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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

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1. G
General
l
- Contaminants in water and wastewater removed
by physical , chemical , biological means
- Specific removal methods classified as:
i) physical unit operations
ii) chemical unit operations
iii) biological unit operations
- Processes occur in variety of combinations,
depend
p on specific
p needs

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

1 1 Physical
1.1 Ph i l Unit
U it Operations
O ti (processes)
( )
application of physical forces predominate

- Application of physical force


- Typical processes include:
i) screening
ii) mixing
iii) gas transfer
iv) sedimentation
v) filtration

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

1 2 Chemical Unit Operations


1.2
- Treatment brought about by chemical addition or
chemical reaction
- Typical processes include:
i) chemical precipitation
ii) adsorption
iii) disinfection

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

1 3 Biological Unit Operations


1.3
- Removal of contaminants by biological means
- Primarily removal of biodegradable substances
- converted into gases , biological cell tissue .
- Typical processes include:
i) biological filtration
ii) activated sludge treatment
iii) anaerobic digestion

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS
Drinking
P
Purpose off W
Water
t Treatment
T t t
“Provide potable water that is chemically and
microbiologically
i bi l i ll safe f ffor h
human consumption”
ti ”
2.1 Pretreatment
i) Screening (surface waters)
ii) Pre-sedimentation (lake waters)
- to
t remove suspended d d solids
lid
- may require chemical addition to assist
(polyelectrolytes alum)
(polyelectrolytes,

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

iii) Chemical treatment


e.g. chlorine to kill bacteria
- potassium permanganate
- chlorine dioxide
- ozone (may be used for taste and odour control and disinfection)

iv) Aeration
- oxidizes ferrous and manganous ions to
insoluble species
- removes gases such as H2S

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

2.2
2 2 Coagulation/Flocculation/Sedimentation
- Used for removal of turbidity and pathogenic
organisms
add chemicals particles grow
particles come together
- Chemical coagulation and flocculation produces
“flocculant” precipitate that makes particles come
together and settle more readily
- Precipitate removed by sedimentation
- Typical chemical coagulants include
- aluminum sulfate (aka alum)
- ferric chloride
- lime (softening) 7
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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

2.3
2 3 Filtration
- Used to remove any remaining solids following
sedimentation
- Often use sand or mixed media filters
- Activated carbon placed on top of filter beds

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Single Dual
Media M di
Media

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

2 4 Di
2.4 Disinfection
i f ti water main
- Add disinfectant prior to distribution system
- Ensure control of pathogenic organisms

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

2 5 Sludge Processing
2.5
- Sludge composed of chemical residues
- Historically
Hi t i ll di discharged
h d without
ith t processing
i
- Now, sludge handling required
- Primary
Pi sources off sludge
l d
i) Chemical coagulation, precipitation, softening –
removed
d iin sedimentation
di t ti ttanks
k
ii) Filter backwash

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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

- Disposal via:
i) Discharge to municipal sewer
ii) Drying lagoons
air drying
iii) Drying beds
iv) Centrifugation
v) Pressure filtration used to remove water, increasing solids content
vi) Chemical recovery eg. lime recalcination

- Ultimately to landfill
eg. residue from air drying, centrifugation, etc.
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WATER TREATMENT METHODS
Water Source Considerations
Sources - groundwater
- river water
- lake water or impounding reservoirs
- Water quality in rivers dependent upon input to watershed
e g - municipalities
e.g.
- industries
- agricultural processes
- Important to practice watershed management
- limit access
- limit discharges
- pretreat water in some cases (algae blooms)
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WATER TREATMENT METHODS

- Water quality in rivers and lakes influenced by:


- Climatic conditions
- Seasonal changes

melting snow + accumulated


Examples
p - “ Spring Runoff ” particles --> dirty
- caused by change in temperature
- characterized by high flows, high turbidity,
taste and odour problems

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW

1 Wastewater Types:
1.
i) sanitary (domestic, commercial, municipal)
ii) i d ti l
industrial
iii) stormwater
iv) infiltration/inflow

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW

2 Purpose
2. P off Wastewater
W t t Treatment
T t t

- Primary concern (municipal wastewater)


- reduction of solids concentration and BOD
- Industrial wastewater (biochemical oxygen demand)

- characteristics,
h t i ti required
i d ttreatment
t t - industry
i d t
specific

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW

3 Treatment
3. T t t Methods
M th d
4 main stages - Pretreatment
- Primary (sedimentation)
- Secondary (biological stabilization)
- Tertiary (chemical treatment)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

3.1 Pretreatment
- defined as "removal of w.w. constituents that may
cause maintenance or operational problems" (M&E)
i) Screening (bar screens) - removal of rocks, branches
ii) Comminution - grind solids that have passed through bar screens

iii) Grit Removal - removes sand, gravel, by reducing water velocity

iv) Flow Measurement - flume

v) Pumping
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

3 2 Primary
3.2 Pi Treatment
T t t (Sedimentation)
(S di t ti )
- Removes suspended matter by reducing water
velocity
- Removes 30-50% of suspended solids
- Removes a portion of organic matter

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

3 3 Secondary
3.3 S d Treatment
T t t (Biological
(Bi l i l Stabilization)
St bili ti )
- Removes biodegradable organics and suspended
matter not removed by 1º treatment

- Conventional 2º treatment processes include:


- activated sludge
- fixed film reactors (RBCs)
rotating biological contact
- lagoons

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

3 4 Tertiary
3.4 T ti Treatment
T t t
sometimes called 'advanced'

- Typically used for nutrient (P, N) removal to reduce


eutrophication in receiving waters

- Typical
yp 3º treatment pprocesses include:
- chemical addition (alum)
- special biological processes
- disinfection

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

3 5 Sludge Processing
3.5
- 1º and 2º processes concentrate waste organics into
ssmall
a volume
o u e (6-10% solids)
- Construction of sludge processing facilities approx.
1/3 of treatment plant cost
- Common methods for raw sludge ‘disposal’ include:
- anaerobic digestion
- mechanical
h i l dewatering
d t i (pressure, vacuum)
- centrifugation
- landfill - land
l d application
li ti
- incineration
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVERVIEW
3. Treatment Methods

“Water Control 6th Edition,


Water Supply and Pollution Control” Edition 1998,
1998 Viessman & Hammer , pp 334

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