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Е. Е. Осетрова

Английский язык
Функциональный и
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Цель пособия — формирование и развитие навыков письменного пе-
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© Е. Е. Осетрова, 2005 ©
«Восток - Запад», 2005

§ 1. Письменный перевод с английского языка

Лексическая тема: Talks.................................................4

§ 2. Развитие навыков письменного перевода

с английского языка
Лексическая тема: Compromise and Deadlock..............15

§ 3.Развитие навыков письменного перевода

с английского языка. Письменный перевод
с русского языка
Лексическая тема: Conflicts..........................................25

§ 4. Развитие навыков письменного перевода

с английского языка и с русского языка.
Перевод с листа с английского языка
Лексическая тема: Hostilities.......................................37

§ 5 Развитие навыков перевода с листа

с английского языка
Лексическая темаЛЬе Peace Process............................48

§ 6. Revision.........................................................................61

§ 7. Supplementary Reader.
Extracts from "Key words in the media"
by Bill Mascull...............................................................70
§ 1. Письменный перевод с английского языка
Лексическая тема: TALKS

1. Translate the articles with the help of the Active Vocabu-

lary list.

1. Peace Talks to Proceed

New Delhi, India (Reuters) — India and Pakistan will hold
peace talks next week in New Delhi despite the political crisis
threatening Prime Minister D. G., Foreign Minister I. K. G. said
G. said he would meet his Pakistani counterpart, G. A. K.,
during and after a meeting of foreign ministers of the Non-
aligned Movement, set for April 7 to 8.
Foreign secretaries of the two countries held four days of
talks that broke a three-year stalemate and ended on a positive
note last Monday when they agreed to hold a subsequent round
in Islamabad.
2. A leading american envoy pulled out of the talks on the
long-delayed Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank city of
Hebron last night.
D. R., the American Middle East peace negotiator, said he
was-returning to Washington and would return only if the Is-
raelis and the Palestinians needed his services.
His departure was seen as US pressure on both sides to re-
solve their differences and seal the agreement so that Israeli
troops can start leaving the last Palestinian city they still occupy
by next month's American presidential elections.
3. Seoul, South Korea. Eager for more outside assistance in
the face of famine, North Korea said Friday it will attend pre
liminary peace talks in New York.
§ 1. Talks 5
North Korea has never before agreed to peace talks directly in-
volving rival South Korea, which it calls a U.S. puppet. And Fri-
day's announcement was a measure of its desperate need for aid.
The North's agreement came after South Korea and the
United States promised S16 million in food aid and Seoul held
out the carrot of much more help if the talks are fruitful.
4. Seoul. South Korea on Thursday shrugged off as a tempo
rary setback a decision by North Korea to cancel talks with the
United States on missile proliferation.
The South said it was still preparing for four-nation peace
talks designed to end a state of war on the Korean peninsula and
expected the North to attend those discussions in New York in
Pyongyang pulled out on Wednesday from the missile talks
with Washington, demanding the return of two of its top diplo-
mats who sought refuge in the United States.
5. Asian Security Talks. Almaty, Kazakhstan (AFP) — Of
ficials from 16 Asian and Middle Eastern countries were gather
ing in the Kazakh capital Monday for a week of talks on estab
lishing a body to boost security across the region.
Diplomats and officials were due to agree upon a joint decla-
ration that would serve as a charter for an embryonic Asian se-
curity body, the Conference on Collaboration and Confidence
Measures in Asia.
The joint declaration is expected to define the principles to
which signatories must adhere. But unlike the Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe, the question of human
rights will not be included in the charter, one Kazakh official
6. China, Taiwan Visit. Beijing (AP) — Taiwanese and
Chinese intermediaries worked Monday on arranging a visit to
the island by Beijing's top negotiator in an effort to restart talks
suspended since 1995.
Taiwan presented two possible dates for China's W. D. to
visit this fall, said J. J., deputy secretary general of Taiwan's
6 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
Straits Exchange Foundation, which handles contacts with
China. Beijing will decide on the dates later, J.'s Chinese coun-
terpart, L. Y., told reporters.
China also plans to hold a forum in late August on relations
between Beijing and Taiwan, L. said. Senior Taiwanese states-
men responsible for Chinese contacts and scholars will be in-
vited, L. said.
The two sides did not set an agenda for W.'s visit to Taiwan
to meet his counterpart, К. С But L. said there would be no re-
strictions on the topics to be discussed.
7. The chancellor, H. K, hopes to iron out some of the dif-
ferences between the two countries when he meets President
J.C. in Perigueux in the Dordogne today and again in Paris on
Tuesday. The two leaders are due to hold their regular Franco-
German summit in Nuremberg on December 9.
8. Seoul. North and South Korea on Tuesday edged closer to
holding their first bilateral talks since 1994 after Seoul said it
would accept Beijing as the venue for talks.
"It has not been finalized but the talks will most likely be
held on Saturday in Beijing", said P. W. H., spokesman for the
South Korean Foreign Ministry. He said Seoul would accept
Pyongyang's request to set Beijing as the venue.
On Saturday, Pyongyang suggested that direct talks between
the two Koreas be held April 11 in Beijing to discuss fertilizer
aid and other issues.
South Korea had responded that it would prefer that the talks
be held on the Korean Peninsula, but the North reaffirmed Bei-
jing as its preferred site.
President K. D. J. of South Korea has made it clear since the
start of his term that inter-Korean relations would be expanded.
He said business and political issues between the two Korean
would be kept separate.
9. Israel's foreign Minister D. L. said Tuesday his country
was ready to resume direct peace talks with Syria "at any time,
at any level".
§ 1. Talks 7
"We hope that very soon the first step with Syria will come",
L. told reporters at an airport in Amman after talks with Jorda-
nian leaders.
"We leave it open to the Syrian side at which level, at which
hierarchy, at which time" talks would be resumed, he said.
10. Korea Talks: The United States and North Korea
ended high-level talks in Geneva without an agreement on in-
spection of Pyongyang's suspected construction of an under-
ground nuclear facility. Kim Kye Gwan, the leader of North
Korea's delegation, said that the two sides agreed on the ne-
cessity of resolving questions about the suspected nuclear fa-
cility at Kumchangri. But he said differences remain on what
should be done.
11. Israel and the Palestinians agreed to accelerate peace
talks, but a senior aide to Israeli Prime Minister B. warned that
the sides may still miss a Feb. 13 deadine for an outline of a fi-
nal peace treaty. Cabinet Minister H. R. cautioned that despite
the decision to pick up the pace of talks, made in a pre-dawn
meeting between B. and Palestinian leader A., the framework
agreement may be delayed up to two months.
12. Officials seeking a permanent peace for the divided
Korean peninsula said they have removed the last obstacles to
fullblown talks. Delegates from the U.S., China, North Korea
and South Korea said Saturday that two working groups will
be formed to discuss ways to reduce tensions between the
neighbors and to establish mechanisms for maintaining

Active Vocabulary

1. to hold talks проводить переговоры

round of talks раунд переговоров
counterpart . коллега, лицо, занимающее такой
же пост
8 Английский язык.. Общественно-политический перевод
Foreign secretary министр иностранных дел
stalemate мертвая точка, безвыходное

2. envoy посланник
to pull out of talks выйти из переговоров
negotiator участник переговоров
differences разногласия
to resolve differences разрешить разногласия
n. resolution
an agreement/agreement соглашение, договор /

3. to attend talks участвовать в переговорах

preliminary talks предварительные переговоры
. rival fruitful соперник, противник
talks плодотворные переговоры
announcement заявление

4. to cancel talks отменить переговоры

discussions переговоры

5. joint declaration совместная декларация

signatory сторона, подписавшая
какой-либо документ
the Organisation for
Security and Cooperation
in Europe (the OSCE)
6. intermediary
to arrange a visit посредник
to restart talks договориться о визите
to suspend talks возобновить переговоры
to set an agenda for a visit приостановить переговоры
определить повестку дня
§ 1. Talks 9
7. to iron out differences устранять противоречия
to hold a regular summit провести очередную встречу
на высшем уровне

8. bilateral (unilateral, двусторонние (односторонние,

multilateral) talks многосторонние) переговоры
site of talks/ место проведения переговоров
venue for talks
direct talks прямые переговоры
issue вопрос, проблема

9. to resume talks возобновить переговоры

10.high-level talks to переговоры на высшем уровне

agree on sth договориться о чем-либо
agreement on sth договоренность о чем-либо
11 .to accelerate talks,
to pick up the pace of talks ускорить переговоры
framework agreement рамочное соглашение
deadline крайний срок
12.to seek (sought, sought) добиваться, стремиться
to remove obstacles to устранить препятствия
reduce tensions . to уменьшить напряженность
maintain peace поддерживать мир
2. Find the English equivalents of the following word com-
binations in the articles of this section (the number of the
article is given in brackets).

Движение Неприсоединения (1), вывод войск (2), откла-

дывать, задерживать (2,11), неудача (4), распространение
(4), искать убежище (4), развивать, способствовать росту
(5), хартия, устав (5), меры по укреплению доверия (5),
Н)___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

придерживаться принципов (5), заместитель кого-либо (6),

государственные деятели (6), представитель, пресс-сек-
ретарь (8), расширять отношения (8), помощник (11).

3. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the under

lined words. '

1. Secretary of State M. A. will meet with Israeli and Syrian

counterparts at a UN session in New York and take written
statements outlining their starting positions for talks. The news-
paper said A. will keep the statements unpublished until talks
2. Taiwan's foreign minister, J. C, will go to South Africa
within a week for emergency talks. Mr. С said Friday that he
would meet with senior officials "in hopes that bilateral ties can
remain unchanged".
3. The official reception was polite but cool, with members
of the Cabinet ruling out any question of the European Union
dispatching its own Middle East envoy, as M Chirac had earlier
4. The atmosphere was "comprehensive and relaxed", ac-
cording to an Israeli official. But gloom surfaced when it
emerged that, while talks were cordial, nothing had been de-
5. Palestinian and Israeli negotiators met yesterday to set an
agenda for talks on further implementation of the Oslo peace
accords, including the long-delayed withdrawal from the West
Bank town of Hebron.
6. In a week that saw the first high-level contact in years be-
tween Armenia and Azerbaijan, leaders of both countries said
they were eager to resolve an ethnic conflict threatening to ig-
nite the Caucasus.
7. The Catholics would seek support from the Prime Minis-
ter B. A. of Ireland, while Protestants look to Mr. BlaiF to argue
for them.
§1. Talks 11
8. President C.'s Mideast envoy failed to resolve an unex-
pected dispute between Israel and the Palestinians over what
was to have been a routine troop pullback from the West Bank
of the Jordan River.
9. The Palestinians have said they would not resume talks
until Israel stopped work on the Jewish neighborhood.
10.J. Z. and B. Y., meeting in an amiable atmosphere for
their third summit in 20 months, settled a decades-old border
dispute and supervised signing of agreements in trade and pro-
tection of rare manchurian tigers.
ll.W. C, the US defence secretary, said yesterday that the
US had ironed out differences with Germany's center-left gov-
ernment over NATO's nuclear strategy.

4. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the list given
below. Translate the article into Russian.

to resolve differences, negotiations, withdrawal, to resume

preliminary talks, to set up peace talks, to hold future negotia-
tions, to break off, agenda, Deputy Foreign Affairs Minister, is-
sues, to reach agreement, the head.


Washington — The effort by the United States, China and

the two Koreas (...) aimed at formally ending the Korean War
(...) unexpectedly after failing (...) over which topics those
talks would cover, including the future of 37,000 U.S. troops in
South Korea.
It was a setback to the long, tortuous effort by the United
States to entice the North Koreans into (...) to replace the fragile
armistice that has held on the Korean Peninsula since 1953.
After a third day of meeting Thursday at Columbia Univer-
sity in New York City, the four countries could only (...) on the
(...) that officials described as the least contentious. They
12 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
agreed (...) in Geneva six weeks after the current preliminary
meetings end, according to administration officials.
The delegations failed to resolve sharp differences over (...)
for the talks, as North Korea insisted that any further discussions
focus on (...) of U.S. troops.
(...) of North Korea's delegation, (...) K. G. G., said his
country had also insisted on negotiating a separate peace with
the United States that would exclude South Korea, something
Washington has repeatedly ruled out.
The United States, joined by South Korea and China, had ar-
gued that the agenda should deal with the broader issue of estab-
lishing peaceful relations first, the officials said, speaking on
condition of anonymity. The four countries agreed (...) in New
York City starting Sept. 15.

5. Replace the Russian words with their English equivalents

in the necessary form.


BEIJING — President J. Z. (проведет переговоры по

вопросам безопасности) with the leaders of Japan, South Ko-
rea and Southeast Asian nations in December, a Chinese
(представитель МИД) said Thursday.
(Представитель), S. G., gave no details of what appeared
likely to be (неофициальная встреча на высшем уровне)
among East Asian powers at a time of (интенсивная
дипломатическая активность) in the region.
Leaders of South Korea, Japan and China (будут присут-
ствовать на) the Malaysian gathering, which will be the first
time so many East Asian leaders meet without (участие
§ 1. Talks 13
Mr. S. said Mr. J.'s talks with the leaders of Japan, South
Korea and Southeast Asia (о поддержании мира и безопас-
ности в регионе) would be held in December, but declined to
provide details.
His comments follow a flurry of (дипломатические обме-
ны) over the past several weeks, (включая встречи на высшем
уровне) between China and the United States, China and Rus-
sia, and Russia and Japan.
Mr. S. also indicated that China was ready (расширить
диалог по вопросам безопасности) with Japan, Russia and the
United States.
He was alluding to a proposal made by Y. N., (бывший
премьер-министр Японии), to Prime Minister Li Peng in To-
kyo on Wednesday that China engage in four-way security talks.


New Delhi, India— Indian and Pakistani diplomats (про-

вели двухчасовые переговоры) Friday, their first in three
years, to try (уменьшить напряженность) on the subcontinent.
(Делегации, возглавляемые министром иностранных дел
Индии) S. H. and his Pakistani (коллегой), S. A., met in an ap-
pearantly (сердечной атмосфере) at Hyderabad House in New
Delhi. The two sides have agreed (поддерживать, соблюдать) а
virtual news blackout until Monday, when the talks are due to end.
"We had (официальные переговоры) followed by (неофи-
циальные переговоры). We discussed all topics", H. told report-
ers after the session. "The atmosphere was (дружественная), and
we are very hopeful something will emerge from it."
The arch (соперники) (возобновили диалог) that collapsed in
January 1994 over the disputed Himalayan territory of Kashmir.
For Pakistan, Kashmir remains (главный вопрос), but India
is hoping for progress on (торговое и экономическое сотруд-
ничество) as a means of (ослабление напряженности).
14___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

6. Translate the headlines.



7. This chart contains some of the geographical names men-

tioned in the articles and assignments of this section.
Supply the missing words.

The name of adjective the capital city

the country
The United States
Tel Aviv

8. Find an article on the topic Talks in a current newspaper

and report it in class.
§ 2. Развитие навыков письменного перевода
с английского языка Лексическая

1. Translate the articles with the help of the Active Vocabu-

lary list.

1. Last night angry Palestinian negotiators walked out of

Jerusalem peace talks in protest at the attitude of Israeli dele-
gates, which they described as that of "occupiers towards the
occupied", PLO officials said. The walkout followed an earlier
announcement by D. R., a US peace envoy, that he was going
home, having failed to achieve a breakthrough in Israeli-PLO
talks on Hebron after 15 days.

2. US Envoy Quits Peace Talks. The American special en-

voy D. R. pulled out of slow-moving Israel-PLO peace talks
yesterday, writes D. B. in Jerusalem.
The two sides are still deadlocked on Israel's promised with-
drawal from Hebron. Israel wants to renegotiate the agreement,
signed by the last government. But the Palestinians insist that
the deal must be implemented, unchanged.

3. IRA Concession: The Irish Republican Army said it tends

to open negotiations with Northern Ireland's disarmament
commission, a significant gesture in support of the Good Friday
peace accord. The outlawed organization emphasized, however,
that it wouldn't meet the commission until a int Protestant-
Catholic administration for Northern Ireland appointed. The
much-anticipated announcement has been the subject of intense
negotiations during the past 11 weeks of discussions mediated
by U.S. diplomat G. M.. It is designed to break the deadlock be-
• Jj>___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

tween the Ulster Unionists, the province's major British Protes-

tant party, and IRA-linked Sinn Fein party.

4. A. Stiffens Stance. Ramallah, West Bank (AP) — Pales

tinian leader Y. A. insisted Thursday that Israel carry out the
provisions of the Wye River land-for-security agreement to the
letter and denied reports that he might accept some changes.
A.'s comments came a day after Israeli and Palestinian nego-
tiators tried to work out a detailed timetable for the accord under
which Israel must hand over a total of 13 percent of the West
Bank in three stages over three months.
The Wye agreement, signed last October, includes a week-
by-week schedule for steps to be taken by the two sides.
5. Fears of fresh violence in the Middle East increased
yesterday after the deadlocked Hebron talks degenerated into a
shouting match between the president of the Palestinian Author
ity, Y. A., and the United States envoy, D.R.
According to Palestinian sources, Mr. A. told Mr. R.: "We
have made enough concessions. My people will not agree to
This is not the first time the Hebron talks have been on the
verge of collapse, Israeli and Palestinian negotiators had previ-
ously announced they were close to agreement, but yesterday, as
before, last minute hitches prevented the signing of a deal.
6. The U.S. and its European allies suspended the Kosovo
talks until March 15.
The decision was taken after members of the Contact Group
on Kosovo admitted that despite "substantial progress", they had
failed to get the warring Serbs and ethnic Albanians to sign a
settlement. British Foreing Secretary R. C. said that both sides
had reached "a very substantial level of agreement" on an
autonomy deal for Kosovo, but that they needed more time to
"pin down the details". The main breakthrough after 17 days of
intense negotiations in a chateau outside Paris was to get the Al-
banian delegation to agree to sign a peace plan at a later date.
§ 2. Compromise and Deadlock 17
7. British Prime Minister B. said progress towards peace in
Northern Ireland was at an impasse but that he remained opti-
mistic difficulties could be overcome, in the first ever speech by
a British premier to an Irish parliament.

8. U.N.'s Annan Faces High Expectations. After grateful

Palestinians received him like a savior, U.N. Secretary-General
Kofi Annan faced the last and possibly toughest challenge of his
Middle East mission: persuading Israeli leaders to show greater
flexibility in efforts to revive the peace talks. Annan was to
meet with Prime Minister B. N. and Defense Minister Y. M..
Palestinian leader Y. A. said he hopes Annan can break the Is-
rael-Palestinian deadlock as he did the U.N.-Iraq deadlock, but
Annan tried to lower those expectations. "In the final analysis,
the parties have to talk, have to negotiate, have to make the
compromises necessary", he said. Israeli President E. W. told
Annan, "I sometimes used to call the area the "Muddle East". I
hope you will help us unmuddle it". But Annan is not expected
to play a major part in moving forward the stalled negotiations.
More central to the process is U.S. special mediator D. R., who
will have to travel to the region today.
9. Somali Warlords Vow To Restore Peace, Stability.
Two leading Somali warlords on Tuesday pledged to restore
stability in their country in line with a peace agreement struck in
Egypt in December. H. M. A. and A. M. M., in a message to the
Arab League, also appealed for urgent financial assistance that
they said is needed to convene a national Somali reconciliation
conference. Somali factions say they need 4.5 million of dollars
to convene the Baidoa conference. Arab League Secretary Gen.
E. A. M. meanwhile urged the foreign ministers to provide So-
malia with the necessary assistance. Somalia has had no legal
government since the overthrow of the dictator Mohamed Siad
Barre in January 1991.
10. Korean Peace Talks Hit Trouble. Four-country talks in
Geneva on a peace treaty to put a formal end to hostilities on the
18__________Английский язык. Общественно-политический

Korean peninsula have run into "serious difficulties", the Chi-

nese chairman said yesterday.
The talks were adjourned until late last night to enable the
North Korean side to seek further instructions from Pyongyang,
but China's assistant foreign minister, C. J., said it was not cer-
tain that a new round of talks would be called.
"I think these difficulties come from both sides", he said, re-
ferring to the two Koreas. "This has always been the case". Dip-
lomats close to the talks said deadlock remained over how to set
up an inter-Korean working group to agree ways of moving the
process forward.

11. Likud Talks Collapse. Jerusalem (AP)— Coalition

talks between E. B. and the hard-line Likud party broke down
Monday, signaling a dovish path for the government B. must set
up by next week.
B. ousted the Likud in May 17 elections and pledged to re-
vive stalled peace talks with Israel's Arab neighbors, at the same
time describing the Likud, the second-largest party, as his natu-
ral partner in government. He said the Likud's imprimatur on
any peace agreement would lend it weight.
That ended Monday when talks broke down amid mutual re-
criminations. Former Foreign Minister A. S.'s party walked out
of negotiations after Barak refused to compromise on peace is-

Active Vocabulary

1. to walk out of talks выйти из переговоров

п. a walkout
to achieve a breakthrough добиться прорыва

2. deal договор, соглашение

to implement sth претворять в жизнь,
п. implementation
§ 2. Compromise and Deadlock 19
3. concessions уступки
v. to concede уступать
to mediate выступать в роли посред-
n. mediator посредник
to break the deadlock преодолеть тупик

4. to stiffen one's stance ужесточить позицию

to carry out provisions
of an agreement выполнять положения до-
говора соглашение план,
accord график планировать,
schedule v. to намечать
идти на уступки быть
5. to make concessions на грани срыва
to be on the verge of collapse
6. ally урегулирование, соглаше-
settlement ние

v. to settle a conflict, a dispute прийти к согласию

to reach agreement
быть в тупике
7. to be at an impasse
возобновить переговоры
8. to revive talks
n. revival сторона
party зашедшие в тупик перего-
stalled negotiations воры

v. to stall
восстановить мир
9. to restore peace заключить мирное согла-
to strike a peace agreement шение
20_________ Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

to convene a conference созвать конференцию

reconciliation примирение
to urge smb to do sth призывать к.-л. сделать ч.-л.
to appeal for sth призывать к ч.-л.

10.four-country talks переговоры с участием

четырех стран
talks on sth переговоры по вопросу о ч.-л.
hostilities военные действия
to adjourn talks переносить переговоры
to call a new round of talks назначить новый раунд
11.to collapse
to break down провалиться (о переговорах)
to oust сместить с поста, отстранить

2. Find the English for the following word combinations

used in the articles of this section (the number of the arti
cle is given in brackets):

Вялотекущие переговоры (2), насилие (5), интенсивные

переговоры (6), преодолевать трудности (7), гибкость, ус-
тупчивость (8), давать обещание, клясться (9), свержение
диктатора (9), учреждать, основывать (10).

3. Translate the sentences, paying attention to the under

lined words.

1. During the summit, the 54-member OSCE is expected to

amend its charter to add a provision establishing the organisa-
tion's right to become involved in trying to settle a conflict
within a nation, provided that country sought help.
2. "These generous and visionary statements represent a fur-
ther important steps towards resolution of the impasse over the
§ 2. Compromise and Deadlock 21
full implementation of the Good Friday agreement", Irish For-
eign Affairs Minister DA. said.
3. The White House's chief objective is to prevent a humili-
ating collapse in the talks.
4. The central idea which emerged from these talks was that
any security arrangement on the Golan should be "mutual": that
is, that both sides would have to make concessions.
5. European Union heads of government begin an eight-
hour closed summit in Dublin this morning to try to break the
deadlock in negotiations for a new treaty on closer union.
6. Widespread suspicions in the European Union that Israel
is stalling the peace process were given voice in Naples yester-
day by the Italian foreign minister, L. D.. "There is no alterna-
tive to the peace process and there is no alternative to imple-
menting the accords which have already been signed", he said at
a meeting of Italian and French leaders.
7. R. P., the Italian prime minister, and President J. С of
France predicted after meeting in Naples that today's EU sum-
mit in Dublin would call for a revival of the peace process, and
an EU role in it.
8. Agreement to restart talks was reached during a summit
between Mr. N. and Y.A., the Palestinian leader, last Wednesday.
9. Dublin reacted angrily to suggestions that it had hardened
its stance and had adopted a Sin Fein agenda.
10.The chief cause of the breakdown was continued British
insistence that the IRA make a start to the decomissioning of
weapons before Sin Fein be allowed to join all-party talks.
11.Talks aimed at bringing a durable peace to the Korean
peninsula resumed in Geneva after a break of more than six
months, with few hopes of a breakthrough.
12.With Mideast peace talks snagged, Israel made prepara-
tions Wednesday to depart even as the Clinton administration
put forward a U.S. plan designed to bring the Israelis and Pales-
tinians together on a West Bank accord. Palestinian leader Y. A.
made a telephone appeal to Israeli Prime Minister N. to stay, so
they could "achieve an agreement as soon as possible."
22___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический

13.Е. said that if no settlement is reached by the Sept. 12,

2000 deadline, the Palestinians may decide unilaterally on state-
14. The US mediator G. M. held fresh talks with Northern
Ireland's political parties Friday in a bid to revive the British
province's stalled peace accord.
15.Negotiations broke off; the Palestinians suspended secu-
rity cooperation with Israel and there have been daily stone
throwing riots in the West Bank.

4. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the list given
' below.

Deadlines, to tackle, to call on, a framework agreement,

peace treaty, to be launched, interim peace agreement, in ex-
change for, chief negotiators, summit meeting, negotiations* a
breakthrough agreement, mutual, to take office.



Jerusalem — Israel and the Palestinians will begin (...) on a

final (...) on Nov. 7, the two sides announced Friday.
The date was set in a first meeting between the two (...), the
Palestinian information minister, Y. A. R., and an Israeli diplo-
mat, О. Е.. So-called final status negotiations (...) with a brief
ceremony on Sept. 13 to mark the fifth anniversary of the sign-
ing of (...) of (...) recognition between Israel and the Palestine
Liberation (Organization.
But there have been no substantive negotiations since, even
though the two sides face tight (...) of reaching (...) by Febru-
ary and a final treaty by September.
Mr. A. R. and Mr. E. met Friday morning in Jerusalem to
prepare next week's (...) in Oslo of President В. С, the Pales-
tinian leader Y. A. and Prime Minister E. B. of Israel.
§ 2. Compromise and Deadlock 23
The negotiators will have several contentious issues (...), in-
cluding the final borders of the Palestinian entity-, the status of
Jerusalem and the future of Jewish settlements.
Since Mr. B. (...) in July, the two sides have signed a new
(...), which (...) Israel to hand over 13 percent of the West
Bank, (...) for greater Palestinian efforts to rein in militants.

5. Replace the Russian words with their English equivalents

in the necessary form.



In a move that could be the beginning of the end to Europe's

most intractable conflict, the Turkish Cypriot leader R. D.
yes-'terday agreed to (присутствовать на переговорах) in
New York next month (по вопросу о воссоединении) the
Years of intense diplomatic activity, by the Americans and
by Britain's special (посланник), Sir D. H., have brought the
two sides together.
However, much has changed since (последний раунд
переговоров) (провалился) in 1997, giving some cause for hope
that (прорыв) may be possible during the proximity talks, mod-
eled on the ones at Dayton in 1995 that brought peace to Bosnia.
For the first time since 1974, Greece and Turkey, sponsors of
the two Cypriot (общин), are on relatively good terms, and it
seems the talks are part of (более широкого соглашения) be-
tween the two.
Under this, Turkey is forcing Mr. D. (пойти на уступки) in
return for Greece ending its opposition to Turkey's bid
(вступить в) the European Union.
President С yesterday praised Turkey for "impressive mo-
mentum" in human rights and declared his support for Turkish
(членство) of the EU during (трехдневный государственный
24____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

6. Translate the headlines:


7. This chart contains some of the geographical names men-

tioned in the articles and assignments of this section.
Supply the missing words.

The name of adjective the capital city

the country

8. Find an article on the topic Compromise and deadlock in a

current newspaper and report it in class.
§ 3. Развитие навыков письменного перевода
с английского языка.
Письменный перевод с русского языка
Лексическая тема: CONFLICTS

1. Translate the articles with the help of the Active Vocabu-

lary list.

1. Iran Warms To US Talks Offer. Tehran is ready to ex-

change messages with the United States through their respective
interest sections, the foreign minister said yesterday, after Iran's
supreme leader, A. A. K., ruled out any talks last week. "No
message from the Americans will remain without a reply", A. A.
V. said. The US assistant secretary of state, R. P., said before
President C.'s re-election that Washington was interested in
opening a dialogue with Iran. Ties between the two states were
severed in 1980.

2. Taiwan Talks. Taiwan and South Africa launched talks

yesterday on their relations now that Pretoria has cut formal ties
with Taipei in favour of China. Taiwan's foreign minister, J. C,
said after meeting the South African foreign minister, A. N., that
the foundations had been laid for future talks.

3. Qatar and Bahrain: Bahrain and Qatar on Sunday agreed

to open embassies for the first time in an apparent attempt to
improve strained relations between the two Gulf Arab states
feuding over Gulf islands controlled by Bahrain since the 1930s
but also claimed by Qatar. The new agreement came during a
meeting in Manama between Bahrain's Foreign Minister Sheikh
X. and his Qatari counterpart, Sheikh Y.
26___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический Перевод

4. North Korea Treaty. Moscow (АР) — Russia will nego

tiate a new treaty with North Korea that will try to normalize
and improve relations between the two nations, a top Russian
official said Monday.
Deputy Foreign Minister G. K. said both sides had submitted
drafts of a proposed treaty, and talks on their respective posi-
tions would begin shortly, according to the Interfax news
A 1961 treaty of friendship and mutual assistance between
the two nations expires Tuesday.
Moscow's relations with communist North Korea have
cooled since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The So-
viet Union had been a major backer of North Korea.

5. Jakarta Shows Interest in Lisbon's Timor Offer. Bang

kok — Foreign Minister A. A. of Indonesia gave a guarded wel
come Friday to Portugal's proposals for ending a diplomatic
standoff over East Timor.
Prime Minister A. G. of Portugal created a minor sensation
at the inaugural Asia-Europe summit meeting here by walking
up to President S. of Indonesia on Thursday and offering to re-
store partial diplomatic relations.
In exchange, Mr. G. proposed, Indonesia^ should free the
jailed East Timorese resistance leader J. X. G. and "guarantee
human rights" in the former Portuguese colony that Indonesia
annexed after invading in 1975.
Mr. A., who has had fruitless talks for years with the Portu-
guese through the UN secretary-general's office, said Indonesia
would look at the proposals and "see in what context they were
made and not brush it off the table".
Portugal's offer to open "interests sections" in friendly em-
bassies in the two countries was a change of heart, Mr. A. said.
In the past, Lisbon had "totally rejected" the idea.

6. Argentinian Army Chief Visits Britain. The com

mander-in-chief of the Argentine army begins a three-day offi-
§ 3. Conflicts 27
cial visit to Britain today, marking the latest stage of rap-
prochement in Anglo-Argentine relations since the 1982 war.
It will be Gen M. B.'s first contact with British troops since
they took him prisoner when his artillery unit was captured near
Port Stanley in June 1982. He will meet his opposite number in
the Army, Gen Sir С G., Chief of the General Staff, and meet
M. P., the Defence Secretary.
Gen B. will be shown exercises involving British troops dur-
ing a tour of the Tidworth garrison before presenting a paper on
the Argentine army's role in peace-keeping to the Royal United
Services Institute in London.
Argentine government sources heralded the trip as a step to-
wards improved relations, which they are keen to see return to

7. President B. Y. approved in principle Monday an accord

on union with Belarus that opponents say would be a drag on
Russia's economy and further sour Moscow's relations with
other former Soviet republics.
Presidential adviser D. R. said Y. had given the nod to a
draft treaty setting out the terms of the union, Itar-Tass reported.
Y. and President A. L. of Belarus are scheduled to sign the pact
Wednesday in Moscow.

8. Menem to Visit Britain. Britain has invited President С

M. to pay the first visit of London by an Argentine head of state
since the 1982 Falklands war. The invitation was given during a
meeting in London yesterday between the Foreign Secretary, R.
C, and the Argentine foreign minister, G. T.
A Foreign Office spokesman said Mr. M.'s visit next year
would focus on relations between the two countries, which be-
gan to thaw under the M. government.
Despite the warming relations, Argentina still claims sover-
eignty over the South Atlantic islands it knows as Las Malvinas.
The Foreign Office spokesman did not say whether the question
28____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

of sovereignty was raised in the meeting between Mr. C. and

Mr. G. T.

9. Japan Ends Embargo. Tokyo (WP)— The Japanese

government has lifted its embargo on food aid to North Korea,
another step toward thawing relations with the Stalinist re
But Tuesday's action does not mean Japan will start sending
food to the famine-stricken nation, only that the way is now
cleared to begin formal talks with North Korea.
Japan officially froze its food aid to North Korea after Py-
ongyang test-fired a rocket over Japanese soil in August 1998,

10. China, Russia Seek Ties, Not an Alliance. The presi-

dents of China and Russia said Monday they want a "strategic
partnership" of closer economic and political ties but will not
revive their formal alliance of the 1950s. J. Z. and B. Y., meet-
ing in an amiable atmosphere for their third summit in 20
months, settled a decades-old border dispute and supervised the
signing of agreements of trade and the protection of rare Man-
churian tigers. They rejected suggestions that Beijing and Mos-
cow are banding together to offset growing U.S. global influ-
ence and appeared intent on reassuring other countries such as
Japan. "I think the bilateral relationship is a strategic partnership
of equality and mutual respect. We will not form an alliance,
and this kind of long-term relationship is not directed against
another country", J. said.

11. Recognition Postponed. Vilnius, Lithuania (AP) —

The Lithuanian parliament Thursday postponed— but did not
reject— a resolution recognizing the independence of
Russia's secessionist republic of Chechnya, Itar-Tass re-
No country has yet recognized Chechnya, which declared
independence in 1991 and considers itself a state. Moscow in-
sists it remains a republic of Russia.
§ 3. Conflicts 29
Before parliamentary elections last summer, conservatives
called on the Baltic nation— a former Soviet republic that
gained independence after the empire collapsed in 1991 — to
recognize the Chechen secession.
Active Vocabulary

1. to sever ties порвать отношения

2. to cut formal ties прервать официальные
3. to improve strained relations улучшить напряженные
to open an отношения
embassy открыть посольство
4. to normalize relations нормализовать отношения
to expire to cool истекать (о сроке)
5. standoff противостояние, конфликт
to restore diplomatic relations восстановить дипломатиче
ские отношения
fruitless talks безрезультатные переговоры

6. rapprochement in relations сближение

opposite number = counterpart
peace-keeping миротворческая

7. to approve an accord on sth одобрить договор о ч.-л.

to sour relations ухудшить отношения

8. to thaw теплеть (об отношениях)

и. a thaw in relations оттепель в отношениях
30___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
9. to lift an embargo ant. to
impose an embargo снять эмбарго
10.alliance v. to ally ввести эмбарго
with smb союз
быть союзником,
вступать в союз с к.-л.
1 l.to recognize the independence
n. recognition secession to признать независимость
secede syn. to break away
2. Find the English for the following word combinations
used in the articles of this section (the number of the arti
cle is given in brackets):

исключать возможность проведения переговоров (1),

начать переговоры (2), заложить основу для ч.-л. (2), вра-
ждовать из-за территории (3), заявлять претензии на (3),
лицо, занимающее такой же пост (3), заместитель минист-
ра (4), представить проект договора (4), распад Советского
Союза (4), вторгаться (5), взять в плен (6), участвовать в
ч.-л. (6), излагать условия договора (7), планироваться,
намечаться (7), представитель МИД Великобритании (8),
поднимать вопрос о ч.-л. (8), заморозить продовольствен-
ную помощь (9), охваченная голодом страна (9), стремить-
ся, добиваться (10), дружеская атмосфера (10), решить
спор (10), двусторонние отношения (10), получить незави-
симость (11), призвать к.-л. сделать ч.-л. (11).

3. Translate the sentences paying attention to the under

lined words.

1. The two leaders have held several meeting recently to try

to end the deadlock over the region that poisoned their relations
since the collapse of the former Soviet Union.
§ 3. 31
2. His trip had been scheduled for January, but was moved
forward after President N. M. announced Wednesday that South
Africa would sever diplomatic relations with Taiwan by the end
of next year in favour of full diplomatic relations with Beijing.
3. Indonesia and Australia are taking steps to ease bilateral
tensions, a move that should help reduce chances of a serious
armed conflict in East Timor and hasten the entry of United Na-
tions peacekeepers. UN and Australian officials said Wednes-
4. America is opposing plans by the European Union to grant
diplomatic recognition to Serbia because it says that the Belgrade
regime has not yet done enough to merit such treatment.
5. The Macedonian government has not yet received the res-
toration of diplomatic relations it expected, but instead an "out-
line agreement" which is being seen in Skopje, the Macedonian
capital, as a delaying tactic.
6. The fact remains that lifting what remains of the em-
bargo, allowing the Argentine navy in particular to re-establish
traditional pre-war links with its British counterpart is the next
major Argentinean objective.
7. Mrs. A.'s intervention at Rambouillet will be seen as
lending US weight to so far fruitless mediation by European
8. A deadline set by the big-powers Contact Group for
Yugoslavia to make progress toward a settlement with the ethnic
Albanian majority in Kosovo or face sanctions expires two days
9. The French Prime Minister, L. J., and President A. B. of
Algeria said relations, strained by Algeria's civil war, were
10.In another sign of a step-by-step thaw in US-Iranian rela-
tions, Secretary of State M. A. has softened the US warning
against Americans traveling to the Islamic republic, a senior.
American official said.
11.Dozens of African mercenaries hired by Papua New
Guinea to put down an island rebellion headed home Friday,
32 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

leaving behind them a nation in turmoil and a stand-off between

the army and the government.

4. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary

form from the list given below.

To invade, a joint statement, ambassadors, violence, to re-

store full diplomatic relations, to be scheduled, to vote for inde-
pendence, to break ties, rule, to withdraw, a break.


Lisbon — Portugal and Indonesia (...) Tuesday after (...) of

nearly a quarter of a century that started when Jakarta's troops
(...) East Timor. The Portuguese Foreign Ministry said (...)
with Indonesia (...) for signing in New York by both countries
(...) to the United Nations. The two countries (...) in 1975 when
Indonesia invaded East Timor, after Portugal (...) from its for-
mer colony. East Timor has been under United Nations admini-
stration since its inhabitants (...) from Indonesia on Aug.30 after
24 years of often repressive (...) by Jakarta. In September an
Australian-led 11.000-strong international force went to East
Timor to quell (...) by armed gangs opposed to independence.
Portugal and Indonesia opened interest sections in each other's
capitals this year.

5. Replace the Russian words with their English equivalents

in the necessary form.


New Delhi — India and China (дали обещание) Friday not

to attack each other across a disputed Himalayan border, and
§ 3. Conflicts 33
(достигли соглашения) (вывести) an unspecified number of
troops from the area.
(Соглашение по вопросу о) troop movements, despite the
vagueness of its terms, rated as the most significant of four pacts
signed during a visit by President J. Z., the highest (официаль-
ное лицо) China has ever sent to India's capital.
Mr. Jiang's (трехдневный визит) has culminated in a slow
(потепление) in Chinese-Indian relations, which (были разор-
ваны) in 1962 and (восстановлены) in 1976. In 1998, Prime
Minister R. G. visited Beijing, followed by Prime Minister N.
R. in 1993.
The agreement on the disputed border, called the "line of ac-
tual control", did not spell out how many troops each side (вы-
ведет), how far or when. (Разногласия) about the exact location
of the de facto border in several places (должны быть разре-
шены) before the details on troop movements (будут обсуж-
даться на переговорах).
Foreign Minister S. H. of India said he could not say how
long (переговоры) would take.
(Взаимное обязательство) not to initiate (военные дейст-
вия) along the disputed border was clearer. "Neither side shall
use its military capability against the other side", the accord
states, adding that no armed forces along the border "shall be
used to attack the other side or engage in military activities that
threaten the other side or (подрывают) peace, tranquility and
stability in the India-China border areas."
Mr. S. described the discussions as "very friendly" and said
the countries' (общие интересы) far outweighed their (разно-


Johannesburg — President N. M. said Wednesday that South

Africa would (порвать дипломатические отношения) with
34 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

Taiwan by the end of next year and (установит полные отно-

шения) with Beijing.
Taiwan said it regretted the (шаг).
"This action seriously hurts (дружеские отношения) be-
tween the two countries", (представитель МИД), Р. С, said
early Thursday morning in Taiwan. "For this extremely un-
friendly decision we express our regret".
Mr. M. said continued (дипломатическое признание) of
Taiwan was "inconsistent with South Africa's (расширяющая-
ся роль) in international (Делах)". But he said Pretoria would
(поддерживать недипломатические связи) with Taiwan.
China considers Taiwan a renegade province and objects to
any suggestion that Taiwan is independent. It will not (устано-
вить дипломатические отношения) with any country that
(признает) Taiwan.
"South Africa wishes to have (сердечные отношения) with
both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China
in Taiwan", Mr. M. said.
The President said he had enormous appreciation for Tai-
wan's (вклад) to South Africa, particularly its participation in
his country's economic development. He also thanked Taiwan
for contributing to South Africa's transition to democracy.
Mr. C. indicated that Taipei did not deem the decision final.
He (призвал) Pretoria to reverse it and (дал обещание добить-
ся) talks with the South African government about the matter.
South Africa was the largest diplomatic (союзник) of Tai-
wan, and its decision will leave the island with (официальные
отношения) with only 29 states, mostly poor countries in Cen-
tral America and Africa that depend on Taiwan for (помощь).

6. Render into English.


Турецко-киргизское экономическое сотрудничество ста-
ло главной темой переговоров президента Турции С. Д. в
§ 3. 35
Бишкеке. В ходе однодневного визита он встретился с кир-
гизским коллегой А. А. и премьер-министром республики К.
Ж., выступил на заседании совместного делового совета, а
также принял участие в открытии турецко-киргизского
университета и завода по производству строительных мате-

б) Министры иностранных дел России и Мексики И. И.

и Р. Г. обменялись посланиями в связи с 75-й годовщиной
возобновления дипотношений между двумя странами.

в) ВЗАИМНЫЙ ИНТЕРЕС. Словакия заинтересована в

развитии дружеских отношений с Россией. «Интенсифика
ция связей с Россией, прежде всего в торгово-экономи
ческой области является для нас одним из важнейших
внешнеполитических приоритетов», — заявил вчера пред
седатель парламента Словакии Й. М., который в сентябре
посетит Москву с официальным визитом.

7. Translate the headlines:



8. This chart contains some of the geographical names men

tioned in the articles and assignments of this section.
Supply the missing words.
36___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

The name of the adjective the capital city


South Africa
North Korea

9. Find an article in a current newspaper on the topic Con-

flicts and report it in class.
§ 4. Развитие навыков письменного перевода
с английского языка и с русского языка.
Перевод с листа с английского языка
Лексическая тема: HOSTILITIES

1. Translate the articles with the help of the Active Vocabu-

lary list.

1. Bissau Unrest: Fighting raged in Bissau, capital of

Guinea-Bissau, despite a unilateral cease-fire declared by the
government in its battle with rebels in the West African state,
news reports said. Clashes were also reported around the south
ern town of Fulacunda in another sign that the struggle for con
trol of the impoverished Atlantic seaboard state had spread be
yond the capital.

2. Southern African military allies of embattled Congolese

President K. prepared for a prolonged and costly attack against
rebels in the dense eastern jungles of the vast mineral rich coun-
try. The announcement by K.'s allies-Namibia, Zimbabwe and
Angola- could lead to a major escalation of the conflict that be-
gan on Aug. 2.

3. More Clashes Erupt as Albanians Ready to Talk. A

Serbian police officer was reported killed Tuesday and another
wounded in clashes with ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, and Alba-
nians said the police then surrounded three villages amid fight-
ing. Yugoslavia's official Tanjug news agency said the casual-
ties occurred while a group of police officers were on patrol in
the village of Rzic, near the town of Decani in western Kosovo,
near the border with Albania. Earlier, the main ethnic Albanian
party in Kosovo — the League for a Democratic Kosovo — said
38___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

heavily armed Serbian police had surrounded three villages in

the Decani area. The reports came just after the leader of Kos-
ovo's Albanians gave the clearest signal yet that he will enter
talks with the Serbs on Kosovo's future, naming a 15-member
team to draw up a platform for talks. Kosovo's ethnic Albanians
are seeking independence for Kosovo, where they outnumber
Serbs 9-to-l.

4. Philippine Rebels Killed. Philippine troops backed by

helicopter gunships killed 21 Muslim rebels in fighting on Min
danao island, the military said yesterday. It said two soldiers
died and four were wounded in Tuesday's battle, which forced
2,000 civilians to flee their homes in Buldon, Maguindanao
The army reinforced its forces around Buldon last week after
suspected rebels of the Mora Islamic Liberation Front ambushed
a convoy carrying the town's mayor, killing two soldiers. The
MILF's vice-chairman, G. J., said in a radio interview yesterday
that he had had a meeting with an army general and they had
agreed on a "cessation of hostilities".
The MILF, which demands an Islamic state in the southern
islands, is a breakaway faction of the mainstream Moro National
Liberation Front, which reached a peace deal with Manila last
year. The MILF is not a party to the pact but held preliminary
talks with the government on January 7 on ending its rebel-
lion. ■— Reuter, Zamboanga.

5. NATO warned that atrocities against ethnic Albanians

in Kosovo were rising. NATO spelled out in clearest terms to
date atrocities purportedly carried out by Serb forces against the
ethnic Albanians left in Kosovo, warning the violence was
growing more brutal and far-reaching. The allegations, sup
ported just by refugee interviews and aerial photography, add
fuel to concerns over the fate of hundreds of thousands of ethnic
Albanians forced out of their homes but prevented from fleeing
into neighboring states. It also builds momentum for war crime
§ 4. Hostilities 39
prosecutions of Serb leaders after the conflict ends. On Tuesday,
the U.K. took the rare step of handing over intelligence about
Serb killings in Kosovo to the U.N. chief war crimes prosecutor
for Yugoslavia. Earlier in the week, Germany said it provided
"extensive evidence" as well.

6. Kosovo Crisis: International monitors condemned an out-

break of ethnic violence in Kosovo's capital that injured seven
people and damaged a dozen cafes. An uneasy calm returned to
Pristina, where some owners of vandalized cafes began repairs.

7. Lome, Togo — African leaders, anxious to show they can

put their troubled house in order, brought together Zaire's war-
ring parties in Togo for a symbolic first step toward talks to end
the conflict.
A special Organization of African Unity, OAU, summit in
the Togolese capital Lome on Wednesday and Thursday secured
a handshake between representatives of the civil war foes and a
commitment to future talks and a truce.
At their headquarters in Goma, Zaire, the rebels said Friday
that talks with representatives of ailing President M. S. S. would
start in South Africa early next week.
"If nothing changes, then the talks will be in South Africa
and will begin on either Monday or Tuesday", said rebel secre-
tary general M. N..
In Johannesburg, a government source confirmed that South
Africa had been asked to host peace talks. But even with a date,
the two sides and mediators still have to resolve the thorny prob-
lems of the agenda and a cease-fire.
The rebels of veteran dissident L. K. hold one-quarter of the
sprawling Central African nation and are advancing deep inside
its key mineral-rich central and southern prov inces of Kasai and
Shaba. They took up arms last October to topple M., 66.

8. India, which is largely Hindu, and Pakistan, which is an

Islamic state, have fought three full-scale wars in the past five
40____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

decades. This summer, they engaged in a smaller conflict in

mountainous Kashmir.
Indian Prime Minister A. B. V. and S. held talks last winter
in the Pakistani city of Lahore, and pledged to settle their differ-
ences peacefully. But the dialogue was undermined by the out-
break of fighting along the border, and Tuesday's military take-
over seems likely to deal a further blow to the prospects of re-
suming negotiations.

9. Kabul Under Fire. Kabul, Afghanistan (AP)— Opposi

tion forces fired several rockets Thursday on the Afghan capital,
Kabul, wounding at least five civilians in a strike on a military
base of the ruling Taliban militia, witnesses said.
Fierce fighting raged elsewhere in the country. The Taliban
launched a long-expected summer offensive Wednesday on the
northern-based opposition alliance in a bid to extend their strict Is-
lamic rule over the 10 percent of the country they do not control.

10. Israel Attacks Guerrilas. Nabatiyeh, Lebanon (AP) —

Israeli warplanes attacked suspected guerrilla bases in southern
Lebanon on Friday after a guerrilla was killed and three Israeli
soldiers were wounded in a clash.
Two Israeli jet fighters fired four missiles in raids on hills
near the village of Ain Bussawar, a guerrilla stronghold facing
the Israeli-occupied border in the south, Lebanese security offi-
cials said.

11. Rebels took control of Guinea-Bissau's second-

largest city, Bafata, apparently marking a return to an all-out
civil war in the tiny west African nation after a three-month

12. Georgia Blames UN. United Nations (Reuters) — Geor

gian President E. S. complained Monday that the UN Security
Council had failed to pay sufficient attention to the problem of
his country's breakaway region of Abkhazia.
§ 4. Hostilities 41
In a speech to the General Assembly, he said that, as a result
bf a "campaign of genocide and ethnic cleansing conducted by
Abkhaz separatists with external military support, "many civil-
ians had been killed and nearly 300,000 displaced.

Active Vocabulary

1 unrest беспорядки
. fighting бои
to rage бушевать
to declare a cease-fire объявить прекращение огня
rebel/rebellion повстанец/восстание
v. to rebel восставать
clash столкновение
0 escalation of the conflict нарастание конфликта


3 to erupt вспыхнуть
to be wounded быть раненым
casualties потери убитыми и ранеными

4 civilians гражданские лица

to flee homes покинуть дома
cessation of hostilities прекращение боевых действий
v. to cease прекращать
breakaway faction отделившаяся фракция

5 atrocities зверства
violence насилие
refugee беженец

6 monitor наблюдатель
outbreak of violence вспышка насилия
to injure ранить
42 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
7. warring parties воюющие стороны
civil war foe гражданская война
truce to host враг, недруг
talks перемирие
быть местом проведения пере-
to topple smb говоров свергнуть
8. full-scale war полномасштабная война
military takeover захват власти военными
9. fierce fighting ожесточенные бои
bid попытка
10. guerrilla партизан, партизанский

11. all-out war всеобщая война

12. genocide геноцид
ethnic cleansing этническая чистка
to displace перемещать
2. Find the English for the following word combinations
used in the articles of this section (the number of the arti-
cle is given in brackets):

бедный, нищий (1), разработать платформу для пере-

говоров (3), добиваться независимости (3), иметь числен-
ное превосходство (3), устроить засаду (4), предвари-
тельные переговоры (4), приверженность (7), штаб (7),
взяться за оружие (7), начать наступление (9), иностран-
ная помощь (12).
§ 4. Hostilities 43
3. Translate the sentences paying attention to the under-
lined words.

1. The presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia met Monday

to discuss the two nations' dispute over the Nagorny Karabarh
region that erupted into war 11 years ago.
2. Australian Prime Minister J. H. said U. N.-backed peace-
keeping troops in East Timor have a wider right to use force
than was given in previous international peacekeeping opera-
tions. Howard said the greater right allows the peacekeepers to
defend themselves and to stop atrocities committed by local
3. At least 13 civilians and five Hutu militiamen were killed
over the weekend as government troops clashed with the rebels
near the Burundian capital and in the south of the country, state
radio said Monday. Sustained light arms fire, followed by artil-
lery shelling broke out less than three miles from Bujumbura.
4. Factional fighting has dragged the people of Somalia's
capital back to the darkest days of the civil war in 1992.
5. Weeks of unrest that erupted into violence led B. to im-
pose a state of emergency on Sunday.
6. Fighting that ended that year took more than 35,000 lives
and forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee.
7. A resumption of fighting could be disastrous, because the
Caucasus today is delicately balanced between prosperity and
8. Turkey remained wary of Syrian promises to curb the ac-
tivities of Kurdish rebels on its soil, after Damascus bowed to
Turkish pressure and pledged immediate cessation of its support
for the rebel Kurdistan Worker's Party.
9. Getting down to serious work after Saturday's ceremonial
opening, international mediators presented warring factions with
the framework agreement worked out by the six-nation Contact
Group and a set of 10 non-negotiable principles for the talks.
10. С and the leaders of many other nations attending the
summit have been concerned about the sizeable number of civil-
44 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

ian casualties in the conflict and the increasing number of refu-

gees it has generated.
11. Moscow insists it is on the verge of a victory in the
breakaway republic that makes concerns of a prolonged blood-
bath unfounded.
12. Israeli and Palestinian security forces were preparing
last night for another outbreak of violence after the apparently
inconclusive Washington summit.
13. East Timor marked its 21-st anniversary under Indone-
sian rule on Thursday amid reports of escalating military repres-
sion in the former Portuguese colony and a hardening of the Ja-
karta government's stance on ongoing sovereignty negotiations.

4. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary

form from the list given below.

Under the terms, to bar violence, rival factions, to break

away, violence, to vow, to invade, to schedule, to injure, civil-


DILI, Indonesia (AP) — (...) in the Indonesian province of

East Timor signed a code of conduct Monday that (...) and in-
timidation ahead of a UN-supervised independence referendum.
(...) of the 27-point code of conduct, factions for or against
(...) from Indonesia have promised not to kill, torture or (...)
others because of their political beliefs.
Fighters from the bitterly opposed sides are also prohibited
from carrying weapons at rallies and public meetings during a
campaign period to start Saturday in the former Portuguese
colony that (...) by Indonesia in 1975. (...) against East
Timorese (...) and United Nations staff has hampered prepara-
tions for the ballot — now (...) for Aug. 30 — and forced the
postponement of the polling date twice.
§ 4. Hostilities 45
5. Replace the words in brackets with their English equiva-



A multinational conference opening in Paris today is ex-

pected (принять двухлетний план) aimed at (укрепление ми-
ра) in Bosnia with a smaller Nato-led force.
The failure so far of (беженцы) to return to their pre-war
homes is regarded as the main problem threatening last year's
Dayton (мирный договор), which is to be reviewed at the con-
Speaking last night before the meeting, (госсекретарь
США) W. С, (призвал) the Muslim, Croat and Serb mem-
bers of Bosnia's three-member joint presidency to drop fac-
tional rivalries and bring to life the government of their di-
vided state.
Despite elections in September, (продолжающаяся напря-
женность) between Muslims, Serbs and Croats has hindered
creation of a functioning government for the two-part Bosnian
state foreseen by Dayton.
Mr С. (осудил) (стычка, столкновение) on Tuesday when
at least two Muslim men were killed and two Serbs (были ра-
нены) as Muslims, attempting to return to their homes in Serb-
controlled Gajevi, were forced back by Serb police.

6. Render into English.

а) Совет Безопасности ООН потребовал от движения

«Талибан» в Афганистане немедленно прекратить боевые
действия и возобновить политический диалог по урегули
рованию конфликта.
б) Нанеся вооруженным отрядам исламского движения
«Талибан» серьезное поражение на фронте севернее Кабу-
46 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

ла, командующий войсками Северного альянса А. Ш. М.

призвал талибов к проведению мирных переговоров, отме-
тив, что продолжение военных действий ведет в тупик.

в) ПЕРЕМИРИЕ ОТЛОЖЕНО. Президент Замбии Ф. Ч.

заявил в минувшую субботу, что специальная встреча глав
африканских государств, посвященная проблеме урегулиро-
вания военного конфликта в Демократической Республике
Конго (ДРК), отложена уже в который раз. Местные полити-
ческие наблюдатели считают, что очередная отсрочка про-
изошла после того, как президент ДРК Л. К. вновь отказался
встретиться с лидерами повстанцев, которые, между прочим,
контролируют половину территории его страны.
В конце минувшей недели в Лусаке проходила встреча
министров иностранных дел и обороны ряда африканских
государств. Однако, прозаседав всю ночь, министры так и
не пришли к соглашению.
Основное препятствие на пути конголезского урегули-
рования состоит в том, что президент К. отказывается при-
знать повстанцев за самостоятельную политическую силу.
Поскольку их открыто поддерживают Руанда и Уганда, К.
называет восстание интервенцией и соглашается обсуждать
проблему прекращения огня не с самими повстанцами, а с
руководителями тех государств, которые стоят за их спи-
ной. В свою очередь, К. поддерживают вооруженные фор-
мирования Анголы, Намибии, Зимбабве, Чада. В результате
этот вооруженный конфликт охватил уже чуть ли не поло-
вину Черной Африки.

7. Translate the headlines:


§ 4. Hostilities 47

8. This chart contains some of the geographical names men-

tioned in the articles and assignments of this section.
Supply the missing words.

The name of the adjective the capital city


9. Find an article on the topic Hostilities in a current news-

paper and report it in class.
§ 5. Развитие навыков перевода с листа
с английского языка
Лексическая тема: THE PEACE PROCESS

1. Read and translate the articles with the help of the Active
Vocabulary list.

1. Peace Accord Signed in Congo. Brazzaville, Republic

of Congo — The Congolese government has signed a peace
accord with militias backing the dismissed president, P. L.,
and his prime minister, В. К., official radio announced
The agreement to cease hostilities was signed Tuesday by
the Congolese Army and militia officers in Pointe-Noire, the ra-
dio said. Radio Congo said the militias agreed to lay down their
arms under the accord, which calls for a law to amnesty those
who surrender.

2. IRA Talks Verdict Soon. Belfast, Northern Ireland

(AP) — The British government will announce Friday whether
the IRA-allied Sinn Fein party can join other parties in negotia
tions on Northern Ireland's future.
Northern Ireland Secretary M. M. will make the announce-
ment Friday morning, rather than Thursday afternoon as had
been expected, her Belfast office said.
Government officials would not indicate what the verdict
will be, but observers considered a thumbs-up for Sinn Fein's
participation to be a formality. In a June letter to Sinn Fein, M.
said the party could join talks within eight weeks of a renewed
Irish Republican Army cease-fire.
The IRA began observing a truce in its violent campaign
against British rule of Northern Ireland on July 20.
§ 5. The Peace Process 49
3. U. S. Lauds Cease-fire. Washington (Reuters) — Presi
dent В. С on Tuesday welcomed the acceptance by Ethiopia
and Eritrea of a cease-fire agreement under the auspices of the
Organization for African Unity, or OAU, as a 'significant step
toward peace'.
"We have worked intensively with the OAU in recent weeks
to help bring an end to this devastating conflict", C. said in a
written statement.
The OAU said Monday that Ethiopia and Eritrea had con-
firmed their acceptance of the cease-fire agreement aimed at
ending a border war that has reportedly killed tens of thousands
of soldiers from both sides since last May.
Both countries are to send representatives to Algeria, which
currently holds the OAU chairmanship, on Wednesday to work
out the technical details of the cease-fire.
4. The prospects of a cease-fire averting a battle for Kabul
rose yesterday for the first time since the Taliban takeover, but a
wide gap remained on the terms of any deal.
After several rounds of shuttle diplomacy by Pakistan's inte-
rior minister, General N. В., a spokesman at the Taliban head-
quarters in Kandahar said the movement's leadership had provi-
sionally accepted a ceasefire offer from the Uzbek warlord.
General A. R. D., in the northern city of Mazar-il-Sharif.
5. M. H. said prisoners would have to be exchanged and
peace talks could follow. The ceasefire should be monitored by
a commission comprising six members of the Taliban and six of
the opposition.
The apparently open-ended ceasefire of offer from Gen D.,
who has sent tanks and artillery against the Afghan capital,
seems to fall short of the conditions laid down by his ally, A.
S. M., the former defence minister.
5. C. Plans a Mideast Push. President В. С plans to meet
with Prime Minister E. B. of Israel and the Palestinian leader, Y.
A., in Oslo in an effort to promote a final peace settlement, the
White House said Wednesday.,
50___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

The three leaders will take part in a ceremony Nov. 2 com-

memorating the Oslo accords that propelled the Middle East
peace process forward in the early 1990s, the White House press
secretary, J. L., said.
Mr. C.'s personal involvement underscores his determination
to see a comprehensive Middle East peace in his remaining
15 months in office.
This week, S. В., the national security adviser, said Mr. В.,
Mr. A. and President H. A. of Syria appeared willing to tackle
hard issues remaining. The 1993 and 1995 Olso accords involve
commitments by Israel to turn over West Bank land to Palestin-
ian control in exchange for security assurances.

6. An international peacekeeping force prepared to arrive

in East Timor today, as rising tensions threatened to damage
trade and investment between Indonesia and Australia, which is
leading the force.
The peacekeeping force and a planned relief operation to
help "hundreds of thousands of refugees are designed to restore
some order to the Indonesian territory of East Timor, after a
two-week rampage by Jakarta militias in which an unknown
number of civilians have been killed. Up to half the population
may have been forced out of their homes, fleeing either to the
hills or shipped to West Timor and nearby islands.

7. Y. A., the Palestinian President, said that his landmark

meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister B. N. was positive but
that the issue of Jerusalem would either make or break Middle
East peace.
The Israeli Foreign Minister, D. L., who was also in Rome
but did not meet A., said the Jewish state would continue the
peace process while safeguarding its own security. In his speech
at Rome's city hall, A. took a firm stand on Jerusalem, saying
the issue of its status "could either make the peace process fall
or become a symbol of co-existence and harmony between Mus-
lims, Christians and Jews".
§ 5. The Peace Process 51
8. Sri Lanka Parties Agree. Colombo, Sri Lanka (AP) -An
agreement between Sri Lanka's two main political parties to
work together for peace with the Tamils was hailed Friday as a
major step toward ending the 14-year war.
In the British-brokered accord reached Thursday, President
C. K. and opposition leader R. W. agreed to consult one another
and that the opposition would not undermine negotiations with
the rebels.
Any agreement made with Tamil rebels would be binding,
even after a change of government.
"This is the first step on the long road to peace", Foreign
Minister L. D. told reporters Thursday.

9. Tajik Peace Uneasy. Tajik President E. R. on Sunday

said the resignation of the chairman of the national reconcilia
tion commission would not endanger the peace process that be
gan with a treaty signed two years ago.
S. N., leader of the United Tajik Opposition, said Saturday
his decision to leave the commission was related to R.'s failure
to appoint an opposition member as defense minister.
The peace agreement, which ended five years of civil war,
called for 30 percent of federal and local executive bodies to be
filled by opposition members, who now hold 12 senior govern-
ment posts and are entitled to two more.

10. Seoul Seeks Peace by Year 2003. President K. D. J. of

South Korea vowed Monday to end the Cold War on the Korean
Peninsula before his term ends in 2003.
"I solemnly promise to dedicate myself to realizing peace
and ending the Cold War on the Korean Peninsula through ex-
changes and cooperation between the South and North by the
end of my term", Mr. K. said.
"The cold and bitter winds of the Cold War that blow be-
tween out two countries must be stopped and replaced by warm
rays of sunshine", h'e said in a keynote speech to a meeting of
the Forum of Democratic Leaders in the Asia-Pacific region.
52__________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

"Let us stop regarding each other as enemies and start em-

bracing one another as brothers", Mr. K. said.
Since the became president in February 1998, Mr. K. has
been steadfast in his so-called sunshine policy of increased cul-
tural and business contacts with the secretive, Stalinist North.
The president also said he would leave the issue of political
reunification to the distant future in favor of peaceful coexis-
tence now.

Active Vocabulary
1. to lay down arms сложить оружие
under the accord согласно договору
2. to observe truce .соблюдать перемирие
ant. to violate, to break
3. under the auspices под эгидой
devastating (conflict, war) опустошительный
4. to avert a battle/a war предотвратить сражение/войну
shuttle diplomacy челночная дипломатия
5. to promote содействовать, способствовать
peace settlement мирное урегулирование
comprehensive всеобъемлющий
6. peacekeeping force миротворческие силы
relief operation/aid гуманитарная операция/помощь
7. landmark веха, важный этап
8. to hail to broker to приветствовать
undermine negotiations выступать в роли посредника
подрывать переговоры
§ 5. The Peace Process 53
9. to endanger the peace process подвергать опасности
reconciliation примирение
10. through sth путем, посредством ч.-л.
peaceful coexistence мирное сосуществование
reunification воссоединение

2. Find the English for the following word combinations

used in the articles of this section (the number of the arti
cle is given in brackets)

Поддерживать (1), уволить, отстранить от должности (1),

согласие на ч.-л. (2), председательство (3), министр внут-
ренних дел (4), принять предложение о прекращении ог-
ня (4), ставить условия (4), находиться в должности (5), ре-
шать вопросы (5), восстановить порядок (6), обеспечивать
безопасность (7), занять твердую позицию по к.-л. вопро-
су (7), обязывающее соглашение (8), отставка (9), исполни-
тельные органы (9), иметь право на ч.-л. (9), срок пребыва-
ния у власти (10).

3. Translate the sentences paying attention to the under

lined words.

1. International aid agencies estimate that up to 300 people,

mostly civilians, have been killed in less than a week of fighting
in Mogadishu, although no warlord has made significant territo-
rial gains.
2. Israel's argument, that Jerusalem is its exclusive prop-
erty, is in itself a violation of the peace accord.
3. In Bosnia, a shaky four-day-old cease-fire meant to clear
the way for the peace talks came under pressure at the weekend,
when fierce fighting resumed in the northwest.
4. Mr. A.'s advance, which dragged all of his most bitter
opponents into the fighting, took place as all the other faction
54___________"Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

leaders were in Ethiopia to discuss a plan to bring about national

reconciliation and set up a transitional government.
5. H. called on all parties in the conflict to observe the
6. Alarmed at the unravelling of the peace process, the
White House is hoping to broker new direct talks between Lon-
don and Dublin, possibly as early as this weekend.
7. There has been no substantial movement toward a settle-
ment of the conflict, and the sides remain so far apart that some
fear another war.
8. Fighting eased in Guinea-Bissau after rebels announced a
48-hour cease-fire in the tiny West African country, demanding
that President J. B. V. present a negotiating agenda.
9. In several hours of shuttle diplomacy Mr. M. met with
the key parties — Sin Fein, political ally if the Irish Republican
Army, and the Ulster Unionists.
10.The agreement is widely seen in the west as a milestone
in the search for a Balkan peace settlement.
11.But Washington still accuses Tehran of seeking weapons
of mass destruction, threatening its neighbors, sponsoring terror-
ism and undermining the Middle East peace process.
12.As the Russian military offensive in Chechnya intensi-
fies, President C. and European leaders were increasing pressure
on the Russian President to accept help from the international
mediators offering to find a peaceful resolution of the crisis.

4. Fill in the blanks with the words in the necessary form

given in the list below.

a) counterpart, mediators, to strike a peace deal, to draw up,

civil war, a stumbling block, to displace, to sign a formal ac
cord, withdrawal, rebels, negotiators.

b) observance, defeat, agreement, rebels, to urge, UN-

brokered ceasefire, violation of a cease-fire, observers, to wage
§ 5. The Peace Process 55
a guerrilla war, issues, to condemn, cessation, to extend, to pave
the way.


Abidjan, Ivory Coast— Sierra Leone and anti-government

(...) have (...) to end more than five years of (...), and are due
to (...) Saturday in the Ivorian commercial capital, Abidjan.
A senior Ivorian official said Friday that the rebel leader, F.
S., was among (...) from the two sides who finalized the deal
Thursday in Abidjan in the presence of Ivorian (...).
"The signing of this accord will take place on Satuday in the
presence of the Ivorian president and his Sierra Leone (...)" the
official said, adding that heads of state of neighboring countries
had been invited.
Mr. S. and other senior members of the Revolutionary
United Front, at war with successive Sierra Leone governments
since 1991, held talks Friday with Foreign Ministry officials
from Ivory Coast in an attempt to make last-minute changes to a
peace deal (...) in May, sources said.
But the revolutionary group's demands regarding the imme-
diate (...) from Sierra Leone of foreign troops assisting the
army, in particular a South African mercenary unit, will not be
fully accommodated in the accord, the sources said.
For years, the presence of foreign troops has been (...) to
peace in Sierra Leone, where the (...) has killed at least 10.000
people, (...) half the population and ruined the economy.

Dushanbe— United Nations (...) in Tajikistan on Sunday

(...) opposition forces for seizing a town in the north of this
Central Asian state in (...) between the Tajik government and
56 _________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

The UN mission in Tajikistan said in a rare statement of pro-

test that opposition forces did not allow its team to visit the
town of Dzhirgatal, about 280 km northeast of the capital
Dushanbe, which they had seized on Friday.
"The Special. Representative of the UN Secretary-General
sent a letter to the leader of the united Tajik opposition today
(...) strict (...) of the ceasefire (...) and immediate (...) of the
armed actions", the statement said.
The Tajik government and Islamic opposition groups which
(...) against Dushanbe authorities since their (...) in the civil
war of 1992, agreed in July (...) a ceasefire signed in September
1994 in Tehran.
Each side has accused the other of frequent violations of the
(...) initially designed to (...) for peace talks to try to find a
compromise on political (...).

5. Replace the Russian words with their English equiva-

lents. Translate the article.



Rambouillet, France— (Мирные переговоры) between

Serbian officials and separatist Kosovo Albanians began here
this weekend amid vivid reminders of war and (примирение),
which international (посредники) hope will inspire the bitter
(враги) to bridge their (разногласия).
The talks here (запланированы) to last no more than two
weeks. If they (не будут иметь успеха), Nato bombing of Ser-
bian forces and a crackdown on the rebels' arms-and-cash pipe-
line are possible.
Less than 10 days ago, В. М., a Geneva-based representative
of the rebel Kosovo Liberation Army, referred to "false hopes of
(решения проблемы за столом переговоров)" and said the
KLA would not (вести переговоры) until Serbia (выведет
§ 5. The Peace Process 57
войска) from the province and (освободит) all Albanian politi-
cal prisoners.
That has not happened, but KLA officials are here anyway.
Likewise, Serbian deputy prime minister R. M. insisted last
week that, his government would not talk, even (через посред-
ников), with those whom Belgrade regards as "terrorists."
Yet, the Serbs and ethnic Albanians sat in the same room
Saturday as French President J. С. (официально) opened the
talks (с призыва) to mimic the hard-won (примирение) of
France and her historic German (враги).
(Восстановленный) 14th-century chalet where the talks are
being held was (местом проведения) of a 1963 meeting that
buried Franco-German enmity after almost a century of constant
Even as the peace talks (начались), the killing continued in
Kosovo. Saturday, a bomb (взорвалась) in an ethnic Albanian
shop; three people died.
The continued (насилие) will either spur (участников пере-
говоров) on or further embitter them. After (предвари-
тельные), indirect discussions (посредником на которых яв-
ляется) U. S. Ambassador С. Н., about 75% of (урегулирова-
ние, соглашение) is in place, says Britain's R. C.

6. Render into English.


Первые контакты между Мадридом и ЭТА
уже состоялись

Бывший глава итальянского государства Ф. К., прибыв-

ший в Бильбао по приглашению умеренной Баскской на-
ционалистической партии (БНП) для «ознакомления с мир-
ным процессом» в Стране Басков, заявил, что не будет вы-
ступать посредником на переговорах между правительст-
вом Испании и баскской сепаратистской организацией
58 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

ЭТА. Как сообщила испанская пресса, первые предвари-

тельные контакты между Мадридом и представителями
ЭТА состоялись еще в начале ноября. Однако в связи с ви-
зитом бывшего итальянского президента Ф. К. и его наме-
рением встретиться с руководителями баскских сепарати-
стов правоцентристское правительство X. А. вновь твердо
заявило, что «не приемлет никакого иностранного посред-
ничества» в Стране Басков.
Накануне приезда К. в Страну Басков — небольшую, с
двухмиллионным населением автономную область Испа-
нии, расположенную на границе с Францией, — мадрид-
ская ежедневная газета «ABC» опубликовала результаты
опроса общественного мнения в связи с началом перего-
ворного процесса между Мадридом и баскскими сепара-
тистами. Большинство опрошенных испанцев высказа-
лись за проведение переговоров между центральным пра-
вительством и ЭТА с целью положить конец насилию и
террористическим акциям в Стране Басков, которые за
последние три десятилетия унесли жизни почти 900 че-
Опрос, проведенный газетой в ноябре, показал, что
74,7% испанцев выступают за установление контактов и
диалога при условии, что ЭТА, требующая от Мадрида при-
знать право басков на самоопределение, будет соблюдать
одностороннее прекращение огня, объявленное ее руково-
дителями 16 сентября. В самой Стране Басков число под-
держивающих делающий первые шаги переговорный про-
цесс — 92,7%.
В то же время почти 55,7% испанцев считают, что объ-
явленное ЭТА «прекращение огня» является просто-
напросто «частью стратегии баскских сепаратистов» и объ-
ясняется «ослаблением» этой террористической организа-
ции после осуществления ряда политических акций в этом
году. И только 33,3% опрошенных убеждены в том, что ны-
нешнее перемирие «приведет к окончательному прекраще-
нию террористических акций».
§ 5. The Peace Process 59
В Стране Басков эти цифры как бы меняются местами:
70% опрошенных уверены в том, что «прекращение огня»
со стороны ЭТА — первый шаг к полному отказу от терро-
ристических акций, и только 22% жителей видят во всту-
пившем в силу с 18 сентября «прекращении огня в односто-
роннем порядке» особый тактический «замысел» сепарати-
По данным опубликованного 22 ноября опроса, 56,2%
испанцев и 61,6% баскского населения считают, что цен-
тральное правительство в Мадриде должно выполнить хотя
бы часть требований ЭТА. И лишь 19% испанцев заявили,
что правительство X. А. не должно идти ни на какие уступ-
ки сепаратистам в ходе переговоров, начавшихся в первой
половине ноября.
Полагают, что на предстоящих переговорах одним из
первых будет поднят вопрос о заключенных в тюрьмы чле-
нах организации ЭТА. Сейчас они содержатся в тюремных
заведениях, разбросанных по всей Испании. ЭТА требует,
чтобы осужденные сепаратисты отбывали заключение в
тюремных заведениях на территории Страны Басков. Пока
на переговорах речь не идет о наиболее деликатных поли-
тических вопросах, таких, как, например, право на самооп-
ределение этой области Испании, добивающейся полной
независимости от Мадрида.

Опрос — opinion poll


7. Translate the headlines:


60 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод



8. This chart contains some of the geographical names men-

tioned in the articles and assignments of this section.
Supply the missing words.

The name of adjective the capital city

the country

9. Find an article on the topic The peace process in a cur-

rent newspaper and report it in class.
§ 6. Revision

1. Match the words on the left with the correct definitions

on the right:

stance sudden progress in talks

envoy someone who opposes or fights against people

in authority

impasse people killed or wounded in an accident or bat-


breakthrough an agreement between enemies to stop fighting

or arguing for a short time

unrest a negotiating position

standoff people fleeing war-zones

counterpart a social or political situation in which people

protest and tend to behave violently

hostilities someone who is sent to another country as an

official representative

rebels the disagreements that people have

casualties a situation in which it is impossible to continue

with a discussion because people involved can-
not agree
62____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

reconciliation someone who has the same job as someone else

in a different place

refugees acts of fighting

differences a situation in which neither side in a fight or

battle can gain an advantage

truce someone from a third party, who helps oppos-

ing parties to settle their differences

mediator a situation in which two people, countries etc.

become friendly with each other again after

2. Replace the Russian words with their English equivalents

in the necessary form. Translate the article.


Queenstown, Md. — President C. joined Mideast (мирные

переговоры) here Thursday in an effort to forge an agreement
in the talks that were hovering between (прорыв) and
(Участники переговоров) for the Israelies and Palestinians,
led by Israeli Prime Minister B. N. and Palestinian leader Y. A.,
should seize this opportunity and not retreat from the clear mo-
mentum of the talks, C. said.
Israeli and Palestinian negotiators narrowly (предотврати-
ли провал) of (проводимых при посредничестве США пе-
реговоров) Wednesday night after the Israelis had threatened
(покинуть переговоры), citing inadequate Palestinian assur-
ances on halting attacks by militants.
§ 6. Revision

Experts from both sides went over (проект соглашения,

представленный) by the United States overnight.
C. was due to hold an early (трехстороннюю встречу) with
A. and N., and U.S. officials expected him (призвать их пойти
на уступки).


Belfast, Northern Ireland— Northern Ireland's (соперни-

чающие) parties took huge strides on Tuesday toward (мирное
соглашение) that could herald a coalition government within
weeks and (прорыв) on guerrilla disarmament.
Pro-British unionists and Irish republicans— (враги) in 30
years of sectarian strife that has swept the British province —
made pronouncements indicating they could end (тупик) that has
strangled the Good Friday (мирное соглашение) for 20 months.
The peace formula, thrashed out during 11 weeks of talks
chaired by U.S. (посредник) G. M., may never be comprehen-
sively set out on a single piece of paper but the main elements
are visible.
M., a former U.S. senator who (был посредником при под-
писании) the 1998 pact, may shed more light on the formula
when he delivers his report to the British and Irish governments
this week.
M. said on Monday that he was "increasingly confident" that
the two sides (обязуются положить конец тупиковой ситуа-

3. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words in the necessary

form from the list given below.

To pay a visit, on the margins, normalization of relations,

watershed agreement, opposite number, exchange visit, to be
64___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

settled, improvement, Foreign secretary, collaboration, ambas-

sadors, a thaw, mutual, differences.



Britain and Iran will take a major step towards (...) next
spring, when R. C. will (...the first...) by a British (...) to Te-
hran since the Islamic revolution of 1979.
This will be part of (...) with Mr. C.'s Iranian (...) К. К.,
who will make a trip to London before the end of this year.
The visits (...) at an hour-long meeting between Mr. C. and
Mr. K. yesterday (...) of the United Nations General Assembly
in New York. The move builds on (...) made here 12 months
ago when the Iranian government disassociated itself from the
fatwa issued against Salman Rushdie by the country's religious
(...) in ties includes the recent exchange of (...), stepped-up
trade and closer (...) on matters of (...) concern, not least the
trade in heroin.
But vast (...) in cultural and political attitudes still divide
London and Tehran. These are further complicated by the
power struggle between moderates and religious conservatives
in Iran.
"A (...) can take a long time", Mr. С declared. "The ex-
change of visits is a big step forward, but there's still a long
road ahead".

4. Translate the sentences paying attention to the under-lined


1. In threatening to break off negotiations, the Israelis

charged that the Palestinians were not moving "to fulfill their
commitments" on combating terrorism.
§ 6. 65
2. The statement by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) appeared to rebuff P.'s latest bid over the
weekend to kick-start peace negotiations, stalled since mid-
3. Mr. C. was pessimistic that Britain's attempt to forge a
Security Council compromise on easing of sanctions and re-
sumption of UN weapons inspections would yield fruit this
4. President В. С had previously opposed unilaterally lift-
ing the embargo so that the Muslims could better defend them-
selves. He said he preferred that the embargo be lifted by the en-
tire international community.
5. Mr. T.'s rejection was widely seen as a melodramatic tac-
tic to take the initiative in peace talks. But it could push the talks
to the brink of a collapse. Such a collapse would probably turn
the melodrama into the tragedy of widespread violence by the
main Catholic and Protestant guerrilla groups, which are now
observing cease-fire.
6. The talks are to begin next Monday and terminate by
Sept. 12, 2000, according to the latest land-for-security agree-
ment signed Saturday in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt. They are to
tackle the contentious issues of Jerusalem, Palestinian refugees,
the fate of Jewish settlements and borders.
7. With the Middle East peace process on hold and tentative
new alliances forming on the frontiers of beleaguered Iraq,
summer has been a season of hectic diplomatic shuttling.

1. Mr. С will have talks with the prime minister aimed at
reaffirming the bilateral security treaty which underpins ties be-
tween Tokyo sand Washington.
2. The decision is certain to be read in Tehran as another
warming gesture by the United States in a carefully evolving
diplomatic minuet between the two countries, which have been
bitter enemies without diplomatic relations since the Islamic
revolution in 1979.
66____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

3. After criticism from R. D., the Republican presidential

candidate, who said "our friend Israel" must not be asked to
make concessions, the White House spokesman, Mike McC,
said America was not hosting the summit "to pressure or brow-
beat». He said: "We're there to help the parties do what only
they can do, which is to reach agreements, implement those
agreements and nurture a peace process."
4. In Jakarta, the Australian ambassador to Indonesia said
that Mr. W.'s government clearly wanted to mend ties with Aus-
tralia, which have been severely strained by Australia's negative
reaction to the Indonesian military's complicity in killings, de-
struction and forced displacement of many people by pro-
Jakarta militia units in East Timor.
5. The emergency White House summit called to repair the
fractured Middle East peace process opened yesterday with only
the slimmest hope of a breakthrough and fresh fears from an Is-
raeli intelligence claim that violence could spread throughout
6. A late 1980s political thaw enabled the two sides to sit
down for semiofficial talks in 1993, but China froze the contacts
after an unofficial to the United States by Mr. L., which Beijing
denounced as evidence that Taiwan president wanted independ-
ence and not reunification with the mainland.
7. Most EU leaders are also angered at what they see as at-
tempts by Washington to elbow Europe out of participation in the
Middle East summit, scheduled for Washington today to try to de-
fuse a crisis that has seen 55 Palestinians and 14 Israelis die in the
worst violence since the peace framework was agreed in 1993.

5. Replace the words in bracnets with their English equiva-


1. Colombia's peace process could (потерпеть крах, про-
валиться) and open the way to (всеобщая война) if the gov-
§ 6. 67
ernment draws on more military (помощь) from the United
2. Mr. A. has been offered a seat on a committee of (лиде-
ров группировок) set up (чтобы разрешить пятилетний кон-
фликт), but Mr. A. has refused (принять участие) in the Ethio-
pia peace talks.
3. The U.S. Congress gave President С the authority (снять
экономические санкции) against India and Pakistan, six month
after their nuclear tests prompted Washington (ввести, нало-
жить) the punitive measures.
4. NATO and the Kosovo Liberation Army were reported in
(интенсивные переговоры) Sunday in an effort (достичь со-
глашения) on what will become of the former (повстанческая
армия) after (крайний срок) for it to disband.
5. N. issued— then pulled back— a series of rolling
threats to A. that (израильская делегация прервет переговоры
если требования Израиля не будут удовлетворены).
6. W. С, (министр обороны США), said yesterday that the
US (уладили, разрешили разногласия) with Germany's cen-
ter-left government (по вопросу о) Nato's nuclear strategy.
7. The government did not give details of the talks, but (по-
сол Канады) А. V., one of the four international (посредников,
присутствовавших на сессии), said the meeting was "con-
structive" and "dealt with various important (вопросы)".

1. (Крайний срок) for (урегулирование) designed to end
800 years of sectarian (насилие) in Ireland has been set for
midnight Thursday. (Провал переговоров) would most likely
lead to (возобновление насилия) that has killed more than
3,200 people in the north since 1969.
2. In light of this, Luxembourg had undertaken contacts
with Iran to allow (восстановление нормальных дипломати-
ческих отношений) in the interests of (обеих сторон).
3. M. А., (госсекретарь США), is to make a personal at-
tempt (выйти из тупика) in the Kosovo peace talks, which
68____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

western (посредники) blame mainly on Serbian rather than Al-

banian (участники переговоров).
4. The fact remains that (снятие) what remains of the em-
bargo, allowing the Argentine navy in particular (восстановить
традиционные довоенные связи) with its British (коллега), is
the next major Argentinian objective.
5. France and other (союзники НАТО) with (миротворче-
ские силы) in Bosnia have said that (односторонние шаг) by
the USA would expose (миротворцы) to attack.
6. More than 200 French deputies (призвали Пекин) yes-
terday (вывести войска из) Tibet and said the United Nations
should take up (этот вопрос). They accused China of being re-
sponsible for 1.5 million deaths since it occupied Tibet in 1950
and said it must immediately (приостановить) population
7. On the eve of today's start of (двухдневная встреча глав
государств-членов ОБСЕ) in Europe, Russian forces stepped
up their assault in Chechnya aimed at crushing (повстанцы, до-
бивающиеся независимости от Москвы).
8. In another development creating (напряженность в от-
ношениях с Москвой), С. today will witness (подписание со-
глашения) between Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey creating
oil and natural gas pipelines. Russia has bitterly opposed the
move, fearful it (подорвет) its ability to develop energy re-
sources in the Caucasus.

6. Translate the sentences into English with the help of the

Active Vocabulary you have learned.

1. Западные дипломаты оценили этот договор как зна-

чительный прорыв в решении конфликта в Косово.
2. Официальные лица в правительстве Заира отвергли
какую-либо возможность проведения мирных переговоров с
повстанцами в Южной Африке.
§ 6. 69
3. В четверг Э. Б. подтвердил, что Израиль придет к со-
глашению с Сирией и выведет войска из Ливана к июлю
2000 года.
4. После того, как участники переговоров с албанской
стороны потребовали двухнедельный перерыв в перегово-
рах, новый раунд переговоров был намечен на 15 марта.
5. Главы государств Китая и России заявили, что они
хотят установить более тесные экономические и политиче-
ские связи, но не добиваются восстановления официального
союза 1950-х годов.
6. Вчера Хорватия и Югославия подписали соглашение
о взаимном признании, тем самым официально положив
конец пятилетней вражде, которая возникла между ними
после отделения Хорватии.
7. По заявлению международного представителя в Бос-
нии К. В., численность возглавляемого НАТО миротворче-
ского контингента в Боснии должна остаться на сущест-
вующем уровне в течение всего следующего года.
8. Глава Палестинской Автономии выразил надежду,
что новый израильско-палестинский договор будет добро-
совестно претворяться в жизнь и даст новый толчок разви-
тию мирного процесса на Ближнем Востоке.
9. Переговоры между представителями обеих сторон
зашли в тупик, поскольку участникам переговоров не уда-
лось достичь компромисса по основным вопросам.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader Extracts from
"Key words in the media" by BillMascull


talks When governments or other bodies wish to
hold talks reach agreements, they hold or have talks,
round of talks discussions or negotiations. A meeting or a
series of related meetings of this kind is a
round of talks.
negotiations Where preparation is needed before the
main talks, for example to decide on the
meeting place and the participants, they
talks about talks may first hold talks about talks.

talking shop An official organisation where representa-

tives meet regularly to give speeches and
exchange opinions, but which has no real
power, is a talking shop.
Agriculture ministers of the European Community are to
hold a new round of talks on Friday aimed at reaching agree-
ment on proposals to reduce subsidies to farmers.
He said they had held what he termed very interesting dis-
cussions on arms control.
Guatemalan guerrillas and leaders of the country's nine larg-
est parties are holding negotiations near Madrid to try to end
Guatemala's long-running civil war.
Japanese diplomats described today's meeting as talks about
talks. Japan is seeking no more than to agree the date, venue and
§ 7. Supplemental^ Reader 71
level for formal talks on opening diplomatic relations with
North Korea.
Governments, especially in the West, which used to dismiss
the United Nations as a mere talking shop, now see the possi-
bilities for the body to act more as a world policeman.

Talks combinations. Use the verbs in the box to complete

the extracts.

attend break off
resume talks walk out of
convene suspend

1. A Brazilian delegation flies to Washington today,

Wednesday, to_____________talks with the International
Monetary Fund which broke down without agreement last
2. It wants to cut interest rates as soon as it has successfully
__________talks on cutting the budget deficit.
3. Mr Alatas has made it clear that he would not___________
talks unless he was convinced of the commitment of all the
parties concerned.
4. Mr Hameed is to travel to the northern Jaffna peninsula in an
attempt to meet the Tigers, who refused to___________talks
arranged on Thursday in the cast of the island.
5. The latest attempt at negotiation broke down on Friday after
one of the Mohawk factions__________talks with the Que-
bec government.
6. Two of the world's largest tire makers. Germany's Conti-
nental and Italy's Pirelli, have decided not to merge. The
two companies say they have_______________talks after
15 months.
7. Yesterday Nelson Mandela said the ANC would
__________talks with the government about a new constitu
tion if a set of demands were not met by May 9th.
72__________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод


delegate A government, party or other entity may be
delegation represented by one or more delegates. A
group of delegates representing one side is a
opposite number When the representative of A has the same
job or rank as the representative of В they
sherpa are counterparts or opposite numbers.
Talks between heads of government or other
communique very important representatives are summits,
declaration and the officials who prepare for them may
be referred to as sherpas: see the example
The final statement made to journalists and
others at the end of talks is a communique
or declaration.

The Palestinians will give him a list of proposed delegates

for a joint Jordanian-Palestinian delegation to the conference.
At lunch, the Premier toasted his Russian counterpart, telling
him, "You are turning a new page of history by being here."
A team of veterinary experts are meeting their British oppo-
site numbers at the Ministry of Agriculture's offices today to
discuss the French ban on imports of British beef.
As is the way with these international gatherings, the decla-
rations were largely drafted before the delegations arrived. Each
country nominates one official who does much of the ground-
work — sherpas, they're called, the traditional term for Himala-
yan mountain guides, who assist their charges to a rather differ-
ent kind of summit.
The discussions finally collapsed because of disagreement
over the wording of the final communique.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 73

atmosphere The atmosphere at talks is often de-

cordial scribed in communiques as cordial, and
atmosphere in other Ways mentioned in the exercise
agreement broad Communiques may talk of a frank ex-
agreement change of views and broad agreement on
a number of issues.
exchange of Where there is still disagreement, corn-
views muniques may talk of deep differences
frank exchange of that remain. Differences may be de-
views scribed in other ways, again mentioned
in the exercise below.
differences deep Commentators may talk of differences
differences narrowing (getting smaller) or widening
narrowing (getting bigger).
differences An obstacle to agreement is often de-
widening scribed as a stumbling block.
stumbling block
They say although the two sides have reached broad agree-
ment on a number of issues, deep differences remain over the
timetable for peace and political change.
Mr Davidow said his two days of talks with the Angolan
government had taken place in an exceedingly cordial and open
atmosphere. There'd been a very frank exchange of views about
the peace talks under way between the MPLA government and
Unita rebels.
There's been no narrowing of differences on one of the main
stumbling blocks, aircraft.
74___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

Atmosphere and differences. Some of the adjectives below

relate to the atmosphere at talks and others to differences be-
tween sides at talks.
Complete them and say which describe l)the atmosphere
and 2) the differences.

a fr____ndly. e m_j._r ' b_s_n_ss-l_k_

b £ _ n s t r _ c t _ v _ / £_i_x_d j E_s_t_y_
с s_gn_f_c_nt g f_nd_m_nt_l Hr_nk
d _Et_m_st_c hshrrj / s b s t n t ___1


stance tough A negotiating position, particularly one
stance aggressive unlikely to change, is a stance. A stance
stance is often described as tough or aggres-
concession Negotiators try to reach agreement by
compromise making concessions, demanding less
than they demanded earlier, hoping to
get concessions from the other side, thus
reaching agreement through compro-
veto use your mise.
If one side refuses a proposal during
deadlock talks, it vetoes it, or uses its veto.
Where there is disagreement, the two
impasse sides are at loggerheads, and where there
loggerheads at is no prospect of a change in negotiating
loggerheads positions, commentators talk about dead-
lock, or an impasse. Talks in this state
are deadlocked.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 75
The verbs corresponding to the nouns concession and compromise
are concede and compromise. The nouns corresponding to the verbs
break down and collapse are breakdown and collapse.

Yet while some club chairmen arc taking a tough stance,

others are now more wary of confrontation — worried about the
financial implications to the clubs themselves if suddenly there
were no games.
She is either so confident of her strength that she feels she
can get away with such an aggressive stance, or so committed to
her underlying beliefs about Europe that she feels compelled to
speak her mind regardless of the consequences.
Prince Sihanouk has put forward a compromise proposal to
break the deadlock in peace talks being held by the Supreme
National Council in Bangkok.
The conference is still deadlocked over the Americans' re-
fusal to agree to provide extra money.
Whenever the Democrats have compromised, the White
House negotiating team have said, "Thank you very much. Now
let's start over and compromise what's left."
Featherstone rejected two offers from Halifax, and refused to
concede any significant price concessions to Leeds.
The Latvians are confident that these talks will continue,
thus avoiding the "no concessions, no talks" impasse that exists
between Moscow and Vilnius.
America's decision to re-establish a dialogue with Vietnam
might in the long run help resolve the issue, but meanwhile
ASEAN and the United States remain at loggerheads with no
compromise in sight.
One recent EC rule on air pollution would have cost Spain
Ptas 300 billion to enforce, according to Spanish officials — if it
had not used its veto to win a let-cut for its factories to continue
burning dirty brown coal. Spain likes those bits of political un-
ion that come free.
76____________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод


talks Where there are obstacles to agreement, and

falter discussions continue with difficulty, they fal-
founder ter. When discussions end because of dis-
break down agreement, talks break down, founder or cdl-
collapse lapse.

When negotiators behave in a way that may brinkmanship

cause talks to collapse, but hope to gain advantage if they
continue, they may be accused of brinkmanship. scupper talks
torpedo talks If someone is accused of torpedoing or scup-
pering talks, they are accused of intentionally
causing them to collapse.

The Jakarta talks, faltering from the outset, would in all like-
lihood have collapsed had it not been for Washington's an-
nouncement on 5 September.
The talks foundered because most ministers were unable to
accept a package of compensatory measures for farmers likely
to be hit by proposed cuts.
A great number of speakers at the meeting made it clear
that it was pointless to go on with this sort of farce. In spite of
what appeared to be total breakdown, talks will continue later
The American delegation are speaking of imminent collapse;
there is a very real danger of the talks breaking down with seri-
ous consequences for the world economy.
The Malaysian Minister of International Trade Rafeta Aziz
criticized Europe for toying dangerously with the world econ-
omy. "I'm not sure whether some people are playing the brink-
manship game so that they will try to create some crisis situa-
tion, and that makes people get stirred up."
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 77
That move has led left-wing legislators to say Shamir
does not intend to negotiate but rather torpedo the talks. It
has also caused his foreign minister to withdraw from the
Jacques Delors was last night accused of sabotaging thou-
sands of British jobs for the sake of personal ambition. He was
accused of scuppering crucial trade talks to avert a world trade
war by EC negotiator Ray MacSharry.


breakthrough Sudden progress in talks is a breakthrough.
Breakthroughs are often described as ma-
outcome jor, important, significant or dramatic and
may lead to a successful outcome of the
agreement reach
agreement When talks are successful, the sides reach
reach an agreement or reach or strike an agreement.
agreement An agreement may also be referred to as
strike an an accord or a deal.
Before it comes into effect, an agreement
may have to be approved or ratified by an
elected body such as a parliament, which
accord may refuse ratification by vetoing the
deal agreement.

The vital breakthrough in GATT talks eventually came with

concessions on both sides.
The high-volume propaganda exchange between the United
States and the European Community has not only made a sue-
78 ________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

cessful outcome to the talks much more difficult to achieve, but

has also soured relations generally.
Vietnam and Britain have reached agreement on the return of
at least 300 Vietnamese boat people to their communist home-
Dresdner Bank and Banque Nationale de Paris have just
struck an agreement to collaborate in international markets.
That's how he came to meet Lenin in 1921 and broke a trade
impasse. Hammer struck a deal in which Soviet furs were ex-
changed for American wheat.
He still carries weight in White House, especially on Middle
East questions, where he supervised the Camp David accord be-
tween Israel and Egypt.
In a follow-up to the Earth summit, the declaration called on
other nations to join the G7 partners in ratifying the climate
change convention.

relations Two countries beginning diplomatic re-
establish relations lations establish them. If they had dip-
break off relations lomatic relations previously but broke
restore relations them off, they restore them, normalis-
normalise ing relations between them.
Bad relations are often described as
strained, tense or frosty. Relations are
sour relations said to be soured by something that
negatively affects them.

strained relations When bad relations between countries

tense relations improve, commentators talk about a
frosty relations thaw between the countries.
A country having diplomatic relations
diplomatically with very few other countries is diplo-
isolated matically isolated.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 79
sanctions When one country wants to put pres-
trade sanctions sure on another, it may limit trade with
embargo that country and impose sanctions, or it
economic may stop trade and other contacts and
embargo impose an economic embargo.

is a noun and a verb.

Denmark and Iceland have become the first countries to

establish diplomatic relations with the three Baltic republics.
After Indonesia's invasion of East Timor, Portugal broke
off diplomatic relations with Indonesia.
Britain's trade with Iran cannot be wholly unrelated to the
two countries' history of strained relations. Though, diplo-
matic relations were restored last year, ambassadors have not
been exchanged yet.
The trip is being seen as an important step in normalising
relations between the two countries. Our correspondent says
that the visit undoubtedly marks a thaw in Harare's previ-
ously frosty attitude to South Africa.
Japan — fearful of putting further strain on its already
tense relations with the United States — has continued to
support the economic embargo against Vietnam, albeit un-
By extending central rule, the government risks souring
relations with the Sikhs.
Some Europeans think that, if Serbia were morally and
diplomatically isolated, it would think twice about fighting
The United States is considering imposing trade sanctions
against Thailand, unless Thailand lifts a ban on foreign ciga-
rette imports and advertising.
80___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

Diplomatic relations. Which of the verbs below mean the

same as 1) "break off and 2) "restore" in the context of diplo-
matic relations? Use appropriate forms of the verbs to complete
the extracts below.

a) resume c) re-open e) break

b) renew d) cut off f) re-establish

1. Senegal and Mauritania have agreed in principle to__________

diplomatic relations, broken off two years ago after bloody
clashes along the Senegal river which forms their common
2. The Moscow talks were the first between senior diplomats of
the two countries since the Soviet Union_________ _ diplo-
matic relations with Israel in 1967.
3. Mexico and the Vatican__________diplomatic relations in
1867, when the reformist President Juarez confiscated all
church properties and suppressed the religious orders.
4. The visit is caking place just over three months after Argen
tina and Britain agreed to________diplomatic relations eight
years after the two countries broke all links during the Falk-
lands War.
5. In recent years, Albania has____—_________________dip-
lomatic relations with most European countries.
6. Table tennis teams were visiting China before Nixon____—
__________diplomatic relations between Communist China
and the United States.


escalating tension If the differences between two sides

increase, there is escalating tension be-
war tween them. A standoff is a period of
avert a war extreme tension that may or may not
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 81
teeter on the lead to violence. If two sides are very
brink of war close to war, they are (teetering) on the
brink of war.

standoff If a war is prevented, perhaps by talks,

it is averted. If not, hostilities begin or
break out.
hostilities begin A hot spot is a place where tension is
hostilities break high and fighting may break out at any
out moment.

The American ambassador in Delhi has confirmed that his

country is urging India and Pakistan to hold talks to try to avert
the threat of war over Kashmir.
North Korea often accuses the South of escalating tension to
the brink of war by staging joint military manoeuvres known as
"Team Spirit" with the United States.
In 1961, just after the building of the Berlin Wall, this was
the scene of a tense standoff between Soviet and American
tanks: the world teetered on the brink of war.
Mr Urqhart emphasised the need for a preventive UN
force to be dispatched to hot spots before hostilities break
"The only acceptable outcome, if, in fact, hostilities begin, is
absolute, total victory."

Types of war. Find the following types of war in the table.

Then use the expressions to complete the extracts.

A war...
1. that isolated clashes might degenerate into
2. between East and West that lasted from 1945 to 1989
3. where nuclear arms are used
4. where nuclear arms are not used
82___________Английский язык. Общественно-поДкгический перевод

5. between factions of the same nationality

6. causing an enormous number of deaths and amount of
7. fought by irregular forces, perhaps avoiding direct con-
frontation with the other side.

guerrilla Cold
full-scale war conventional
nuclear devastating

a The Cold War is over. The world is learning to live with

out the imminent threat of___________war that had con
ditioned our lives for 40 years.
b A grim reminder of the___________War — the border
crossing point between East and West Berlin known as
Checkpoint Charlie — is to go the way of the rest of the
Berlin Wall and be dismantled.
с As the__________war in Liberia enters its tenth month,
thousands of people continue to stream across the borders
into neighbouring countries.
d Because of the intensity of the fighting — what analysts
call "low-intensity _________ war"— neither side ap
pears strong enough to defeat the other.
e The President himself said he is against withdrawing all
Nato nuclear weapons from Europe and thus making it
safe for_________war.
f The question is whether anything else but a neutral out
side force would be strong enough to persuade them to
leave the scene before the current clashes degenerate into
g The two men stressed the importance of averting the ca
tastrophe of a___________war and the need to achieve a
common Arab stand.
§ ?. Supplementary 83

belligerent Before or during a war, one side may accuse

combatant the other of belligerent statements, remarks or
actions: things that make war more likely, or
prolong or intensify a war that has already
warring party started.

wage war Belligerents, combatants or warring parties

are countries or factions participating in a
war, or waging war against each other. Com-
batants are also people physically doing the

Troops had been mentally prepared for hostilities. Pakistan

believes, that India's frustration at its inability to control the
situation in Kashmir is leading to increasingly belligerent
statements from its politicians, alerting the military on both
The foreign ministers of the four main belligerents of World
War Two in Europe have signed in Moscow a treaty endorsing
German unity.
It is simply a demilitarized zone — 4 km wide — separating
two combatants who have not yet reached formal agreement that
the Korean War of the early 1950's is formally over.
His remarks came only a few days before the warring parties
to the conflict are due to gather in the Indonesian capital, Ja-
karta, for another round of peace talks.
President Milosevic called on them to be ready to fight to de-
fend themselves, but he added: "Before we are forced to wage
war we will do everything to preserve peace."

Adversaries and allies. Look at the extracts and complete

the key words below.
84_________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
The new government will have to bring Lebanon's warring
factions together and end the country's 15-year civil war.
There have been renewed clashes in El Salvador between
government forces and left-wing rebels of the Farabundo Marti
National Liberation Front.
This seems to be the time of uniting: two Germanics are
about to merge and two former foes — Iran and Iraq — have
become allies.
The Foreign Secretary, Mr Douglas Hurd, has been stressing
the importance of Britain's friendship and alliance with Ger-
many and France.
When John F. Kennedy came,to Berlin in June of 1963, he
paid a tribute that seemed to turn at least West Germans from
being occupied adversaries into allies.
During the second world war Burmese and Indonesian na-
tionalists allied themselves with the Japanese, finding them a
useful lever against the colonial power.
None has improved on Palmerston's dictum that Britain
has no permanent friends or enemies, only permanent inte-

warring faction The different sides in a civil war are

_____________^__________. Factions oppos-
rebels ing a central government are_____________.
Countries or factions with the same interests
ally ________themselves with each other and are
alliance _________forming an_____________. Oppos-
enemy or_________.

Ally is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable when a noun
and with the stress on the second syllable when a verb.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 85

fighting When fighting starts it breaks out or

break out erupts. If fighting flares or flares up, it
erupt starts, or starts again after a lull, a period
flare when it has stopped or been less intense.
flare up
Fighting may be sporadic, perhaps taking sporadic fighting
the form of brief, unplanned encounters or heavy fighting
skirmishes with only small numbers involved. Or it may be
heavy, with large lull in fighting numbers of troops and
other forces involved. skirmish

In Georgia, fierce fighting broke out today between rebel na-

tional guardsmen and troops loyal to President Zviad Gamsak-
But for all the noise, the air base received only minor dam-
age. In comparison to the permanent heavy fighting in the coun-
tryside, the attack was more of a skirmish.
People are taking advantage of a lull in the fighting to get out
of the immediate war zone.
The most bitter fighting erupted here in eastern Croatia
when federal tanks and airforce jets attacked the town of
While fighting has flared in the breakaway north of Yugo-
slavia, some of Serbia's leading politicians have begun to re-
assess their views on the future unity of the federation.
Both Libya and Sudan have denied any involvement in the
Chadian fighting, which flared up again last month after a pe-
riod of relative quiet.
«6 Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод
casualties Casualties arc people killed and hurt, or
wounded, especially those severely
wounded. They may include civilian
losses heavy casualties, those not in the military. Mili-
casualties heavy tary casualties may be referred to as
losses inflict losses. Where there are many casualties
casualties inflict or losses, they are described as heavy.
losses civilian
casualties Casualties and losses are inflicted by one
side on the other.
wounded Military casualties killed or wounded by
members of their own side are victims of
friendly fire.
friendly fire
Unintended civilian casualties and dam-
collateral damage age to non-military targets may be re-
ferred to by the military, euphemisti-
cally, as collateral damage.
Rwandan casualties were 14 dead and 30 wounded.
You don't have to be much of a cynic to take military claims
that they're being careful of civilian casualties skeptically.
Tigrean rebels say they inflicted heavy losses on government
troops infighting in northern Shewa region last week.
The United States Defense Department says an investigation
has shown that about one in every four Americans killed in bat-
tle during the Gulf War died as a result of so-called "friendly
fire" — that is, killed by their own side.
Those of us who have been through it know that you're talk-
ing about human lives that are cut short. We don't think of
words like "collateral damage" or "numbers". We think of
§ 7. Supplementary! Reader 87
escalate If a war intensifies, it escalates.
war-torn A country devastated by war is, in media
terms, war-torn.
One side may accuse the other of atroci-
ethnic cleansing ties: for example forcing civilians to
genocide leave an area for reasons of ethnic origin:
ethnic cleansing. Or they may accuse
them of the mass killing of civilians for
evacuee racial or political reasons: genocide.
People fleeing war-zones arc refugees or
relief relief aid evacuees, and the help provided to them
relief organisation by Organisations is relief or relief aid.
Organisations such as the Red Cross are
relief organisations.
Bosnian sources estimate that 50,000 people have so far been
killed or are missing. Atrocities: rape, torture and murder, are
unquestionably being carried out on a large scale.
"Ethnic cleansing", in which people are forced from their
homes at gunpoint, has not stopped.
The Khmer Rouge objected to Vietnam's insistence on in-
cluding the word "genocide" in reference to the Khmer Rouge's
three years in power during which some two million Cambodi-
ans died.
...a flood of refugees from Somalia's escalating civil war.
The agreement calls for the return home of the evacuees who
fled the fighting.
Refugee organizations say the majority of those arriving in
Britain and the rest of Europe are fleeing from genuine persecu-
88 _________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

tion and misery in their war-torn countries. They want more re-
sources to care for the refugees.

Britain yesterday pledged a further $18 million in food and

relief aid to war-torn Somalia.
Monsieur Kouchner is a co-founder of the French relief
organisation Medecins sans Frontieres and accustomed to high-
profile missions to trouble spots.


bloodshed During wars, there are calls to end the

end the bloodshed, or violence. Military and civil-
bloodshed ians tired of a war are war-weary.

war-weary Outside governments may try to end a

civil war by sending a peace-keeping
force, or peace-keepers, who try to stop
peace-keeping the fighting, or prevent it from starting
force again.
If the sides say they will stop fighting, at
ceasefire least temporarily, they agree to a ceasefire
truce or a truce. If a ceasefire or truce continues
hold as agreed, it holds. If not. it is broken,
break usually with one side accusing the other of
having broken it.

Peace-keeping, peace-keeper and cease-fire are also spelt as one or
two words.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 89
Everyone accepts the need for negotiations, to break the
deadlock and try to end the bloodshed. In this, one of the world's
worst examples of intercommunal violence, more than 3,000
people, Protestants and Catholics, have been killed.
People are very increasingly war-weary and disgusted and
angry, but it is very hard for them to give expression to this in
sectors where there is very strong intimidation and fear.
Over the past few weeks the peace-keeping force has been
doing a good enough job that people feel safe to go back out on
the streets and so there are markets everywhere.
Yesterday the Security Council passed a resolution warning
all waning parties that they must abide by the latest cease-fire
before peace-keepers can be sent.
The Phnom Penh government and its three guerrilla rivals
unexpectedly agreed to a ceasefire. The truce held.
There were reports of fresh outbreaks of fighting in Rwanda,
with the government accusing rebels of breaking the ceasefire


arbitrator A dispute may be resolved more easily

arbitrate with the help of someone not directly in-
volved in it.

mediator A mediator or arbitrator is someone from a

mediate third party who helps opposing parties set-
tle their differences and reach an agree
ment by mediating or arbitrating in the
reconciliation dispute. This process is reconciliation.

envoy An envoy is a representative sent by one

of the parties, or a mediator sent by a third
shuttle diplomacy party, who travels specially in order to
take part in negotiations.
90___________Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

peace conference Shuttle diplomacy involves a mediator vis-

peace process iting and re-visiting a number of places in
peace settlement a short period to mediate between the par-
peace talks ties involved.

Where negotiations are in many stages,

convention and progress is at times very slow, com-
mentators talk about the peace process.

Discussions between parties trying to

reach a peace settlement are referred to as
peace talks or a peace conference.

A conference involving many parties may

be referred to as a convention, and so may
the agreement reached at such a confe-

India says Kashmir is an internal Indian problem which

doesn't require mediation by anyone else.
They have chosen their words with great care to describe
America's role in the Middle East peacemaking effort. Not
"arbitrator", which would mean dictating an outcome; not
"mediator", which would imply it could suggest a solution.
The four pillars of her government, she said, would be na-
tional reconciliation, economic regeneration, social justice and
the consolidation of democracy. But the first task, she said, was
to end the war. •
Mr Primakor, who arrived in Bagdad on Saturday from
Cairo, was to leave today for Riyadh on the next leg of his exer-
cise in shuttle diplomacy.
The United Nations Secretary General's personal envoy,
Mr. Alvaro de Soto, will mediate between the two sides in an at-
tempt to settle El Salvador's ten-year conflict.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 91
He had asked Switzerland to help organise a peace confer-
ence to negotiate a settlement to the Afghan conflict.
The African state of Liberia says it will not continue peace
talks, describing them as a waste of time.
Mr. Boucher says that the absence of a peace process con-
tributes to the spiralling violence in the region.
The agreement is scheduled to be formally signed at a peace
convention on September 14th once remaining differences have
been resolved.
A draft resolution also proposes a meeting of parties to the
Fourth Geneva Convention on protecting civilians in time of

Peace partners. Find the following expressions in the table

and use them to complete the extracts.

1. efforts to reach peace (two expressions)

2. someone who tries to mediate a peace agreement
3. economic benefit of having reached a peace agreement
4. popular protest against a war
5. peace agreement
6. recognition of peace efforts

movement treaty
move peace dividend
prize initiatives

a A spokesman for the Nobel committee said Suu Kyi, 47,

is one of the foremost examples of civilian courage
in Asia. Today's news found the peace _____________
winner in exactly the same place she has been for the
past two years: under house arrest in Burma's capital,
92_______ Английский язык. Общественно-политический перевод

b Afghan guerrilla groups based in Pakistan and Iran have

rejected the presidents latest peace__________.They want
nothing short of his removal from power.
с Camp David in 1978 was the high point of Mr Carter's
presidency. He badgered and cajoled Menachem Begin of
Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt into a peace
__________. Twelve years on, he feels he has unfinished
business in the region. Now he's a freelance peace

d German doubts about the fighter plane project make its

whole future uncertain. In many countries now there's
talk of a "peace___________" — money to be saved on
defence being diverted to other uses.
e The battle zone, which borders Iraq and Turkey, is popu-
lated mostly by Moslem Armenians and is claimed by
Armenia. Previous peace ___________ have failed and
ceasefire declarations have been ignored as each side ac-
cuses the other of genocide, massacres and atrocities.
f Word of the demonstration has been spreading for weeks,
and the result could be one of the largest anti-war rallies
since Vietnam. While the peace____________mobilized,
those who support military action are also taking their
message to the streets.
§ 7. Supplementary Reader 93
1 2 3 4 5

i 7








Across Down
6. Counterpart across the ne- 1 and 9 across Unintended de-
gotiating table with the same struction (10, 6)
number? (8) 2. What off and on fighting is
7. Good agreement for head- (8)
line writers? (4) 3. These can lead to war if they
8. Victim of war or disaster (8) escalate (8)
9. See I down 4. War participants (12)
11. Shuttle diplomacy is one 5. One of 4 down on the same
form of this (9) side (4)
12. Nepalese negotiator? (6) 10. Tired of war (5)
14. What peace talks try to 13. Talking place you can't buy
end (9) things at (4)
15. What to make to break the 14. Agreement: general, but it
deadlock? (11) may not be enough (5)
16. Countries with few friends 15. The one that followed
are isolated (14) WW2 was low temperature (4)
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«Восток - Запад»


С. А. Семко, В. В. Сдобников, С. Н. Чекунова

Под общей редакцией доктора филологических наук,
профессорам. П. ИВАШКИНА
Настоящий учебник предназначен для овладения коммер-
ческим переводом на продвинутых этапах обучения.
Материалы учебника охватывают различные жанры и
поджанры коммерческих документов: контракты (договоры),
долговые обязательства, гарантии, ведомости, уставы акцио-
нерных компаний, транспортные накладные и др.
Каждый текст снабжен комментарием, словарем и упраж-

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