Prelab
For each problem below, show all the calculations. Don’t just run the simulations.
1) Design an inverting amplifier with a gain of 20. Use R1 = 5.1k ohms. Simulate the above circuit in
Pspice for an input of 0.5V amplitude, 1KHz sine wave and obtain plots of input and output on the
same plot. Repeat for a 4V amplitude input. Report the value of R2 that you used in your design.
2) Design a noninverting amplifier with a gain of 8. Use R1 = 5.1k ohms. Simulate the above circuit in
Pspice for an input of 1V Amplitude, 1KHz sine wave and obtain plots of input and output on the same
plot. Repeat for a 3V amplitude. Report the value of R2 you used in your design.
3) Simulate the circuit given in Figure 54 in Pspice and obtain plots of input and output for an input of
1V amplitude, 1KHz sine wave. Follow the exact procedure in the lab manual for part 4) single supply
amplifier design. Simulate the potentiometer by using two resistors (to obtain the voltage division
function) whose sum is always 1M. Adjusting the potentiometer has the same effect as changing the
values of the individual resistances and yet keeping their sum constant at 1M. For a 20% extra credit,
show by means of calculations, the exact values of the two resistances simulating the potentiometer.
4) Read up on how to measure the resistance of an active circuit.
Background
The primary use of the operational amplifier is as a small signal amplifier. By using feedback,
operational amplifiers can be designed to have a wide range of gains. From the previous lab, it was shown
that the opamp draws very little current into its inputs. This means that the input impedance looking into
the inverting and noninverting inputs is very large. It was also seen that the openloop gain was very
large. Assuming the openloop gain is infinity, we can show that the voltages at the inverting and non
inverting terminals should be approximately the same at all times. Because of this, we say that the two
terminals "track" each other. Based on these assumptions, a simple procedure for opamp analysis can be
formed.
Once an opamp is integrated into a circuit, it can be easily analyzed through the following steps:
• Write the node equation at the inverting terminal.
• Write the node equation at the noninverting terminal.
• Set the voltage at the inverting terminal equal to the voltage at the noninverting terminal.
• Solve for the gain.
Inverting Amplifier
One of the most common operational amplifier designs is the inverting amplifier (See Figure 51). This
amplifier can be analyzed be using the above procedure. (Remember, no current flows into the opamp
terminals.
1) (v  Vin)/R1 + (v  Vo)/R2 = 0
2) v+ /(R1R2) = 0 so v+ = 0
3) Since v+ = 0 then Vo/Vin = R2/R1
So the gain of this amplifier is Vo/Vin = R2/R1. This means that the gain is completely determined by the
external resistors as we expected. The negative gain implies that there is a 180 degree phase shift between
the input and the output. It is for this reason, that the amplifier is called an inverting amplifier. This
amplifier has an input resistance of approximately R1.
R2
R1
Vin

R1R
Vo
+
R1

R1R2
Vo
Vin +

Vo
Vin +
Procedure
1) Inverting Amp
a) Using the values calculated in your prelab, construct an inverting amplifier with a gain of 20.
Power the opamp with + 15V and 15V. (See Figure 51)
b) Apply a 0.5V amplitude, 1kHz sinusoidal input signal to the amplifier. Display Vin and Vo at
the same time. (They need to be displayed simultaneously so that you can see the phase shift
between them.). Capture these two waveforms. The phase shift measurement must be turned on
and the peakpeak measurements must be turnd on.
c) Report the values of Phase Shift and Gain.
c) Increase the input voltage until distortion occurs at the output. Record the input voltage and
capure the distorted output waveform. Report the input at which this occurs.
d) Set the input to 2V amplitude and place the scope in XY mode. Make sure that Vin is on
channel 1 and Vo is on channel 2. This is the characteristic curve for the amplifier. Take the
printout of the curve and measure the slope of the line. (Be sure you are using DC coupling.).
You must capture the waveform with the cursors at the right place.
e) Now just interchange the connections to the inverting and noninverting terminals of the op amp
and observe what happens. Capture the output waveforms. What has happened? Capture the
waveforms at both the +/ terminals (2,3 of the opamp) on the same frame. Notice anything
amiss?
f) Perform the experiment to calculate the input impedance of this amplifier. The TA will
demonstrate the procedure on the white board.
2) NonInverting Amp
a) Construct the noninverting amplifier designed in the prelab. (See Figure 52)
b) Apply a 1V amplitude, 1kHz sinusoidal input signal to the amplifier. Display Vin and Vo at the
same time. (They need to be displayed simultaneously so that you can see the phase shift
between them.) Capture the image. The phase measurement and peakpeak measurements must
be turned on.
c) Report the phase shift as well as gain.
c) Increase the input voltage until distortion occurs at the output. Record the input voltage and
capture the distorted output waveform. Report the voltage at which this distortion occurs.
d) Set the input to 4V Amplitude and place the scope in XY mode. Make sure that Vin is on
channel 1 and Vo is on channel 2. Capture the curve and measure the slope of the line. The
waveform must be captured with the cursors in the right place.
e) Now interchange the connections to terminals 2 and 3. Report what happens. Also capture the
waveforms at the +/ input terminals(2 & 3) of the opamp on the same frame. Do you notice
something amiss?
3) Source Follower
a) Construct the source follower amplifier in Figure 53.
b) Apply a 2Vpp, 1kHz sinusoidal input signal to the amplifier. Display Vin and Vo at the same
time. (They need to be displayed simultaneously so that you can see the phase shift between
them.). Turn on the phase shift and peakpeak measurement. Capture.
c) Then increase the frequency till you see some appreciable phase shift (maybe 5%), or till the
output waveform distorts.
d) Report this frequency and take the printouts.
50K
Vin

Vo
+15V +
1M