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Komunikasi Data

Interface Komunikasi Data – pertemuan 6

• Delay propagasi
¾ Pengaruhnya pada sinyal
• Standar interface lapisan fisik
¾ Standar yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan peralatan

Propagation delay

• There is always a short but finite time delay for a signal (electrical,
optical or radio) to propagate (travel) from one end of a transmission
medium to the other; known as the transmission propagation delay, Tp
of the medium
• Round-trip delay is the time delay between the first bit of a block being
transmitted by the sender and the last bit of its associated
acknowledgement being received
The function is not only of the time taken to transmit the frame at the
link bit rate (known as the transmission delay, Tx) but also of the
propagation delay of the link Tp
• The relative weighting of the two varies for different types of data link
and hence the two times varies for different are often express as a ratio

Propagation delay

• The relative weighting of the two varies for different types of data link
and hence the two times varies for different are often express as a ratio
a: Tp
a= where
physical separation S in meters
Tp =
velocity of propagation V in meters per second
number of bits to be transmitted N
Tx =
link bit rate R in bits per second

• If a < 1: the round trip delay is determined primarily by the transmission

• If a = 1: both delays have equal effect
• If a > 1: the propagation delay dominates
Physical layer interface standards
• Standards that define a complete range of additional signals that control
the order and timing of data transfer across the appropriate interfaces.
• RS232 – the standard defined for the connection of DTE (Data Terminal
Equipment) to DCE (Data Communication Equipment) where:
– DTE is a generic term for an item which forms part of the ‘information
processing portions of a system. E.g. computer, printer
– DCE is a device which provides an interface between a DTE and a
communication link. Generally used as another word for ‘modem’

Physical layer interface standards
• The RS232 standard defines:
– Mechanical characteristics: connector size etc
– Electrical characteristics: voltage levels for ‘1’ & ‘0’
– Functional characteristics: data format, timing
– Procedural characteristics: how ‘control’ function is performed
• RS232/V.24 Interface: is the ‘classic’ interface for DTE/DCE
connections. It is based on a 25-pin plug and socket. Virtually all
computers have at least one RS232-compatible serial I/O port (the term
RS232 port is widely used as a synonym of serial port)

Physical layer interface standards
Other interfaces:
• RS449/422/423: designed by EIA to replace RS232. These standards are
not widely success. RS449 defined the pin functions, RS422 defined
balanced mode circuit usage, and RS423 defined an unbalanced mode
similar to (and compatible with) RS232. RS449/422 cold operate at
moderate speed over long distances
• X.21: a CCITT (ITU) specification which was designed for connecting
DTE equipment directly to digital public carrier links.
• V.35: an ITU variation on RS449