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ARNe -_3 THROP

VERTI
MLLING IN THE
ME 0 K OP

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Argus Books
Argus House
Bounda ry W ay
Hemel Hempstead CONTENTS
Hertfordshire HP 2 7ST
Eng la nd
Chapter One EVOLUTION OF THE VERTICAL MILLER 12
Early history of indu strial m achines: milling in th e
First pub lished 1977 early sma ll lath es : mi lling attachmen ts for lat hes
Second im pression 1979 ci rca 19 20s: E.T, W estbu ry's experimental machine
Sec ond edi ti o n 1984 1964: the Dar e-Westbury m achine 1968: cu rre ntly
Rep rin ted 1986, 1988 , 1989, 1990, 1991 . 1993 avail able sma ll machi nes and attach ments,

Chapt er Tw o MILLING FLAT SURFACES 27


© A rg u s Bo o ks Ltd 1977 Surf aces paralle l to table: simple fixed-radius
f1 ycutt ers: var iab le-radius bor ing head flyc utting:
multiple -tooth face m ills: work hol ding: m ult ip le­
pass mi lling: surfaces square w it h table : using side
of end mill.

Chapter Th ree SLITTING AND CUTTING 35


All r ights reserved . No p art of this publication m ay be Use of slitting saw for cutting through machinery
repro d uced in any f o rm by print. photography, microfilm component bosses : eccentric sheaves and straps :
or any othe r mean s wi thout written permission from th e mar ine type big ends of connecting rods.
pub lisher. ­
Chap te r Four KEYWAY CUTTING 37
Endm ill ing round ended 'feath er' keyways : keyways
on taper shafts : use of disc tvoe cutters for plain
sunken keyways : \Noo dru ff keyways: making
ISB N 0 852 42 843 x Woodruff cutters in the home workshop : table of
suggested sizes of \N oodruff keys and kevv vavs fo r
model engineers,

Chapter Fiv e FLUTING COMPONENTS OTHER THAN


TOOLS 43
Ph o t ot y p esetti n g by Perf o rm an ce T y pesetting, Milton Key n es Correct form of flutes ir loco connecting and
cou pling rod s: mounting rods against anglepla te for
Print ed and bound i n G reat Br it ai n by flu ti ng : parallel flutes: taper flutes: preferred type of
Biddies Ltd . Guil d f o rd and K in g 's Lynn cutting too l.
Chapt er Tw elve DIVI DING HEADS AND TOO L MAK ING 66
Chapte r Six BORING 45
Fluting taps : example 5-flute Acme tap : producing
Dealing with parts too large to swing in lathe:
a small fine too th milling cutter w ith ball end : use
trepanning large ho les.
of table stop blocks: combination of rotary tabl e
with ma in table movement: large 60 deg ree coun­
Chapter Seven 'J I G- BORIN G' 46 te rsink fluting .
Using the miller as a measuring machine : drilling
ho les at one setting of work and precise cent res: Chapter Thirt een DIVIDING HEADS AND GRAD UATED
eng ine be am: b ack-lash pr ecaution s: tri p gea r com ­ SCALES 71
pon ent : mu lti-ho le boiler plates. Cutti ng graduation marks : use of rotary 'engr avi ng'
cutters : use of no n-r otating plani ng t ype tools : use
o f table stops to contro l line lengths : graduating
Chapter Eight PROFILING 49 cyli ndr ica l scales: gradua ting flat angular scales :
Curves on parts too large for lathe: loco frames : checking correct way of figuring when stamping
smokebox castings : machine pad bolts: loco con ­ scales ,
nec ting rod s and coupling rod s.
Chapter Fourt een CUTTER SPE EDS FOR VERTICAL MILLERS 74
Chapter Nin e END-ROUNDING 52 Speeds affect ti me occupied on job: speeds too
Use of hardened f ilin g gu ides deprecated: high may cause excessive cutter wear and chatter :
mou nting work on rot ary table: sta nd ard size guide rigi di ty of work, cutter and mac hine inferior as a
plugs: anti-slip precau tio ns: direction of feed for rule to i ndu st rial condi tions, dry cutting inst ead of
exte rnal and i nte rnal surfaces. lubricated : Tabl e III gives speeds for cutters in
different kinds of tas ks : m achi ne speeds may no t
alwa ys be suitable .
Chap te r Ten DIVIDING HEADS 54
Simple ungeared div iding heads : using change Chapter Fifteen WORK -HOLDING WITH D IFFICULT
w hee ls as index plat es: examples o f d ividing w or k : SHAPES 78
h exagons. squares. dog clutch teeth : avoiding odd Comparison with full scale engi neering : use of
numbers : the Myford w orm -geared dividing head : chucki ng pieces on components : thin components
avoiding back-lash erro rs : packing block for and use of ad hesives : advisability of making fixtures
bringing to lathe centre height: universa l steady fo r difficul t pieces : three -s ided angleplates.
stand fo r Myfo rd head: three further dividing heads.
Chapter Sixteen CHUCKS FOR MILLING CUTTERS 81
Never use taper shank tools or chucks without
Chapter Eleven DIVIDING HEA DS AND GE AR- C UTT IN G 62
drawbar: chucks for screw ed shank self -tightening
Limitations to strai ght spu r gears : sim ple head :
collets : Clarkson chuck : Dsborn Titanic chuck:
M yford worm -geared head: tooth cutting on
Chucks for tee -headed locking cutters: Clare
integral pi nion : use of home made Ilvcut ters:
chucks : use of small end mills and D-bits withou t
Brown & Sharpe disc type cutters : selectio n of
locking features : ph ilosophy of 't hrow - aw ay '
cutter to suit numb er of teet h : cutting a large
cutters.
coa rse tooth gea r: anti-slip back-up de vices ,
List of Illustrations
29 Fluti ng loc omo tive co nnect ing rod 4 4

Fig .
30 Draw ing of stea m hook (lever) 4 7

1 Ab w oo d mi llin g attac hme nt of the 19 2 0 s


13
31 Phot ograph of st eam hook 48

2 E. T. W estb ury 's m ill ing m achine 14


32 Profilin g pad bo lt 50

3 Dore-W estbu ry m achine 15


33 Profiling coupling rods 50

4 Dare-W estbury M k II machine 16


34 End-rounding wi th rotary tabl e 53

5 Rodney attachm ent 17


35 Cutti ng t eeth in do g clutch par t 5 5

6 Rodney m ach in e 18
36 Draw ing of st eady stand for Myfo rd div id ing head 56

7 Am o lco attach men t 19


37 St eady in use on a gear cutti ng opera tic 58

8 A mol co m achine 20
38 Thro p divid ing head 5 8

9 M ent or mach in e 2 1
39 Th om as versat ile divid ing head 59

10 M aximat attach me n t 23
40 Kib bey/M .E.S. dividl nq head 60

11 Astr a m ach ine 2


41 Clos e-up of flycut ter and pi nio n 63

12 Tw in machi ne 22
42 Gearcu tt ing w ith Brow n & Sharpe cutter 63

13 Senior m achin e 26
43 Fly cutt ing 10 d .p, gearwh eel. front view 64

14 Set of three fl ycu tt ers 2 8


44 Fly cu tt ing 10 d.p. gearw hee l. rear view 6 5

15 Flycu tt ing a bracket 28


45 Flut ing A cm e thread tap 66

16 Flycutti ng connecting rod ends 29


46 Cutt ing teeth of ba ll-end cu tt er 67

17 Flycutti ng t apered bar mat eria l 29


47 Close- up of ball-end cu tte r 68

18 Flycutting cy linde r soleplat e 30


48 Gashin g flutes in large count ersinking tool 69

19 Facem il l 3
49 Rear v iew showing stead y stand in use 70

20 M illing flywheel joint face 31


50 Cyli nd rical m achine compone nt being grad uated 72

21 Mi ll ing crosshe ad slide 32


51 Close -up of prev ious ope rat ion 72

22 M illing bear ing jaw s in bedpl at e 33


52 Graduating part -ci rcul ar arcua t e scal e on fl at surfa ce 73

23 Slitting boss of ca sting 35


53 Tape -he ld w orkpiece bein g flyc ut 79

4 Milli ng feath er kevw av 3 7


54 Hern inpwav three-side d anglep late 79

25 M illing feath er keyw ay on tap ered shaft 38


55 Tw o of the th ree sizes of Herninqwav ang leplates 80

26 Mil ling keyway wi th slitting saw 39


56 Clare mi ll ing chu ck 82

27 Se t of four Woodruff keyway cutters 39


57 Clark son mi ll ing chu ck 82

28 M ill ing W oodruff k evwav 4 1


58 Osborn mill i ng chuc k 83

Preface
In th e eng ineering in dustry the vert ic al
miller is very widel y used . no t o nly for
batch product lorrbu t also for tool ma king
and the 'one -off' jobs whi ch are so
common in general eng inee ring. In the
home worksho p. w her e most job s are
'one-o ff' th e ve rsatility of th e machi ne
makes it an i m port ant comp anion to the
lathe. Thi s book des crib es many of the
infinitely wid e range o f op er ation s wh ich
can be done. and all those described are
illustrated by photographs so that under­
st anding of th e methods is assured . These
cove r work on part s of model loco mot ives.
stationary engines machi nery . cutting
too ls. gea rs, clutches, etc. Full informat ion
is given o n the machine accessories wh ich
are requi red, suc h as var ious types of
cu tters and t he chuck s needed for t heir
mounting on the m achi ne spind le. The use
of chea p hom e- m ad e cutt ers i s shown
and encouraged. Guidance is also give n
on th e work- holding dev ices such as
clamps. packings, vices. angle plates,
dividing heads. rot ary table s, and w hich of
thes e are needed for part icular kinds of
w ork .
CHAPT ER 1 [},'\

Evolution of the
Vertical Miller

Th e horizontal mi lli ng machine evo lved lath es we re provided by di fferent makers.


natura lly fr om the lathe in t he fi rst or and the great ver satili ty of th e lathe
seco nd decade of t he nine tee nt h century. created in it self a te ndency to make the
Eli W hitney (U.S.A.) is said t o have had lathe do every opera tion that arose . This
one in use about 18 18 . and in Tools for wa s enhan ced by th e fact th at ma ny
the Job the lat e LTC . Rolt reco unt ed how modellers were working men with very
the yo ung engineer J ames Nasm yth {later litt le cash to spend o n their hobby. Many
to become famous as the inventor of the we re the inge nious attachment s devised
stea m ham mer and ot her app liances l to enable the lat he to carry out work it had
fixed one up and m illed the fla ts on never been intended to do . Such makers
hundreds of tiny hexagon nuts for a model as Drum m ond Brothe rs modified their
of a Mauds lay marine eng ine. w hile lathes wit h tee-slott ed boring tables to
working fo r Henry Ma uds lay . Draw ings of help in this work . and even bro ught out
the ear ly hori zont al mill ers show suc h a t he famous ro und - bed lat he. wh ic h
resemb lance to t he la th es of that period although int ended for a cut -price market.
that almost certai nly they were in fact also had bu ilt into it the abi lity to do a lot
lat hes w hich had been adapt ed to mil ling. more than just simple turning . But as the
The cutters we re really files. made by the years wen t by it became ever more
fi le m akers of the tim es, using t he 'hand­ appa rent somet hing better was needed
cu tt ing ' methods (really a hamm er and a f or mi lling operations . No ne of the small
spec ia l chisel) w hic h we re the only mille rs produced by the mac hine tool
practice available at that tim e. industry we re oriented towards the home
The evolution o f the ve rti ca l m iller w orkshop,
came nat ural ly afte r t he ho rizo nt al T hen in the 1920s the Abwcod Tool
m achi ne. I have not found any reliable and Engi neeri ng Co. produced an exce l­
refe rence to a date by w hic h the vert ical lent vertical mi lling at tachmen t fo r
m iller h ad appeared in industry , thoug h mounting on smal l lathes. especia lly the
this m ust have been we ll before 190 0 . popula r 3t in. flat bed Drum m ond . though
W he n model eng ineering sta rted to adjustable features made it applicable to
beco m e an esta bl ished hobby at the t urn othe r lat hes too . It had a No. 1 Morse
j:ig . t Abv/ood milling attachment of the
of th e century quite a variety o f sma ll tape r arbor which fitted in to the lathe 19205

12 13
spindl e. and bevel gear s with keywa yed the Dru mmo nd lat he. A lt ho ugh o ut of int ended to make econom ies or im prove
shafts took the drive up to the vert ica l producti on for ma ny year s now . it was in the pe rformance . This new design was
cutt er spind le. w hic h had a No. 1 M orse its time a co urage ous effo rt . but be lo nge d discussed w ith Edgar. w ho agreed to the
inte rna l taper. A ll the gears w ere equa l to the age w hen most home lathes were use of the name 'Dore-Wes tburv ' , the
rat io m it re beve ls. so the cutter ro t at ed at driven by fla t belt fro m a tread le or cou n­ machi ne to be sold as a kit of sem i­
t he sam e speed as th e lat he spi ndle . and tars haft. and the cost of electric mot ors fi nished compone nts by my existing fir m
all t he six speeds of the lathe were usable. made th e in d ep enden t m o to r drive Dore Engi nee ring, I was abl e to pla ce th e
The w or k wa s mounte d on the lathe uneconom ic in ho m e hobb y appli cati ons. m achi ning o f the compo nen ts w ith a
bo ring table. and po wer feeding in one Bu t th e need for a handy vertica l number of firms al read y kno w n to me . and
direction ca me from the lathe screwcut­ m illi ng ma chine had been recogn ised. and the fi rst sets of mat erials began to go ou t
t ing gear. A phot ograph of this uni t set up in the ear ly 19 6 0s that very good friend of to custo mers early in 1968. Si nce that
on a Myford Super 7 is show n in Fig. 1. It model engineers. Edgar T. W est bury . t im e m any hundreds o f sets have bee n
wa s unfort una tely a low -vol um e. labou r com plete d an ex pe r im en ta l m ac hi ne. distributed . all over the wo rld . and are still
int ensive uni t w it h vee slides needing wh ich he desc ribed w it h drawings and be ing made in ever grea te r quant iti es by
hand scrapi ng . but w as selling in 19 30 for pho t og rap h s in t he Model Eng ineer M o d e l En g i n e e r i n g S er v i c e s . o f
7 guin eas. about a quar ter of the cost of during 19 6 4 . T hat too wa s a very labou r Chest erfield . w ho too k it over from me in
19 7 1, w he n I wa nted , on acco unt o f age ,
to red uce m y comm it men ts ,
Castin gs to the origi na l design are,
howeve r, st ill available fro m Waking Pre­
c is io n M od els o f 16 Dovecot Park .
A berdour. Fife. Scotland KY3 OTA . and a
machine fro m these is sho w n in Fig. 2.
The Da re-W estbu ry mac hi ne is depicted
in Fig. 3 and the sim ila rity be twee n the m
ig, 3 D ore- W est bury machine wi ll be at onc e appa ren t. Du ring it s
entire life the Dar e-Westbury has been
un dergoi ng sma ll im provement s. and th e
inte nsive machine w ith vee slides, and the present supplie rs have now dec ided that
main castings w ere m uch t oo big to b e t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s a re s u ff ic ie n t ly
machi ned in th e ave rage ho me workshop. st abilised for the presen t ve rsion t o be
A t that ti m e he w as una ble to find any titled the M ark II model. From now on all
engi neering fir m wi lli ng to take it over and ma chines supplied w ill be of this form .
manu facture it. or ev en to do th e machin­ though st ill subject to certain op tional
ing on a contract basis at such a price as it vari ations which custome rs w ill be able to
was thought m odel engi neers would be select as t hey wi sh.
wl llinq to p ay. T he more importan t chang es incl ude an
T hree years later I found myself with in crease in t he quill travel from 2i in. to
the opportunity to tak e a fresh loo k at th is 4-1- in . Ext ra pull ey ste ps with a new ty pe
desig n, whi ch he had di scussed w ith me of be lt extend the speed rang e sligh tly
during the experim ent al pe riod . I evolved fro m 32 to 1880 r.p.m. w ith more int er­
a new set of d rawi ngs for a sim ilar m ediat es. provid ing for boring head fl y­
machi ne, but using flat slideways more cutting on large radii right th ro ugh t o
economically constructed. a reducti on keyw ay cu tt ing with 1/ 16 in. cutters. The
Fig. 2 E.T. Westbury 's gear f or low er bottom speeds , hollow reduction gear system now fi tt ed has
spindl e for a draw bar. and othe r changes helical gears w hich run in an oil-bath.
milling machine

15
14
Fig. 6 Rodne y ma chine

sealed against leakage even w hen incli ned standa rd. Th e down-feed w orm has for
away from the vertical, and is Quieter th an conveni ence been transferred to the right
former ly. A large r table , 20 in. by 6 in., can hand side of the head, a coa rser pitch rack
be had as an optiona l al terna tive to the is now used . and ther e are a numbe r of
norm al 16 in. by 5t in. The co lum n and oth er m ino r im provements.
cros s tube are steel. as always, but now t
in. thick and eno rmously st iff. 2t in.
diamete r m icro m et er d ials are now Opposite, Fig. 7 Amolco atta chm ent

18 19
Although co lleg es and commercial No do ubt the most importan t i m pro ve­
workshops wil l probably wish to use the ment is the (optional) provision of po w er
all -over be lt guard, it may be d eba ta ble if feed fo r the lo ng movement of the table. A
th e co st of this is justified fo r the so lit ary small m ot o r wit h a 4-step pul ley and
mat ure m ode l le r alo ne i n hi s home enc lose d w o rm reduction gear provides
workshop. An alternative belt gua rd wh ich feed rates of .5 . .62 . .85 and 1.1 inches
covers t he spi nd le pulley only and do es pe r mi nute.
not im pede belt chang ing so mu ch is A num ber of attachm ents similar in
ava ilable and is shown on the M ark II general concept , though much different in
machine in Fig. 4 . de ta il. to t he old Abwood . have com e on

<,
Fig . 9 Menror machine, now superseded by th e
FB2 and Maximal attachment

the rn a rk e t in recent year s . Tew


M achlnerv produce t he .Rod ney' to su it
th e Mvfo rd M L7 and Super 7 lat hes. and
:hi s is marketed by Myfords . It is shown in
Fig. 5 and t he complete vertica l m ill er
ba sed on t his atta chme nt is th at shown i n
Fig. 6 .
A not her attachment, t he 'A m o lco is
supp lied by N. M ole & Co. Ltd . and
appears in Fig. 7 This has it s ow n motor
and attaches to t he top of t he lath e bed
also. It is made as a compl ete ma chi ne.
snown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8 A mateo machine Fig. , t A stra machin e

21
20
mach ine w hich is floor mounted and
shown in Fig, 13.
So it will be seen that there are now
many machines and attachme nt s which
are of suit ab le dimensions for inclusion in
t h e l i m it ed sp a c e o f m o s t home
w ork shop s. It would be useless to give
any deta ils of prices in a book of this kin d ,
as such info rmation would probably be
incorrect by t he ti me the boo k was
printed, and readers are therefor e recom ­
mended t o enquire of th e various adve r­
tisers.
A summ ary of the leading particulars of
all these m achines etc. is given in Tab le 1
Fig. 12 Twin machine but again specificat ions are ame nded by
m akers as t im e goes by, and it can be no
m ore tha n a general guide .
A brief w o rd m ust be said about fore ign
mac hin es. part icularly those coming from
Elliot m achine Equipment supp lied a Far Eastern countries. I t wo uld appear
continental mac hi ne, th e ' M entor' wh ich th ere are several facto ries producing
was available bo th in b ench and floor mac hine tool s and acce ssories. Some
m ounted forms . Th e bench m achine is app ear to be quite good , bu t others are
shown in Fig. 9. They also have the definitely not good, and I do hav e personal
'M axim al' attach ment to suit the lat he of exp erie nce o f some of th ese. I have not
the same nam e, whi ch fit s on the back of had the chance to see one of the mill ing
the lath e bed and has independen t m otor ma chines work ing, but those I have
drive (Fig, 10 ). This is also avai lable as a inspect ed i n exh ibi tions have some che ap
floo r m achi ne, the FB2 . and nasty feat ur es, although the mai n
Ot her co m plete m achin es inclu de the item s suc h as spind les, bear ings , and
'Astra' suppli ed by Scot Urq uhart, w hic h slideways m ay be excellen t. Some of t he
is really a horizont al m iller w it h an ext ra machines are more suitable for com ­
ver tical spindle with it s own mo tor . Made merci al fact orie s th an home workshops
in several sizes, the smal l one is sho w n in but th ere ar e o thers of mo dest dimen­
Fig. 11. sions. To anyone contemplat ing buying
Twi n Engin eering Co. introduced a on e of th ese on e ca n on ly suggest that a
bench ma chine illus trated in Fig. 12 and close inspect ion shou ld be made by a
also a floo r m ounted machi ne of sim ilar kno w ledg eab le engineer , and that a
size but slig htly di ff erent desi gn. wo rking demon str at ion should be
Fina lly the old established firm o f Tom requested , of th e actua l machine which is
Senior Ltd . now produce their type E to be bough t.
Fig. 10 Maximar ettscbrnent

22 23
TABLE 1

Machine o r
Make or supplier attachment Tab le si ze Sp indle speeds Spindle nose Commen ts
Woking Preci sio n W estbury' 14 x 6 6 50 . 11 2 0. 18 50. 2 M Tp1 1l~ Un- machined castings
M on els Co. Ltd . bench mach ine 31 50 M yforn th read only supplied
16 Doveco t Park kit of parts. Head sw ivels.
Ab srdou r. Fifp..
Scot land
M ode l !'ngin eering ' Do ra Wp. ~tb llry· 16 x 5 ~ 3 4~ .90 . 188 2 M l pl us Now superseded
S ervices . bench m ach ine 304 . 7 9 0 . 16 50 M y fo rd thread by Mk. 11
6. Ken net Vale, kit uf parts
Broc kwel l. Do re W est bury 16 x 5 t 3 2 - 18 8 0 2 M T plus Comp lete ki t o f parts.
Ches lJou1ie lrt. Mk.l l (20 x 6 M y ford thread A ll machining do ne
bench machi ne op tio n ] that wo ul d be d ifficu lt
kit of parts. in ho m e w o rk shop.
Head sw ive ls.
Tew M aChin ery ltd . 'Rodney' For My/o rd Dri ven from 2 M T plus Rigid head.
M an o r W o rks a tta chm ent. M L7 anrt lathe sp in dl e M yford thread
Church SI. 57 7 lat hes.
Cogg cnh o c, ' Rodney plus' 15 x 4± 32 0, 450, 61 0 , 2 M T p lu~ Rigid head .
Northampton. floor rnachinc. 8 50.1040,1 490, M yf o rd th read
2 19 0 . 2 750
N. Mule & Cu. Ltd. 'Amolco Fo r Myfurd Mutur d riv e. 2 MT pl us Rigid head .
5. Tulp il s I line. i:t1l8 <:l lII Ulfl l. & Ao xfor d 4 speeds, 325 Myfurd thread
WH l t",d . HHrtS. tat hes. to 16 0 0
Oench m iller. 15 x 6 325 -1 600 2 M Tpi ll s Rigid hea d .
M yf or d t hread

I ABI F 1 (continued)
M ll ch in e or
T able sizt! Sp indle spe eds Spindle no se Comments
Ma klllH supp lter atta ch m en t
20t x{ 3 50 ,640 . 7 80 . 2MT Swive ll ing head.
Cllio lt M nc:hlne ' M ento r
F.'1,Jipm ent. rtlHch il1p. 14 50
U.LC. HnllHH, B.1nch an d
ViClu ,iH Hrl , f loo r.
24t x 6 120-2000 2 MT Swivelli ng haad
London . NW 10 6NY FS2 M axim at
attach me nt nr (six)
floor machine
13 x 4~ 62 0 .90 0 . 2M T M o tori sed head .
Scot Urquhart Ltd .. 'A str a'
3 17. 3 /:~,1 , Earl sfield Rn .. bench anrt 12 0 0 . 18 50
Earl sfie ld . floor
l ondo n SW18 300 Il1sch in()l';
Hor. with v ert .
head.
20 x 6 52 0 . seo. 2 M T plus Rigid head .
T wi ll en!'!. Co. 'Twin '
bench machine 165 0 .2 8 80 M yf or d thread
eelxton Way.
Ho ly we ll i nd . Est . and floor
20 x 6 3 80, 640. 2MT plus Swive l head .
W atf or u. Harts. machine.
1 10 0 . 19 0 0 . M yfo rd thread
31 0 0
25 x 4t 480. 9 50 . 2MT Swivel head
To m Senior. Ltd ., 'Seni o r type E'
lIoor m achine. 16 4 0, 2 7 6 0
A tl as W or ks.
Hig hto wn Heights.
Liversedg e.
W est Yor ks.
CHA PT ER 2

Milling Flat Surfaces

Of all m et al-w o rking operations the shown in Fig. 14. Each is jus t a Morse
production of true flat surf aces is perhaps tape r arbo r w ith an enlarged head having
one of the mo st di fficult if rel iance has to a sla nti ng hole dr ille d in it to take a cutt er
be placed on han d t oo ls and ha nd bit (t in . in these samples) wit h a screw to
methods. for it depends jus t abo ut com­ lock it in pl ace. The head d iameters are 1 t
pl et ely on the persona l sk i ll o f the in.. q . in. and 2t in. so th e face s that can
workm an. But a poi nt offse t from the b e mac hin ed at one pass are roughly tin.
spi nd le c en t re of a ve rt ica l mill ing to 1- in . wider in each cas e. They w ere
machine must when rotated describe a m ade by bo ring through short pieces of
fla t plane in space if there is no axia l st eel of these sizes to suit th e parallel
movement. Therefore . provided the parts of M or se taper arbor s. It is not
spind le is truly square to the tab le. an pe rhap s wid ely enough known that tool
offset cuttin g t ool must generate a flat merch ants can. if th ey will , supply M orse
surface o n a w ork- piece att ached to the taper arbors of this ki nd. w hich are a st ock
tabl e. Model engineering , just th e same as pr oduct of the large dri ll m akers. This
full size eng ineering. demands th e produc­ m et hod of fabricating flycutt ers by using a
tion of a great many flat surfaces. so the ready made arbor wi th a head Loct ited on
ability of the machine to perform th is task saves a good deal of time and some heavy
in a simple way, without expensive st eel. The effectiveness of to ols made in
tooling , is extremely important to the this way is beyond question . Fig. 15
home work er. shows a brack et cl amp ed aga inst a large
anglepl ate and being milled with on e.
Fig. 16 shows one workin g on a steel
FlYC UTTERS connecti ng rod which has to be red uced
The cheapest tool for the purpose is th e from a circular section at each end. The
flycutter. usua ltv consisting of a small rod is about 9 in. lon g. so it is held in tw o
toolbit set in some kind of holder. There vices at the same time. and each end is
are co mmercially made ho lders avai lable. taken down t o fin ished size b efore it is
but i t is quite easy to make satisfactory tumed over. Packings are used . diffe rent
holders at home. and they serve jus t as at each end to ensure the finished -surface
Fig. 13 Senior machine
well Three ho me- made flycutters are is above the vice jaws, to avoid cutting

26
27
Fig. ' 4 Set of three flycutters Fig . 16 Flycutting connecting rod ends

int o them , and the se pa ck ings en sure the Ow ning tw o vi ces ali ke m ay at fi rst with the benefit s ar e at once apparen t. reduced t o a t apered sec tio n t o cu t up into
ro d is at t he ri gh t att itu de fo r keep in g t he t ho ugh t see m somet hi ng of a luxu ry , bu t Ano t her flyc u ttin g operation is shown wedge blo cks for co nnec t in g ro ds or the
mi l led surf aces pa ra l le l to the ax is , as so on as lon g art icles have to be deal t in Fig . 17 wh ere a steel ba r is be ing type in th e pr evio us picture. Thes e wedge

Fig. '5 Fly cu tt ing a brack et Fig. 17 Flycutting tapered bar material

28 29
Fig. 18 Fl ycu tt ing cylinder soleplate Fig. 19 Facem ill

ground off to th e same pro jec tio n. and st ationary engi ne. The casting is suppor ­
sharpened to a diameter of approx. 2t in. ted by a spec ial angle plate typ e of fixture,
bloc ks are needed for adjusting the be ing used to face a cy linde r sole-p late fo r In Fig. 2 0 it is shown mill ing th e face o f th e patte rn for w hich w as m ade in an
beari ngs in the rod ends . The rec ta ngular a slide valve engine mode l of 2t in. stroke. a half -flyw hee l iro n cast ing for a mo del ho ur. W ithout this fixture th e ope ration
sect io n bar is held in a vice on a tilti n
ang le-p late whi ch has b een set at 6
FACE MILLS
de grees to th e table of th e mil ler with a
St ar rett com bin atio n p ro trac to r. Th e Of cou rse, mu lt i-cutt ing-edge face mi lls
ta pe red form w il l be seen on th e end of perm it mac hinin g a surface quicke r tha n a
t h e c o m p l e t ed piec e l y in g on th e singl e point t ool can do, and with less
anglep lat e. This is an easy w ay of getti ng snat ch and jerki ng, but co m mercia lly
a speci al section which cannot be bo ug ht, m ade they are very expens ive , and in the
and wh ich would, to say the least. be hom e workshop th e greate r productivity is
tediou s to make by filing. no t usuall y of m uch conseq uence. Never­
Th ese flycutt er hol ders do not allo w thel ess, for anybod y w ill ing to spend the
m uch adjust me nt of the radius of the tim e needed th ey can be made in the
cutte r bit, but w it h some ma kes o f bo ring ho me w orkshop , w ith several cutte r bi ts
head there is quite a lo t of adjust me nt . For mounted in o ne m ild steel body . Fig. 19
exam ple the Dare boring head pe rmits of show s a face m ill of t his kind , which was
usi ng a cu tt er in a f i n, dia m . ba r at any m ade originall y to screw on the spind le of
rad ius up to 2t in., and by sett ing th e a M yf ord lat he to do some repetitive
saddle in or out on the slide body the mi llin g of a fa irly heavy nature , now no
radius can be adjusted by fine amo unts to longe r required, but it is sti ll a good
suit any jo b w ithin the range. Fig. 18 general pu rpose too l. It has 12 tool bits :l­
shows an old type, pre-wa r bo ring head in. di am . set into flat bottomed holes, all

30 31
correc t location for the casti ng (wh ich was head co uld also be swive lled so t hat
follo w ed by others) but also insurance ang ula r faces could be planed also .
against slipp ing . After the planing of crosshead slides
In the fu ll sized engi nes these slides they we re tackled by the fillers and
we re always planed , and every eng ine­ scraped to a portable surf ace plate. Thi s
build ing shop had planers for thi s ki nd of was coa ted sparing ly with a mixture of
wo rk. In the one wh ere I w ork ed there lam p black and oil. slid to and fro on the
we re seve ral of diHere nt sizes. and the slide . li ft ed off. and then all the black
arqest, built by Joshua Buckt on of Leeds. marks scraped away. The surfa ce plate
auld plane any cast ing up to 20 ft. long. w as then put on aga in and a fresh lot of
12 ft. wide and 12 ft. high . It w as said at marks mad e. w hich in turn w ere scraped
tha t time to be the largest in Yorksh ire . away. This work went on for many hours,
and ce rtainly it often did castings for o ther indeed on a big slide tw o m en cou ld
firms. Cutti ng could be done in bot h direc­ spend two or th ree days. For such work
tio ns of the tab le travel at equal speeds . or the surface plate wo uld be so large th at
in one directio n with a qui ck return the two men cou ld not lift it wit hou t the use
o ther wa y. Each of the four too lheads had of the shop crane. Even tuall y afte r a lon g
pow er operat io n independent of tab le t ime t he fi nish obta ined wou ld b e
mo ve ment, so that cross-p lanin g cou ld rega rded as acce ptab le. It then consisted
Fig . 2 ' Milling crosshead slide be done through bearing recesses . etc. o f a very large num ber of extre me ly
One of the pictures show s this operation shal low depressions bet w een the marks .
on a model be ing do ne by m ill ing. Each and each of these proved to be an oi l

wo u ld be so me w ha t diffic u lt. If th
par alle l passes w it h an end mi ll m uc h
cas ting w as held in a vice on the t able the
narrower th an the face requ ired . Apar t
point of cutting would be a long way fro m Fig . 22 Milling bearing j aw s in bedp la te
fro m taki ng mor e time th an a too l w ith a
th e ho ld ing point. and mo vem en t o f th e
wid e sweep. m inut e ridges te nd to be left
casting under the pressu re o f cu tti ng
w here the passes overlap. and these m ay
wou ld be no t easy to prevent. Vibra tio n
have to be removed lat er by filin g or
and chat ter w ou ld be more likely. It very
scrapin g. So w hile this meth od is feasible
ofte n happens that the only wa y to ge t a
the flyc utter or bo ring head is be tte r
satis fac to ry jo b is to make som e equip ­
w he re the re is room to use it, and the
ment specia lly for it. This is no t usuall y
cutter bits are cheape r than endm ill s and
wasteful. especia ll y jf a d uplic ate co m po­
easily sharpened like any lat he too l.
nent is ever requi red. bu t t he equipme nt is
However. an example of work wh ere a
usually found adaptable for some o ther
sma ll Cutte r and successive pas ses mus t
job later. Doing met al cutti ng by 'knife­
be used is shown in Fig. 2 1 w here a flat
and-fork' method s can Soon lead to
bedplat e sli de for th e crosshead on a
disaste r. The other half of the w heel
mo de l sta t ion ary engi ne is be ing m illed.
cast ing. wit h th e cast- in teeth for the
barring 'rack', can be seen in the bo tt om The surfa ce being cut is in a recess tin.
half of th e picture. The w heel is 9f in. deep and the Corners canno t be dea lt w it h
diamete r and has 96 teet h. by a to ol cutting the full Width. as the
Broad flat surfaces can be. and some­ radius left wou ld be too great. Not e th e
ti me s have to be, produ ced by Success ive stop ba r bo lted to th e table. Accura tely
squared w ith the ta bl e it provides not only
32
33
pocket. When the engine was eventually speed of about 80 r.p.m. would make
pu t to work, with the cross-head hav ing approx. 3600 million cross-head strokes
had similar treatment. the resu lt was that in that time! No t a bad performance?
the cross - head ran to and fro on a film of When flat surfaces have to be produced
lubr ican t which reduced wea r to a very
CH A PT ER 3
at rig ht ang les to the table it is necessary
small amou nt. Engines in textile m ills to use the side of an endm ill . Th is may be
would run 60 years and at the end you quite unavoidable on some components,
would find the scraper marks still there . suc h as the model eng ine bedplate shown
T he oil was continuously renewed by
brass combs attached to the crosshead
which picked up oil from a well at each
in Fig. 22 . There is not much choice about
milling out the jaws for the crankshaft Slitting and Cutting
bearings. This is an operation wh ich the
end of the slide . An eng ine running night big planer used to do with the power drive
and day. as many of them did . with a on the heads of the cross -rail.

It is common practice to des ign mac hinery cutter, and a nut to secure it . Its a good
components with spli t bosses w hich can thing to put a pair of flats on the arbo r to
be contracted with a screw for tightening hold it by when turning the nut. Fig. 23
purposes. The slitting can be do ne with a shows a slitting saw in use cutti ng
hacksaw. bu t if done in unskilful fashion through one side of the boss of one of the
will not look good when completed . parts of the Quorn grinder. On t hat
Slitting saws and many other disc type machine there are several components
cu tters can be readi ly used on the vertical w ith this feature, so time will be saved if
mille r by mounting t hem on a Mo rse taper they are all col lected and cut th rough
arbor having a pa rallel portio n for the while the saw and vice are in position.

Fig. 23 Slitting boss of casting

34 35
M any o th er jo bs of simila r nature w il l
burrs to enable th em at on ce to be bolted
co me to m ind, suc h as engi ne eccent ri c
together. Not on ly are castings inv olved
sheaves, and especia ll y ecc ent ric straps .
but also parts ma de from bar material.
wh ich can be cast in one pi ece and the n
cut thr oug h, leavi ng two surfaces that
Ma rin e type connecting rod ends are an CHAPT ER 4
example. and this method can also be
need only a to uch with a fi le to rem ov e
used for producing bearings in halves.

Keyway Cutting

Keys and keyways are a v ery co m mo n engi nes. gearboxes, and other machi nery
feature of machi nery and naturally of compone nts in the past have had whee ls
mod els too. Th e comm on ro und-e nded mount ed on tapered shafts wi th the
keyw ay. for a 'feather' key . is easily keyw ays foll owin g th e slope o f th e taper.
produced on a parallel sha ft by hol di ng the M odellin g one of these w ou ld involve
shaft in the vice and using a sma ll end mill , fo llo wi ng the same proce du re. One way in
or two -f lute 'slot -drill'. Fig . 24 show s the wh ich this can be done is shown in Fig.
set up for this ope ratio n. 2 5. The vice holdi ng the sha ft is set on a
Various parts of car and motor cycl e tilting angleplate so th at the top o f the

Fig. 24 M illing Ieet her keywa y

36
37
Fig. 25 Millin g fe at her ke yway on tap er ed sha l t Fig. 2 6 M illing keyway w ith sli tt ing saw

tapered pa rt com es pa ralle l w it h the t hicknesses , an d are always co mi ng on For a sta rt the key itself can be part ed ac c u racy f ro m t he b ri ght ba r. T he
m achin e t ab le. The shaft show n in t he t he surp lus m arket at low prices. One of off fro m a piece of ro und mi ld st eel or thi ckness need s careful co nt ro l, but if it
pictu re is a sim ple on e and q uit e short . t hese is shown in Fig. 2 6 m illi ng an silver st eel. So it s d iam eter is sett led w it h com es off a b it t oo t hick it can be rubbed
and could have been j ust t ilted in t he vice ord inary sunk en keyw ay, th e shaf t bei ng
in a set-up like t hat of Fig. 24 . But a long held in a vice wi th eno ugh ove rha ng t o Fig. 27 Set 01 four W oodruff ke yw ay cutters
shaft m ig ht well fo ul th e t able at it s low er avoid t he cutt er t ou chi ng t he vice.
end so t he elevation which t he ang lepl at e
gi ve s co uld in such a c ase prove essent ial.
Sma ll endm ill s are rather frail to o ls at WOODRUFF KEYS
best and li able to easy breakage . The di sc The Woo d ruff key is on e w ide ly used in
ty pe cutt er is more rob ust and a co ll ecti on ind ust ry . This is in effec t a slic e off a roun d
of these acquired either as the need fo r ba r, cut in ha lf and set in to t he shaft in a
one crops up , o r bo ug ht cheaply seco nd ­ recess m ad e by a sma ll d ia m eter slitti ng
hand, is w o rt h while . Of co urse th e d isc saw . Th is is rath er an oversim plified
cu tte r canno t always go clos e to a des cr iptio n , but it wi ll serve we ll enoug h
shou lder o n t he shaft , and copying a as an int rod uct io n to the W ood ru ff key fo r
pro totype may in some cases rule it o ut . thos e in ho me w o rks h op s w i t hou t
For th e w o rk do ne in t he hom e workshop ind ust ria l ex perien c e. Se riou sly . th e
t he re is no need to insist on the rel ativel y W ood ruff key. w hic h I t hink was of
expe nsive side - and -face cutt ers, (t hose A m erican or ig in, has som e ve ry real
with te et h on t he f aces as w ell as th e pe ri­ ad v an t ag es for th e m ass pr o d u cti on
phery ) because the sli tting saw , w ith te eth ind ust ry , and so me of t hes e are of just as
o nly on t he periphery, w il l do qu ite wel l. gr eat im po rt ance in t he home wo rkshop
T hese are m ad e in a very g reat va riety of and t he fi eld of lig ht en gineerin g.

38 39
down on a flat file . It needs t o be cu t in key is ma de, with an int egral shank of pre­ the diame tra l li ne of the shaft. the n th e teet h can be cu t in two ope rations using
tw o on a lin e w hich is nearly a dia me te r, ferably some sta nda rd di ame t er w hich can an ordinary end mi ll ; the re is no need for
cutt er is fed in by a predetermined
but the cut edge can readily be filed to be run true in a collet on the mi ller. So the angu lar cu tters. as t he d iagra m on the
amount.
br ing it to fina l shape . Th e keyw ay is made shap e of the keyw ay pro fi le - and its opposit e page indicates. The num ber of
The resulti ng keyw ay is deep enoug h to
by a simple cutter like a slitting saw, of the w idt h - is settled by t he cu tter form . The give the key a good ho ld , so that it cannot teeth is no t importa nt, but six is a co n­
same diameter as the ba r from wh ich the cutti ng par t of the cutter is set in line w ith roll over, and yet the shaft is no t unduly ven ient numb er for small cutters . It is
wea kened. Norm all y th e t op o f the key is possible to file the teeth if you do not have
TABLE II just clear of the keyway in the wheel or access to a div iding head. as the spacing
lever wh ich is being secu red , it s purpose is not at all critical , but it's a little more
bei ng to provi de eit her tor qu e or angular difficult. Fig. 27 shows a batch of cutters
locat io n, and some mea ns such as a grub made to the sizes in Table II and Fig. 28
screw may have to be used to preve nt shows a keyway being cu t . There seems
endwise movement. to be no place where sizes of Woodruff
W ood ruff cutters are not very ch eap , keys and cutte rs are disp layed for m odel
but they can easily be made in the home engi neers . Machinery 's H andbook giv es
workshop, from silver steel. The process is sizes wh ich are used in ind ustry. but the
really qu ite sim ple. A blank can be turned , shee r range of sizes is itself confusing, and
mak ing a shank to sui t some sta nda rd of cou rse t he tables are libe rally sprin kled
collet. then with the sha nk held in the wit h to lerances that model lers cou ld
colle t th e working part of the cutte r can be neither follow no r wa nt . I have therefore
turned to it s diam eter, and th ickness. The picked ou t a few sizes wh ich I think wi ll
sides sho uld be very sligh tly undercut by serve ou r pu rpo se. and as we don 't have
setting a kni fetool a little off square. Using to provide interchange ability in our

G~
2 a sim ple un-gea red dividi ng head th e products, if anybod y w ant s t o depa rt a bit

Fig. 28 Milling Woodruff keyw ay

3~ x20 B.S.F. FOR F


CLARKSON Be. OSBORN CHUCKS.

WOODRUFF
KEY S & KE.YWAYS CUTTERS
A B C D E F G
~ I
44­ -(6 '10 9 '073 '037 '10 0 '030
~6 .%
.6 140 '/ 0 4 '03 7 '/04 '037
3-'8 %2­ '172 '/23 '053 -/ 29 '04 5
~
2 ~ 2 -203 '155 '053 -1 87 '0 60

40
41
from t hese di mensions he can certai nly do sho wn in Fig. 27 are stamped w ith thei r
so. Up to date of w ritin g I have not seen size de tai ls. It is a goo d plan to have a set
any spec ifica tion of W oodruff keys in of small stam ps. say 1/1 6 in . character s.
met ric sizes.
so that appropriate identity can be mar ked CH APTER 5
The cutters shown in Table II hav e on all hom e m ade tools. jigs. etc as we ll as
screwed sha nks to suit Clarkso n and model co m po nents. The hol es dr il led in
Osbo rn chucks, wh ich have colle ts th at these cu tte rs were provided fo r the co n­
close on the cutter shan k throug h end venien ce of the har dener . They were
th rust exerted by the cutter agai nst the
inside of the chuck. If you are maki ng
cutters for use in a Clare chuck or just to
harde ned for me by a firm where liq uid ­
salt bath s are used fo r heat ing and
q uenching tools. A sma ll hole enables the
Fluting Components
use in a 3 -j aw . these thr eads are not
needed. It may be noticed that the cu tters
tool to be hung on a w ire in the bat hs
w ith out da mage to cutting edg es. other than Tools
Fluti ng of locomotive con necti ng rods and p rogress ive ly alo ng th e rod , leav ing
coupli ng rods is an operation very sim ilar behind the swe pt end . Wh ere the cut
t o keyway cu tting so fa r as th e rem ova l of fini sh es there is als o a swep t en d,
me ta l is concerned. bu t the leng th of the autom atica ll y. Coup li ng rods usua lly have
flutes is usually greater, and th e lengt h of flutes that are parallel sid ed, and so do
the pieces de man ds som e w ell arrange some t ypes of Canadian and Am eric an
ho lding m ethods. One occasiona ll y sees con nec ting rod s. In these case s a single
rods which hav e been fluted w ith an pass with a cutle r th e right w idt h w ill
endmi ll by the same metho d as show n in c om p lete t h e jo b. Mo st Br i t i s h
Fig. 24. giving rou nd ed end flute s like a locom otives . on th e ot her hand , had
feath er keyw ay. Thi s is ent irely wrong . no tape red con nec ting rods wi th parallel
full size rods w ere fluted thi s w ay. They flanges . l.e. tapered flutes. For these tw o
have flutes w ith rounded int ernal corne rs passes are need ed. and th is can be
in the bot tom . and wi th swept out t er­ achieved in a very simpl e w ay.
m ina tio ns at the ends, whi ch is done to In Fig . 2 9 the rod of a Canadi an engi ne
avo id the notch fatigue cracks w hic h can is seen fixed on th e ang leplate. In eac h
propaga te fr om sharp co rners. Fortunately end is a screw with a head tu rne d to th e
it is qui te easy to produ ce flutes whic h are size of the ho le in the rod end. Thi s is a 12
in acc ordan ce with full size practice. and in. lon g angl eplate wi th no slots. as hol es
not even necessary to have a fancy m ill ing are drilled and ta ppe d just w herever they
cutl er. A simp le tool bit, gro und rather lik e are needed for each job. It w ill be many
a partin g too l. wi th the corners rou nded years before it is so perforated as to be no
off. is put into a transverse ho le in a cu tler fur ther use. The two ho les for the locating
bar , and m ounted in a chuck on th e mil ler. screws are th e same dista nce from the
Th e rod to be dealt with is fixed edgewa ys table. and they only provide the locati on .
up , as it go es in the loco . prefe rably the rod being secured agains t t he cu tting
aga inst a long ang leplate . and th e rotat ing forc es by two sma ll clamps as shown. For
cutle r is fed in like a W ood ruff cutler this rod and for coupling rod s the set -up is
wou ld be. Wh en in to proper depth. exac tly as shown. But for British type
usually quite shallow, the ta ble move ment rods . the screw in the big end is made
is started and th e flute is then made smaller than the hole in th e rod by the

42
43
CH APT ER 6

Boring

It is not uncommon t o have bor e holes in ho le) on the mil ler tabl e and using a cutt er
com ponents w hic h are m uch too large to in a boring head. W ith the w orm- actuat ed
sw ing around in the lath es that are fo und dow n feed. and the bot tom spe ed of th e
in mo st ho me workshops. But there is no Dare-Westbury m achine. 3 4 t rp m . an
need in many cases t o resort to hand excellen t hole wa s obtained four inch es
Fig. 29 Fluting locomotive conn ec ting rod
too ls. even for ho les w here great accuracy diame ter. W ithout th ese facilities t he work
is not needed. Th e vertical mil ler can be wou ld have been sent out to som e
amou nt of the taper (at th e hol e centres) used for boring (w it h a trepanning tool in a engineering firm . Th e am pler space on t he
square ba r can be dr opp ed int o it. That
and for the first operation th e rod can be bo ring head) such th ings as fire- hole tables of m il ling machines. com pared w ith
enables fixtures to be instantly lin ed up
allowed to dro p down o n the screw whi le do or s in bo iler plates. bosses o n castings w hat one can get on a lathe saddl e w ith
w it h th e t ab le movemen t . in c lud ing
the fi rst cut is t aken. Th en for th e second suc h as lon g levers. and many o ther an angle plate . makes the miller invaluable
dividing heads as we ll as ang lep lates. The
cut the rod is lift ed up as far as th e screw ob jec ts. In or der t o rnot ori se a shaper I for w ork of thi s ki nd and of cour se by
thrust of the cutte r in this example tends
w ill let it go . and re-c tarnp ed. and a had to bore a hole throu gh t in . o f cast do ing externa l tu rnin g w ith a boring head
to move the ang lepl ate awa y from the bar .
seco nd cut taken, The rod w ill now finish iron t o mo unt a worm reduction gearbox . one can dea l w ith male regist ers as we ll
but it is secured w ith tw o good bo lts in
w ith a taper flu te and two parallel flanges. and t his had to be a true round hol e. It as hol es. This is a simp le op eration too ;
t h e t ab l e slot s . n o t v isi b le i n t h e
Th is fluti ng is a very simple ope ration . was do ne by fix ing t he cast ing (15 in. long on e just turns the cutt ing tool inw ard
pho tograph. It sho uld not be forgo tt en
The angleplate is extreme ly rigid. The in one direc tion fro m the centre o f the instead of outw ard.
that locomotive rods w hich are flu ted at
mach ine in the pi cture is happily provided
all m ust be done on bo th sides. but wi th a
t
wi th a in. w ide keyw ay alo ng the centre
set- up li ke this the job is so simp le it
of the table. only t in. deep . but a i- in.
w ou ld be a pity not to have it righ t.

44
45
CHAPTER 7

. ~--" a
6+
=::--­...,."
,..,38
J ig-Boring t-
-+--II-- -005

I~
~ ~:
I

\ .l .J.

~: 7
The ter m 'j ig-boring' is lik ely t o be
+ /6
the pa rall el motion, pump rods, etc. The
unfa m iliar to m any readers of this boo k, casti ng can be cl am ped t o the ta bl e qu ite
and they may thi nk that w hateve r it firm ly, resting on pack aging of reason able
mean s it m ust be a lon g way removed
from model engineering. This is no t so, for
thic kness so that a penetrati ng drill do es
not dip in to the t able. A t th is stage all r - I
in model m aking pl enty of operations arise bosses can be faced w ith an end m ill ,
th at can be don e by 'jig-boring ' to adva n­ even if they are at differen t levels. Th e Fig. 3 0 Drawing of stea m hoo k (l ever)
t age. Basicall y it only means fixi ng a com ­ centre lin e of the cast ing should have
ponen t to t he m ach ine tab le and th en bee n set paralle l w ith the line of the t able w hen do ing an exercise o f this kind to positio n by using the table cross-screw to
using the tab le screw s as measuring movem ent . Put the drill chuck in the have a paper and pen cil handy and w rit e provid e the amount off th e m ain line.
dev ices to positio n the spindl e over any spind le. w ith a fine point ed du m my dri ll dow n the m icrom et er dial readings w hich W hen all the ho les are fin ished t he beam
part of th e com ponen t that is desired sim ilar to a ce ntre punc h. and br ing this are th e st opp ing points. This redu ces the can be tu rned over and the bosses m ill ed
before dr illi ng or boring a ho le. In m any over the first boss cen tre . The n wind on ch ances of acciden t al erro r. It is a method on the other side .
ways t his m eth od is better than m arking th e table the amou nt t o t he next hole and used by men in industry w ho are engaged Th e beam eng ine casting is ju st one
out, measu ring wi t h a rule, then centre­ check if the point com es in the righ t place on delica t e w ork w here a mom entary example of ho w t his sort of t ask can be
pu nch ing fo llowed by drill ing on a drilli ng ove r that boss. W ind on again to th e next in t erru pti on ca n be disast rou s. I have handled. Fig. 30 is a draw ing of a co mpo­
machine. For one thing th e wo rkp iece is and so on check ing at each boss. If all my self used it for m any year s. A t th is nent of th e t rip gea r of a model steam
fi r m ly held , t he t ab l e screws are com e cen tra l. all is wel l. If one or mo re stag e drillin g can no w sta rt . Each hol e engin e. and the holes w hic h have to be
reasonably goo d measuri ng devices, and don't. then an allo w ance w ill have to be should be centred w it h a D-bi l groun d to drilled are in posi tion s w hich w ou ld not be
man y ho les can be m ade, of any diameter m ade as a co m prom ise. Ma ke a not e o f about 1 18 degrees, foll ow ed by the easily att ained by the co m mon marking­
needed. without losing the att itude of the wha t it is. re-start at the begin ning, and do app ro priat e dri ll. thoug h th e larger holes out and centr e punching proces s. Fig. 31
piece to the table, or on e hole to another. another run till you are satisfied you have may need a pilot dr ill put ting through first . shows one of th e finishe d pieces w it h one
Let's take a fairly com mon componen t, got t he rig ht starti ng point for the best As eac h hole is fi ni shed. w ith reami ng if only part-ma de , to show th e me thod
the beam cast ing of a mode l bea m eng ine . results. If yo u happen to tu rn the ta ble needed, move on to the next hole by the adopted. One inch diame t er bar wa s used .
This will have severa l holes to be dri lled , screw a bi t t oo far at one of the stopping table wi nd. and go th ro ugh the procedu re as that gives th e outside profile needed.
usual ly along one straight line. and rather points, do n't worry, but do n' t turn it back a with th at. too. By this meth od all the holes Set true in th e fo ur- jaw chu ck it was
impo rtan t. all these shou ld be parallel wi th bit as a correc tion , because th at way you w il l be the rig ht distance apar t , and w ill all bore d 9/ 16 in., the n set out of true by
one another if the finished engi ne is to run cou ld introd uce an error thro ug h back lash be pa ralle l to one another in tw o plane s. It .047 in . and the ho le re-bored to the same
smoothly. There will be one ho le at each (lost mo tion due to slackness) in the w ill be clear th at if any holes are wanted setting . Next it was set well off centre to
end , and a main trunnion ho le at the screw and nut. Go back to the very start which are no t on the m ain centre line, it is dril l the No. 38 drill hole. Th e correc t
middle, plus one or more for the links of and com e at it again. It's a good thing a simp le m at t er t o drill these in an off-set setting was established by measurements

46 47
taken off the outside surface of the 1 in. co mplet e co ntrol and exactly as specifi ed
bri ght ba r. With the pi ece still held. the on the drawi ng.
chuck w as removed from t he lath e and There are m any o ther artic les in model
bolt ed on the m illing mach ine tabl e. A engi neering wh ich lend them selves very CHA PT ER 8

number 3 8 dr ill . ru nning i n a tru e chuc k. w ell to th e jig-boring techn ique. Locom o­
t hen 'picked up' th e existing hol e and the tive boiler tube plates w ith a large num ber
di al readin gs on both screws of the ta ble of holes can be do ne this w ay. and
w ere no ted {and w ri tten do wn !' The drill t
becau se som e of the hol es m ay be in. or
was chan ged for a very sho rt stiff 1/ 16 in.
drill. the t able screw s were ro t ated . to
even mo re in di am eter it is vita l to have
th e m et al c lam ped do w n t o avoi d
Profiling

bri ng the first 1/16 in . hol e pos it io n un der pe rsonal injury . as copper is not one of the
it and tha t hole then dr illed. Further kindes t of m at erials for machi ni ng. But if
rota tio n of th e scre ws brought in turn cl ampe d on packi ngs o n the m iller. any
each of the o ther holes into pos ition and large holes for w hich dr ills are not avail­
the drilling wa s quickly com pleted. The able can still be dealt w ith by using a
chuck was then re turned to the lathe. Th e It is not unusual for large compo nent s to for locki ng tw o ma chine parts togethe r.
boring head. If a large drill is available. and
fi rst boss around the No. 3 8 hole was have po rti ons w hich are ci rcular arcs , Th e two part s of th e pad bolt w hich are
th e m achine has a low enough spee d t o
turned and t he piec e parted off. care bei ng Loco m o t i ve f r a m e s a r e co m mo n being pro fil ed t o suit a rou nd col umn we re
avoid chatte r. there w ill be no 'three­
taken to leave the shallow boss on the exam ples. w it h cut -aw ays t o cl ear bogie made fro m one pi ece of steel. and cut
cornered' holes ma de to cause em barrass­
part ing side. Then the second bos s w as whe els. Such pi eces are m uch too large to apart afte r th e profilin g. A gro ove can be
m ent w hen fittin g flue tubes and silver­
turned . anot her parting off . and the two sw ing in th e lat he. and wh ile the bandsaw seen w her e t he separating cut wa s to be
soldering th em at a later st age. It w ill be
com po nent s w ere th rough t hat part of the if available can do a lot t o relieve the taken. The cutt er in the bor ing bar w as set
fo und that as fam iliarity w it h th e vertical
process. It rem ained only to cut the tedium of drilli ng. hack saw ing and filing. to t he fini shed radius. Only the cross-feed
mi ller dev elop s. other exam pl es wi ll aris e
the miller can do a lot mor e. Using a of the t able was used (to put the cut on
desired piece out of the ring and file up in w hich this high- soun di ng but really
trep anni ng cutt er in a boring head it can bi t by bit) th e other slide being loc ked. The
the two ends t o t he rounded profile. By qui te simple technique can be bo rrowed
take aw ay the unwa nt ed metal in a single tool w as t raversed by the down feed. It is
these met hods a com po nent of a rather fr o m ind ust rial p ract ice. w i t h g re a t
com pli cated shape w as produced und er operation to finished size on any arc. no t pos sible to tak e the full am ount of
benefit s.
A lte rnatively w it h a bor ing typ e tool it can metal remov al in a singl e pass in a job like
Fig. 3 1 Photograp h of st eam hook follow th e bandsaw and just avoid th e t his, but w ith succe ssive cuts a perf ec t job
is assured. Sim ilarly the hol es for such pad
filing.
Smokebo x castings for locom otives bol t s are 'part ho les' and could not be
and tractio n eng ines. how eve r, oft en have dril led in the second st age to full size
circ ular arcs t o fit the boiler she ll. and the w ith ou t gui de bus hes for the dril l. But

• bandsaw can be nohelp wit h these. But if


they are set up on th e mi ller. th e radi us
drill ing under size and th en open ing out
with a bo ring head get s there just t he
• can be de ter mine d by the sett ing of a same , a bit less qu ickly.

• bo rin g head cutt er. and trave rse across


the wo rk provided by th e downfeed of the
Prof iling loco moti ve connec ting rods
and coup ling rods can be a somew hat
t iring operation if one has t o do it by
spi ndl e. eve n t houg h th is is us u all y
m anual. Th at feed lengt h m ay no t be sawi ng and filing. Trying to do this w or k
eno ug h to cover t he face wid t h, but aft er on the bo ring table of th e lathe wi th
going as far as th e spindle w il l move. a vertica l slide or angleplate is not very
second cu t can be taken by resetting th e happy eith er. Usually the cross- slide travel
is mu ch too short to co mp lete the length
head of th e mach ine .
I n m ac h i n e r y de t a i l s t h e s a me i n one p ass. so t h a t re - se tt i n g is
probl ems arise. Fig. 32 shows a pad bo lt necessary . and th e lath e doe s not have

49
48
th e in-feed faci lities needed. Gene rally set- up sho w n in Fig . 33. w her e a pair of
with a vertical slide the poi nt at w hich co up ling rods . w ith 'chucking pieces' o f
cutt ing is be ing done at the end s of a long extra me ta l at each end , are clamp ed on
rod is a very long w ay fro m th e place packings in a safe and rigid set-up .
where the sli de is secured, so that apart Generally th e di am et er of end m ill used
from 'spring ' of th e pi ece there is dange r can be arrange d to give the right radi us
of slipp ing t aking pla ce with dis astr ous where the body of t he rod jo in s the
result s. Com pare such attempts w ith the boss es.

Fig. 32 Profiling pad bolt

Fig. 33 Profiling coupling rods

50 51
CHAPTER 9

End- Rounding

In model work, as in ful l sized machinery , ano t her t able wh ich I have poss esses a
many comp on ents such as crank webs, No. 2 M orse tape r centra l hole and arbor s
connecting and cou pling rods , m achi ne can be put in this for loca tion. It is. in fact ,
links, etc. have to have rounde d end s. a Model Engineering Services Type RT3
These can be produced by fili ng, and th e wh ich does not have a t ee-slo tt ed table, Fig. 3 4 End-roun dinq with rotary table
use of hardenerd steel collars and roller s but has a spindle screwed lik e the M yf ord
for gu ides has oft en been reco m m ended lathes and will accept any chucks or hold and tha t mean s at least spo iled work. drill the chuck boss w ell aw ay fr om th is,
in Model Engineer t o help th e not-sa-good faceplates from the lathes. This ma kes it probab ly a brok en cu tt er. and a lot of g rief. so th at you have tw o positive ly sepa rated
file r to achieve a good appe arance. Even feasible to turn , say, a cy linder cover and But if one is w orki ng on an int ern al pro file, dimp les, each for its own accessory .
wi th th ese, this kind of filing dema nds a transfe r it to a rotary tab le fo r dri lling the such as trimmin g the ins ide of th e rim of a I have used a 5/ 16 in. BSF sock et grub
skill wh ich many modellers jus t do not bo lt hol es wi thou t losing the accur acy of flywh eel. th en th e forces are reversed and screw for this purpo se. with a po int
have (and wi ll never acqu ire, for wa nt of setti ng , Bu t th at is not a featu re of impor­ th e w ork needs rotat ing ant i-clockwise. modified (in t he lathe) to a lon ger co ne.
practice, if nothing else) so for th at reason tance for round ending operat io ns. I have No w the threads of th e RT3 spi nd le are Bu t I fo und th e or dinary hexagon key w as
alon e it is not a good m et hod. But it is used it for a numb er of engi ne cranks in like th e M yf ord lathes. righ t hand , so no t really long enough to be conveni ent
also rathe r seve re o n fi les, w hich are now th e manner show n in Fig. 34 . Each crank wh en one is do ing insid e work a chu ck or with a standard 7 in s. Myford faceplate.
qui t e expe nsive too ls, and unlikely ever t o was located on the arbor but also cla m ped facepl ate is tight ened by the thrust o f th e So I cut off th e shor t bent end of th e key
get che ape r. w ith a slot plate resti ng on Picado r cutter. But w hen do ing the. perh ap s, more and fitt ed t he long part to an exte nsio n
So w here t here is a vert ica l miller avail­ step ped packings, a pa ir of these be ing no rm al m ill ing on the ou ts ide of a piece, made of 1 in. brigh t mi ld steel. This was
able, w hy not do the job th e rig ht w ay. as also unde r the crank itself. The cutte r is a the cutt er th rust tends to un do th e drilled in the lathe 3/ 16 in. deep w it h a
it wou ld be done in com me rcia l eng ineer­ t in. end m ill cutt ing on it s side . faceplate. and unless the work is very light No . 16 d rill wh ich is about the acro ss­
ing ? It me ans investing in a ro tary tabl e. cutti ng. this is w hat w ill cert ainly happen. corne rs size of th e hexagon , then 7/ 16 in .
In all ro tary m illi ng of this kin d w here
but th ese can be bo ug ht in kit form as we ll the cutter is work ing on the outs ide o f th e T he only satisfactory answer to thi s further w it h a No. 22 drill wh ic h is about
as co mp le t e read y for us e. and if com ponent it is vit ally necessa ry to feed problem is to drill and tap a hol e thro ug h the across-f lats size. The tw o pieces w ere
mach ined and assembled by the hom e th e bo ss of the faceplat e. m ake a coned th en pressed togethe r in a big vice , the
the ta ble cl ockwis e seen from abov e. All
worker himself. are not terribly expensive. no rma l m illing cu tt ers rot at e the same di mp le in th e t able spindle at the sam e squared-o ff end of the hexagon cutt ing its
Presum ing th at the com ponent has a spot, and insert a screw with a co ne po int way down t he hole in t he m ild steel. A
w ay as a twist dfl ll, so wh ich ever side of
round ho le at one end . a plug is needed in that fit s the dimple. No t a diffi cult mat ter 5/32 in. cross pin w as fitted. Loctit ed in,
the work the cutte r is touching, the w ork
the ta ble so as to loc at e by th at hol e. I at all. But if you are going to use a chu ck and now I have a Tee w renc h long enou gh
mu st meet the cut te r. and t hat means
have a sm all ro tary table w ith a t W hit. clockwise ro tation is essenti al. Oth erwi se on the sam e table for th e sam e kind o f to reach the screw in the boss without any
ho le in the cent re and have a number of work, the n m ake a penci l m ark to show difficulty. It took on ly fiv e minutes to m ake
if the cutt er is goi ng the same w ay at the
plug s of sta ndard sizes to fi t tha t. Bu t wh ere the dim ple is for the faceplat e, and and is a convenience there for ever.
surface as the work it is certa in to grab

52 53
hardly be don e at all w it h hand tools is stre ng th w as needed to transmi t a lot of
shown in Fig. 3 5. This is one half mem ber pow er this mig ht have to be done. but it is
of a dog clutch . The 12 teet h are bei ng cut a good dea l mo re difficu lt and would
with a slitting saw w hich passes across rarely be w orth the trouble. Unless yo u are
CHAPTER 10 the work right on the centre line. Aft er using a we ll-es tablished desi gn for wh ich
each cut . the locking screw was eased . draw ings are available. it is advisable to
the plung er lifted out, th e w heel turned layout the tooth design on the draw ing
five teeth . and t he plunger dropped in boa rd , prefera bly at an en larged scale. to
verify the thickness o f cutte rs w hic h w ill
Dividing Heads
aga in. The spindle was then locked and
the next too th gap cu t. Really a very
simple procedure. Now on the o the r ha lf
produce th e desired result. They may be
the same thickness fo r bo th halves. bu t
member of t he clutc h the teeth have to maybe not . it depe nd s on the thickness of
have pa rallel sides, and the gaps them­ too th selected. It is also a goo d thing to
selves are t aper sided. This just involves avoid an odd num be r of tee th. bec ause
sett ing the cu tt er with its bott om edge the curve of th e cutt er w hen going
above the cent re lin e by half the thi ckn ess through one side may be chew ing int o the
For m any products the use of a divid ing teet h of t he change w heel m ay be badly met al whi ch has to be left int act on the
head is an absolut e necessity. M any ho me dama ged. In fac t w hen do ing th is sort o f of t he teet h left upstanding in th e first
half. T he same procedu re of cutti ng right opposite side to mak e the too t h. If your
workers, especia lly those w it hout any fixing I alw ays diseng age th e plunger, des ign can arrange for an eve n number of
engineering experience, rega rd th em as the n if the screw pad doe s no t hol d. no acr oss is fo llow ed . and afte r six passes th e
job is co m plete. It is feasible. if yo u are teeth this risk w ill be eli m inate d. A not her
mos t myst eriou s devic es. almost border­ damage is done . poi nt is to chec k t hat th e desired number
ing on the occ ult, and say wi thout reall y By selec ti ng a suit able ch ange w hee l it wi lling to t ake the trouble. to make a
clutch w ith all tooth side s t apered. so that of t eeth can reall y be s ecured wi t h the
thinki ng, 'Oh. I cou ld never use one of is pos sib le to get quit e a lot o f divisions dividing head you int end to use.
those !'. We ll , a dividing head is really no very easily. For example a 60 toot h w heel the two halves are ident ical. If maxim um
more than a headstock w ith a spind le on w ill gi ve 2 . 3 , 4 . 5. 6. 10 . 12 . 15 . 20 or 3 0
w hich the wo rk is mou nt ed, w ith some divisions. It w ill no t give 8 . but a 40 tooth
Fig. 3 5 Cutt ing teet h in dog clutch part
m eans o f turn ing it through po sitive w heel w ill do so. W hen doing dividing
angula r amou nts , and holding it there w ith thi s kind of device it is a go od thin g
wh en each movement has been made. t o have a bit of chalk handy and mark the
Nat urally th ere are m any types of div idi ng appropriat e toot h gaps w here t he plunge r
head and over the years many de signs is go ing to have to drop in, before starting
have appeared in M od el Engineer for cu tti ng, to avoi d i nco rrect settings w hic h
heads w hich can be m ade in the home wou ld spoi l the w or k. Ma ny examp les of
w o rksho p. A g r e a t dea l o f qu i t e m achinery parts to w hic h a sim ple head of
sat isfactory work can be done w it h a this kind can be usefull y applied cou ld be
sim ple head of th e typ e shown in Fig. 3 5. given . Suc h it em s as cr ankc ase dr ain or
On the spi nd le, provision is made for filler plugs wh ich need hexagons. square
mou nting a lathe cha nge w heel. A spring­ ends on shafts, tools like ta ps, reamers.
loaded plun ger wit h a conic al poi nt drops pa ralle l fl at s f o r sp anne rs on ro und
into th e gap between tw o teeth of t he art icles, all th ese can be fo rmed so very
w heel, and then the spindle is locked by a easily with an end mil l, w ith less phy sical
screw bearin g on a pad inside the ma in effort than fil in g, and w it h an accu racy
bearing. I t is advisable not to rely on t he w hic h enha nces th e appearance o f th e
plu nger hol d i ng the spi ndl e agai nst arti cl e even if dim ension al accuracy as
rot ation when scre w ing on chucks of suc h is no t im port ant.
w hen fixi ng a co mponen t on an arbor by But there are examp les w here accuracy
me ans of a nut. If the spind le turns, t he is fairly im po rta nt, and on e w hich cou ld

55
54
-Ic 3" ./ M YFO RD DIVIDING HEAD w orm gea red dividi ng head . Whe n moving
from one positio n to the next. always turn
The Myford dividing head is an exce l­ the worm the same wa y, never go bac k. If
lent piece of equ ipment, w ith a very w ide by chance you overshoot t he rig ht hole . of
range of divisions. The main spi ndle has a course you have to t urn back. but go we ll

:0
I
60 tooth worm wheel on it. and a single­
start worm meshes with that. Concent ric
with the worm there is provis ion for
bac k. way beyo nd the hole you want by a
good margin . the n come up to it afr esh. If
you fail to do this you wi ll have an erro r in
mounting a m ult i- holed division plate your dividi ng and a scrapped work -piece.
which remains stationary and does not Our old enem y 'back- lash' wi ll see to that.
rotate w it h the wo rm . On the worm But it' s easy enoug h to avoid th is kind of
spindle is fitted an arm carrying a spring­ disaste r. Th ere is provided on the head a
loaded pl unger wh ich has a po int of most im po rtant aid to co rrect co unti ng of
paral lel shape that ente rs holes in the the number of holes needed w hen turning
1. divi sion plat e . This arm is slotted and can the worm . Tw o brass blades are fitted
16 be set to such a radius as w ill br ing the around the worm shaft . above the divis ion
plunge r in th e right place for any of the plate, and these can be moved relat ive to
row s of ho le s that are already drilled in the one anot her, by loosening a screw, and
plate . H aving set the arm. if one tu rns the set to em brace th e num ber of holes
w orm one w hole turn and drops the needed. Th an afte r lockin g w it h the
plunger bac k int o the same hole fro m screwdrive r, they make a mask to sho w
w hich it star ted , the m ain spi ndle w ill just where the plu nger sho uld be dropped
have rot at ed one sixt ieth o f a turn. But if in . A fter each movem en t you rotate them
on e m ov es t he w o rm and arm fiv e ti ll one blade comes aga inst the plunge r,
comp let e tu rns befo re droppin g in, the and yo u are the n ready (afte r doi ng the
ma in spindle will have turned one tw elft h cutting of cou rse) fo r the next move. In
of a tu rn. Basically. that is all there is to this pa rt of the procedure the two blades
~..j)(6
I I getting any desired number of divisions. move together as if t hey were one piece of
met al.
PIN %x4­ Hav ing got the right division plate on the
head one moves the arm so m any turns,
plus if necessary, a certa in num ber of
STEADY STAND
holes extra to the comp lete turns. A chart
supplied wit h the head giv es all the avail ­ I have found in using the Myford head
141. )( 43 able co mbinat ions. In order to accomplish that it is a convenience to be able to set it
at lath e centre heigh t when fixed on the
all divisions up to 100 it is necessary to
have 4 plates . but two of th ese are needed boring table. If one wants to drill cylinde r
~li- i on ly for some rather out landish numbers covers and simila r work the radius of th e
row of holes can be readily obtain ed by
with whi ch few mode l engineers w ill ever
• 9

,
the cross slide screw and th e measure­

0 ~
...1.."
3 2.
I~

STE A DY STAND fO R
have to deal , so the two normal plates w ill
serve. almost every thing. There is on e
point of practi cal imp ortance in using a
men t is direct. So I have a packing block
of the right thi ckness whi ch I can place
under it for th is purpose.
There is one minor cr it icism of th e
;5' MYFOR 0 Dlv'O'G HEAD Myford head which is never theless impor­
Opposite, Fig. 36 Drawing of st eady stan d for tant from a pra ctical po int of view. Th e
M yford dividing head single bolt wh ich holds it to a machin e

56 57
tab le or vert ica l slide , etc . does on for gripp ing the 1 in. bar o f the head. The
occa sion come a lo ng way from the poi nt various clamp s can be mo ved separately
whe re cu tt ing is being done . and accor­ and make a pretty unive rsal fi tt ing. The
di ng ly there is da nger of the work being wh ole thi ng is shown in use in Fig. 3 7 .
spo ilt by the head slippi ng. To ove rco me Th is fitting of my de sign is no t on the
this I have made up a st eady stand from ma rket , but it has proved so useful to me
mi ld stee l bar m ateria l wh ic h bol ts on t h that I am giv ing a working drawi ng of it in
tab le o f the m ill er, and clamps on the 1 in . Fig. 36 and anybody who likes can make a
overarm ba r of the head. The st and has a unit fo r hi msel f.
vertic al t in. ba r set into a fl at base with
slot for a table bo lt. A tw o-w ay cla mp
OTHER DIVIDI NG H EADS
slides o n thi s vertical bar, and ano ther t
in. b ar passes through it horizont ally. A t Since the last edition of this boo k was
the end of this is a two- plate clam p printed thr ee new divi din g heads have
ripping the t in. ba r, w it h provision also appeared on th e market. The first. of my

Fig. 39 The George H. Thom as Versatile D ividing H ead

Fig. 37 Steady in use on a gea r cu tt ing operation

Fig. 3 8 Author 's design for simple dividing hea d

\\

58 59
own desi gn, rep laces that shown in Fig . nu m bers of divisions to be obtained . Most
35 , lon g out of production after the maker peop le will need some help to m ake t he
die d sever al years ago. It is essentially full est use of thi s device and the book by
similar wi t h detail im provem ents. It has a Geo . Thom as himse lf on its constructio n
ta ilstoc k for suppo rt ing long sle nde r and use, (Dividing and Gra duating , Ar gus
piece s, and a pai r of raising blocks which Books Ltd.) will be fou nd t he best source
bring the cent re height up to just ove r 3 t of infor m ation. Th is head is also ava ilabl e
in. and t hereby all ow fo r rotat ing work up with tai lstock and raising blocks, but in
to the size of the 7 " diamete r Myford normal for m is shown in Fig. 3 9 .
face pl ate. It is shown in Fig. 3 8 . The third head is supplied also in kit
The second typ e is a m uch m o re form by M odel Enginee rin g Serv ices . and
elabo ra t e a n d v e r s a ti le appliance was desig ned by Mr Ron Kibbey. It uses
de sig ned by Mr Geo . T ho m as, and sta ndard Myfo rd cha ng e whee ls as
suppl ied, like t he first one, by N.S. & A. division plates, but has a fork ed lock ing
Hem ingway , 30 Links View , Half A cre, plu nge r whi ch can span ov er a to oth as
Rochdal e. In this head a 24-ho le divisio n we ll as drop be tw een tw o t eeth. Th us the
p late p rov ide s for simple dividing w ith num ber of divi sions in creases to tw ice the
thos e factor s associat ed w ith 24. A 4 0 ­ number of teet h in any w heel. In addition
tooth worm w heel and w or m ca n also be it has a mount ing for a w hee l- pa ir to m esh
engaged, w it h a si x- row dri lled - ha l w ith t he spindle w heel. giving a ge ar ratio
division plat e, giving mu ch fin er di visions. to add to th e basic divisions. It is not at
This plate can be rotated by a subsidiary present prov ided with a tailstock or raising
worm, t hereb y permi tting very high bl ocks. Th e head , w ith ext ra gea r pair in
pos itio n, is show n in Fig. 4 0 .
Opposite, Fig. 40 The Kibbey dividing head

61
CHAPTER 11

Dividing Heads and, I

III

Gearcutting
h ea~
The av ailabi lity o f a di vid ing is again held for co nven ienc e in a bo ring head. It is
essentia l for doing gearcutti ng on the shown in close- up in Fig. 41 . The prof ile
mill ing m ach ine. Of cou rse the re are types w as establi shed by grindi ng to suit a
of gears on e j ust cann ot do, bu t ordinary whee l of the sam e pitch w ith slightly mo re
spur gears can be don e perfectly wel l for teeth. The variation is so sm all as to be of Fig. 4 1 Close-up of fl ycu t ter and pin ion
m od el engi neeri ng purposes . wh ere no im port ance. especial ly as the pi nion
nei the r high speeds . extre m e silence, nor ro t at es at only a lo w speed.
high rate s of pow er tr ansm ission are But if several gears are to be m ade . and
dem anded. The design of gear s is a especia lly if du plicat es may be w ant ed
subj ect outside t he scope of this book, lat er, it can be w orth whil e to invest in one Fig. 42 Gearcutting with Brown & Sharpe cu tter
which is intended to deal with workshop or more prope r disc typ e gear cu tt ers of
ope rat ions. but there are plenty of sources wha t is now universally known as th e
of inf orma t ion on gear design . The simp le 'Brow n & Sh arpe' type, because th ey
ty pe of div idi ng head already illu st rate d we re deve lop ed by th e famous fir m of
w ill serve very w ell if the gears to be cu t Brown & Sharpe in U.S.A. m any years
hav e such a num ber o f teeth as the ago. Th ey are of cours e now m ade by
indexing cha nge w hee ls can deal wi th. Britis h firm s as w ell. and by o th ers all ove r
Bu t if th e num ber requ ired cannot be go t th e w orld . to an accu racy of in tern ational
from exist ing wh eels, t hen a more st and ards . far be tter th an anything th at is
com plex head such as the M yfo rd. w ill be needed fo r model engin eering , and are
needed. Fig. 37 shows th is in use cutti ng prope rly back ed off as w ell as being made
the teeth of a pin ion w hic h are inte gr al f rom high speed ste el. No single cu tt er
with th e shaft. The blank was turne d to t will properl y deal with all num ber of tee th,
in. dia met er on the part t o be held and this so t hey are m ade in set s. ea c ~ cutter
was gripped in the sta nda rd Myford t in. dea ling wi th a li m it ed range . and each
coll et. w hi le the othe r end of th e com po ­ bea rs an ident ify ing num ber. The range
nent bei ng centred wa s support ed by a runs as fo llows:
60 degree centre in the ove rarm fitt ing. No.1 135 to a rack No.5 21 to 25
This picture sho w s the st eady bracke t No. 2 5 5 to 134 No. 6 17 to 20
descr ibed in the last chapter in use. The No.33 5 t05 No.7 14 to 16
cutt er is a simple flycutt er in a boring bar N o. 4 26 to 34 No .8 12 and 13
63
62
Fig. 43 Flyc u tting 10 d.p . gearw heel, fron t view Fig . 44 Fl ycu tt ing 10 d.p . gearwheel, rear view

These cutt ers can be bought sin gly at t eet h are 10 d.p.. approx. 5/ 16 in. cent res. prev ailing. but using this safeguard all avo id damage to m achines and w o rk. as
any tim e fro m regular to ol merch an ts and so qu ite a lot of met al had to be rem oved w ent w ell. w ell as po ssible injury. Fig. 4 3 show s the
I doubt if any disco unt w ould be giv en for at each too th. The cutting w as do ne wi th It is well worth keepi ng in m ind in th e front of th e gear disc. and in this view the
buying a com plete set o f 8. So th ere is no a flvcut ter. grou nd up by hand to match a hom e w or kshop th at th is m ethod of divid ing head is not visibl e. But in Fig. 44
need to go to the expense of acquiring a s i l h o u e tte of a 1 0 d .p . t o o t h i n back-up is wi dely used in the engi neeri ng bo th th e ang leplat e and the dividing head
com plete set unless it is fir m ly kno w n M achinery's H andbook. using a m agnifier, in d u stry . espe c i al ly i n t h e h eav ie r are seen. The gear blank w ould only just
th ere w il l be a use for every one ! Fig. 4 2 this cutter bein g set in a boring ba r of sect ion s, on planing m achines and others swing in the gap of the M yf ord lath e so
shows one of th ese doing a sim ilar job to rather excessive length in a bo ring head. w here t here is eit her high thrust or hig h w ithout raising block s it repres ents about
that depicted in Fig. 37 . The smoother Tw o cuts w ere ta ken, bu t even t hen there im pact,' som etim es both, because it can the largest job that can be t urned .
acti on of the mul ti-tooth ed cu tter made it w as a good deal of spring and noise. Th e
po ssib le to dispe nse with th e use of the shape of the bla nk casting wa s arranged
ste ady stand. though care was taken not to provide for mo untin g by 8 bo lt s on the
to be too roug h wi th the feed. espe cially large Myfo rd faceplat e. (9 in. diamete r!
at th e st art of each cut. and th is wa s fi xed on the m iller t able so as
Going now fro m w ha t m ight be called to ov erhang the side. Tha t pe rm ittgd fixi ng
the sub li me t o the ridiculous. or at leas t a sta ndard ang leplat e on the table too.
from th e m iniature to the outsize . the next just to uchi ng the back o f the facepl at e,
photograp h shows the cutting of a m uch which redu ced t he spring iness of that. and
larger gea r. act ua lly 9 .600 in. p.c.d. This is provided a back -s top against the da nger
a gu nmeta l gear needed as par t of a metal of slipping. It w ould have been asking a lot
patte rn from w hic h the flyw heel of Fig. 20 of the single bolt of the divi di ng head to
was made. It is only 3/1 6 in. thick but the prevent movem ent, und er the co nd it ions

64 65
obtain the maximum swa rf clea rance this A nother example o f the use of the
tap has five flutes. The head has no dividing head, th is tim e cou pled w ith the
tailstock so the outboard end of t he tap is use of a small rotary tab le, is shown in
CHAPTER 12 rested on a pa ir of Picador bloc ks and the Figs. 46 and 47 . The wo rkpiece to be
clamp rests on anoth er pai r. These are produced was a fine too th mill ing cutter
very usefu l acce ssories for mi lli ng opera ­ with a roun d end for routing or hand
tions. Of course each tim e that a flute is m illing on the light alloy cy linder head of a
co mpleted the clam p has to be released car eng ine. The co mmerc ial ly avai lab le

Dividing Heads and bef o re th e wo rk can be rot at ed to the


po siti on for the next flut e. A suitable
cutters for use in ele ct ric drills had such
coarse teet h that once they touched th e
tailstcck. w ere it available, woul d obv iate surf ace of t he alloy t hey we re uncontroll­

Tool Making the need for th is. Th e 5 flu tes are obt ained
by mo vi ng 12 te et h at a ti m e on a 60
able and pulled sideways so vio lent ly that
dama ge to the cylinder head was almost a
tooth wh eel. The cutte r being use d is a ce rt ain ty. So as fine pitch cut t ers
com m ercial t ap-f luting cu tte r pic ked up appea red to be not purchasable it was
T here are many occasions in tool making rough and ready methods j ust w ill not do. cheaply at a sale. These cutters are made de cided to m ake one. The bla nk, of a
w hen divi di ng is nec essary . Multiple and as in the next exam ple the physical w it h a som ew h at lo p- sided ro un d ed carbo n st eel sim ilar to silver st eel but
edged cutt ing too ls like taps. reamers, di ffic ulty o f getting at th e metal that has prof ile speci ficall y for this duty, but if it som ew hat low er in carbon, wa s made to
m illi ng cutters, cou nte rsinks. et c. all really to be taken aw ay mo re or less sett les that had not been available, a flycutt er w oul d hold in a collet and w as give n a sm all
need divi di ng de vi ces to produce the best m echan ica l divi di ng m ust be em ployed . have been gro un d up to the profil e of a recess in t he end for the flut ing cu tte r to
results, eve n th ough so me of th e sim ple Fig. 4 5 show s the fl uti ng of a long-thread simil ar tap. The prof ile is not de sperat ely run into. The div idi ng head , with a 50
cutters can we ll be made by filing or Acm e t ap which is held in a collet in the im por t ant and a sm all error wou ld not to ot h change w heel an its spi ndle . was
free hand gr inding. Howeve r, th e f orm of spindle of a simple dividing head, using matt er. m ount ed on a stee l plat e so that the end
the teet h or flut es som etim es settles that change w heels for the divid in g. In order to

Fig. 45 Flu ting Acm e thread tap Fig. 4 6 Cu t ting teeth of ball -end cu tter

66 67
Fig. 4 7 Close-up of ball-end cutter Fig. 48 Gashing fl ut es in large countersinking tool

of th e wo rk- piece w as beyond th e centre table traversed alon g br inging the cutte r gr ati fyin g rat e. Th e w ork on th e ports in this w as to use a vertical sli de. There was
of t he rotary t able by half its diam et er. In int o op eration cutting along th e cy lindrica l th e alloy head wa s co mp let ed t o the great qu ite a lot of me ta l to be t aken out of the
other w ords , the centre of the ba ll end port io n. Wh en the tabl e was arrested by satisfaction of the user, leaving a beautiful 25 flutes in this de ci ded ly toug h steel , and
was ov er t he centre o f th e rot ary tab le. smooth surfa ce for the gas flo w . as usua l th e cutt ing wa s a lo ng wa y fro m
the te mporary sto p block, the rotary table
T he axis of the work w as on the rot atio n An other exam ple of cutting to ol making the anchorage point, so the st eady stand
wa s turned by means of it s w or m , so t he
cent re. This is no t app arent fro m th e is sho w n in Figs. 48 and 4 9. A large 60 was brought int o use at the back of t he
dovet ail cutt er co ntin ued cuttin g ro und
pho tog raph, but w as an essent ial feature the ball end of th e w o rk. W hen th e culler degree count ersi nk w as need ed for a head, as it proved too diff ic ult t o set it at
of the set- up. A sto p blo ck wa s clamped ran into the recess, the feed w as reversed com mercial operati on on steel tubes, the the sam e side as t he cutt er. Howe ver, it
to th e underside of the m illing m ach ine fi rst wi th the ro t ary table, then wit h the to ol being about 2 -!- in. diam ete r. It wa s served quite w ell in th at position and
table with a to olmaker 's clam p, visi ble in made with an interna l fo rm ide nt ical w it h t her e w as n ev er any su ggest ion of
main t abl e, back to th e st arting poi nt ,
t h e p ho to g raph , to l i m i t t h e ta bl e w her e th e cu tt er w as cl ear of th e w ork the M yford lathe spi ndles from a carb on­ insecurity.
move ment po sitive ly to this posit io n. In sha nk , T he d ivid ing h ead was then ma nga nese ch rom e all o y of known Th e m ain gashes fo r the flut es w ere
the other direct ion the mo vemen t of the identity, so th at subs equent hardening taken out first, w ith two cut s dow n each
indexed one tooth on the w heel. and a
table brou gh t the cutt er to a pa rt of th e coul d be done w ith out risk of failure in a flu t e. Then the head wa s til ted to a new
new cut st arte d, Eventua ll y all 50 cuts
too l shank sm alle r tha n the diam eter at co mmerc ia l e s t ab li s hm en t wit h angl e and another series of cuts take n to
we re co mp leted as shown in Fig. 4 7.
the bottom of the flu te s so th at ind exing
The working ' diamete r of this tool is f knowledge of th is st eel. In t he pictu re it is accomplis h the rel ief. Because of the
could be done w ith th e cutte r in th e clear. sho w n moun ted on the M yford divid ing coni cal shap e of the work the ve rtical slid e
in. and tlgere are 50 perfect te et h. The too l
The cutter used w as a carbon steel one head hav ing th e flut es cu t wi th a specia l had to have it s base set at an ang le to the
w as hardened and tem pered, and w hen
made origi nall y for producing locom ot ive ang le fo rm di sc type cutt er. Beca use of miller table. A ll th ese appa ren tly co m­
put to use in an electric dri ll was fou nd to
lubricator ratchet whee ls, w it h a 60 th e pec uliar angl es w hich are invol ved it plicated setti ngs had to be established
b e ent ire ly sat isfac tory, It worked com ­
degree single angle. W ith the axis of t he was necessary to be able to set the head experi mentally (t houg h pos sib ly w ith a lot
pletel y cha tt er-free, wi th no ten dency to
work parallel to the tabl e a cut was with it s axi s at an incli nat ion to the table, of effort they mig ht have been calcul at ed)
run away, and in spite of its fin e and
started at the requ ired full depth , and the and it proved that the simp lest way to do to give the de sired for m of the cutt ing
sha llo w t eeth , removed metal at a very

68
69
CH A PT ER 13

Dividing Heads and


Graduated Scales
In the co nstructio n of sma ll m achine tools on the Quorn g rinde r. w hic h is becom ing
and access ories it is o fte n de sira ble to more and more popular wi th model
have grad ua te d sca les fo r the co n ­ engi nee rs. Those w ho do no t po ssess one
ve nience of precise measurem en ts, and of these versatile mac hines may have
the cy lindr ical m icrometer dia l is undo ub­ some friend w ho can hel p ou t by grindi ng
Fig. 49 Rear vie w showin g s tea d y stand in use
tedly the com mo nest type . Depe ndi ng on an occa siona l cutter. For my par t I pr efer
the number of graduation s req uired the the rotating cutte r bu t then I do have the
eng rav ing or cutt ing of the li nes can be machine to grind them. W ithout this a
edges of the count ersink and the rake if it had had to be made in a com m ercial done w ith eit her a simp le head or the slo tting tool can easily be ground and if
angles desired in two directions. The sm all factory. worm gea red type . There is a choice rigid ly held w ill also do a good job,
division plate in use is one wh ich had It is ho ped that th ese exampl es of be tween usin g a non-rotati ng cutte r of the Fig. 50 shows a cy lindrica l scale be ing
been made some ti m e pr eviously for doing too l m aki ng wi ll enco urage al l who need pla ning or slott ing type, and usin g a eng raved on the m ill er w ith a rot ating
12 5 div isio n m icrometer dial s. for w hic h non- stan dard t oo ls, and wh o know of no rot at ing cutt er like t hose employed on too l. This is no t a loose co llar, the scale is
unfo rt unatel y the st andard M yford plate s firm th at w ould take them on, or are pantograph engraving m achi nes. In each on the co mpone nt itself. act ually par t of a
do not provide , or did no t at that time. det erred by the high co st of labou r­ case the work is mounted on th e d ividing Quo rn grinde r, but a separate co llar wou ld
How ever, w ith th is set -up and not too int ensive spe cials. Who kn ow s, somebody head and t he table screw is used t o move just be mount ed on an arbor and treat ed
many hours w or k it proved possible with in a home works hop m ight t ake on th e job the work against the too l. It is advisable to in t he same way. Fig. 51 is a close- up of
ho me workshop equipme nt to produce a of hel ping out some tool fact o ry that clamp stops to the table . if the mac hine th is operation ,
very suitable specia l countersink w hich w ould not wa nt to be diverted from its does not have st op devices built in . so as Some art icles need the sca le on a flat
would inev itably have cost a small fortune norm al w or k by job s of this kind? to positively limit the t abl e movement an surface but sti ll in a curve, One of these is
keep the li nes the co rrect length. W he re needed on the Ouorn gri nder, and Fig, 52
there are li nes of mor e than one length on shows this set on a rotary tab le on the
the sam e di al, one or more slip s of she et miller and being dealt with by a rot at ing
metal ca n be inserted in front of the stop cu tte r as the last examp le. The M. E.S.
to obtai n the sho rt lines . The cu tting tool table in the pict ure has a 90 too th worm
can be gro un d to an included angle of w heel. so one revolut ion of the worm
about 50 degrees, Few mode lle rs have gives 4 degrees movement and each
access to an engraving cutter gr inder. division on its 16- line micrometer collar
which is the ideal m achine for grindi ng the gives one quarte r o f one degree , The scale
D-bit type cutters with conica l end w hich being eng raved is one sp ec ified in
are neede d. but t hey can in fact be ground degrees, as it is an ang le-setting scale.

70
71
Fig. 50 Cylindric al ma ch ine com p onent being graduate d Fig. 52 Graduating part- circular arcuat e scale on fla t surface

Fig. 5 T Close-up of previous operatio n Conic al mi cro me te r collars are som etim es th at th e figures are the right w ay up as
requ ired , but they are more diff ic ult to seen in using the scale . The figures m ay
prod uc e and should be avoided in the need to have risin g value . . . 10 , 20 , 3 0
desig ning if at all possible. For graduat ing . . . to the right hand from t he zero m ark,
one of these the dividing head woul d nee d but quite possib ly, depe nd ing on circ um­
to be tilte d aft er th e fashion of th at in Fig , sta nces they may need to be the opposite
48. but poss ib ly in the o ther direction. way. It is as w ell t o get this thoroughly
dependi ng on the actua l de sign of the sorted out before starting to use ma rking
co llar. punches to pu t the figures in. because it
On e po int in ma king scales of any kind. can be very di fficu lt t o retrieve th e situa­
T he fig uring should always be done so tion if th e start was made the wrong wa y.

72 73
article in Model Engineer in yea rs past has miller is a matter of grea t im port ance.
descri b ed met hods fo r maki ng gea r Reference has already been made to t oo ls
cutters of the Brow n and Sharpe type. and I which screw di rect ly on t he spind le nose ,
CHAPTER 14 hav e some of these myself, mad e from and anothe r chapter in this boo k w ill give
plain carbon st eel of abo ut 1% carbon . descriptions of the milling chucks w hic h
Such cutters m ust be run mo re slow ly are currently availab le .
than the high spe ed steel cutters of com ­ It will be foun d that some of the m illers
mercial m ake, but it is possi ble that a at present on offer have spee d ranges

Cutter Speeds for w ide r var iety of tools w il l in fut ure be


ma de in the home w orkshop s, as a bett er
wh ich do not go low enoug h to mat ch the
botto m end of the recom mended speeds
on Table II I. This is un fort unate, bu t it is a
understa nding of too l making and th e con ­

Vertical Milling t ribution w hic h the vertical m iller can


pro vid e com es t o be rec ogn ised . The
fact of life, and one mu st do t he best on e
can w it h it, even it it me ans occasional ly
bor row ing the use of a friend 's machine.
cutti ng sp eeds t o be used with such tools
w ill need to be arranged t o sui t the tool Naturally it w ill t end to in flu ence the
In gene ral I a~ af raid mode l eng ineers do As an exampl e, turni ng back to Fig. 2 0 wi ll m ateri als and the w ork they are doing. decisio n w he n thinking of pu rchasing a
no t have very clear ideas about ho w fast show how eleva ted the surfac e o f the The proper mou nt ing of tools in th e machine.
they should run t heir lath es, drills or w or k is f rom the t able slides, and in th is
mi lling m achines. To run t oo slowly exam ple lo w speed s were esse ntial t o
extends the w or king time unnecessarily, obtai n a reas onably goo d fi nis h.
but to ru n t oo fa st will soo n blunt a cutter Th e rat es of feed and dept h of cut
and may also cause poor w ork finish w hich are co m monp lace on industrial
through cha tter. The wear on m il lin g mach ines are quite out of order in the
cutters (apart from flyc uttersl is quite home worksho p. N ot only are industria l
impo rta nt because of t he trouble of machines heavy and rigid, so are the wo rk
sharpening t hem , and broke n cut ters can holding dev ices, and the work it self is
be qu ite an expe nse. The pri nciples w hich much more robust and rigid. Also, and th is
govern the speeds of cutting metal in app lies particu larly when cu tting stee l,
othe r mac hines such as the lathe and dri ll these machi nes can usually flood the
can be taken as a usef ul guide, in th e cutter with coolant , t aki ng away the heat
sense t hat any speed which an a particular gen erated in t he cutt ing ope ratio n, and
materia l w ill blunt a lathe tool or drill wil l that is no t norm ally possible on m achines
likewise blunt a m ill ing cutter. But on t he in t he ho me wo rkshop . So Table III has
vertical m iller there are other problems been com piled to giv e som e gu idance in
too. Generally t he point of cutting is m uch the kind of opera tions which have been
furth er from the supp ort than that of the described in the boo k. It is based on using
lathe t ool. It wi ll also be a long wa y co m­ speeds w hich wi ll conserve the sharpn ess
pa ratively fro m the spind le bearings. The of the cutters like ly to be used. For flycu t­
work may be m uch furthe r from the te rs, commercially made endrni lls . and
slideways than it wou ld be from the bed of Brown and Sharpe gear cutters, t he tools
th e lathe. Th e cutt ing tool is normally t hemselves wil l be properly hardened high
unsupport ed at it s cuttin g end, and it s speed stee l. Fo r the Woodruff cutters it is
own elasticity is added to that of the based on these being hom e made cutt ers
chuck, spindle , work, etc . So speeds pro duced from carbon stee l or 'silver' st eel
which might be feasible on the lat he may (w hich is a carbon stee l with about 1.2%
well be fou nd much too hig h on the mi ller. carbon and no alloy) . M o re than one

74 75
TABLE III TABLE III (continued )

FLYCUTIING . Flat surfa ces as in Fig. 16, H.S .S. cutters, easily sharpened. KEYW AY CUTIING. With H.S.S. disc cutter Fig. 26 , or slitting Fig. 23 .
Dep th of cut :
Mild steel .0 30 in. (inc hes)
Brass .0 4 5 in. Cutter diameter. 2 2t 3 3 2' 4
Light A lloy .0 60 in. Speeds r.p.m .
(inches) Mild stee l 65 55 45 38 33
Bras s 1 15 95 75 65 55
Diam eter of Light Al loy 190 15 5 125 1 10 95
cu tt ing : 1 It 2 2 l2 3 31 4 4t 5
Speeds r.p.rn.: GEARCUTIING. Commerc ial H.S.S. Brown & Sharpe cutters 2~ in. di am eter. Fig. 42 .
Mi ld Stee l 150 100 75 60 50 45 38 34 30 Speed s r.p.rn.
Brass 2 30 150 1 15 90 75 65 57 50 46 M ild ste el 48
Ligh t alloy 57 0 3 80 28 5 230 190 165 14 5 125 1 15 Brass 80
Light A lloy 11 0
Sp eeds may well be lim it ed by the exten t that sw arf throw n abo u t the workshop can be
accepted. 'Hom e-m ade' cutters prod uced from 'silver steel' ,
(inches)
Cut te r diam eter, 1t 1 2t 2 2}
ENDMILLING . Sp iral fl ute H.S.S. endm ill s. Dept h of cu t up to ~ of cutter d iame te r up
to 3/ 16 in., then up to -i- o f diame ter. Wid th of step be ing cut up to } o f d iameter. Speeds r.p.m .:
(inches) M ild st eel 60 50 38 30
Cutt er diam et er 1/1 6 3/32 1/8 3/16 1/ 14 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 Brass 120 10 0 75 60
Light A llo y 18 0 150 110 90
Spee ds r.p.m .:
M ild steel 18 0 0 15 0 0 12 0 0 800 65 0 450 3 50 2 50 18 0 WOODRUFF KEYWAYS. Using 'hom e- m ade' silver steel cu tters, Speeds may be
Brass 2500 2000 160 0 11 50 850 650 450 350 250 increased by one third for co m me rc ial H,S.S. cu tters.
Ligh t alloy 3500 30 00 2 500 17 00 14 0 0 120 0 9 00 800 70 0 (inc hes)
Cutter diamete r. 1/4 5/ 16 3/8 1/2
KEYWAY CUTIING . H.S.S. spiral flu ted endm ill s or slot dr ills. Fig. 24 . Speeds r.p.rn .:
(inches) M ild steel 380 30 0 250 200
W idth o f keywa y 1/ 16 3/ 32 1/ 8 3/ 16 1/4 3/8 1/ 2 5/8 3/4 Brass 70 0 580 450 3 50
Light All oy 10 00 900 800 650
Depth of cut: (thousand ths of an inch)
Mi ld steel 10 15 25 30 45 70 100 2 00 2 50 Cast ir on, un less excep tiona lly hard, may be cu t at th e same revs . as mi ld stee l, but for
Brass 12 17 27 40 60 10 0 140 250 300 work on carb on stee l ('silve r stee l'). alloy stee ls, and free CU ll ing sta in less reduce revs.
Ligh t alloy 15 18 30 45 65 1 10 13 5 300 3 50 by one third. For non - magnetic stain less reduce by half.

Speeds r.p.rn.:
M ild steel 180 0 1500 120 0 800 65 0 450 350 250 18 0
Bras s 2500 2000 1600 11 50 850 650 450 350 250
Light alloy 3500 3000 2500 17 0 0 140 0 1200 900 800 70 0

76 77
CHAPTER 15

Work-holding with
Difficult Shapes
Pro blem s do arise from time to time industrial p lant stu ck down m et al which
reg ardin g the m eth ods of holding work in had to be to oled all th e w ay ac ro ss th e
the m illing m achine. In fu ll sca le engi neer ­ p iece, on a fal se base w ith woodw ork er's
ing th ese problem s are not nea rly so acut e glue and a sheet of new spaper. A fte r the
as compon ents are m or e solid and clam ps operation s are comp let ed a fine chisel is Fig. 53 Tape- held w orkpiece being fly cut
can be app lied w ith out crus hi ng the knocked in betwee n the part s and the
pieces. Often wi t h model parts it is pape r t ears w ithin its thick ness, so th e
di ff icu lt to ge t a hold sufficien tly fi rm ly pieces come apa rt wit h some pap er
Fig. 54 Three-face ang leplate used to align vee-b lo cks
withou t m ore or less mutil ating the piece. st icking to each . This can th en be washed
One m eth o d I ofte n use bo th for castin gs off w it h hot w at er. Th ere is not hing very
and bar materia l is to arrange fo r an orig inal abo ut t his, of course, it is an age­
accurate chuc ki ng piece to be left on the old pa t ter nrnakers' m eth od of pro duc ing a
co m p one nt unti l all operati o ns are patt ern wh ich has eve ntua lly to be in
co m p lete and th en t o rem ov e th is. hal ves , but it is a sound me t hod not nea rly
Gener all y this p iece is m ade to su it one of' so well known as it sho uld be. Fig. 5 3
the M yf ord coll et s, from t in. diam et er shows a light alloy casting being faced
dow nw ards, since the co lle ts do hold the rig ht across w it h a flycutter, th e cas ting
part w it h great accuracy, and after turn ing bei ng stuck to the t able wi th sticky tape
operations it can be tra nsferred to the and no th ing else.
miller w ith the coll et pl aced in a di viding How ever, t he var io us exampl es give n
head ; even if no indexing has to be done , throughout th e book shou ld serve to show
the head act s as a very effec tive vice. how to undert ake a really wide range of
So me times thi n compo nents prese nt jobs . A t the risk of seemi ng repe titive I
prob le ms i n ho ld i ng on th e m ill ing would agai n st ress th at it is often wort h
m ach ine. If one sid e is already fl at one can w hile to m ak e a ji g fo r hol din g or loc ating
use do ub le- side d sticky ta pe, available th e work , j ust to m ake sure it can be held
from drawing o ff ice supply shops and fi rmly enoug h without da mage in the rig ht
so me stationers. If tw o or three strips can attitude . The ki nd of ji gs and fixt ures
be used , an astonishing ly firm grip can be neede d in m od ellin g seldo m involve mo r
obtained, w hich w ill stand up t o shea r t han a few mi nu tes or pe rhaps an hour to
forces induced by m illing. I have also in an make, and if this safegua rds the co mpo -

78 79
CHAPTER 16

Milling Chucks for


Safe Cutter Holding
Th e newcom er to ve rtical milli ng m ay pro vided w ith a drawba r through the
wo nde r w hy there should be any need for spindle to stop th is ten dency to w ork out.
special ch ucks for m illi ng cutters, and For cutt ing tools w hich in ope rat ion
especially w hen he sees that these are prod uce no end forces that precau tion is
fairly expensive accessorie s. may be suff icient. But all th e spiral fl uted end m ills
tem pte d t o make do w itho ut one. But first and slot dr ills do gene rate end forc es,
of all it is nece ssary to realise th at t he tending to screw t hem out of th e holding
Fig. 55 Three-face ang lepla tes used as m ain p acking force s acti ng upon m il ling cutters in use device. (Strictly speaking this app lies to
are generally quit e diff erent from those cutt ers w ith righ t ha nd rot at ion, like a drill,
act ing on dr il ls in a drilling mach ine or and right ha nd f luting , also like a drill. But
nent , as w ell as t he tool s and m achin e. it an g l e p l a t e s , wh i c h a r e sent out lathe. The drill is usually subject ed, except as it w ould be rem ark able for any othe rs,
is ti m e we ll spe nt. If a duplicate co m po­ unm achined in lig ht alloy, are in three tho ugh m anuf actured, t o be fou nd in a
at the mo m ent of com plet e pe net ration , to
nent is ever neede d that w i ll be produce d sizes very conve nient for use in ho me home wo rkshop , the others can we ll be
axial fo rces on ly , whi ch press it mo re and
exp editiously w it hout risk t oo. wo rkshops and can easily be faced up on m ore firmly in t o t he M orse t aper hole in disregar ded.) So spiral flut ed cutt ers w ill
the M yford lathe bo rin g t able o r faceplat e. the spindle. Eve n if it is held in a drill try t o work ou t of a chuck, if parallel
A n gl eplates Fig. 54 show s on e of th em set across a shanked, and m ust be fo rcibly prevented.
chuck and has a para llel shank, t he sam e
A new type of anglepl at e has been mil ler tabl e t o locat e the tw o vee-block s in It is not good eno ugh to ho ld th em in a
thi ng applies.
int roduced by Hemin gw ay. This has three w hich th e w ork is resting. Fig. 55 show s But th e m illing cutt er is subject ed to thre e-jaw lathe ch uck, especiall y since
faces m achined at 90 degree s to one anot her pai r used as main packing s w it h transverse for ces, across th e axis , and mo st of th ese exert mo re pr essure at t he
ano the r. I have found over many years Picado r st epped blocks o n t op t o give th e unless it is screw ed on the spindle, these in ner end tha n th e out er, through wear
th at cast- in slot s in ang lep lates never last bi t of heigh t adjustme nt for the cl am p forces have a co m p on en t wh ich is existing in the jaw slides, in eff ect givi ng
seem to be in the righ t place fo r any job, pl at es. So many sizes are ava ilab le by them a slight t ape r.
pressing against t he inside of the Morse
and it seems bet t er to just drill a hole selecting di ffer en t atti tu de s of the se blocks tap er hol e, and thereby try ing to cau se the This is w here th e specially des igned
wh ere it happens to be needed. Th ese tha t they are very useful indeed. cutter to slide out of the spindle . Each mill ing chuc k com es int o its ow n. Th ere
ti me t he spindle rota te s the pres sure is are tw o bas ic types, but each is arranged
transferred to the opp osite side of the to grip the cutte r firm ly on it s paral lel
hol e. and this waggles the tool out of the shank by a split coll et clo sed by a screw
spind le. So fi rst of all , any tool mounted thread forcin g the collet into a conica l part
by a t aper shank, whether it is a ch uck or a of the chuck. In addition one typ e uses
solid endm ill w ith taper shank, MUST be cu tt ers formed with a specia l shap ed end ,

81
80
Fig. 5 6 Clare milling chuck

and the ot her typ e uses cu tt ers w it h a collet is no t only retained in the ch uck
sho rt screw th re ad at t he end of t he body by all int ernal ly screw ed ca p w hich
shank. The first of these, the Clare, has a fit s on t he bo dy , b ut is also closed on the
rect angular end fo r the cu tt er, and this shank by it. The co llet screw s int o anot her
end is undercut by m illing. After passi ng it th read in t he cap, which en sures that it
through a rect ang ular slo t in the co llet, the lo osens wh en requi red, a sm all span ner
cutter is turn ed t hro ugh a sm ail angle, so being prov ided by the m akers for t his
the pa rt not und erc ut overhangs the end pur pose. This type of chu ck w ill in fact
of the co ll et, and cannot slid e out. The hold cu tters w hi ch do not have the 'tee'

Fig. 5 7 Clar kson milling chuck Fig. 58 Osborn m ill ing chuck

end, and have jus t a plai n rou nd shank, hand w ithout th e use of a span ner. There
though of cou rse the security feature is is provision w ith each of t hese for using
then non-exist ent . But f or sm all cutt ers 't hrow - aw ay' cutters, w hich are m ade
and light duty it w ill serv e very we ll. cheaply in sizes up to :l- in. These have a
The other type of chuck, m ad e both by plain shank. unsc rewed, of t in . di ameter
Clarkson and Osb orn , uses only a screwed w hate ver the size of th e cutt ing portion.
shan k typ e of cutt er and can not be used w hich has a sma ll flat in one place . They
exc ep t w ith this. Th e screw th read on th e are set in an adapto r w ith a sm all screw at
shan k, w hen subjecte d to the torque the sid e, w hic h bears on the fl at , and t his
necessary to dr ive th e cu tte r, prov ides the is suffic ient to preven t t heir working out of
force t o clos e the collet and th ereby gr ip the chuck. The id ea of th ese cutt ers is tha t
the t ool shank. A cent re device inside t he they are m ade so cheaply that in a com­
bod y engag es w it h t he cen tre dimple in m ercial eng ineeri ng shop it wi ll co st m ore
the end of the cutt er to reduce fr ic tion t o re-sharpen one th an to rep lace it by a
force s that w ou ld hamper rot ation of th e new one . Whe ther or not t hat is really true
cutte r. T h e Cla rkson chuc k needs a will depend on t he par t icula r establish ­
spanne r, provided w it h th e to ol. to release ment in w hich they are being used, bu t in
t he co llet for chang ing cu tt ers. T he the hom e worksho p, if the re is a Qua m
Osborn e uses a finer thread on t he grinder. it will be feasible t o re-sh arpen
sec ur ing sleeve . t oget her wi th some lost the m at a wort hwhile cost in tim e and
motio n provisions. and can be re leased by t roubl e, for a w hile , until a cert ai n amo unt

82 83
of shortening has taken place . these chucks can be fu lly recommended
All the cutte rs with screwed ends to as be ing good precision tools which
suit the Clarkson and Osborn chucks have provide complete security agains t cutte rs
Whitworth form threads 20 pe r inch worki ng out in use. If an accident of tha t
irrespective of diameter. On t in . shanks kind happens due to not having a security
this conforms to B.S .W . and on t in . chuck. a spoiled component is certa in, a
shanks to B.S.F . fo r both of which dies can broken Culler is possible. and I have seen
be readil y obtained . But fo r other this happen on a nu mbe r of occasions, So
diameters, if one needs to make a special do be w arned , and don' t think the cost of
cutter in the hom e workshop. screwing a a proper chuck is too high to face.
shank 20 threads per inc h is no t a difficult Pho t og rap hs of the t hree chucks
task. Making the specia l ends for the Clare men tion ed are shown in Figs. 56 , 57 and
cutlers is not quite so easy in my view. but 5 8 . The Clarkson Autolock chuck shown
the Clare chuck has t he advantages of a here, as we ll as in pictures in the tex t, is
sho rt overhang and a sm aller diam et er of fitt ed w ith a damping ring . A fter the
body, This is part icula rly useful when chuck is fixed in the Mo rse taper, this ring
holding wo rk in a 3 or 4- jaw chuck on a can be scr ewed up to cont act the end of
dividi ng head , when some times it is the mach ine spindle, giv ing extra support
difficult to clear th e chuck jaws. But all aga inst vibrati on.

84
A RNO LD T HRO P wa s an apprentice the n
an Outside Erector w it h the fam ous
engineer s Cole. Marchent & Mo rley.
Brad ford. Yorks. Produc t s : compound
engines to 2 50 0 hp , Uniflows t o 15 00 hp.
Diesel oi l engines, condensers for largest
pow er stations. Lat er he held t echnica l­
adm inist rat iv e po st s i n hig h - t en sio n
swi tc hqear. mi ning m achin ery . st ainless
fabrication. mac hine tools, and m arking
devices. A t his retireme nt he was th e
Dir ector of Engineering, Ed w ard Pryor &
Son. Sheffield.
He has been an I.Me ch .E. in mo unting
seniority over 50 years, serv ing on several
com m itt ees and one of B.S.1. He has read
pap ers t o I.Mech .E. and the Newco me n
Socie ty of w hi ch he is a mem ber. H e has
worked for half a doze n years as demon­
st rator on the W orkshop Stand of S.M. E.E.
at M od el Engi ne er Exhibit io n s, con­
tributed articles to Model Engine er fro m
193 2, and having been in Sheff ield
S.M .E.E. from 193 7 has been it s Presi­
dent fo r. some year s.
Founding Dore Engineering in 19 63 . he
redesig ned Edgar Westbury 's ve rtic al
m ille r and sold it as th e Dore-Westbury
unti l tra nsfe r t o Mod el Engin eering
Services in 19 7 1.
His present interests are sta tion ary
eng ines. wo rkshop equ ipment , gardening
and ph ot ography.

The author

86 87
Index
Divi ding heads and graduated scale s 71
Planing/ slotting and rotating too ls 71
Tabl e stop s and li ne length co ntrol 71
Abwood m illin g attac hme nt 12 Cutti ng/engraving cy lindrical scale 72
Amo lco m i ll i n g atta c h m e n t a nd Cutt ing/ engraving flat arcuate scale 73
machine 21 Con ical m icro m et er dials 73
A ng leplat es M arkin g fig ures of scales right way 73
80
A ng leplate used as backst op 27 , 29 Divid ing heads and tool-m aking 66
Arbors for sli tt ing saw s and disc cu tters 35 Fluting screwin g t ap 66
As tra m illi ng machin e 22 Cutt ing fine tooth m il ling cutter 67
Cutting large co unter sink 69
Boring operation s 45 Specia l di vision pla te. 2 5 hole 70
Bori ng heads D-b it fo r hol e cen tri ng to start dri lls 47
30
Dor e-W estbury m ill ing m achin e 14
Chuc ks, Clare, Clarkson, Osborn 82
Clutch teeth End-ro undi ng :
55
Connecting rods 43 Filing coll ars and rollers 52
Crosshead slides , engine bedp late 30 Using rotary tab le 52
Fittings for rot ary table 52
Divid ing heads . de s cr iption an d Rounding engine cranks 52
principle 54 Direc tion of table rotation 52
Plain typ e. change whe el Lo ck ing pre c auti on s f o r ex te rna l
indexing 55 work 53
Myford w orm -geared type 57 Engine bedpl ate bearing jaw s 33
Use of div ision plat es 57 Engi ne cyli nder solepla te 30
Use of locating blades 57 Evolut ion of ver t ical mi ller 12
Packing block for centre height 57
Steady stand for extra rigidity 56 Flut ing op era t ion s. locom ot iv e rods,
Dividing head s and gear-cutting 62 cor rec t f lut e form 44
Plain type Rods for Briti sh engines 43
62
Pin ion cutting 62 Rod s for Ca nadian and Am erican
Large gea r cutti ng 64 engines 43

88
89
Flywh eel (in halves) joint face 31 Me ntor mi lli ng ma chine 22
Mill ing cutters. mu lti -tooth :
Gear cutt ing 62 Early (19 th century ) 'fil e-cut' cutters 12
Grinder for engraving cutlers and o­ Facemills 30
bits 71 Endm ills 38
Slitting saws 35
Identi fication of cutte rs etc . by mark ing Disc cutters 40
whe n made 42 Woodruff cutt ers 40
Brown & Sharpe cutters 62
J ig-boring : Tap flut ing cutters 67
Meas uring by table screws 46 A ng le cutt ers 69
Wri tten recor d of m easurem ent s 47 M illing cutters, single toot h :
Example of beam for model eng ine 47 Flycutters 27
Trip gear lever of model eng ine 48 Connecti ng rod fluting cutt er 43
Boiler tube pla tes 48 Profi led gear tooth cutte rs 62
Avoidance of back-l ash erro rs 46 Engraving cutters 71
J igs for milli ng opera t io ns 78 Milling operation s:
Flat surf aces parallel
Keyways for pla in sunk keys: to table 32
Endmilling feather keyways on plain Flat surface s square
shahs 37 to table 34
Keyways on taper shafts wi th tilti ng Slitting and cut ti ng 35
angleplate 38 Com ponent flut ing 43
Disc cutter milling of keyways 41 Tool fluting 67
End rounding 52
Gear- cutti ng 62
Locti ting for permanent assembly 27 39
Keywaying
Long com pone nts, holding problems 38. 49
W oodruff keys and
keyw ays 38
Machi ne specifica tions. tab le of 24 Bor ing 45
M axim at milling attachme nt 22 J ig-boring 46

90 91
Profili ng 49 29
Tapered sections
Engraving 71 83
Throw-away' cutte rs
Myford-Rodn ey m illi ng attachm ent and 22
Twin mil ling mach ine
m ach ine 21
Myford co llets 62 27
Vic es. use of tw o tog ethe r
Myford dividing head 57
Westbu ry, Edgar T. 14
Profiling : 14
Westbury m illing m achine
Circular arcs 49 38
Woodruff keys and keyw ays
Locomotive frame s 49
Work holding fo r difficu lt shapes:
Sm okebox and cy linder saddl es 49 Use of chucking pieces lat er
Pad-bolts 49 78
discarded
Sma ll ar c s d er i ved f rom c u rve of Sticky tape fo r t hin art icles 78
end mills 51 Glue and paper for t hin articles 78
Specia lly made jigs for di ff icult
Quo rn grinder for tool sharpe ning 83 78
shapes
Quorn gri nder , parts of 35 ,71

Rota ry tab les 52


Rotary tabl e. M.E.S. 52

Senior milli ng m achine 22


Security of m ill ing cutters :
Forces act ing upon drills and cutters 81
Use of drawbars in machine spindles 81
Positive lock ing of screwed cutters in
ch uck s 82
Posit ive locking of Tee cutters in
chucks 82
Slitting and cutting operations 35
Speeds of m illing cutte rs 74

92 93
e" the pressure's on
4" MODEL
ENGINEER
",on't let

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RHIIQS

WOR HO PRACTICESERIES II I~I3I II'9525


I I ~ 1 ~11001 1 1 1117696
1 1 1 1 1 , 1~11 1 ~ 1 W
6
illi
1. Hardening. Tempering and 8. heet Meta! Work 15. Workholding in the i.athe
Heat Treatment R.E. Wakeford Tubal Cain
Tubal din 9 . Soldering and Brazing 16 . Electric Motor"
2. vertical Milling in the Homo Tubal Cain V.1. Cox
Workshop 17. Gears and Gear Cutting
10. Saws ami SawlI1g
Arnold Th rop I. Law
Ian Bradley
J . Screwcutting in the Lathe 18. B""ic Benchwork
Milflin Cleeve 1 I . Electroplating
Les Oldridge
4 . Foundrywork tor the Amateur
I. Poyner
19. Spring De'ign and 1\t.mutocture
B. T. Aspin 12. onn« is» ,md Dies Tubal ain
5. Milling Operations in the Lathe Tubdl Cain
20 . Mt't,l/work and Mac hining
Tubal Cai n I J . Wor kshop Drawing Hint and Tip«
6. Measu ring and Ma rking Meta/~ Tubal Cain Ian Bradley
Ivan LdW 14 . Mak ing mall Workshop 21. Adhes ives and Sea lants
7. The Art of Welding Tools Da vid Lamm as
W.A. Vause S. Bray

2. Vertical Milling in the Hom W orksho


The increasing appearance of vertic, I mil lin g machines in model
engineers' and other small workshops has brou ght the versatilit y of thi s
type of machine to the notice of a large and growing group of pot ntial
users, but until the fi rst edition of the book wa s publi shed in 197 7 there
w as little easily available guidance for the average am ateur or small user.
This third , revi sed ed itio n incl udes descriptions of many of the very w ide
range of op erations possible, wi th photograph ed examples, plus infor­
mat ion on machines, acce sories, cutters, chucks, r quirement s and
methods of work-holdi ng.
Arnold Throp enjoyed a long and successful engine ring care r
starting with very larg steam and oil engines and including high tension
sw itchgear, mining machinery and machine tool s. He has a hi eved over
55 years' membership of the Institute of M echanical Engineers.

ISBN 0-8 5242-843-X

I I

£6.50 net UK
IIII II1
9 78 085 2 428 436
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