Accord­
ing to recent estimates, the Cathedral (finish 8) by 2067.

3. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Если мы придем на вечеринку в девять, все вкуснень­


кое уже будет съедено. 2. Проект не будет закончен к ок­
тябрю. Нам понадобится еще, по крайней мере, два меся­
ца. 3. К тому времени, как он вернется из командировки,
документы о его новом назначении уже будут подписаны.
4. К тому времени, как ты придешь, ужин уже будет при­
готовлен. 5. Я надеюсь, что директора проинформируют
об этом происшествии до того, как ситуация выйдет из-
под контроля. 6. Все вещи будут упакованы до того, как
приедет такси. 7. Боюсь, что проект будет принят до того,
как мы сообщим комиссии новые данные. 8. Операция
будет завершена к пяти часам. 9. Новый проект будет раз­
работан к концу следующего месяца. 10. Поторопись! К
тому моменту, как мы доберемся до магазина, все хорошие
вещи уже будут распроданы. Распродажа не будет тебя
ждать!

Revision

1. Find and correct ten mistakes in the following text.

A lady’s daily routine rudely interrupted by army maneu­


vers. As her car approached a bridge that crossed twice a day from
and to her home, she stopped by a sentry (часовой). ‘You can’t
142
drive across the bridge, lady,’ he said firmly. ‘It has just be blown
up.’ The lady looked at the untouch bridge, shrugged her shoul­
ders in despair and got out her car to think the situation. At this
point another soldier walk into view. ‘Officer,’ she inquired, ‘can
you tell me one reason why I can drive my car over this bridge?’
‘Lady,’ he answered soberly, ‘I can’t tell you anything at all. I
just been killed.’

2. Choose the correct variant.

Late last night, or early this morning, an incident (1. oc­


curred / was occurred / has occurred) at Lower Norwood which (2. is
pointed / have pointed / points), it (3. fears / is feared / is fright­
ened) to a serious crime. Mr. Jonas Oldacre is a well-known per­
son of that place, where he (4. has carried on / carries on / has
been carrying) his business as a builder for many years. Mr. Old­
acre is a bachelor, fifty-two years of age. For some years he (5. was
practically left / practically leaves / has practically left) the busi­
ness, in which he (6. is said / says / said) to have got considera­
ble wealth. A small timber-yard still (7. is existing / exists / has
existed), however, at the back of the house, and last night, about
twelve o’clock, an alarm (8. was given / was being given / gave)
that one of the stacks (9. were fired / was on fire / fired). Up to
this point the incident looks like an ordinary accident, but fresh
indications (10. are seemed to point / are seeming to point / seem
to point) to a serious crime. Surprise (11. expresses / was ex­
pressed / expressed) at the absence of the master of the timber-
yard from the scene of the fire. An examination of his room
(12. was showing / showed / was shown) that the bed (13. wasn’t
slept in / hadn’t been slept in / wasn’t being slept in), that a safe
which stood in the room (14. was open / used to open / opened),
that a number of important papers (15. was scattered / were scat­
tered / scattered) about the room, and, finally, that there were
signs of a murderous struggle, as traces of blood (16 have been
found / was found / were found) in the room. A walking-stick was
found in the room, too. On that night Mr. Jonas Oldacre (17. re­
ceived / was received / had received) a late visitor, and the stick
143
(18 is owned / belongs / is related) to this person, who is a young
London solicitor named John Hector McFarlane.
LATER. — (19. It is said / It tells / It is told) as we go to press
that Mr. John Hector McFarlane (20. will be actually / actually
was / has actually been) arrested on the charge of the murder of
Mr. Jonas Oldacre. There (21. have been hold / have been / have held)
further investigations at Norwood. Besides the signs of a struggle
in the room of the unfortunate builder it is now known that the
windows of his bedroom were open, that there were marks as if
some heavy object (22. had been dragged / was being dragged / had
dragged) to the timber-yard, and, finally burnt bones have been
found in the ashes of the fire. The police theory is that a very seri­
ous crime (23. has committed / has been done / has been commit­
ted), that the builder (24. was beat / was talked / was killed) in his
bedroom, some of his papers stolen, and the dead body was dragged
to the timber-yard, which was then set fire to, so as to hide all
traces of the crime. The investigation has been carried out (25. with /
by / thanks to) Inspector Lestrade, of Scotland Yard, a very (26. ex­
periencing / experience / experienced) detective.
(from ‘The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes’
by Arthur Conan Doyle)

3. Translate the following text into English.

QUITTERS, INC.
Дик Моррисон (Dick Morrison) сидел в приемной ком­
пании Quitters, Inc. Эту компанию рекомендовал ему при­
ятель, Джимми МакКэн (Jimmy McCann). Он сказал, что
компания помогла ему бросить курить. Моррисон никогда
не слышал о ней раньше, потому что ее никогда не рекла­
мировали по радио или телевидению. Компания распола­
галась в большом здании, которое недавно было отремон­
тировано. Она была основана несколько лет назад богатым
промышленником, портрет которого висел на стене. После
того, как Моррисону задали несколько вопросов, его при­
гласили в кабинет. Там его представили мистеру Донатти
144
(Donatti). Донатти заверил его, что очень скоро он будет
излечен от своей отвратительной привычки. Моррисон,
конечно, не поверил, потому что он курил уже много лет, и
знал, что бросить практически невозможно.
Когда он пришел на следующий день в назначенное
время, его уже ждали. Оказалось, что с момента его преды­
дущего визита Донатти выяснил все подробности его лич­
ной жизни. Он узнал даже то, что сын Моррисона был
умственно отсталым (mentally retarded) и содержался в спе­
циальной клинике. Моррисон был взбешен. Но когда он
хотел уйти, он обнаружил, что все двери заперты. И тут ему
показали интересный трюк. В стене кабинета было окно,
за которым располагалась еще одна комната. На полу си­
дел кролик, который мирно ел морковку. Вдруг Донатти
нажал какую-то кнопку, и кролик начал прыгать по полу,
как бешеный. Моррисон понял, что его бьют электриче­
ским током (electrocute). Пока Моррисону объясняли все
детали лечения, ему становилось все страшнее и страшнее.
Донатти сказал, что если он попытается курить, его жену
немедленно привезут в «кроличью комнату», и его заста­
вят наблюдать, как ее пытают. После второй попытки он
будет помещен туда сам. Если он не бросит и после этого,
его сына заберут из клиники и накажут подобным же об­
разом. Лечение будет продолжено до десятой попытки,
после которой, как намекнул Донатти, Моррисона убьют.
Донатти предупредил Моррисона, что за ним будут наблю­
дать 24 часа в сутки, и ему никого не удастся обмануть.
Когда Моррисон вернулся домой, он с трудом пони­
мал, что происходит вокруг. Несколько дней он не курил,
несмотря на то, что ему очень хотелось. Однажды, когда
он застрял в пробке, он не выдержал, взял сигарету и заку­
рил. Когда он приехал домой, он обнаружил, что его жену
забрали. А несколько минут спустя он наблюдал, как ее
мучают в «кроличьей комнате».
Больше Моррисон не курил. Жизнь его изменилась,
как ему и обещали. Он получил повышение по службе и
145
заключил несколько крупных контрактов. Год спустя его
пригласили в кабинет Донатти, где ему велели встать на
весы. Оказалось, что он набрал вес. Ему объяснили, что если
он не похудеет, его жене отрежут мизинец. И Моррисон
похудел. А еще через год он встретил Джимми МакКэна.
И Джимми, и его жена выглядели очень счастливыми. Но
когда Моррисон пожал ей руку, что-то показалось ему
странным. Он внимательно посмотрел на нее и увидел, что
у нее не хватает мизинца на правой руке.
(after Stephen King)
Check Your Knowledge

Test 1. The Passive Voice

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. The last patient is being operated on at the moment. 2. As


soon as the documents are signed they will be returned to you.
3. The first goal was scored by Ronaldo. 4. The award was given
to an unknown singer. 5. I have just been invited to the cinema.

2. Put the sentences into the Passive Voice. Give two passive
constructions wherever possible.

1. Somebody has stolen my car. 2. People speak French in


many countries of the world. 3. He gave me the key to his room.
4. The professor described the experiment to us. 5. When I re­
turned from my business trip the workmen were still repairing
the roof. 6. I discovered that nobody had slept in the bed. 7. Did
they find the missing documents? 8. Nobody took any notice of
the boy. 9. Nobody has ever looked into this problem. 10. He
showed us the way to the station.

3. Open the brackets using appropriate tenses in the Passive


Voice.

1. Since the computer (invent) the work of accountants


(simplify). 2. The wedding (put off) until next month. 3. We
(tell) that our luggage (put) on another plane. 4. Our water
heater (repaired) last week by the plumber who (recommend)
to us. 5. A lot of meetings (hold) but nothing (decide) yet.
6. Hurry up! By the time we get there all the tickets (sell).
7. Look! A new hospital (build). 8. These great names never
(forget). 9. This equipment (use) in many industries. 10. It
147
(write) in yesterday’s paper that a lot of valuable paintings (steal)
from the local museum.

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. The students were explained a new rule. 2. This problem


will be being discussed all next week. 3. This house was built by
very simple tools. 4. We were suggested a good restaurant for
lunch. 5. The book is already finished.

5. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Собрание не отменили, а перенесли на пятницу.


2. Два часа назад Джейн сбила машина. Ее сейчас опери­
руют. Мы надеемся, что ее спасут. 3. Преступник не был
найден. Все еще велось расследование. 4. Посмотри, сно­
сят старую гостиницу. Как только ее снесут, на этом месте
построят торговый комплекс. 5. Почему на эту статью ни­
когда не ссылаются? 6. Вашу собаку пока не нашли. Ее все
еще ищут. 7. Вся домашняя работа сделана: ошибки исправ­
лены, новые слова выучены, предложения переведены, со­
чинение написано. 8. Документы будут подготовлены к
концу недели? 9. Мне объяснили, где продаются диски
10. Нам еще не объявили результаты конкурса. Их все еще
обсуждают.

Test 2. Active Vs Passive

1. Ask questions to the underlined words.

1. He speaks three languages fluently. 2. Little Bobby was


punished because he had told a lie. 3. Unless you are careful you
will get into a mess. 4. When Jane came into the nark she was
attacked by a large dog. 5. This is the first time I have been given
such an opportunity.

148
2. Open the brackets using the verbs in the proper tense and voice
form.

1. My parents (celebrate) their Golden Wedding next year.


They (marry) for fifty years! 2. As I (enter) the room, I (have)
a feeling that I (watch). 3. You (know) that everything you
ever (read) or (see) (store) somewhere in your memory?
4 When we (meet) again next month we (tell) each other about
everything that (happen) since we last (meet). 5. I (not be) to
the office since Monday and 1 only just (see) this document.
That’s why you (not get) an answer yet. 6. I (live) there for
ten years when the war (break out). 7. When it (replace) next
year the mechanism inside Big Ben (run) for over a hundred
years. 8. After Ben (graduate) from the Academy he (apply)
for a job in the bank and (work) there ever since. 9. When the
ship (lose) sight of, we (begin) to worry. 10. What you (do)
all day tomorrow?

3. Put the sentences into the Active Voice.

1. Jake will be given the prize. 2. A new planet has been dis­
covered in the Milky Way. 3. The telephone was invented by Bell.
4. Your application is still being considered. 5. When I came into
the classroom a new rule was being explained to the students.
6. The doctor has already been sent for. 7. The project was adopted
only after it had been discussed four times. 8. The village was
destroyed by the tsunami. 9. Milk is used for making butter and
cheese. 10. All the rooms have been cleaned.

4. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.

1. My computer is been repaired at the moment. 2. By this


time next week we have been staying in this hotel for two months.
3. Do you think she can see me now? — No, you’ll have to wait.
She is interviewed now. 4. No sooner did I go out when it began
raining. 5. She’s been having this car for twenty years already and
she isn’t going to change it.
149
5. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Мой роман, который тебе не понравился, скоро бу­


дет опубликован в популярном журнале. 2. Когда он вы­
шел из дома, полиция уже ждала его. 3. Боюсь, мне поста­
вят плохую отметку на экзамене. У меня не было достаточ­
но времени, чтобы хорошо к нему подготовиться. 4. Не
понимаю, почему я должен отвечать на эти глупые вопро­
сы. Меня спрашивали об этом уже несколько раз, и я уже
сказал все, что знаю. 5. Нам объяснили, как пользоваться
прибором. 6. Всегда интересно слушать его лекции. Он
приводит интересные примеры и рассказывает о своем соб­
ственном опыте. Он один из наших самых любимых препо­
давателей. 7. Полиция только что поймала опасного преступ­
ника, которого искали три года. Его уже отправили в тюрь­
му, где он проведет десять лет. 8. Едва я открыла книгу, как
учитель заметил это и велел мне выйти из класса. На следу­
ющий день мне пришлось переписывать контрольную.
9. Вечно она рассказывает всякие смешные истории. Я не
могу поговорить с ней ни о чем серьезном. 10. Он не уве­
рен, что ему удастся узнать правду об этом случае. Я ду­
маю, что чем позднее он узнает правду, тем лучше.
Keys

The Active Voice


The Present Indefinite Tense
1. 1d; 2e; 3c; 4b; 5f; 6a.
2. 1. chases 2. say 3. keeps 4. spends 5. saves 6. get 7. try 8. lacks 9. gets
10. accumulates 11. call 12. dismisses 13. relaxes 14. does
3. 1. spoil 2. glitters 3. praises 4. pays, calls 5. see 6. blames 7. laughs, laughs
8. shuts, steals 9. spoils 10. wears 11. bite 12. saves 13. grow 14. fall
15. comes 16. gathers 17. make 18. catches 19. helps, help 20. breaks
4. 1G; 2D; 3J; 4A; 51; 6B; 7H; 8F; 9C; 10E.
8. 1. asks 2. do 3. for 4. talk 5. hardly 6. to 7. of 8. know 9. in 10. spend
11. never / rarely 12. the 13. a 14. solve 15. live 16. to 17. are 18. second
19. of 20. what
10. A restaurant in Germany serves (1) insects on its menu. Chef Lars Sche­
buble says that he doesn’t (2) want to serve typical food any more and
wants (3) to try something new. ‘When I travel about the world I see that
people eat (4) insects in many parts of the world. I think it’s a (5) good
idea to offer them (6) in Germany, too,’ he says. There are (7) items on
the menu such as cockroach pasta, and maggots with green leaves. Cus­
tomers who try (8) the food say they like it and want to come (9) again.
No one complains (10) of stomach problems!
11. 1. ‘My dog knows arithmetic / mathematics.’ ‘Does she / it?’ ‘Yes, when
I ask her / it how much two minus two is, she / it doesn’t say anything.’
2. ‘My wife has a very bad memory.’ ‘Does she forget everything?’ ‘No,
she remembers everything.’ 3. ‘What do you usually give your husband
when he doesn’t like his dinner?’ ‘His coat and hat.’ 4. ‘Do your twins
make much noise?’ ‘You know, everything is not so bad. One of them
makes so much noise, that we don't hear the other one at all.’ 5. ‘Tom­
my, you have so much money,’ the guest says. ‘Yes,’ Tommy answers.
‘My mother gives me a dollar a week if I sit down to table with clean
hands.’ ‘A dollar is a big sum of money for a small boy.’ ‘Yes, sir, but I
have to work a lot to get it.’ 6. ‘George, what is a synonym?’ the teacher
asks. ‘A synonym,’ George answers, ‘is a word that we use when we don’t
know how to spell the word we need.’ 7. ‘Does your husband always
remember your wedding anniversary?’ ‘No, so I remind him in January
and June and get two presents.’
151
12. A. During all the time we sleep we dream / have dreams. But the next
morning most people don’t remember their dreams. We usually remem­
ber only the dreams that come immediately after we fall asleep or short­
ly before we wake up. Animals dream, too. If you watch a sleeping dog,
you can see that sometimes it twitches its paw or barks. It proves that
dogs also dream and their brain continues to work in their sleep. Dreams
are a very strange thing. People in them are not what they are in reality,
and events have nothing to do with real life. In our dreams we fly in the
air like birds, swim great distances under the water and even appear in
several places at the same time. Doctors think that our dreams reflect
our secret wishes and fears, which we never express when we are awake.
Some people dream of being rich, others of having supernatural abili­
ties. It is not difficult to explain such dreams, but they are an exception
rather than a rule: in most cases dreams seem absolutely senseless.
B. It is difficult to explain why some children at the age of 5 to 7 like to use
bad words. Apparently, it gives them some pleasure, though sometimes
they don’t understand the meaning of what they say. Doctors think that
children use swearwords in their speech because they want to surprise and
frighten their parents, attract their attention or feel like adults. Some­
times children hear swearwords from their parents. They memorize them
and use them in their speech. You can’t blame children for it because they
all like to repeat the words and copy the behaviour of their parents. Before
you scold your children, think: do you always govern your tongue?

The Past Indefinite Tense


2. 1. played 2. rubbed 3. knitted 4. visited 5. preferred 6. paid 7. denied
8. panicked 9. differed 10. admitted
5. 1. helped 2. decided 3. made 4. outlawed 5. performed 6. learnt / learned
7. sentenced 8. took 9. outlawed 10. replaced 11. proclaimed 12. needed
13. chose 14. united 15. fell 16. signed
6. Why do (1) people shake hands when they meet? Folklore gives (2) an
interesting explanation for it. Long ago when a villager met (3) a man
whom he didn’t recognize (4), he reached for his dagger. The stranger
did (5) the same. And then they began (6) to circle each other. When they
decided that the meeting was (7) a peaceful one, they put (8) the daggers
back and extended their weapon hands as a token of good will. This also
explains (9) why women never developed the custom of shaking hands.
That’s because no tradition allowed (10) them to carry weapons!
7. A. 1. stood 2. stayed 3. stand 4. stayed 5. stay 6. stood
B. 1. rose 2. rose 3. raised 4. raised 5. rose 6. raise
C. 1. laid / lay 2. lay 3. lied 4. laid 5. laid 6. lay
D. 1. set 2. set 3. sat 4. sit 5. set 6. sat
E. 1. founded 2. found 3. found 4. found 5. founded 6. find
152
8. 1. The Greeks founded this city in the fifth century ВС. 2. He found his
copybook under the table. 3. Peter raised his hand and gave the right
answer. 4. The sun rose at 5 o’clock. 5. She lied about her age. 6. Gran­
ny lay down after lunch. 7. They set their wedding day. 8. The pupils /
students sat down at their desks and opened their textbooks. 9. We set
the scenery on the stage two hours ago. 10. Victor stayed at a hotel. 11. This
monastery stood on a mountain. 12. He rose from his seat and went out.
13. The artist laid another layer / coat of paint on the canvas. 14. He laid
all the blame for the failure of the experiment on his assistant. 15. The
patient was too weak to rise. 16. Our boss never raises his voice even
when he is angry. 17. We must find a suitable man for this job. 18. We set
the chairs for the guests. 19. My Grandfather liked to sit in this old arm­
chair. 20. Tears stood in her eyes.
9. 1. lived / was 2. lived 3. did 4. called 5. wanted / told 6. day 7. finished
8. asked 9. gave 10. put 11. got / came 12. Why 13. went 14. the 15. for
16. hired 17. carry / put 18. happened 19. with 20. made 21. saw 22. out
23. that 24. became 25. died
10. THE HISTORY OF THE POSTAGE STAMP
The first stamp appeared in Great Britain on May 6,1840. And how did
people get post / mail before it? Stamps and envelopes didn’t exist then.
If a person wanted to send a letter, he folded and sealed it, and the
person who got the letter paid for the delivery costs. As it was very expen­
sive, many people refused to take their letters. Some people even in­
vented secret codes with the help of which they cheated the postal serv­
ices. On the outside of the letter they drew / placed secret marks, each of
which had a certain meaning. The addressee read these secret messages,
refused to accept the letter and didn’t pay anything for it. Then the
government decided to introduce prepaying postage. In 1837 the British
Postmaster General Sir Rowland Hill suggested using small pieces of
coloured paper which the sender bought and stuck to the letter. The
Parliament debated this proposal for several years and after serious dis­
cussions accepted it. Thus, in 1840 the first stamp was born.
Sir Rowland Hill designed the first stamp himself. It cost a penny and
there was the profile of Queen Victoria on it. As the stamp was black,
people began to call it ‘Penny Black’ . Several years later it became the
most famous stamp in the world.
The new system of sending mail quickly became popular. In 1847 the first
stamp appeared in the USA. Very soon people began to collect stamps. In
1841 a woman placed an advertisement in the London Times in which she
asked to help her (to) collect stamps to paper the walls of her bedroom.
Collecting stamps became especially popular when the first commemo­
rative stamps appeared. For example, in 1893 the American government
issued a stamp to commemorate the discovery of the New World by Chris­
topher Columbus. Now this stamp costs thousands of dollars.
153
14. 1. The wife was crying bitterly, but the husband continued reading his
newspaper. At last she couldn’t stand it any longer and said, ‘You don’t
love me any more! You used to ask why when I was crying!’ ‘I am sorry,
darling, but this question used to cost me too much.’ 2. ‘Tell me, please,
if any of your childhood dreams has come true.’ ‘Yes, my mother used
to cut my hair short, and I used to dream of becoming bald.’ 3. ‘My
wife used to play the piano a lot, especially in the evening. But now that
we have children she doesn’t have time for it.’ ‘Children are a comfort,
aren’t they?’ 4. ‘So, you don’t have insomnia any more, do you? It
must be a great relief.’ ‘That’s true. Now I don’t sleep half the night
thinking how I used to suffer from it.’ 5. Mr. Smith was tired of visitors.
That’s why when he heard the bell he used to put on his coat and open
the door. If it was someone he wanted to see, Mr. Smith used to say, ‘I
am glad to see you, I have just come.’ If he didn’t want to see this per­
son, he used to say, ‘Excuse me, I am leaving.’ 6. The doctor used to
wonder what his patient ate for lunch and according to his menu he
wrote out a bill for the treatment. 7. The young wife used to feed all the
tramps passing by her house. It used to give her great pleasure to see a
person eating without finding fault with the food.

The Future Indefinite Tense


1. l. f; 2. b; 3. e; 4. a; 5. c; 6. d.
3. Timmie’s parents gave him a rabbit for his birthday. Timmie adored his
pet. One morning Timmie discovered that the rabbit was dead. The boy
was inconsolable. He even refused to eat. His father decided to comfort
his son somehow. ‘Listen, son,’ he said, ‘I will tell you what we will do.
First we will make a small coffin for him / it. Then we will dig a grave in
the garden together. We will put the most beautiful flowers on it. After it
you will invite all your friends and I will take you to the café. We will buy
lemonade, cakes, icecream and many other tasty things. I will buy toys
for all of you. We will have a wonderful party!’ Timmie calmed down and
began smiling. The father continued. ‘I will take my guitar and all to­
gether we will sing your favourite songs like we do on your birthday. And
then I will take you to the cinema.’ Timmie began to clap his hands and
to laugh with pleasure. Suddenly they heard a squeak. The father and
son turned around and saw that the rabbit was alive. Timmie looked at
the rabbit, then at his father, then at the rabbit again. He thought a little
and said, ‘Father, let’s kill him / it.’
4. 1. F; 2. J; 3. E; 4. A; 5. H; 6. B; 7. D; 8. I; 9. C; 10. G.
9. 1. You won’t pass this exam if you don’t prepare / unless you prepare for it
properly. 2. The dog won’t bite you unless you make it angry. 3. When
Nancy comes home she will tell us about her trip. 4. As soon as we get to
the hotel we will send you a telegram. 5. I hope the workmen will repair
154
the roof before autumn comes. 6. After Stephen finishes school he will
enter the Medical University. 7. I will wait till he goes away. I won’t talk in
his presence. 8. Kate says that she won’t talk to me until I apologize. 9. I
will take some money in case I want to buy some souvenirs. 10. Persuade
him not to do it before it is too late. 11. As long as I live, I will always
remember it. 12. While he is out we will discuss our plans. 13. He said he
would buy the child a new toy as soon as he had money. 14. The father said
he would take the children to the zoo if he had some spare time on Sunday.
15. He said he would lend me some money if I promised to pay the debt
on time. 16. He promised that he would tell us the date of his arrival as
soon as he bought the tickets. 17. We decided that we would go to the
forest unless it rained. 18. I knew that he wouldn’t refuse if I asked him to
help me. 19. He assured me that I would recognize her at once as soon as
I saw her. 20. Peter said he would wait till Jane returned.
10. 1. — 2. will 3. — 4. will 5. will 6. will 7. will 8. — 9. will 10. will 11. —
12. will 13. will 14. — 15. will 16. will 17. — 18. will 19. — 20. will 21. —
22. will 23. — 24. will 25. — 26. will 27. — 28. will 29. will 30. — 31. will
32. — 33. will 34. will 35. — 36. will 37. will 38. — 39. will 40. — 41. will
42. will 43. — 44. will 45. — 46. will
11. 1. I am not sure if the weather will be fine tomorrow. If it rains, we will
cancel the concert. 2. I don’t know when James will return / come back.
If you wait a little I will ask his secretary. 3. He doesn’t know himself if
he will go on a business trip next week. If he does, he will bring us new
equipment. 4. I don’t know if this diet will help you. If you don’t lose
weight you will have to consult a doctor. 5. I have no idea when he will
call me. As soon as I hear from him I will tell you / let you know immedi­
ately. 6. Mother asks if you will help her. If you don’t do the shopping /
go to the shop she won’t have time to cook the pie before the guests
come. 7. Nobody knows when this stupid soap opera / serial will finish.
But it doesn’t matter much, because as soon as it finishes they will begin
to show a new one. 8. Who knows when the conference will take place?
Unless I know the exact date I won’t be able to prepare a report. 9. Mr.
Smith wants to know / wonders if you will take part in the project. If you
agree he will give you all the necessary information during next week.
10. He is not sure if he will win this contest. If he does, he will take part
in the Olympic Games next summer.
12. Mr. McGlombie and his wife wanted a ride in a plane, but Mr. Mc­
Glombie turned white when he heard (1) the tariff for a taxi-ride in the
air. It was $20. The amused pilot said, ‘I will make you a proposition,
Mr. McGlombie. You and your wife will get in and I will give you a ride
for half an hour. If you don’t (2) say a single word while we are (3) be up,
I will only charge you $5.’
Mr. McGlombie thought it was (4) a fair proposal and he and his wife
climbed (5) into the plane. The pilot took them on the wildest half hour’s
155
ride that could possibly be imagined. He looped the loop, rode (6) up­
side down and went through dizzying dives. Finally he set (7) his plane
down on the ground. ‘I didn’t think you would (8) manage to do it, Mr.
McGlombie,’ said the pilot. ‘You are a very brave man if you went (9)
through all this without uttering a sound.’ ‘Aye,’ said Mr. McGlombie,
all wet with fear. ‘But you’ll never know how close I came (10) to talking
when my wife fell out.’
13. CLEVER ELSIE
Once upon a time there was / lived a man, and he had a daughter. Her
name was Clever Elsie. When she grew up, her father said, ‘I will marry
her off as soon as I find a man who will want / who wants to take her as a
wife.’ And at last a man came from far away, his name was Hans. He
liked Elsie. ‘Well,’ said Hans, ‘if I see that she is really clever, 1 will
marry her.’
They sat down for lunch, and the mother said, ‘And who will bring us
some beer from the cellar?’ Clever Elsie took a jug from the shelf and
went down to the cellar. And suddenly Elsie noticed a pike on the wall.
Clever Elsie began to cry and to say, ‘If I marry Hans, we will have a
child. When he grows up we will send him to the cellar for beer. And
when he comes to the cellar the pike will fall down on his head and kill
him.’ Elsie cried for a long time. At last her parents with her suitor came
down to the cellar and saw Elsie in tears. Hans asked her what was wrong.
And Elsie told him that when she married him and had a child they
would send him to the cellar for beer, and as soon as he got there the pike
would fall down on his head and they would lose their son. Hans decided
that it was very clever and said that he would marry Elsie.
Elsie lived with Hans for some time and one day he said, ‘My wife, I will
go to work and you go to the field. If you don’t harvest wheat we will have
no bread.’ ‘All right, dear Hans,’ Elsie answered. ‘I will do it / so.’
Hans went away, and she made some nice porridge for herself and took it
to the field with her. She came there and said to herself, ‘I must eat
something first, or if I don’t eat I won’t be able to work.’ She ate all the
porridge and said to herself, ‘I don’t know if I will be able to work unless /
if I don’t sleep first.’ She lay down in the wheat and fell asleep. Mean­
while Hans returned home, but Elsie wasn’t there. And he said, ‘How
clever my Elsie is, until she finishes work she won’t return home and
won’t eat anything.’ Evening came, Hans went to the field to look at
Elsie’s work and saw that she was fast asleep. Hans took a net with bells
and put it on Elsie and she didn’t even wake up. He ran home and locked
the doors. At last it became quite dark, Clever Elsie woke up, and as
soon as she rose, the bells on her began ringing. Elsie got frightened and
began to wonder if she was really Clever Elsie. And she didn’t know what
to think and then she decided, ‘I will go home and ask whether it is me
or not. If Hans recognizes me, then it’s me, Clever Elsie.’ She ran back
156
home, knocked at the window and asked, ‘Hans, is Elsie at home?’
‘Yes,’ Hans answered, ‘she is at home.’ She got frightened and said,
‘Oh, my God, then it’s not me!’ and she ran to the next house. But the
people there heard the ringing of the bells and didn’t want to open the
door and she didn’t find shelter anywhere. And she ran away from the
village and nobody saw her again.

Revision
1. A traveller, wet with rain and feeling cold, arrived at (1) a country inn,
which he found (2) so full of people, that he could not get near the fire.
He said to the landlord, ‘Take some oysters to my horse!’ ‘To your horse?’
exclaimed the landlord. ‘Your horse will (3) never eat them.’ ‘Do as I ask
(4) you,’ answered the traveller. All the people, hearing this, ran (5) out
to the stable to see the horse eat oysters. The traveller now had the whole
room to himself, and so he sat (6) down comfortably by the fire and
warmed (7) himself. When the landlord returned (8), he said to the travel­
ler, ‘I was sure that your horse would (9) not eat the oysters.’ ‘Never
mind,’ replied the traveller, ‘put them on the table and when I am (10)
dry, I will try to eat them myself.’
2. 1. were 2. served 3. was 4. decided 5. dug 6. put 7. came 8. grew 9. be­
came 10. grew 11. became 12. was 13. filled 14. didn’t have 15. was
16. would bring 17. thought 18. sell 19. won’t get 20. want 21. will be
22. take 23. make 24. will be 25. placed 26. took 27. presented 28. is
29. said 30. don’t know 31. will ever see 32. are 33. said 34. am 35. have
36. am 37. felt 38. said 39. will raise 40. will give 41. will be 42. gave
43. made 44. heard 45. envied 46. decided 47. would do 48. set 49. took
50. carried 51. was 52. would give 53. thought 54. got 55. will the king
give 56. accepted 57. said 58. had 59. was 60. was
3. A BATTLE WITH BUTTERFLIES
During their holidays Sarah and Jimmy decided to earn some money.
They came to a farmer and asked him if he had a job for them. The
farmer needed help in the garden. He asked the children to pick up
caterpillars from the cabbage patch. He explained that caterpillars ate
cabbage leaves and spoilt the crops. The farmer promised to pay as soon
as the children finished their work. Sarah and Jimmy took the buckets
and went to the garden. The cabbage patch turned out to be so huge that
the children got upset. They understood how difficult it would be to
earn that money. Sarah and Jimmy set to work. It was terrible! The fat
caterpillars wriggled when the children touched them. It took them a
whole hour to finish the first row. And all around them there were Cab­
bage White butterflies. Suddenly Sarah had a wonderful idea. ‘Jimmy,
caterpillars come from eggs, don’t they?’ she asked. Jimmy nodded.
‘And where do eggs come from?’ she asked again. ‘Butterflies lay them.’
157
Jimmy answered. That’s right,’ Sarah said. ‘So if we get rid of the but­
terflies there will be neither eggs nor caterpillars.’ Jimmy agreed with his
sister. ‘So why don’t we get rid of the butterflies?’ Sarah asked. ‘But
how?’ Jimmy wondered.
Nearby there were beans climbing up bamboo poles. Sarah removed two
poles, and two bean plants died. She gave one pole to Jimmy and then
rushed to the cabbage patch and began to swing the pole trying to hit the
butterflies. It seemed a good game to Jimmy. And he followed his sister. It
is not easy to hit a flying butterfly. But it is rather easy to do it when the
butterfly sits on the cabbage. Soon all the ground was covered with dead
butterflies. Sarah and Jimmy stopped to admire their work. There was no
butterfly left. But there was no cabbage left either. It is difficult to hit a
butterfly when it sits on the cabbage without damaging the cabbage. The
cabbage patch looked like a battlefield. The children looked at each oth­
er. Without saying a word they put the poles on the ground and tiptoed out
of the garden. They knew that the farmer would be furious when he saw
their work and were very glad that he didn’t know their address.

The Present Continuous Tense


1. 1. e; 2. d; 3. f; 4. b; 5. c; 6. a.
2. 1. visiting. 2. knitting 3. dying, trying 4. swimming 5. picnicking 6. com­
ing. 7. seeing 8. riding
5. a. 1. is thinking 2. do you think 3. think 4. am just thinking
b. 1. is considering 2. is considering 3. consider 4. is considering
c. 1. are you seeing 2. see 3. is seeing 4. sees
d. 1. do you hear 2. don’t hear, are just hearing 3. are hearing 4. hear
e. 1. has 2. are having 3. has 4. is having
f. 1. is 2. is, is being 3. is 4. are being
g. 1. are you looking 2. looks 3. looks 4. is looking
h. 1. weighs 2. are weighing, weighs 3. weighs 4. weighs
i. 1. are tasting 2. do not taste 3. am tasting 4. tastes
j. 1. are you smelling 2. smells 3. do you smell 4. smells
к. 1. are expecting 2. expect 3. expect 4. am expecting
i. 1. don’t feel 2. are you feeling 3. feel 4. are you feeling
6. 1. look 2. am not feeling 3. are you thinking 4. don’t think 5. expects
6. is he expecting 7. is seeing 8. are considering 9. see 10. know 11. is
12. is being 13. seems 14. hear 15. is having 16. is 17. is looking 18. looks
19. think 20. looks 21. thinks 22. gets
8. Who knows a more awful person than Grace? It seems that she poisons
(She seems to poison) the air around herself. She is always complaining
that the people around her don’t understand her. She is forever arguing
with everybody even when she herself knows that she is wrong. She con­
siders herself a very wise woman who knows life and is always giving peo-
158
ple stupid advice. She is always quarrelling with her colleagues because
they don’t want to do what she advises them to do (they don’t want to
follow her advice). She is continually telling everybody how hard her life
is and is forever asking everybody for money. Meanwhile she bought a
car last month! She is always telling everybody about her illnesses al­
though I personally don’t know a healthier woman than her. She is for­
ever asking us tactless questions about our private life and turns sulky
(gets offended) when we don’t answer her. She is always telling some
nasty things about our boss. Oh God, why doesn’t he fire her?
9. 1. are motoring 2. realize 3. are going 4. is driving 5. notices 6. lives 7. goes
8. crashes 9. lifts 10. finds 11. remembers 12. runs 13. rings 14. opens
15. says 16. is 17. carry 18. lay 19. examines 20. declares 21. asks 22. helps
23. leaves 24. begins 25. is going on 26. hears 27. sees 28. is carrying
29. sees 30. are advancing 31. begs 32. is operating 33. doesn’t finish
34. will die 35. asks 36. do you take 37. answers 38. is operating 39. es­
caped 40. agree 41. is 42. take 43. is fighting 44. screaming 45. promise
46. do 47. recovers 48. takes 49. places 50. says 51. is going 52. am trying
53. performs 54. doesn’t explain 55. went 56. is now living
11. 1. are you doing, are spending 2. am working 3. are running, will go and
buy 4. will be 5. will have 6. will believe 7. is making, is putting 8. will
recognize 9. are you playing 10. is going 11. won’t write 12. will you help
12. 1. ‘I hear you are an artist.’ ‘I hope to become one. I am only just start­
ing my career.’ ‘Well, what are you doing now?’ ‘I am living in a studio
and growing a beard.’
2. ‘Darling, do you really think that I am going to wear this squirrel coat
all my life?’ ‘Why not? Squirrels do.’
3. The mother asks her six-year-old son, ‘Jim, are you teaching the par­
rot to swear?’ ‘No, mummy,’ the child answers. ‘I am just explaining to
him what words not to use.’
4. Husband: What? Isn’t dinner ready? Then I am going to a restaurant!
Wife: Wait five minutes.
Husband: Are you going to cook dinner in five minutes?
Wife: No, I am going with you.
5. A soldier is trying to think of an excuse for an extra leave. All the
officers know that he is always lying. The soldier says to the officer, ‘I
want to have tomorrow afternoon off.’ ‘Well, I suppose, your grand­
mother has some problems again?’ ‘Yes, she is making her first para­
chute jump tomorrow.’
13. It’s a hot summer afternoon. A ten-year-old boy is walking in the park.
He is walking slowly and kicking stones. Suddenly he notices some strange
object on the ground. He bends down to look and sees two big eyes that
are looking at him. The boy gets frightened, but then he sees that it is
just a frog. He picks it up from the ground and brings it to his eyes. He is
looking at it closely when he suddenly hears a voice, ‘Don’t kick me,
159
please!’ The boy doesn’t understand where the voice is coming from.
He looks around, but there is nobody here except him. He looks at the
frog again and is surprised to see that it is talking to him. The boy is
shocked — a talking frog! ‘Don’t hurt me,’ the frog says. ‘If you kiss me
I will turn into a beautiful princess.’ The boy doesn’t answer anything to
this. The frog begins to plead with him again, ‘Kiss me, and I will turn
into a princess and do everything you want!’ But the boy simply puts the
frog into his pocket and goes on his way. The frog begins jumping and
kicking furiously in his pocket. At last the boy takes it out and brings it to
his face. ‘Why are you kicking?’ he asks. The frog answers, ‘I told you
that if you kissed me I would turn into a princess and would do anything
you want and you simply put me into your pocket. Why?’ ‘I prefer to
have a talking frog (I’d rather have a talking frog),’ the boy answers.

The Past Continuous Tense


2. 1. was pacing 2. grew 3. was finding 4. was beginning 5. were happening
6. felt 7. burst 8. felt 9. were coming 10. listened 11. was making up
12. saw 13. brought 14. were chattering 15. were shaking
6. 1. I didn’t hear anything because when the burglar broke into the house
I was watching TV. 2. The bus was late as usual, that’s why when James
got to his work everybody was already sitting in their places. 3. While
Peter was walking around one cinema, his girlfriend was waiting for him
near another one. 4. Oh God, how cold it is! It’s difficult to believe that
at this time a week ago we were swimming and sunbathing on the beach.
5. While Kate was waiting her turn at the dentist’s she fainted with fear.
6. While I was thinking whether to buy these trousers or not somebody
else bought them. 7. While I was doing my children’s homework they
were playing computer games. 8. When Kate was small she was always
inventing different cock-and-bull stories. 9. When Paul was taking his
history exam he was so nervous that he mixed up all the dates. 10. She
sat on the bench for three hours, then she burst out crying and left.
11. Brad worked in the company for about ten years and then he found a
more interesting job. 12. He said he was going to give up smoking.
7. 1. having 2. While 3. was 4. not 5. worse 6. any 7. to 8. playing 9. saw
10. a 11. anything 12. came
8. 1. is moving 2. was 3. looked 4. was hovering 5. is writing 6. is writing
7. was 8. yelled 9. saw 10. was writing 11. dropped 12. yelled 13. is do­
ing 14. is writing 15. continued 16. heard 17. came 18. cried 19. glanced
20. was sitting 21. were glittering 22. looked 23. was opening 24. shut­
ting 25. giving 26. stopped 27. hovered 28. dropped 29. broke 30. was
now sitting 31. screamed 32. was 33. jumped 34. was
9. A young Air Force just out of school invited his civilian friend for a (1)
drink. They spent the whole night drinking. When the pilot finally re­
160
gained consciousness, he was lying (2) in a hospital bed completely
swatched in bandages. His booze friend was sitting (3) by his bedside
looking at him sadly. ‘What happened (4) to me, Tom?’ the flier asked.
‘Well, we were sitting (5) there very peacefully when suddenly you jumped
(6) to the ledge of a window on the tenth floor and cried (7), “Now I will
fly (8) like a bird over the city.” ’ ‘Why didn’t you (9) stop me?’ ‘Stop
you?’ was the reply. ‘I thought (10) you could really do it.’
10. A. A BEAUTIFUL GIRL
Once a girl was walking along the road. She was as beautiful as a fairy.
Suddenly she noticed that a man was following her. She turned round
and asked, ‘Why are you following me?’ The man answered, ‘Oh, Queen
of my heart, you are so beautiful that I want to follow you everywhere.
People say that I am good at playing the lute, write good poems and
know the secrets of love. And I want to tell you that I love you and am
ready to become your slave.’
The beautiful girl looked at him for some time without saying a word and
then said, ‘So you say you love me? I have a younger sister who is much
more beautiful and attractive than me. She is following me, look at her.’
The man stopped, then looked round but he saw only an ugly old wom­
an in rags, who was following them. Then he caught up with the girl and
asked her, ‘Why did you lie to me?’ The girl smiled and answered, ‘But
you, my friend, didn’t tell me the truth either when you were saying that
you loved (love) me. You know the secrets of love and pretend that your
heart is burning with love for me. Then why did you turn round?’
B. AN UNHAPPY OLD MAN
There lived a man in a village. He was one of the unhappiest people in
the world. All the village was tired of him: he was always nagging, always
complaining, always grumbling. As years went by he was becoming
gloomier and gloomier and angrier and angrier. More and more people
were trying to avoid him: his unhappiness was getting infectious. He
made other people unhappy. But once, when he turned 80, something
incredible happened. On that day when the old man went outside, he
looked happy. He wasn’t complaining, was smiling and even his face
looked different. All the village gathered together. Somebody asked the
old man, ‘What is the matter? Why are you smiling? Why aren’t you
complaining?’ And the old man answered, ‘For eighty years I tried to
become happy and I failed. Then I decided to do without happiness.
That’s why I am happy.’

The Future Continuous Tense


1. 1. d; 2. c; 3. b; 4. a.
3. 1. will hate 2. will be passing 3. will happen, will be discussing 4. will be
skiing 5. will help 6. will be leaving 7. Will you be using 8. Will you help
6-6736 161
9. will be watching 10. won't tell 11. won’t be dancing, will be dancing
12. will be living 13. won’t start, will give 14. will be flying 15. will be
living
4. 1. While the girls are swimming in the swimming pool the boys will be
playing football. 2. If you call at eight they will be having breakfast.
3. While Group 1 is working in the language laboratory Group 2 will be
writing a test. 4. If you come at 3 o’clock the children will be rehearsing
the New Year play. 5. While the kids are playing in the yard their parents
will be watching them. 6. When he returns to the city they will be build­
ing a new school near his house. 7. While they are sitting in the restau­
rant we will be shopping. 8. While they are taking an exam we will be
waiting for them. 9. While I am reading this novel 1 will be writing out
interesting expressions. 10. While my sister is washing the dishes I will be
taking a shower.
6. 1. Don’t come to me tomorrow. I will be very busy. I will be preparing a
report for the conference. 2. All next month we will be travelling about
Italy. I hope we will visit / we visit all the most interesting places of this
country. 3. Will you be passing by the chemist’s shop? Will you buy me
vitamins, please? 4. At this time tomorrow we will be approaching Ma­
drid. 5. If you come at eight we will just be discussing our new project.
6. While you are baking the cake I will be cooking the meat. 7. Many
people think that teachers will become redundant soon. Computers will
be teaching children. 8. My friend will be waiting for me near the thea­
tre at eight o’clock. I mustn’t be late. 9. I don’t think you will recognize
her. She will be wearing a fancy-ball dress. 10. The children won’t go to
school tomorrow. They will be playing with their friends all day.
7. 1. does the train arrive 2. will you be flying / are you flying 3. passes 4. am
seeing / will be seeing 5. get, will be 6. won’t come, will be picnicking
7. is leaving 8. will be giving / is giving 9. will get / gets 10. Will you be
using 11. Will you hold 12. is giving 13. leaves, will leave 14. starts 15. will
be doing 16. will be taking 17. come, won’t find, will be having 18. Don’t
you know, will happen, will be telling 19. will be explaining 20. come,
will just be opening
8. In an Irish family the daughter tells her father that she is going to marry
an Englishman. The father is furious. He says he will never agree to this
marriage. He says that his daughter will be miserable for the rest of her
life. The daughter tries to convince her father that love has nothing to do
with politics or religion. ‘I am not talking about that,’ the father replies.
The English are stupid! The only difference between them and mon­
keys is that a monkey will at least peel its banana before eating it!’ ‘But
father,’ the daughter protests. That’s not what my fiance says. He says
that if he decides to have his house painted he will have to hire one hun­
dred Irishmen. One of them will be holding a brush and the other 99 will
be turning the house.’ ‘It’s a dirty Protestant lie!’ the father exclaims. ‘If
162
he is so clever why doesn’t he come and talk to me himself?’ ‘He is in
hospital now with forty holes in his head,’ the daughter exclaims. ‘He is
learning to use a fork.’

Revision
1. A. Old farmer John was returning (1) home from town with a fat hen under his
arm. On his way home he dropped in at the local bar and got drunk. When he
came (2) home, his wife took one look at his crimson nose and bleary eyes and
understood (3) everything. ‘What are (4) you doing with that pig?’ she snapped.
‘Are you mad, Hattie?’ he exclaimed. ‘That’s not a pig.’ ‘Hold your tongue,
John,’ she retorted. ‘I was talking (5) to the chicken!’
B. Two men were travelling in the same compartment. Suddenly an in­
spector came (1) to check their tickets. While the first passenger was
showing his ticket to the inspector, the second one put (2) his ticket into
his mouth and began searching his pockets. He was getting more and
more nervous. ‘Are you looking (3) for your ticket?’ asked his fellow
traveller. ‘Well, you are holding (4) it in your teeth!’ The inspector
punched the ticket and left. After this the first man said, ‘What an ab­
sent-minded man you are (5).’ ‘Oh, I am not absent-minded at all,’
replied the other passenger. ‘I was chewing off last week’s date.’
2. 1. was 2. didn’t believe 3. discovered 4. was claiming 5. was having 6. was
driving 7. said 8. answered 9. spoke 10. were 11. served 12. was standing
13. were watching 14. said 15. are talking 16. is 17. happens 18. do 19. will
never happen / never happens 20. will 21. said 22. agreed 23. didn’t ex­
press 24. do you think 25. will still be burning 26. put 27. comes
28. stands 29. says 30. happened 31. saw 32. was hanging 33. was burn­
ing 34. was 35. stood 36. is expecting 37. was sitting 38. jumped
39. turned 40. cried 41. remained 42. came 43. am losing 44. is going
45. fell 46. broke 47. went
3. THE ROMANCE OF A BUSY BROKER
At nine sharp Harvey Maxwell entered his office together with his young
secretary. Pitcher, a clerk, who was sitting at his desk, looked at them
with a smile. ‘Good morning, Pitcher,’ said Maxwell and hurried to his
table where a heap of letters and telegrams was waiting for him. The
working day was beginning.
But the young secretary was not in a hurry. She was standing near Max­
well and watching him. The man who was sitting at the table was no
longer a man. It was a machine which was counting, selling and buying.
‘Well, what’s the matter?’ Maxwell asked impatiently. ‘Nothing,’ the
secretary answered. She looked hurt.
‘Mister Pitcher,’ she said to the clerk, ‘are you looking fora new secre­
tary already?’ ‘Of course,’ Pitcher answered. ‘Mister Maxwell asked me
to do it yesterday.’ ‘Well, all right, I will work as usual till she comes.’
6* 163
It was a busy day. The telephones were continually ringing, people were
always running to and fro. Suddenly a young girl entered the office. Pitch­
er came up to Maxwell’s table and introduced the girl. This is our new
secretary,’ he said. ‘What secretary?’ Maxwell asked. ‘You asked me
yesterday to find a new secretary,’ Pitcher said. ‘Are you laughing at
me?’ Maxwell asked. ‘Miss Leslie is a very good secretary. I am not go­
ing to change her.’ With these words he began reading the letters which
were lying on the table before him again.
The girl shrugged her shoulders and left. Pitcher told his colleagues that
his boss was getting more and more forgetful with every passing day.
At last lunch time came. Maxwell opened the window and the smell of
lilac came into the office. This smell reminded Maxwell of something.
‘I will do it right now,’ he said to himself. ‘I will be working all day
tomorrow again and I won’t have time. And now I have five minutes.’
He ran to the next room and came up to the secretary. She looked at him
with a smile. He was holding several telegrams in his hands and there was
a pen over his ear. ‘Miss Leslie,’ he began hurriedly. ‘I want to tell you
something. Will you be my wife? I love you. Please, talk quick.’ ‘Oh
God, what are you talking about?’ the girl exclaimed. ‘Don’t you un­
derstand?’ Maxwell asked impatiently. ‘I want to marry you. Will you
marry me, Miss Leslie? Oh, they are calling me for the phone (I am
wanted on the phone). Please, answer quickly.’
At first the secretary looked surprised. Her eyes filled with tears. But
then she smiled and, much to Maxwell’s surprise, put her arms around
his neck. ‘Now I understand,’ she said softly. ‘Business makes you forget
about everything. But don’t you remember, Harvey, don’t you remem­
ber that we were married at eight o’clock yesterday in the Little Church
Around the Comer?’

The Present Perfect Tense


6. 1. ‘Jessie, I have told you many times that you must keep silence when
grown-ups are talking. You must wait till they stop.’ ‘I have already tried,
mother. They never stop.’
2. During a parade the General asks a soldier, ‘How long have you been
in the Army, Private Brown?’ ‘Too,’ he answers. Too what?’ the Gener­
al asks. Too long,’ the private answers.
3. James wants to buy a dog and asks the dog-owner, ‘Are you sure that
this dog is loyal?’ ‘Of course,’ he answers. ‘I have sold it five times al­
ready and it has always returned home.’
4. Mother: Well, my girl, have you stopped crying yet?
Daughter: No, I haven’t. I am just resting.
5. The patient complains to his doctor about his insomnia: ‘Doctor, I
have tried everything. I have not only counted sheep, but I have also
164
sheared them, woven the wool, made suits from it, opened shops, lost all
my money, And I still can’t fall asleep!’
6. Stephen writes a letter to his best girl, ‘Maggie, this is the second time
I have asked you to marry me. If you don’t want to be my wife, please,
return this letter unopened!’
7. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. a; 9. a; 10. b; 11. b; 12. a; 13. b;
14. a; 15. a; 16. b; 17. a; 18. b; 19. b; 20. a; 21. b; 22. a; 23. b; 24. a.
8. 1. have already decided 2. have often wondered, decided 3. have had,
got up 4. has changed 5. changed 6. have been 7, was, lost 8. have you
ever seen, saw 9. did you buy, bought, have bought 10. have you worked,
have worked 11. has missed 12. have ever eaten 13. met, have never seen
14. have known, has always been 15. have made, came 16. have met.
have been 17. haven’t seen, began 18. have known, has always been 19. in­
stalled, has become 20. has asked 21. told, met 22. have just bought
23. Have you seen, was 24. left 25. have got
10. 1. I haven’t seen him since he got married. 2. Where did you buy this
ring? This is the first time I have seen such an interesting design. 3. We
have known each other for a very long time. 4. We met long ago, about
10 years ago. 5. I have always known that he is an honest man. 6. Three
months have passed since they left and I haven’t heard from them yet.
7. Have you heard the news? My younger brother has won a prize in a
poetry competition for children. 8. This is the third cigarette you have
smoked! Don’t you remember what the doctor said? 9. Since I saw
this film I have had nightmares. 10. Stephen has been very absent-
minded lately. 11. It's three years (Three years have passed) since Pe­
ter was abroad last. 12. I have checked only three papers so far. It took
me half an hour.
12. 1. was 2. heard 3. saw 4. was 5. not 6. down 7. saved 8. to 9. his 10. have
13. HONEYMOON
Lily and Martin decided to spend their honeymoon on some exotic
island. They worked out a detailed plan. They bought first-class plane
tickets in advance. They booked the most luxurious hotel. They bought
smart but comfortable travelling clothes. And, finally, they prepared a
rather big sum of money. When they came to the airport Martin said,
‘I have a feeling that we have overlooked something. Let’s check all
the items on the list. Have we brought all the bags here?’ ‘Yes,’ Lily
answered. ‘And have you taken the tickets?’ ‘Yes, I have just checked
them.’ ‘And cash and checkbook?’ ‘I put them into your jacket pock­
et just before we left the house.’ Martin sighed with relief. Lily put her
arms round him and whispered tenderly in his ear, ‘Honey, 1 am abso­
lutely sure we have prepared everything properly. We will have a won­
derful honeymoon / Suddenly Martin’s face fell. ‘I don’t think so,’ he
said. ‘What has happened, dear?’ Lily asked. ‘We have forgotten to get
married!’
165
The Past Perfect Tense
1. 1. had always wanted 2. had unpacked 3. had ever been 4. had changed
5. had seen 6. had disappeared 7. had searched 8. hadn’t got over 9. had
gone 10. had contracted
3. 1. hadn’t seen, called 2. had already begun, came 3. had finished, met
4. had written, won 5. had been, had visited, didn't know 6. had just
finished, rang 7. said, hoped, had read 8. had never met, knew 9. didn’t
recognize, had put on 10. wanted, discovered, had already spent 11. wait­
ed, had checked 12. had eaten 13. sign, had read 14. knew, had worked
15. woke up, had already stopped
4. 1. j; 2. d; 3. g; 4. b; 5. e; 6. i; 7. c; 8. a; 9. h; 10. f.
5. 1. No sooner had the bell gone than the children ran out of the class­
room. 2. Hardly had he found a job when he quarrelled with his boss.
3. No sooner had the mother lain down than the baby began crying again.
4. Hardly had we gone out when it began raining. 5. No sooner had we
come to the forest than we lost our way. 6. Hardly had we bought a new
computer when it broke down. 7. Hardly had we entered the house when
the hostess invited us to table. 8. No sooner had the singer finished her
famous aria than the audience began applauding. 9. No sooner had the
train started than the passengers took out sandwiches and began eating.
10. No sooner had the child opened his mouth than his mother under­
stood what he wanted.
6. 1. upon 2. had 3. after 4. sleep 5. was 6. given 7. had 8. eaten 9. him
10. sooner 11. is 12. off 13. had 14. was 15. already 16. will 17. when
18. given 19. put 20. was
7. 1. ran 2. had just finished 3. touched 4. was scoring 5. had always been
6. had been 7. changed 8. produced 9. spread 10. was talking 11. were
looking 12. had always underestimated 13. had missed 14. were com­
peting 15. changed 16. grew 17. recognized 18. gained
8. The Smiths lived in one of the suburbs of London. When they woke up
one morning they saw that their car had disappeared. They immediately
called the police and reported the theft. After that they went to work by
bus. When they returned home in the evening they were surprised to
discover that that the thief had returned the car and had parked it in its
usual place near the house. Under one of the windscreen wipers there
was a small envelope. The Smiths opened it quickly and found a note
inside. The man who had written it apologized for ‘borrowing’ their car.
He explained that he didn’t have a car and his wife had gone into labour
at night, that’s why he had taken their car without permission to take
her to hospital. Inside the envelope there were also two tickets for a fa­
mous musical for Saturday. The Smiths were very glad because they had
wanted to see that show for a long time but they hadn’t managed to get
the tickets.
165
It was a wonderful evening. They had the best seats and the show was
even better than they had expected. The Smiths were in such a good
mood that after the musical had finished they decided to have dinner in
their favourite Italian restaurant. When they came home at last, a new
shock was awaiting them. While they were at the theatre somebody had
broken into their house and had taken all valuable things. There was a
note on the table. Hardly had they looked at it when they understood
who had burgled their flat because they had seen the handwriting be­
fore. ‘I hope you enjoyed the show!’ the note said.

The Future Perfect Tense


4. 1. will be working 2. will have changed 3. will have 4. will have saved
5. will be 6. will be having 7. will have spent 8. will change 9. will call
10. will be lazing about 11. will fail 12. will have 13. will have found
14. will be 15. won’t have 16. will be helping 17. will at last meet 18. will
need 19. will be generating 20. will have worked 21. will help 22. will
bring 23. will be bothering 24. will get 25. will finally have got 26. will
make 27. will have made 28. will influence 29. will have finished 30. will
have
5. I. I am absolutely sure that I will have finished the project by the end of
next week. 2. By the time you come we will have discussed everything.
3. Before I go to work I will have fed the puppies. 4. Hurry up, otherwise
by the time we get to the theatre the play will have already begun. 5. I am
afraid the child won’t have learnt this poem by Friday. 6. By the time the
tour comes to an end I will have made 500 photos. 7. By the time Tom
wakes up his parents will have already had breakfast. 8. I am not sure
that I will have read this book by Saturday. I am very busy now. 9. By the
first of July the students will have passed all the exams and will be quite
free. 10. By the end of next month we will have finished the redecoration
and moved to our new apartment / flat.

Revision
1. l. A young midshipman reported (1) to the captain for duty. The cap­
tain sized up the young man and said, ‘Well, young one, I suppose (2)
that as usual they’ve sent (3) the fool of the family to sea.’ ‘Oh, no, sir,’
replied the young man. ‘They have changed (4) all that since you were
(5) young, sir.’
2. Brendan Behan, a famous Irish writer, had a cutting tongue, and he
always knew (1) how to use it. At a party one night he was standing (2) in
a corner sipping his drink and looking at the people who had (3) gath­
ered there. He was plainly bored with them. He was tired of their idle
chatter. Suddenly the hostess came up to him. ‘Haven’t (4) you met any
167
interesting people?’ she asked teasingly. ‘Not yet,’ answered Behan. ‘But
then, I have been (5) here only for five hours!’
2. 1. were once going 2. were walking 3. passed 4. said 5. aren’t you riding
(if it is a mere question) / don’t you ride (if it is advice) 6. put 7. went
8. passed 9. said 10. have you ever seen 11. is riding 12. is walking; 13. or­
dered 14. got 15. had they done 16. met 17. said 18. lets 19. didn’t know
20. took 21. had come 22. began 23. stopped 24. asked 25. were laugh­
ing 26. said 27. have overloaded 28. got 29. tried 30. thought 31. thought
32. cut 33. tied 34. raised 35. went 36. met 37. came 38. had got
39. kicked 40. caused 41. fell 42. will teach 43. said 44. had followed /
was following 45. will please
3. A LADY WHO NEVER THREW ANYTHING AWAY
Miss Darby had always been a mystery to the citizens of her town. She
lived alone in a huge house. Although none of her neighbours had ever
been at her place, everybody knew that her house was full of valuable
things: antique furniture, expensive carpets and paintings. Her parents,
who had died long ago, had made a fortune from coalmining in the
County of Staffordshire. Nobody knew anything else about her. Chil­
dren used to make up different stories about Miss Darby. Some of them
said that she was a witch and they had seen her on the roof surrounded by
black cats. Others said that once, many years ago, she had been en­
gaged, but her fiance had died. And there were even those who said that
she had six children and she kept them locked in a dark cellar.
Miss Darby very rarely went out and nobody visited her, The only person
who came to see her was her housekeeper. Once she told her neighbours,
‘All her life Miss Darby has never thrown anything away! The house is
full of some old newspapers. I have tried to throw them away several
times but she has always brought them back. In a couple of years she will
have collected so many newspapers that she will have no place to live in!’
After her death it turned out that she had two nephews, who inherited
everything: the money, the house and all its contents / everything there
was in it. Everybody thought that the nephews would live in that house
but they explained to the neighbours, ‘We are not going to move here.
We live in London. We have just come to collect some things and to
throw away the old rubbish.’
During the next several days they came several times an took the things
away in a huge van. Besides, they took away the old newspapers which
their aunt had refused to throw away. There were very many of them.
The children, who were playing in the yard, asked for permission to take
one of the bundles of newspapers. The newspapers turned out to be very
old. It was interesting for the children to read about the events which
had happened more than 50 years before. When they unfolded the news­
papers it turned out that there was a painting inside each of them. Miss
Darby had put 25 valuable paintings into this single bundle! Each of
168
them was worth at least 500 pounds. Miss Darby had kept her main
treasure in old newspapers! By the time the nephews learnt about this
discovery they had already thrown all the newspapers away.

The Present Perfect Continuous Tense


4. 1. has been sleeping 2. has already slept 3. have been waiting, have wait­
ed 4. have written 5. has been working 6. have already worked out 7. have
read 8. have been reading 9. Have you heard, has had 10. Have you been
hearing 11. have been trying 12. have already tried
5. 1. The weather is fine today. The sun has been shining all day. Let’s go to
the beach. 2. We have been waiting for you for three hours already! Where
have you been all this time? 3. Boys, what have you been doing here?
Have you been smoking? 4. I have been trying to get tickets to this con­
cert for a long time. 5. I have been sitting in the waiting room for forty
minutes already. The doctor hasn’t invited me to the surgery yet. 6. I am
very tired. I have been working 14 hours a day all the week. 7. The baby
has been sleeping very badly for the last ten days. He hasn’t slept at all
today. 8. We have met at last! We haven’t seen each other for such a long
time. I have a feeling that you have been avoiding me all this time. 9. My
grandfather has been growing roses all his life. It has always been his
main hobby. 10. Haven’t you finished this sweater? You have been knit­
ting it for a month already!
6. 1. were 2. lived 3. had made 4. (had) poured 5. walked 6. was cooling
7. were 8. lived 9. passed 10. looked 11. saw 12. was 13. opened 14. saw
15. had left 16. set 17. tasted 18. liked 19. went 20. tasted 21. liked 22. ate
23. sat 24. sat 25. suited 26. seated 27. sat 28. came 29. made 30. had
got 31. went 32. slept 33. lay 34. lay 35. liked 36. found 37. covered
38. lay 39. fell 40. thought 41. had already become 42. came 43. saw
44. had come 45. (had) left 46. has been eating 47. looked 48. was stand­
ing 49. has been eating 50. looked 51. has been eating 52. has eaten
53. began 54. hadn’t put 55. rose 56. has been sitting 57. had squatted
58. has been sitting 59. has been sitting 60. has sat 61. decided 62. went
63. had pulled 64. has been lying 65. had pulled 66. has been lying
67. came 68. cried 69. has been lying 70. is still lying 71. woke 72. started
73. saw 74. ran 75. jumped 76. broke 77. ran 78. found 79. got 80. saw
7. 1. Listen, waiter, I have just found a button in my soup. — Thank you,
sir, I’ve been looking for it all morning. 2. A shop assistant was fired
because he had been rude to his customers. A month later his manager
saw him in the street. He had a policeman’s uniform on (He was wear­
ing ... ). ‘I see you are in the police now,’ the manager said. ‘Yes,’ the
former shop assistant replied. ‘I’ve been looking for a job like this all my
life. Here the customer is always wrong.’ 3. John was resting at a sum­
mer boarding house. Once he asked the receptionist, ‘I’ve been living
169
here for two weeks already. Why has this old pig been trying to enter my
room all this time?’ The receptionist’s small son explained to him, ‘You
see, it’s her room for winter.’ 4. An American general says to another.
‘Something is wrong with you today. Oh, I see. You have always been
wearing all your medals, and today you don’t have them on.’ The gener­
al looked at his chest. ‘Oh, my God!’ he exclaimed. ‘I have forgotten to
take them off my pajamas.’ 5. ‘Son, why is your new suit all in holes?’
‘You see, mummy, we have just been playing at shop, and I’ve been a piece
of Dutch cheese.’ 6. The father says to his daughter, ‘My dear, if you want
a good husband, marry Mr. Smith. He really loves you.’ ‘Why are you so
sure, father?’ the daughter asks. ‘Because I have been borrowing money
from him regularly for the past six months and he keeps coming.
9. 1. haven’t written 2. have been 3. Have you heard 4. has given 5. has
had 6. has never had 7. have been doing 8. haven’t been sleeping 9. is /
are now living 10. are always squeaking 11. whining 12. making 13. seems
14. have 15. make 16. give 17. dry 18. don’t want 19. think 20. hasn’t
been feeling 21. has been keeping 22. means 23. cook 24. are seeing
25. are growing 26. are going 27. am looking 28. realize 29. am going
30. am thinking 31. don’t know 32. have given
10. 1. You are always / forever crying! What has happened this time? 2. Why
don’t you help your sister? She has been doing this exercise for two hours
already. 3. Although Peter has been learning English for two years al­
ready he has learnt only a few phrases. 4. We are thinking of going to the
seaside this summer. We have wanted to have a good rest for a long time.
5. What song are you singing? I have never heard it before. 6. Our train
leaves in an hour and you are still packing the suitcase. Hurry up, I’ve
already called for a taxi. 7. Since I’ve been watching this child he has
been behaving dreadfully. 8. Since I’ve been living here he’s never greeted
me. 9. The committee has been considering my application for two
months already. 10. How many times have I told you that my telephone
number has changed. 11. Kate is always calling me in the middle of the
night and asking me to come to her place immediately. She is always
having some problems. 12. We always celebrate Father’s birthday at
home but this year we are going to a cafe. 13. We have been quarrelling a
lot lately. It is getting more and more difficult for us to understand each
other. 14. My brother is getting married next month. He has already
sent invitations to all his friends. 15. The problems which they are dis­
cussing now concerns all of us.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense


3. 1. We had already been driving for two hours when we suddenly remem­
bered that we had left the food at home. 2. Peter said that he had been
working in that company for twenty years already and he wasn’t leaving
170
it / wasn’t going to leave it. 3. The examiner said that he had already
been teaching that subject for thirty years, but he had never heard such
a brilliant answer. 4. We didn’t go on a hike because it had been raining
since early morning and it was getting colder and colder. 5. Victor didn’t
go to the cinema with us because he had been working in the garden all
day and was very tired. 6. Kate took the letter which she had been writ­
ing all the morning and tore it to pieces. 7. When Boris opened the door
I understood at once that he had been sleeping and I had woken him up.
8. The teacher knew that for the last three days the students had been
rehearsing their performance and hadn’t prepared for the lesson. 9. We
all knew that Sonia had been collecting teddy bears for many years that’s
why it wasn’t difficult for us to choose a present for her. 10. It was obvi­
ous, that the boys had just been fighting, though they both denied it.
11. When Mary entered the room she at once smelt smoke and under­
stood that her sons had been smoking. 12. I had been counting sheep for
three hours before I managed to fall asleep.
4. A. 1. fell 2. had been working 3. occurred 4. was 5. looked 6. was falling
7. saw
B. 8. had been fishing 9. came 10. called 11. walked 12. wanted 13. keeps
5. Mick had been seriously contemplating (1) marriage when he happened
to overhear a coversation that almost shocked (2) him out of the notion
of matrimony. Several women were discussing (3) their husbands, con­
centrating mainly on their vices and how they had succeeded (4) in cur­
ing their bad habits.
‘By the way,’ said one of the ladies to a very pretty matron standing (5)
beside (6) her, ‘I hear (7) that your Patrick has (8) given up smoking and
drinking — and after all these years, too! That must have taken a strong
will.’
‘It certainly did (9),’ acknowledged the young matron in grim tones.
‘But that’s the kind of will I’ve (10) got!’
6. When Kashtanka heard her name she came from under the workbench
where she had been sleeping and ran after her master. The clients of Luka
Alexandrovich lived very far away, that’s why before the master got to
them he had dropped in at several pubs. Kashtanka remembered that she
had been behaving awfully during the trip. She had been jumping, bark­
ing at passers-by, chasing dogs. She remembered that her master had been
shouting at her all the time, and had even struck her once. After Luka
Alexandrovich had seen his clients he went to his sister where he again
began drinking and eating. Then he went to a friend of his, then to a pub
again. In a word, when Kashtanka found herself in a strange street it had
got quite dark and the carpenter was drunk. Suddenly music began play­
ing. Kashtanka turned round and saw soldiers who were walking along the
street. The music frightened her and she rushed to the opposite pavement.
When she calmed down, music wasn’t playing and the soldiers had gone
171
away. She ran across the street to the place where she had left her master,
but the carpenter wasn’t there. She began to look for him everywhere bid
the master had disappeared. She began to sniff the pavement in order to
find him by the smell of his boots, but somebody had just walked there in
new galoshes and all the smells had got mixed up. Kashtanka was running
to and fro but she couldn’t find her master. By that time it had got quite
dark. Lights had gone on in houses. It was snowing hard. There were end­
less crowds of people walking past Kashtanka. They were all hurrying some­
where and took no notice of her. Kashtanka came up to some house and
began crying bitterly. She was very tired and cold. Besides she was very
hungry. During all the day she had eaten only twice: she had stolen some
paste from her master and had found a sausage peel in one of the pubs.
Kashtanka was in despair.

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense


3. 1. will have been 2. will have been flying 3. will have heard 4. will have
already graduated, (will) have found 5. will have been discussing 6. will
have been designing 7. will have signed 8. will have been debating, will
have adopted 9. will have been examining 10. will have been taking
4. 1. By next year they will have been building this house for three years
already. They say that they will have finished it by the beginning of next
year, but I don’t think so. 2. The lectures on the history of the language
will have finished by May 15.3. Let’s call her at six. I am absolutely sure
that she will have found out all the details of the incident by this time.
4. In 5 minutes you will have been cooking supper for three hours. What
kind of recipe is it? By the time the dinner is ready, I will have lost all my
appetite. 5. By next month we will have been restoring this picture for
two years. No wonder, it’s very difficult work. 6. By February Mr. Smith
will have been collecting stamps for exactly forty years. By this time he
will have collected more than thirty thousand stamps. 7. The day after
tomorrow we will have been working on this project for six months. I
hope we will have finished it by the new year. 8. By March Jack will have
been playing in this hockey team for ten years. 9. By tomorrow we will
have been looking for a suitable apartment for exactly a year. 10. By
next month Anna will have been keeping to this diet for a year. She
hopes she will have lost ten kilos by this time.
5. 1. will probably cause 2. won’t have got up 3. do you think, will happen,
push 4. have lost, are you going 5. will have gone up, will be living 6. won’t
come, will be preparing 7. Will you help 8. discuss (have discussed), will
give 9 will be, have passed 10. will have been redecorating, will move
11. will be swimming 12. is going, will be talking 13. come, will have
been writing, won’t have 14. will return, doesn’t come back, won’t have
prepared 15. Will you be driving, will you give
172
6. 1. I can’t believe that I will have passed all my exams by Friday and I will
be absolutely free. 2. I won’t go to the рапу with you. I will be preparing
a report for tomorrow’s seminar all the evening. 3. By the time he calls,
we will have found out her address. 4. By January 15 we will have been
living in this city for thirty years. 5. I will be thinking about you all the
time. Come back as soon as possible. 6. Can you say what you will be
doing at this time tomorrow? I, for example, can never plan my next
day. 7. You will get this job only if you pass the interview. 8. We don’t
know yet when the conference will begin. As soon as we find out the time
we will tell you immediately. 9. I will take a guidebook in case I want to
visit some interesting places without a guide. 10. I hope you will walk
the dog while I am washing the dishes. 11. If the light goes out again, I
won’t have cooked dinner by the time the guests come. 12. If you help
me, I will have finished the work by eight o’clock. If you don’t, I will be
working till morning. 13. By next summer he will have been playing ten­
nis for twenty years. 14. I won’t apologize to her until she explains what
she wants. 15. I will be passing by the chemist’s shop today. Do you need
any medicine?

Revision
1. 1. At mail call a soldier got a letter from home. He opened the envelope
and took (1) out a white sheet without a word on. ‘What’s that?’ his
friend asked. ‘My wife’s letter.’ ‘Why doesn’t (2) she write anything?’
‘We had a quarrel a month ago (3) and we haven’t (4) been talking to
each other since (5).’
2. An army general came to watch the results of a practice on the
rifle range. The results were terrible. The general, forgetting that he
himself had got (1) out of practice, jumped out of his car and grabbed
a gun away from one of the soldiers. ‘I will show (2) you how to do
this thing,’ he said. He carefully took aim and fired several times.
Every shot was a complete miss. It was an embarrassing moment for
everybody but the general finally saved (3) the situation. He said,
‘That’s what you’ve been (4) doing, you fools. Now learn to do it
right.’ Then he jumped (5) into his car and disappeared in a cloud of
dust.
2. 1. Have you ever heard 2. have been telling 3. was 4. have been studying
5. have found 6. disappeared 7. sends 8. try 9. have seen 10. (have) heard
11. opened 12. laid 13. go 14. have been 15. have given 16. was picnick­
ing 17. had they chosen 18. saw 19. heard 20. had been planning 21. left
22. was 23. had witnessed 24. had been walking 25. heard 26. thought
27. continued 28. started 29. thought 30. had got 31. left 32. began
33. came 34. looked 35. had been performing 36. found 37. started
38. fled 39. looked 40. saw 41. had just been standing 42. say 43. con­
173
tains 44. called 45. say 46. come 47. have 48. is watching 49. are 50. has
definitely been happening
3. A LONG WAIT
It happened in a little hotel near the ocean. Dusk was falling. Lights
were going on in all the village. In the harbour the fishermen were pre­
paring for the night’s fishing. It was quiet in the hotel. Very few people
stayed there. Only tourists sometimes came here.
But one man had been living there for a long time already. His name was
Mr. Skorzeny. He had arrived out of nowhere five years before, and all
that time he had been living in the hotel. He didn’t communicate with
anybody / He kept to himself. He had his own routine. Every morning he
swam in the ocean before breakfast. Then he disappeared in his room
and came out only for lunch. In the evening he used to sit on the veran­
dah and drink. Sometimes he fell asleep in his chair and slept there until
morning. Nobody knew where he had come from. But he paid his bills
regularly, that’s why nobody asked him.
One evening a man in a straw hat came to the village and asked for Mr.
Skorzeny. That was the first visitor Skorzeny had had in all those years.
He looked very much like Skorzeny — the same fair hair, the same square
face and strong shoulders. Mr. Sorzeny invited him to his favourite place
on the verandah.
The two men were sitting opposite each other and talking. ‘So you have
come at last,’ Skorzeny said. ‘By tomorrow I will have been waiting for
you for twenty years. Do you know that?’ ‘I hope everything will be
quiet,’ the visitor said. ‘I don’t want trouble. Give me your passport.’ As
soon as he said it, he showed Skorzeny his gun. ‘Well, take it,’ Skorzeny
said and gave his passport to the man. ‘I don’t want trouble either. I am
even glad to see you here. I have been expecting a visit from your people
ever since I ran away twenty years ago.’ ‘Let’s go then. It will take us two
hours to get to the capital. It’s time for us to go.’ ‘Look, I have been
waiting for you for twenty years. You can wait for half an hour, can’t
you? I want to have a drink here for the last time.’
He made a sign to the barman who had been standing nearby all that
time and asked for two cocktails. Mr. Skorzeny and his visitor had a
drink. Skorzeny ordered another round of drinks. The stranger rose to
admire the harbour. While he was standing there Skorzeny put some­
thing into his glass. They had a drink again and sat down to talk.
An hour later a man in a straw hat rose from the table and quickly went
to the car park. The other man stayed at the table on the dark verandah.
Skorzeny started the car and left in the direction of the airport. In his
pocket was a passport in the name of Lubelski which he had taken from
his visitor. He knew that by the time they discovered Lubelski he would
have been flying over the ocean for two hours. But even he himself didn’t
know his destination.
174
Check Your Knowledge

Test 1
1. 1. How long have we been touring England? 2. Who(m) does it usually
take twenty minutes to get to his / their office? 3. How many times have
you driven a car? 4. Who(m) is Peter going to discuss his plans with?
5. What is Kate always doing?
2. l. am selling, do you want 2. do you think, you are doing 3. don’t un­
derstand, is saying, is he speaking 4. have been staying, haven’t had 5. am
living, haven’t yet repaired. 6. have been, are going 7. have heard 8. has
always wanted, has come 9. are you smelling, think, has gone 10. has
been raining, is getting
3. 1. a; 2. b; 3. d; 4. c; 5. a.
4. 1. I have known James for three years. 2. The boy has eaten three ice
creams since I have been here. 3. Jill’s eyes are red because she has been
crying. 4. The plane arrives at the airport at 2 o’clock. 5. Pam is forever
asking stupid questions.
5. 1. This house has belonged to our family for more than thirty years. 2. I
have been watching him for two hours already. He has been acting in a
very strange way / strange all this time. 3. are thinking of spending this
weekend in the country. 4. My grandmother likes to tell different stories
and knows a lot of funny jokes. She has had an interesting life. 5. Who
knows when Victor is going to get married? 6. We have been working at /
on this project for two years already but we haven’t finished it yet. 7. Now
I understand why this book is so popular. 8. Ann is having an interview
now. She has prepared for it thoroughly because she wants to make a
good impression on her future employer. 9. Why don’t you use a dic­
tionary? 10. Why are you looking at me like this? Have I said something
wrong?

Test 2
1. 1. How much did Kelly use to smoke? 2. When did I forget the rule?
3. What happened after the rain had stopped? 4. What was Mary doing
when the doorbell rang? 5. How well did we know her?
2. 1. returned, understood, hadn’t read 2. had the actor finished, began
3. had collected, checked 4. was small, was always crying 5. punished,
had told 6. was laying, woke 7. struck, began 8. went, had already
stopped, was shining 9. said, had been working, hadn’t found 10. visit­
ed, had read
3. 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. c; 5. d.
4. 1. Scarcely had we got the money when we spent it all. 2. Only after I
had read the letter three times I understood what it was about. 3. She

175
sat on the bench for three hours and then she left. 4. He didn’t use to
be so greedy when he was young. 5. We waited till she had packed her
suitcase.
5. 1. I didn’t know that Paul had already come and was waiting for me in
the corridor. 2. I was just going to get up when the telephone rang. 3. Pe­
ter said that he was going to arrange a party on Saturday and invited us to
come to his place. 4. The boy said that he had been doing his homework
all day, but actually he had been playing computer games. 5. He was very
happy when he learnt that he had passed the exam with an excellent
mark and had become a student. 6. He said he had never seen a stranger
picture. 7. Mary said that was the first time she had flown by plane.
8. No sooner had they got acquainted than they got married. 9. James
didn’t use to go in for sport. 10. While the guests were dancing the host­
ess was clearing the table.

Test 3
1. 1. On what condition will you feel better? 2. What will we have done by
the time Mother comes? 3. What will happen if he comes on time?
4. What will you be doing all day tomorrow? 5. How long will Mary have
been teaching at this University by September 1?
2. 1. don’t know, will finish, is, will move 2. will be having 3. are, will have
forgotten 4. will give, comes 5. will have been working 6. will be taking
7. get, will have driven 8. doesn’t write, will have 9. are shopping, will
be doing / will do 10. hope, will have repaired, will be able
3. 1. c; 2. b; 3. d; 4. a; 5. d.
4. 1. I am sure he will know / will have learnt everything by this time. 2. He
will send us a telegram as soon as he gets there. 3. He will go on working
until he is seventy. 4. They will have repaired the fireplace by Wednesday
on condition you pay them extra money. 5. When we come he will be
sleeping.
5. 1. Don’t call me at eight. I will be watching my favourite serial / soap
opera. 2. I am absolutely sure that you will have solved all your prob­
lems by the end of next week. 3. I will take my umbrella in case it rains.
4. I hope you will tell me about your decision today. I will be waiting
for your call. 5. Kate won’t come to the party unless you invite her
personally. 6. By tomorrow we will have been living in this house for
twenty years. 7. She won’t believe you until you show her the docu­
ments. 8. Nobody knows when he will get his driver’s licence. If he
doesn’t prepare for the exam properly he will fail it again. 9. By next
week we will have been taking part in this experiment for two months.
By this time we will have got the first results. 10. Kate will be studying
in England all next year.

176
Test 4
1. 1. How long have you been working in the Complaints Department?
2. What will happen if you sleep more? 3. Why are you taking your swim­
ming things? 4. How long did it take us to paint the fence? 5. When did
he tell me about it three times?
2. 1. have been waiting, have you been doing 2. was walking, realized, had
left 3. had just finished, rang, went, had told, would call 4. have been
sharing, came 5. will give, comes 6. are going, will be, go 7. didn’t pay,
had worked / won’t pay, have worked 8. forgot, were coming, haven’t
bought 9. have heard, have been 10. will have passed, will be
3. 1. b; 2. a; 3. c; 4. a; 5. d.
4. 1. He asked what they were looking for. 2. We have known each other
since we began working here. 3. When did you go to the UK? — Five
years ago. 4. It was snowing when he left home. 5. This is the first time I
have eaten oysters.
5. 1. When I was taking the entrance exams I didn’t know yet how difficult
it is to study at this university. 2. We used to be good friends. We used to
tell each other all our secrets. 3. He assured me that we didn’t know
each other, but I was sure that I had seen him somewhere before. 4. You
look tired. — No wonder. I have been working very much / hard this month.
I think it’s time for me to have a rest. 5. We haven’t seen each other since
you moved to another district. What have you been doing all this time?
6. As we were walking together I had a feeling that we were thinking
about the same things. 7. No sooner had they got married than he told
his wife that he wouldn’t allow her to meet her friends any more. 8. Peo­
ple often make mistakes and sometimes it takes years to correct them.
9. Is he still sleeping? Has he forgotten that he must catch the 7 o’clock
train? If he doesn’t leave the house in twenty minutes he will be late.
10. She says that by January she will have been working at school for ten
years. — Don’t believe her. She graduated from the University only six
years ago.

Test 5
1. 1. How often do you ask your parents for advice when you are in trou­
ble? 2. How many times have you heard this story? 3. What course is he
doing? 4. Who goes to the seaside every summer? 5. When did you use
to wake up when you were younger?
2. 1. used, to ride, haven’t had, came 2. leave, have read / left, have read
3. was sinking, jumped, were 4. are still interrogating, caught 5. has ex­
isted 6. presented, was, said, had been looking 7. will have found out
8. had just finished, came 9. worked, found 10. have you been doing,
haven’t met
177
3. 1. b; 2. a; 3. с; 4. d; 5. d.
4. 1. He left after he had said goodbye to everybody. 2. I will never forget
the day when I passed my test. 3. Aren’t I clever? I’ve done the cross­
word puzzle! 4. I am wearing my sunglasses today because the sun is very
strong. 5. He is seeing his lawyer tomorrow.
5. 1. You are bad at lying / You are a bad liar. No sooner had you opened
your mouth than I understood that you were telling a lie. 2. He is going
to give up smoking. He has been smoking for 25 years already and he has
been feeling very bad lately. 3. He said that he was going to discuss some
very important problem with me. I understood at once what he meant
but I kept silence. 4. As soon as he discovers that the papers have disap­
peared there will be a terrible scandal. 5. What an awful rain! By the
time we get home we will have got wet through / to the skin. 6. The tele­
phone rang at 2 o’clock in the morning. I was sleeping and didn’t hear
the ring at once. 7. He was saying some strange things and I could hardly
understand what he wanted. 8. Where are the students who have just
been taking an exam? — They have already left. 9. You should be more
energetic. If you don’t do anything / if you are idle you will never achieve
success. 10. I used to meet him every day but now I see him much more
rarely.

The Passive Voice


The Present Indefinite Tense
1. 1. d; 2. g; 3. h; 4. i; 5. a; 6. f; 7. c.
3. 1. C; 2. G; 3. F; 4. J; 5. I; 6. A; 7. E; 8. L; 9. K; 10. H; 11. B; 12. D.
6. 1. Toys for small children are made of safe materials. 2. Students are
usually asked a lot of questions at exams. 3. This room is aired twice a
day. 4. Lectures on the History of the Language are given in English.
5. This shop is opened at ten o’clock. 6. English is spoken all over the
world. 7. Meat is served with vegetables. 8. This medicine is taken be­
fore meals. 9. Such books are published only abroad. 10. The profes­
sion is chosen according to abilities. 11. Is this expression used often?
12. Are you often asked for help? 13. Are such questions asked often?
14. How often is this room cleaned? 15. (At) What time are visitors re­
ceived at this office? 16. Why isn’t the child given ice cream? 17. Why is
he so often sent abroad? 18. Is smoking allowed here? 19. Where are
tickets sold? 20. Is this play based on historical facts? 21. I am not often
given such tasks. 22. He isn’t allowed to go out so late. 23. TV sets are
not sold in this shop. 24. He is never given good marks. 25. Such articles
178
are not placed on the front page. 26. Students are not allowed to take
books from the reading room. 27. This child is never taken to the thea­
tre. 28. Such news isn’t often heard. 29. This word isn’t often used in
modem English. 30. Spanish is not taught at out University.
9. A. In Great Britain and in some other countries there is a tradition to do
the general cleaning in spring. Of course, housewives are busy through­
out the year. But there are things which are difficult to do every day or
every week. For example, only in spring heavy wardrobes are moved and
the space behind them is cleaned from dust and dirt. Everything possi­
ble is done to clean the whole house thoroughly. Sometimes all the fur­
niture is taken out of the room and the room is redecorated.
This time is especially hard for women: carpets are beaten, mats are
shaken, the furniture is polished, the walls are papered. And after sev­
eral days of such hard work the house looks new. Any / every opportuni­
ty is used to get rid of unnecessary things and to buy something neces­
sary.
Although January is considered to be the beginning of the year, the year
actually begins in spring. Maybe that’s why this season is usually chosen
to make the house especially clean and cosy.
B. For most families in Great Britain Christmas is the most important
holiday in / of the year. It is celebrated on December 25. On Sunday be­
fore Christmas a special service is held in churches where special carols
are sung. Decorations of paper and holly are hung on houses. A Christ­
mas tree which is decorated with toys and festoons is set in every house.
Many traditions are connected with Christmas, but perhaps the most
important of them is the tradition to give presents. Presents are wrapped
up in beautiful paper and put under the Christmas tree. Children leave a
long sock or a stocking at the foot of their bed on Christmas eve, on
December 24 hoping that Santa Claus will go down the chimney and
leave them small presents, fruit and nuts. They are not usually disap­
pointed! Turkey and Christmas pudding are usually served for Christ­
mas dinner. Late at night the Queen who congratulates the citizens of
her country with Christmas is shown on TV.

The Past Indefinite Tense


4. 1. The highest temperature in the world (+63˚C) was registered in
Ethiopia. 2. The first novel which was typed on the typewriter was Tom
Sawyer’ . It was written by Mark Twain. 3. The oldest university in the
world was created in Egypt. It was founded as an academy in 989. At
that time such subjects as Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine and
Geography were taught there. 4. The oldest national flag in the world
was adopted in Denmark in 1218. 5. The famous Stonehenge memo­
rial was built between 1800 and 1400 BC to observe the sky. Each of
179
the stones it consists of reaches the height of 4—4,6 metres. Scien­
tists believe that some of the stones were brought from the distance of
thirty-one kilometres from that place. 6. The Eiffel Tower was built in
memory of the exhibition which was held in Paris in 1889. The tower
was named after / in honour of Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, the man who
built it. It was constructed within a strikingly short period of time —
only seventeen months. Now it is used for many purposes — advertis­
ing, as a beacon for planes, as a radio and TV transmitter. 7. What is
the Palace of Versalles? This dwelling was used as a hunting house of
the king of France Louis XIII. By order of King Louis XIV it was turned
into a magnificent palace and the royal court was transferred here.
The palace was furnished with the most beautiful items and was deco­
rated with sculptures and paintings. Almost every day entertainments
for the king and his court were arranged here. 8. The Statue of Liberty
is a symbol of America — the country of free people. However, it was
made in France. It was brought to the USA as a present from the friendly
people of France. In 1886 it was solemnly opened by the president of
the USA Grover Cleveland.
6. 1. lived 2. were known 3. were 4. broke 5. was 6. were needed 7. was
8. gave 9. wanted 10. remained 11. sent 12. invade 13. will destroy
14. was brought
The word was IF.
7. 1. Christopher Columbus 2. Popov 3. Daniel Defoe 4. Gutenberg in
Europe, Fyodorov in Russia, Caxton in England 5. Sir Christopher Wren
6. Lomonosov 7. Julius Caesar 8. Gagarin 9. the Tretyakov brothers
10. the Lumiere brothers 11. the Chinese 12. Charles Dickens 13. Al­
exandre Flemming 14. the Normans 15. John Booth
9. A. 1. in 2. in 3. by 4. of 5. in 6. of 7. to 8. for 9. at 10. on 11. with 12. down
В. 1. of 2. by 3. among 4. of 5. to 6. of 7. to 8. for 9. to 10. of 11. from
12. with 13. of 14. in 15. by 16. to 17. of 18. from 19. at 20. to 21. from
22. of 23. with 24. of
12. My mother-in-law refused to see me as an independent mother of the
family and considered me to be a rather stupid little girl who couldn’t do
anything and needed her advice. It was explained to me how to cook
soup properly and some family recipes were regularly dictated to me. It
was demonstrated to me how to wash socks and iron shirts properly.
Some exceptionally talented girl who did everything better than me was
always mentioned to me. Several soap operas, in which good examples
of correct family relashionship were shown, were recommended to me.
Several ideas of how to make my husband happy were suggested to me.
Tell me, please, if there is a woman who could like all that!
14. A. The expression ‘two-faced Janus’ is connected with the name of a
Roman god. In Rome Janus was considered to be the god of entrances
and exits. A picture of Janus was placed near doors and in passages. Janus
180
was depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions: one face
looked forward and the other one — backward. Janus was also consid ­
ered to be the god of any beginning: in the morning he opened the gates
of Olympus and in the evening he locked them. Problems of war and
peace were also solved by him. The Temple of Janus which faced the
west with one side and the east with the other side was opened only in
days of war. It’s interesting to note that during the seven centuries while
the temple existed its gates were closed only three times. A hypocritical,
two-faced person is called a two-faced Janus.
B. The only structure built on a foundation of gold is the gates of the
Purandhar Temple in India. The rajah who ordered to build them was
told that the place he had chosen was a quagmire and it was impossible
to build the gates there. Soon he saw a dream in which he was advised to
build the gates on a foundation of gold. Two big pits 12 feet deep each
were dug. 50,000 gold bricks were laid into the ground and on this foun­
dation the gates were built. These gates still exist and are guarded by
monks who live in the monastery.

The Future Indefinite Tense


4. 1. will be informed, is received 2. will be given, comes 3. will be aston­
ished, see, works 4. will go on, am told 5. will go on, is repaired 6. won’t
move, is taken off 7. are sold / have been sold, will go 8. won’t be let out,
finish 9. leaves / has left / will be locked 10. will be sent, is received 11. is
cleaned and painted, will look 12. will start, is got 13. have worked, will
be entitled 14. will happen, is pressed 15. is turned off, will go 16. is
shaken, won’t be fit 17. wear, won’t be recognized 18. doesn’t pay, will
be sent 19. will refuse, is offered 20. will be arrested, catch 21. will be
stolen, is left 22. will turn, is heated 23. helps, will be finished 24. put,
will be lost 25. is finished, will be given
7. Once Mark Twain was asked if he remembered how he had earned his
forst money. ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘it was at school. Boys often drew on desks
and cut out inscriptions on them. At last it was decided to introduce a
strict rule: everyone who spoiled / spoilt desks would be publicly whipped
in front of the whole school or he would have to pay a fine of five dol­
lars. Once I broke the prohibition and I had to tell my father about it.
Father said, “Sam, it will be very bad if the name of Clemens is dis­
graced in front of the whole school, that’s why we’d better pay the
fine. But you will be punished anyway, go upstairs.” I went upstairs and
was whipped. But the punishment didn’t seem too severe to me and I
decided that it wouldn’t be too bad if I was whipped once more at
school. Indeed, I was whipped and my five dollars was saved. It was the
first money I earned.’

181
Phrasal Verbs in the Passive Voice
4. 1. held up 2. pulled down 3. lost sight of 4. run over 5. carried out
6. called off 7. broken into 8. broken in 9. cut off 10. cleared away
5. A. taken; B. looked; C. put.
7. 1. of 2. for 3. of 4. by 5. of 6. up 7. by 8. in 9. of 10. to 11. by 12. up
13. of 14. with 15. without 16. up 17. down 18. from
8. 1. This house is not lived in. It will be pulled down soon. 2. His departure
wasn’t taken notice of. 3. I am often asked for advice, although, as it
seems to me, my advice is seldom followed. 4. The match was put off
because it had been raining since early morning. 5. The meeting was
called off because the chairman had fallen ill. 6. These data are often
referred to. 7. The house was broken into and all the valuable things
were stolen. 8. If you cross the street here you will be run over. 9. This
suggestion will be objected to. 10. Don’t worry. Your child will be taken
care of. 11. Next year the expenses will be cut down. 12. We were cut off
in the middle of an important conversation. 13. This plan was never car­
ried out. 14. Your article will be looked through and returned to you on
Tuesday. 15. If you are sent for, don’t refuse to come. 16. Why is he
always laughed at? 17. This practice was put an end to. 18. This problem
is never paid attention to. 19. The works were handed in after the bell
had gone. 20. When he was small he was often taken for a girl. 21. A lot
of attention is paid to phonetics in the first year. 22. Please, don’t tell
anybody about it. I am afraid you will be laughed at. 23. If all the in­
structions are carried out the work will be done successfully. 24. This
student is well spoken of. 25. As soon as he turned 18, he was called up.
26. The lecture was devoted to the problem of environmental protec­
tion. Interesting data were given, and the lecturer was listened to with
great attention. 27. I can’t say that children are well looked after in kin­
dergartens. 28. This proposal was put forward by the head of the com­
mittee. 29. Soon the ship was lost sight of in the fog. 30. I assure you,
your proposal will be thoroughly thought over.

The Present Continuous Tense


3. 1. includes 2. are preserved 3. are considered 4. provide 5. are made 6. are
kept 7. is being done 8. is being replaced 9. is being installed 10. are per­
fectly documented 11. are looking 12. are now being transferred 13. are
not just kept 14. are used 15. are visited 16. are brought 17. are encour­
aged 18. are offered 19. is being shown 20. is explaining 21. works 22. are
allowed 23. are taking 24. are drawing 25. are visited 26. are used 27. deep­
en 28. build 29. are being carried out 30. are supported 31. preserve 32. in­
clude 33. is now being prepared 34. arrange 35. include 36. are run 37. is
being held 38. are now being demonstrated 39. are valued
182
4. 1. Documents are usually signed in the morning. Your documents are
being looked through now, and you will get them soon. 2. Could you
wait a little? Your dress is just being finished. 3. Look! A new bridge over
the Volga is being built. 4. Why aren’t you driving your car? — It is in the
garage. It is being repaired now. 5. Please, don’t enter the hall. The New
Year play is being rehearsed there at the moment. 6. Yesterday a danger­
ous criminal was caught, He is being interrogated now. 7. Your passport
is being checked now. It will be returned to you in a minute. 8. You will
get your copy of the agreement soon. It is being typed now. 9. Two hours
ago she got in a car accident. She is being operated on now. I hope she
will be saved. 10. Do you hear these footsteps? We are being followed!
11. Michael is being taught to ride a bicycle at the moment. 12. The
baby is being bathed now. Then it will be put to bed. 13. The results of
the football match are still being discussed. 14. A new rule is being ex­
plained to the students now. 15. I can’t work because new equipment is
being installed in my office.

The Past Continuous Tense


4. 1. When we drove up to the picture gallery the exhibition was just being
opened. 2. While dinner was being cooked he was watching TV. 3. I came
into the kitchen and smelt something tasty. My favourite pie was being
cooked / baked. 4. I was a little late and when I entered the classroom this
problem was just being discussed. 5. The hall was being prepared for the
party: the New Year tree was being decorated, the festoons were being
hung, the chairs were being set. 6. He couldn’t take his photo because it
was still being printed. 7. When I came home a new film / movie was being
shown on TV. 8. It was the most interesting item of the program. Card
tricks were being shown. 9. When I came at last new rules were being dic­
tated to the students. 10. She didn’t understand that she was being laughed
at. 11. The police reported that the criminal was still being looked for.
12. I began looking around: I had a feeling that I was being looked at.
13. Unfortunately, we couldn’t visit St. Paul’s Cathedral because it was
being restored. 14. The doctor couldn’t say anything about the patient’s
state because he was still being operated on. 15. It was time for the actor
to appear on the stage but he was still being made up.

The Present Perfect Tense


5. 1. in 2. Some 3. and 4. Lost 5. lost 6. which 7. bags / books, etc. 8. com­
mon 9. been 10. was 11. train 12. was 13. were 14. handed 15. driver
16. often 17. a 18. to 19. to 20. false 21. before 22. that
7. A. 1. are associated 2. have been associated 3. were painted 4. were used
5. (were) given 6. were coloured 7. decorated 8. were exchanged 9. were
183
traditionally given 10. were given 11. have been developed 12. are ex­
changed 13. are used 14. decorate 15. design 16. are then boiled 17. are
then removed 18. are used 19. are not broken 20. are removed 21. are
dyed 22. hung 23. decorate
В. 1. rode 2. has been told and retold 3. did 4. were almost hidden 5. ruled
6. was known 7. cared 8. was 9. cared 10. were imposed 11. quarrelled
12. begged 13. made 14. would be remitted 15. rode 16. wouldn never
do 17. didn’t understand 18. loved 19. mounted 20. made 21. was clothed
22. kept 23. had 24. made 25. founded 26. were eventually buried
27. was first recorded 28. heard 29. has been adapted 30. seems 31. rode
32. say 33. stayed 34. had requested 35. was immediately struck 36. has
been known
8. A. Sultan Muhammad Ibn Daud ruled Iran in the 11th century. During his
reign he conquered a large territory and gathered great wealth. He died in
1072. As soon as he was buried a lot of legends about his life and death
were created. It was said in one of them that he would soon rise from his
tomb, mount his horse and lead his soldiers to new conquests and glory.
This belief is still strong. For many centuries a horse has been kept in
readiness near his tomb waiting for the sultan to rise from the dead.
B. The Tower of Pisa is known all over the world. Its construction began
in August 1173 and lasted for about 180 years. Many people think that
the tower was specially designed as a leaning one, but now it has been
established that it is not so. The tower can’t stand vertically because its
foundation was made on sand. The lean was first noticed when the fourth
floor was built. By now many attempts have been made to prevent the
tower from falling. Special devices have been used for it, many times
columns and other damaged parts have been replaced, several times the
foundation has been repaired. Only the belltower at the top stands up­
right — it was built much later. The Tower of Pisa has become one of the
symbols of Italy and now everything possible is done to preserve it for
many centuries.

The Past Perfect Tense


6. A. 1. was 2. were ordered 3. hadn’t been boiled 4. tried 5. has long been
forgotten 6. has become 7. conquered
В. 1. gave 2. said 3. had found 4. explained 5. had been buried 6. was
wiped out 7. stressed 8. had already been described 9. explained 10. had
filled 11. surrounded 12. reported 13. had been found 14. were 15. was
being fired 16. struck 17. found
7. 1. We never found out what he had been ordered to do. 2. I recognized
him at once because his appearance had been described to me very well.
3. She said that she had never been talked to in such a way. 4. I under­
stood that I had been deceived. 5. The talks never started because the
184
necessary documents hadn’t been prepared. 6. I was sure that the doc­
tor had already been called for and didn’t understand why he wasn’t
coming. 7. It seemed to her that the sentence hadn’t been translated
correctly. 8. He said that he had been offered the position of a manager
in a big bank. 9. He made a wrong decision because the situation hadn’t
been described to him correctly. 10. After the new rule had been ex­
plained to us we translated several sentences. 11. The police reported
that the criminal had been caught. 12. We didn’t want to watch that
film because it had already been shown three times. 13. James was very
upset when he learnt that his proposal had been turned down. 14. The
guide told us that that church had been rebuilt several times. 15. We
were told that the hotel had already been booked.

The Future Perfect Tense


2. 1. is still being built 2. is only funded 3. devoted 4. had been completed
5. has now become 6. reveals 7. has always been committed 8. will have
been finished
3. 1. If we come to the party at nine all the tasty things will have already
been eaten. 2. The project won’t have been finished by September. We
will need at least another two months. 3. By the time he returns from his
business trip the documents about his new appointment will have been
signed. 4. By the time you come, dinner will have already been pre­
pared. 5. I hope that the manager will have been informed about this
incident before the situation gets out of control. 6. All the things will
have been packed before the taxi arrives. 7. I am afraid that the project
will have been adopted before we tell the committee about these new
data. 8. The operation will have been completed by 5 o’clock. 9. The
new project will have been worked out by the end of next month. 10. Hur­
ry up! By the time we get to the shop all the good things will have been
sold. The sale won’t wait for you!

Revision
1. A lady’s daily routine was (1) rudely interrupted by army maneuvers. As
her car approached the (2) bridge that crossed twice a day from and to
her home, she was (3) stopped by a sentry (часовой). ‘You can’t drive
across the bridge, lady,’ he said firmly. It has just been (4) blown up.’
The lady looked at the untouched (5) bridge, shrugged her shoulders in
despair and got out of (6) her car to think over (7) the situation. At this
point another soldier walked (8) into view. ‘Officer,’ she inquired, ‘can
you tell me one reason why I cannot (9) drive my car over this bridge?’
‘Lady,’ he answered soberly, ‘I can’t tell you anything at all. I have (10)
just been killed.’
185
2. 1. occurred 2. points 3. is feared 4. has carried on 5. has practially left
6. is said 7. exists 8. was given 9. was on fire 10. seem to point 11. was
expressed 12. showed 13. hadn’t been slept in 14. was open 15. were scat­
tered 16. were found 17. received 18. belongs 19. it is said 20. has actu­
ally been 21. have been 22. had been dragged 23. has been committed
24. was killed 25. by 26. experienced
3. Dick Morrison was sitting in the waiting room of Quitters, Inc. This
company had been recommended to him by a friend of his, Jimmy
McCann. He said that the company had helped him to give up smoking.
Morrison had never heard about it before because it had never been
advertized on the radio or television. The company was situated in a big
building which had recently been redecorated. It had been founded sev­
eral years before by a rich tycoon whose portrait hung on the wall. After
Morrison had been asked several questions, he was invited into the of­
fice. There he was introduced to Mr. Donatti. Donatti assured him that
very soon he would be cured of his disgusting habit. Of course, Morrison
didn’t believe him, because he had been smoking for many years and
knew that it was almost impossible to quit.
When he came the next day at the appointed time he was being waited for.
It turned out that since his last visit Donatti had found out all the details of
his private life. He had even found out that Morrison’s son was mentally
retarded and was kept in a special clinic. Morrison was outraged. But when
he wanted to leave, he discovered that all the doors had been locked. And
then he was shown an interesting trick. In the wall of the office was a
window behind which there was another room. On the floor was a rabbit
which was peacefully eating a carrot. Suddenly Donatti pushed some but­
ton and the rabbit began hopping madly on the floor. Morrison under­
stood that it was being electrocuted. While the details of the treatment
were being explained to Morrison, he was getting more and more fright­
ened. Donatti said that if he attempted to smoke his wife would be imme­
diately brought into the ‘rabbit room’ and he would be made to watch
how she was being tortured. After the second attempt he would be placed
there himself. If he didn’t quit after that his son would be taken from the
clinic and punished in the same way. The treatment would be continued
till the tenth attempt after which, as Donatti hinted, Morrison would be
killed. Donatti warned Morrison that he would be watched 24 hours a day
and he wouldn’t manage to deceive anybody.
When Morrison returned home he could hardly understand what was
going on around him. He didn’t smoke for several days though he want­
ed it very much. Once when he was stuck in a traffic jam, he broke
down, took a cigarette and began smoking it. When he came home he
discovered that his wife had been taken away. And several minutes later
he was watching how she was being tortured in the ‘rabbit room’ . Mor­
rison didn’t smoke any more. His life changed as had been promised to
186
him. He was promoted and made several big contracts. A year later he
was invited to Donatti’s office, where he was told to stand on a scale. It
turned out that he had put on some weight. It was explained to him that
if he didn’t lose weight his wife’s little finger would be cut off. And Mor­
rison lost weight. A year later he met Jimmy McCann. Both Jimmy and
his wife looked very happy. But when Jimmy shook hands with her some­
thing seemed strange to him. He looked at her attentively and saw that
the little finger on her right hand was missing.

Check Your Knowledge

Test 1
1. 1. Which patient is being operated on at the moment? 2. When will the
documents be returned to you? 3. Who (m) was the first goal scored by?
4. What singer was the award given to? 5. When were you invited to the
cinema?
2. 1. My car has been stolen. 2. French is spoken in many countries of the
world. 3. I was given the key to his room. / The key to his room was given to
me. 4. The experiment was described to us. 5. When I returned from my
business trip the roof was still being repaired. 6. I discovered that the bed
hadn’t been slept in. 7. Were the missing documents found? 8. The boy
wasn’t taken notice of. 9. This problem has never been looked into. 10. We
were shown the way to the station. / The way to the station was shown to us.
3. 1. was invented, has been simplified 2. has been put off 3. were told,
had been put 4. was repaired, had been recommended 5. have been held,
has been decided 6. will have been sold 7. is being built 8. will never be
forgotten 9. is used 10. was written, had been stolen
4. 1. A new rule was explained to the students. 2. This problem will be dis­
cussed all next week. / They will be discussing the problem all next week.
3. This house was built with very simple tools. 4. A good restaurant was
suggested to us for lunch. 5. The book has already been finished.
5. 1. The meeting wasn’t called off, it was put off till Friday. 2. Two hours
ago Jane was knocked down by a car. She is being operated on now. We
hope she will be saved. 3. The criminal hadn’t been found. The investi­
gation was still being carried out. 4. Look, the old hotel is being pulled
down. As soon as it is pulled down a shopping complex will be built in
this place. 5. Why is this article never referred to? 6. Your dog hasn’t
been found yet. It is still being looked for. 7. All the homework has been
done: the mistakes have been corrected, the new words have been learnt,
the sentences have been translated, the composition has been written.
187
8. Will the documents have been prepared by the end of the week? 9. It
was explained to me where discs were sold. 10. The results of the contest
haven’t been announced to us yet. They are still being discussed.

Test 2
1. 1. How well does he speak three languages? 2. Why was little Bobby
punished? 3. What will happen if you are not careful / unless you are care­
ful? 4. When was Jane attacked by a large dog? 5. How many times have
I been given such an opportunity?
2. 1. will be celebrating, will have been married 2. entered, had, was being
watched 3. do you know, have ever read or seen, is stored 4. meet, will
tell, has happened, met 5. haven’t been, have only just, won’t get 6. had
been living, broke out 7. is replaced, will have been running 8. had grad­
uated / graduated, applied, has been working 9. was lost, began 10. will
you be doing
3. 1. They will give Jake the prize. 2. They have discovered a new planet in
the Milky Way. 3. Bell invented the telephone. 4. They are still consid­
ering your application. 5. When I came into the classroom the teacher
was explaining a new rule to the students. 6. They have already sent for
the doctor. 7. They adopted the project only after they had discussed it
four times. 8. The tsunami destroyed the village. 9. One uses milk for
making butter and cheese. 10. They have cleaned all the rooms.
4. 1. My computer is being repaired at the moment. 2. By this time next
week we will have been staying in this hotel for two months. 3. Do you
think she can see me now? — No, you’ll have to wait. She is being inter­
viewed now. 4. No sooner had I gone out than it began raining. 5. She's
had this car for twenty years already and she isn’t going to change it.
5. 1. My novel, which you didn’t like, will soon be published in a popular
magazine. 2. When he left the house the police were already waiting for
him. 3. I am afraid I will be given a bad mark for my exam. I haven’t had
time to prepare for it properly. 4. I don’t understand why I must answer
these stupid questions. I have already been asked about it several times
and I have said everything I know. 5. It was explained to us how to use
the device. 6. It is always interesting to listen to his lectures. He gives
interesting examples and tells about his personal experience. He is one
of our most favourite teachers. 7. The police have just found a danger­
ous criminal who has been looked for for three years. He has already
been sent to prison where he will spend ten years. 8. Hardly had I opened
the book when the teacher noticed it and told me to go out of the class­
room. The next day I had to rewrite the test. 9. She is always telling
different funny stories. I can’t talk to her about anything serious. 10. He
isn’t sure that he will manage to find out the truth about this incident. I
think the later he learns the truth the better.
188
Sources

1. Allsop J. Happy Days and Other Very Short Stories. Penguin


Books, 1998
2. Best Science Fiction Stories by H.G. Wells. Bloomsbury Pub­
lishing, 1996
3. Conan Doyle A. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, Pen­
guin Books, 1993
4. Dahl R. Matilda. Puffin Books, 1989
5. English Humour. Moscow, 1972
6. Household Stories by the Brothers Grimm. Dover Publications,
2002
7. Huxley A. Brave New World. Vintage, 1994
8. King S. Night Shift. Doubleday & Co., Inc. New York, 1979
9. Laughs Parade. Moscow, 1967
10. Lewis C.S. The Chronicles of Narnia. Collins, 2001
11. Maley A. Musical Cheers and Other Very Short Stories. Pen­
guin Books, 1997
12. O. Henry. 100 Selected Stories. Wordsworth Editions, Ltd., 1996
13. Oxford Quick Reference Quotations. Oxford University Press,
1999
14. Reich Ch. The Greening Of America. New York, 2001
15. Spalding H.D. The Lilt Of The Irish. An Encyclopedia of Irish
Folklore and Humor. Jonathan David Publishers, Inc., 1978
16. Sunderland L.D. Darwin’s Enigma. Fossils and Other Prob­
lems. Master Book Publishers, 1988
17. The Best of Roald Dahl. Penguin Books, 2002
18. The Mammoth Book of Humor. Carroll & Graff Publishers,
Inc., 2000
Содержание
The Active Voice
The Present Indefinite Tense......................................................................3
The Past Indefinite Tense......................................................................... 10
The Future Indefinite Tense..................................................................... 20
Revision....................................................................................................29
The Present Continuous Tense.................................................................32
The Past Continuous Tense......................................................................41
The Future Continuous Tense.................................................................. 47
Revision....................................................................................................52
The Present Perfect Tense........................................................................ 56
The Past Perfect Tense............................................................................. 64
The Future Perfect Tense......................................................................... 69
Revision.................................................................................................... 72
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense.................................................... 74
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense......................................................... 81
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense......................................................85
Revision....................................................................................................88

Check Your Knowledge


Test 1. Present Tenses.............................................................................. 92
Test 2. Past Tenses....................................................................................94
Test 3. Future Tenses................................................................................96
Test 4. Mixed Tenses................................................................................98
Test 5. Mixed Tenses............................................................................. 101

The Passive Voice


The Present Indefinite Tense.................................................................. 104
The Past Indefinite Tense........................................................................110
The Future Indefinite Tense.................................................................. 119
Phrasal Verbs in the Passive Voice......................................................... 123
The Present Continuous Tense...............................................................127
The Past Continuous Tense.................................................................... 130
The Present Perfect Tense...................................................................... 132
The Past Perfect Tense........................................................................... 137
The Future Perfect Tense...................................................................... 141
Revision................................................................................................... 142
190
Check Your Knowledge
Test 1. The Passive Voice..................................................................... 147
Test 2. Active Vs Passive ..................................................................... 148

Keys
The Active Voice.................................................................................. 151
The Present Indefinite Tense........................................................ 151
The Past Indefinite Tense............................................................. 152
The Future Indefinite Tense.......................................................... 154
Revision........................................................................................ 157
The Present Continuous Tense..................................................... 158
The Past Continuous Tense........................................................... 160
The Future Continuous Tense...................................................... 161
Revision........................................................................................ 163
The Present Perfect Tense.............................................................. 164
The Past Perfect Tense ................................................................. 166
The Future Perfect Tense.............................................................. 167
Revision........................................................................................ 167
The Present Perfect Continuous Tense.......................................... 169
The Past Perfect Continuous Tense................................................170
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense.......................................... 172
Revision........................................................................................ 173
Check Your Knowledge.........................................................................175
Test 1 .............................................................................................175
Test 2............................................................................................. 175
Test 3 ............................................................................................ 176
Test 4............................................................................................. 177
Test 5............................................................................................. 177
The Passive Voice................................................................................. 178
The Present Indefinite Tense........................................................ 178
The Past Indefinite Tense...............................................................179
The Future Indefinite Tense......................................................... 181
Phrasal Verbs in the Passive Voice.............................................. 182
The Present Continuous Tense..................................................... 182
The Past Continuous Tense............................................................183
The Present Perfect Tense............................................................. 183
The Past Perfect Tense.................................................................. 184
The Future Perfect Tense.............................................................. 185
Revision........................................................................................ 185
Check Your Knowledge.........................................................................187
Test 1 ............................................................................................ 187
Test 2..............................................................................................188
Sources....................................................................................................189
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