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The Year of the

TIE ASKED a number of top thinkers

to focus on the outlook for sovereign
debt. How likely are countries in the
eurozone’s periphery (Greece, Ireland,
Portugal, and Spain) to default outright
or face significant “haircuts” on their

sovereign debt over the next three to
five years? What is the probability in
the next three to five years that any of
the major industrialized countries (the
United States, Japan, Germany, France,
and the United Kingdom) lose their top
ratings*? And how might the increased
prospect of default in the eurozone
periphery and the loss of triple-A ratings
in the major industrialized countries
affect the global economy?

*Note: on January 27, the Standard & Poor’s rating

agency downgraded Japan to AA-minus. Other rating
agencies have left Japan’s credit rating untouched.

888 16th Street, N.W.
Suite 740
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202-861-0791
Fax: 202-861-0790


Resident Fellow, American
Enterprise Institute Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
he seriousness of any

T intensification of the
eurozone debt crisis
for the global economic
✔ Certain
✔ Certain
recovery should not be Portugal: ✔ Certain
underestimated. This crisis Spain: ✔ Probable
has the potential to deliver a
major blow to the European Major industrial countries
banking system, which is the main holder of the European
periphery’s US$2 trillion in sovereign debt obligations. losing their top rating?
Over the next twelve to eighteen months, there is every
United States: ✔ Probable
prospect that Greece and Ireland will choose to restructure
their sovereign debt. They will do so as their economies sink Japan: ✔ Certain
further into the deepest of recessions under the weight of the Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
draconian fiscal adjustment being imposed on these coun-
France: ✔ Probable
tries by the International Monetary Fund and the European
Union within the straightjacket of their euro membership. United Kingdom: ✔ Probable
A Greek or Irish sovereign debt restructuring would
constitute the largest such restructuring in history. It would
also more than likely result in an escalation in contagion to closure crisis continues unabated, and international oil
Portugal and Spain, since both of these countries have extra- prices are again at high levels.
ordinarily large external financing needs in 2011. A deepening in the European crisis must be expected to
A banking crisis in Europe, coupled with a renewed result in a further weakening in the euro, which would put
European economic downturn, will have serious implica- U.S. exporters at a competitive disadvantage, since it would
tions for the global economic recovery. In particular, it heighten existential questions about the euro. It must also be
would heighten the risks of a petering-out in the U.S. eco- expected to result in an increased degree of global risk aver-
nomic recovery, since it would come at precisely a time sion given the great degree of interconnectedness of the
when U.S. unemployment remains unusually high, the fore- world’s financial system.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Certain Praise the Lord and
Ireland: ✔ Certain pass the ammunition.
Portugal: ✔ Certain
✔ Unlikely he check-marks tell the story,

or at least my view of the
story. Too many words have
Major industrial countries already been written as to the whys
losing their top rating? and wherefores. Praise the Lord
and pass the ammunition.
United States: ✔ Won’t happen
Japan: ✔ Probable BARTON M. BIGGS
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen Managing Partner,

France: ✔ Unlikely Traxis Partners

United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Certain LOUIS BACON
Founder, Chairman, Chief
Ireland: ✔ Certain
Executive Officer, and Principal
Portugal: ✔ Probable Investment Manager,
Spain: ✔ Unlikely Moore Capital Management

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?

United States: ✔ Won’t happen

Japan: ✔ Probable
Germany: ✔ Unlikely
France: ✔ Probable
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Columnist, Financial Times
Spain: ✔ Probable

O bstinate refusal to write down

debt is the greater threat. Major industrial countries
Alas, I don’t rate rating losing their top rating?
agencies. The most important policy
aim should be to free market United States: ✔ Won’t happen
economies from bondage to finan- Japan: ✔ Won’t happen
cial market prejudices.
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Unlikely
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Probable

Major industrial countries ROBERT K. STEEL

Deputy Mayor for Economic
losing their top rating? Development, New York City, and

United States: ✔ Won’t happen former Undersecretary for

Domestic Finance, U.S. Treasury
Japan: ✔ Unlikely
Germany: ✔ Unlikely
France: ✔ Unlikely
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Unlikely
Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Unlikely

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Won’t happen
Japan: ✔ Won’t happen
Former President,
German Bundesbank Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Won’t happen
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely

Likelihood of default or
on the periphery?

Greece: ✔ Unlikely
Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen The risk of government
Major industrial countries
defaults threatening the
losing their top rating? recovery is a somewhat
✔ Unlikely exaggerated fear.
United States:
Japan: Already AA-
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Probable Chairman, Asset
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely Management, Goldman
Sachs International

here is growing evidence of accelerat- revenues grow and spending becomes less

T ing global recovery, and if there is a

surprise this year, it might be that the
developed countries, led by the United
pressured. In this context, I personally
believe that the risk of government defaults
threatening the recovery is a somewhat
States, will positively surprise. We may see exaggerated fear. By the way, unless I
a number of quarters of 3 percent to 4 per- missed something, Japan lost its AAA status
cent or more real GDP growth in the United many years ago! If there were to be prob-
States. If this is correct, the size of some fis- lems, then the country that concerns me
cal deficits will come down as government most is actually Japan, not the United States.


Likelihood of default or
TADASHI NAKAMAE on the periphery?
President, Nakamae
Greece: ✔ Certain
International Economic
Research Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Certain
apan’s fiscal woes are no Spain:
J secret, but its currency is
the strongest and its gov-
ernment bonds are the most
✔ Certain

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
secure, as witnessed by the fact
that its yields are the lowest in
the world. Moreover, unlike
United States: ✔ Probable
the United States, Britain, France, and Germany, Japan’s gov- Japan: Already AA-
ernment bonds are mostly held by domestic rather than foreign Germany: ✔ Probable
investors, who as stakeholders are unlikely to cause their coun-
try to default on its debt.
France: ✔ Certain
Thus, if credit ratings truly reflect default risk, it is ridicu- United Kingdom: ✔ Certain
lous that Japanese government bonds (JGBs) are rated AA-
minus, while the other G4 countries are still rated AAA. Over
the past decade or so, investment banks and hedge funds have
constantly tried to make money by short-selling JGBs (on the answer to today’s problems. For countries that can shift to
assumption that Japan’s fiscal troubles would cause yields to supply-side policies that enable the private sector to become
rise), neatly enabled by credit rating agencies, whose reports more efficient and grow, this poses few problems. For coun-
backed up their beliefs. Yet these short sales rarely, if ever, tries in the eurozone periphery, this means immense and
turned out to be profitable as JGB yields sunk to ever-lower painful economic upheaval.
record-breaking levels. This turmoil will be reflected in the global economy.
If credit rating agencies were to lower the ratings of the Europe’s economy and balance sheet is likely to deteriorate
remaining G4 countries equal to that of Japan—or lower— first. The United States will probably be next. Japan’s decline
they might regain some credibility and legitimacy. is likely to be the slowest because it has already seen twenty
As fiscal deficits balloon, countries become increasingly years of recession and has slowly started to implement struc-
incapable of funding their debt. This then shatters the myth tural reform—something Europe and the United States have
that free-spending Keynesian demand-side policies are the yet to do.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?

United States: ✔ Unlikely

Japan: ✔ Unlikely Former President, Boeing Germany,
Germany: ✔ Unlikely and former National Security Advisor

France: ✔ Probable to Chancellor Helmut Kohl

United Kingdom: ✔ Probable


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
RICHARD N. COOPER on the periphery?
Maurits C. Boas Professor of
International Economics, Greece: ✔ Probable
Harvard University Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
f any of these events were to hap-

I pen within the next five years,

there would be black headlines in
the financial press, but the world
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen

Major industrial countries

would move on. Any of these losing their top rating?
events would cause some consternation, but none would be
devastating, and the global recovery would not be aborted on United States: ✔ Unlikely
these grounds. If the recovery were aborted for some other Japan: ✔ Unlikely
reason, of course, the probability of these events would rise,
Germany: ✔ Unlikely
since government revenues of all these countries would be
adversely affected. Some “haircut” has already been priced France: ✔ Unlikely
into the public debt of the four eurozone countries, so debt United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
holders could hardly argue that they were surprised or
aggrieved. And the reputation of the rating agencies has been
sufficiently compromised by their performance during 2006–09
that any changes in ratings they make will be viewed with greater
skepticism than would have been the case several years ago.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts” Tully M. Friedman Professor of
on the periphery? Economics and Hoover Institution
Senior Fellow, Stanford University,
Greece: ✔ Probable and former Chair, President’s
Ireland: ✔ Fifty-fifty Council of Economic Advisors

Portugal: ✔ Fifty-fifty
ny increased prospect of some
Spain: ✔ Fifty-fifty

Major industrial countries

A type of default on the eurozone
periphery—Greece more likely
than not, whereas Ireland, Portugal, and Spain are fifty-
losing their top rating? fifty—would temporarily send shockwaves through global
financial markets. It would further strain especially
United States: ✔ Unlikely Europe’s undercapitalized banks, dampen European (and
✔ Certain to a lesser extent, global) economic growth, and further
Japan: stress monetary union.
Germany: ✔ Unlikely Downgrades of sovereign debt of the major industri-
France: ✔ Unlikely alized countries—Japan has recently earned this dubious
✔ Unlikely distinction, the others remain possibilities unless budgets
United Kingdom: improve—would likewise raise interest costs, worsen
budget balances, depress asset values, and slow growth.
Finally, these financial risks might just as well be the
result as the cause of slower global recovery, as public
debt dynamics typically worsen in sluggish economies.


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Probable

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Unlikely
Japan: ✔ Probable
MAYA BHANDARI Germany: ✔ Unlikely
Head of Emerging Markets Analysis, France: ✔ Unlikely
Lombard Street Research
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely

he answers are not independent. Spain, Greece, German GDP—every year forever. Germany’s

T Portugal and Ireland are insolvent within EMU,

at any feasible euro exchange rate, absent per-
manent, ongoing unrequited transfers to
credit rating, and possibly its political stability,
would not survive that. France has an unsustainable
current account deficit, but is almost
deficit countries (that is, current The answers are certain to be bailed out by Germany; its
account deficit countries). The only fea-
sible candidate for making those trans-
not independent. default risk (though possibly not its
first-move ratings risk) is thus probably
fers is Germany. The burden on Germany, were it to smaller than Germany’s.
accept that role, could be something like 8 percent of Globally higher sovereign credit-risk premiums
would just mean a need for even lower “risk-free”
real yields to sustain the continuing global Ponzi
or “h air cuts” game, in which China is increasingly uncomfortably
Likelihood of default aware that it will be called upon to play a role vis-à-
on the periphery? vis the United States similar to the one EMU coun-
rta in tries want Germany to play. The underlying problem
Greece: ✔ Ce
is a real-side one—dynamic inefficiency. The finan-
Ireland: ✔ Certain cial bubble which is re-forming is one particular
Po rtuga l: ✔ Ce rta in channel through which dynamic inefficiency oper-
rta in ates. Even complete default/debt forgiveness
Spain: ✔ Ce
throughout the world would not resolve the problem
of dynamic inefficiency.
Major industrial countries
losing their top rating?

United States: ✔ Unlikely

Japan: ✔ Certain
Germany: ✔ Unlikely
France: ✔ Unlikely BERNARD CONNOLLY
Managing Director, Connolly
United Kingdom: ✔ Won’t happen
Global Macro Advisers


Likelihood of default or
WENDY DOBSON “haircuts”
Former Associate Deputy Minister of on the periphery?
Finance, Canada, and Co-Director,
Greece: ✔ Certain
Institute of International Business,
Rotman School of Management, Ireland: ✔ Certain
University of Toronto Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Unlikely
ncertainty about defaults in

U the eurozone periphery is

already a drag on economic
recovery. Since Greece and Ireland
Major industrial countries
losing their top rating?
have defaulted in everything but
name, let them get on with it—but
United States: ✔ Unlikely
not just yet. Within the next year, their investors should Japan: ✔ Won’t happen
have had sufficient time to strengthen their balance sheets. Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
That is when both governments should reduce principal and
extend repayment terms to sustainable levels and get on
France: ✔ Won’t happen
with their lives. Eurozone institutional arrangements are United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
inching towards dealing
Uncertainty about with future fiscal crises,
but faster movement is
defaults in the eurozone desirable to ensure fiscal
periphery is already a drag discipline in the first Prospects in major countries are brighter because of
place. Voters in the two strong government action (United Kingdom), strong fun-
on economic recovery. countries have already damentals (Germany), and domestic debt holders (Japan).
experienced painful austerity and now see public services In the United States, the noisy, often-surreal debate about
displaced by debt servicing costs as far as the eye can see. how to cut debt and deficits may require a wakeup call
The longer the delay, the more investor uncertainty and from the markets in order to concentrate legislators’ minds
reluctance to acquire troubled country bonds which, in turn, on agreeing to a credible medium-term plan for fiscal con-
shrink the investor pool and concentrate future risk. solidation.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Unlikely
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Probable William Joseph Maier
Japan: ✔ Unlikely Professor of Political Economy,
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen Harvard University

France: ✔ Won’t happen

United Kingdom: ✔ Probable


President and CEO, Japan Credit
Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
Rating Agency, Ltd., and former Vice on the periphery?
Minister of Finance for International
Affairs, Japan Greece: ✔ Won’t happen
Ireland: ✔ Won’t happen
conomists, especially in Anglo- Portugal:
✔ Won’t happen
Saxon countries, have the per-
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen
sistent tendency to overlook the
determination of the eurozone poli-
cymakers and the European Central Major industrial countries
Bank to defend the euro and its losing their top rating?
member countries. Regardless of the
unproductive statements sometimes United States: ✔ Won’t happen
uttered by politicians in the core Japan: ✔ Unlikely
euro countries who are moti-
Confusion in Japanese vated by domestic politics, Ger ma ny: ✔ Won’t happen
Fra nce : ✔ Won’t happen
politics will not allow a the euro’s defenders would
never choose the suicide of United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
reliable plan for the the euro and the eurozone.
budget reduction. higherIn savings
the United States, the
rate of the household sec-
tor and the budget reductions likely by the
Republican-dominated Congress will improve
that country’s current account balance. to tackle the budget deficits and the people are
For Japan, confusion in Japanese politics showing the endurance to accept higher taxes
will not allow a reliable plan for budget reduc- and lower public services, so far. However, the
tion in the medium term. inflation and the interest rate hikes on the hori-
In the United Kingdom, Prime Minister zon, together with severe budget cuts, might
David Cameron is making respectable efforts cause serious shrinkage of the UK economy.

Likelihood of default or
on the periphery?

Greece: ✔ Certain
Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Unlikely

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?

United States: ✔ Unlikely

Japan: ✔ Probable
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen EDWARD YARDENI
France: ✔ Unlikely President, Yardeni Research

United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
nder this scenario—Greece and

U Ireland restructure, Portugal

maybe, but everyone else mud-
dles along—the global economy actu-
✔ Certain
✔ Certain
ally does better than if Greece, Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Ireland, and Portugal keep on rolling Spain: ✔ Won’t happen
over debt that won’t be repaid. The
experience of Latin America in the Major industrial countries
1980s is instructive. Giving up on the
Baker liquidity plan and restructuring losing their top rating?
the debt according to the Brady Plan
CATHERINE L. MANN United States: ✔ Won’t happen
created the foundation for renewed
Barbara ’54 and Richard M. lending and growth in Latin America. Japan: Already AA-
Rosenberg Professor of Like the Brady Plan, the European Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
Global Finance, Brandeis Financial Stability Facility should
International Business France: ✔ Won’t happen
use guarantees, not outright pur-
School, Brandeis University chases of sovereign obligations. United Kingdom: ✔ Won’t happen
Guarantees are a much more effi-
cient use of limited funds.

RONALD MCKINNON s long as the United States, Japan, and the United
Professor Emeritus of
International Economics,
Stanford University
A Kingdom own their own central banks, they won’t
default on their respective Treasury bonds out-
standing—which are denominated in dollars, yen, and
pounds respectively. Each central bank can buy back its
own Treasury bonds by just “printing” money. Hence
there is long-run inflation risk but not default risk.
Likelihood of default or “haircuts” For Germany and France, the situation is more com-
on the periphery? plex because their
national central banks Defaults could restart
Greece: ✔ Probable cannot directly print a banking crisis.
euros. But Germany is a
Ireland: ✔ Probable
major international creditor and France is probably, on
Portugal: ✔ Probably net balance, a creditor also. So I would not expect either
Spain: ✔ Unlikely to default on Treasury bonds outstanding.
The big threat to European recovery is that defaults
on its periphery could restart a banking crisis. German
Major industrial countries banks in particular have lent heavily to governments and
losing their top rating? firms in southern and Eastern Europe.
The United States has a similar problem should
United States: ✔ Won’t happen there be substantial defaults by its state and local govern-
Japan: ✔ Won’t happen ments—particularly on their unsustainable defined-
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen benefit pension plans. But municipal bonds are owned
mainly by wealthy individuals, and pensioners might be
France: ✔ Won’t happen out of pocket. So defaults are much less likely to directly
United Kingdom: ✔ Won’t happen impact U.S. banks.


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?

JEAN-PIERRE PATAT Greece: ✔ Probable

Advisor, Centre d’Etudes Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
Prospectives et
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Internationales, and Thierry Spain: ✔ Unlikely
Apoteker Consulting
Major industrial countries
reece will probably losing their top rating?

G be downgraded,
heavy burden of its debt
the United States:
✔ Won’t happen
Already AA-
and poor prospects for economic growth. At the
moment, Greek debt is protected by the European
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
Financial Stability Facility with a deadline of France: ✔ Unlikely
2013. After this, the fund will be replaced by a per- United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
manent new organization. But efforts by creditors
to make settlements cannot be ruled out. Ireland
and Portugal have better growth prospects. The
existence and apparently the brilliant start of the nomic reversal in this country is, obviously,
EFSF lend it high credibility. Ireland and Portugal unlikely for the next three and even five years.
have two years during which they can benefit from France’s sovereign debt is average for an
this credibility and prove that they can manage industrialized country and even lower if one takes
sound economic and fiscal policy. into account the retail pension burden (France’s
Spain is unfairly put in the disagreeable PIGS demographic situation is better than that of other
category. Spanish sovereign debt is less important countries). But its policy for reducing deficits is
than most other advanced economies’ debts. Of much too timid and political consensus on public
course, private debt is high and the current account finances, globalization, and markets is not evident.
largely umbalanced, but Spain’s economy can ben- The United Kingdom has been suffering from
efit from an improvement in the real estate market. spectacular deterioration of its economic and fiscal
Its international banks are solid and well-managed situation which could justify questions about its
and the government has begun a severe program rating. But the government has engaged in a very
for reducing deficits. severe and credible plan for reducing deficits. In
The United addition, playing host to the largest financial and
The United States States has a very bad money markets in the world is strategic protection.
fiscal situation and An increased prospect of default in the euro-
has a very bad the government has zone periphery would not have a significant
fiscal situation. failed to take mea- impact on recovery, considering the weak share
sures to improve it. of Greece, Portugal, and Ireland in the global
But rating agencies will never take the risk of GDP, and if the successor in 2013 to the EFSF is
downgrading the country which issues the major credible.
international reserve currency—and with which The loss of triple-A ratings for major industri-
they do so large a part of their business. alized countries could encourage new fiscal cut-
Japan was just downgraded to AA-minus. Is backs and, theoretically, have some impact on
further downgrading possible? This country has by economic growth, especially if the United States is
far the heaviest sovereign debt among big industri- concerned, but in my opinion this country will not
alized economies. Even if domestic saving is be downgraded. If other counties lose their rating,
important, Japan’s economic growth is hesitant the exact reasons are important, otherwise rating
and its policy situation sometimes blurred. agency credibility could be questioned.
For Germany, everything is possible, including Nevertheless, it is uncertain such an issue could
the worst (that is the secret motto of central have significant impact on fiscal policies if eco-
bankers!). But a spectacular policy and/or eco- nomic growth remains weak.


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
JAMES E. GLASSMAN Greece: ✔ Unlikely
Managing Director and
Senior Economist, Ireland: ✔ Unlikely
JPMorgan Chase Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Unlikely
hen it comes to

W assessing the cred-

itworthiness of the
large industrial economies,
Major industrial countries
losing their top rating?
the global bond market is
United States: ✔ Unlikely
the only “rating agency”
that matters. Bond Japan: ✔ Unlikely
investors must weigh all manner of risks, polit- Germany: ✔ Unlikely
ical and economic. For that reason, the histori-
France: ✔ Unlikely
cally low level of real interest rates on the
sovereign debt of the large industrial United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
economies implies that bond investors must be
assuming that the fiscal picture for many will
improve as the global economy recovers. structural fiscal deficits, enough so to be cred-
It is very unlikely that any of the periph- ible to financial markets.
ery countries will default on their outstanding On the probability that the rating agen-
debt. The Europeans cies will lose their top ratings—oops, that the
The global bond eventually will trans- major industrial economies lose theirs—
market is the only form the European
Financial Stability
highly unlikely, because the fiscal erosion is
largely the result of deep economic reces-
“rating agency” Facility into a more sions (cyclical factors) and the global recov-
effective mechanism ery now in place will begin to restore fiscal
that matters. for dealing with liq- balance. This will be seen as a positive devel-
uidity strains. Economic recovery will restore opment by the rating agencies. (I am not sure
some fiscal balance in the region, as it will in if a downgrade of industrial country debt
the United States. The alternatives would be would carry much meaning for financial mar-
less disruptive, such as developing a fiscal kets, because default by these countries is
transfer mechanism or subsidizing the interest assumed to be negligible.) The recent down-
rates a sovereign must pay. grade of Japan’s debt (and possible down-
The long-term consequences of default grades of other large countries), given the
are more punishing than the alternatives. breadth and depth of the investor appetite for
There is a deep historical and political com- sovereign debt of the big players, is likely to
mitment to the monetary union and the euro, create more noise in the media than in the
which has brought many benefits to the euro- financial market.
zone, and a default by one of the members, A default in the eurozone would be pun-
and inability of the members to prevent it, ishing, not only for Europe but also for the
would call into question the euro’s survivabil- global economy, which is a strong argument
ity. A default could easily trigger a wider against taking such an action. It would
financial crisis across the region, harming require the defaulting party to implement
even the strong economies. And these coun- austerity measures, with negative implica-
tries will take sufficient action to address their tions for growth.


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
Walter and Töchter Consult, and on the periphery?
Chief Economist Emeritus,
Deutsche Bank
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
he world is in for higher

T real rates of interest

(financing costs) than
over the last few years. And
Spain: ✔ Unlikely

Major industrial countries

for good reason: There will be more differentiation of losing their top rating?
financing costs between governments and companies.
However, the present focus on some countries in United States: ✔ Probable
deep trouble (due to mismanaged banks or inflated real
Japan: ✔ Probable
estate/construction sectors) is misplaced. Some, like
Ireland, have a strong constitu- Germany: ✔ Unlikely
Goldilocks is over. tion and can and will grow out France: ✔ Unlikely
of their problems. Others, who
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
still do not understand that being on drugs may make
you “high” but not “sound,” will soon have to swallow
bitter medicine and will thus fall below in trend growth
for a number of years. This is not just true for Spain, but graphic decline.
for the United States. Thus, Germany clearly is overrated. And by 2020—
But misperceptions about rating countries go fur- when China still is anything but rich—it will age
ther. Quite a few countries today perceived to be natural aggressively. Today’s sobering views about financial
candidates to act as donor countries in international res- prospects foreshadow an unattractive future for more
cue operations are heading toward unsustainable fiscal than just the short term. Goldilocks is over, for good.
positions, particularly because of their imminent demo-

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Certain
Ireland: ✔ Certain
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Unlikely

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Won’t happen
Senior Fellow,
Japan: ✔ Unlikely Roosevelt Institute
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Unlikely
United Kingdom: ✔ Won’t happen


Likelihood of default or Senior Economic Adviser and
on the periphery? Distinguished Corporate Chair in
International Economics and
Greece: ✔ Unlikely Professor, Pardee Rand Graduate
Ireland: ✔ Unlikely School, RAND, and Senior Research
Fellow, Hoover Institution
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Unlikely he increased precariousness

Major industrial countries

losing their top ratin g?
of sovereign debt, coupled
with the extensive EU inter-
holdings of this debt, are
likely to slow global economic recovery. Two other effects
United States: ✔ Won’t happen are no less important but with more ambiguous conse-
✔ W on ’t ha ppen quences for recovery.
Japan: First, the jeopardy to debt repayment and to bond rat-
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen ings is likely to result in lower priority accorded in OECD
France: ✔ Unlikely countries’ budgeting processes to “stimulus”
✔ Un lik ely spending than to so-called “austerity,” that Recovery is
United Kingdom: is, to curtailing government spending. A
concomitant effect among economists and
likely to
bankers will be diminished attention to the Keynesian be slowed.
legacy of the “multiplier,” and increased attention to
how to affect the crucial as well as more elusive state of confidence
and expectations in global markets. While this change may dampen the
pace of recovery, it’s also likely to enhance the recovery’s robustness.
Second, the worries that adhere to EU and U.S. Treasury bonds
are likely to encourage and accelerate China’s efforts to make the ren-
minbi an international currency. A consequence of recent events in
undermining the dollar’s primacy as the world’s favored reserve cur-
rency and its predominance as the invoicing currency of first recourse
will be to boost receptivity among global bankers and traders to
China’s efforts on behalf of the renminbi.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Probable
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Unlikely
Spain: ✔ Unlikely

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?

United States: ✔ Unlikely

Japan: ✔ Unlikely
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Unlikely Chairman and Chief Executive,
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely Bank of East Asia, Limited


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Certain
Ireland: ✔ Certain
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Probable

Major industrial countries

ROBERT J. SHAPIRO losing their top rating?
Chairman, Sonecon, LLC, and former
U.S. Under Secretary of Commerce United States: ✔ Won’t happen
for Economic Affairs Japan: ✔ Unlikely
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
ithout the extraordinary interventions of

W the European Union and the

International Monetary Fund, Greece
already would be in default and Ireland would be
United Kingdom:
✔ Won’t happen
✔ Unlikely
on the edge of doing so. The irony here is that
default has been staved off thus far by the political
commitment of Germany and France to the euro—
yet the rules of the eurozone prevented Greek and slow the two countries’ fast-rising debt burdens has
Irish policymakers from taking normal steps to proved to be politically difficult, if not impossible.
avoid default and rebuild confidence through cur- It’s also economically counterproductive, since the
rency devaluations and interest rate adjustments. cutbacks stall the growth needed to generate the
The differences between the two countries’ revenues to stave off or at least limit the extent of a
predicaments, however, are also instructive. The default.
seeds of Greece’s problems lie in years of fiscal There is no prospect of default by the United
profligacy, which in States, Germany, or France, and virtually no
The rules of the itself was a political prospect of such a dire development in Japan or
eurozone prevented response in order to
maintain employment
the United Kingdom. All have fundamentally
sound economies, as financial markets recognize.
Greek and Irish while the eurozone Long-term interest rates remain historically low in
policymakers from precluded their using
interest rate and cur-
all of these countries, signaling investors’ confi-
dence in their long-term solvency. All of these
taking normal steps rency policies to nations also have mature political systems capable
improve their competi- of quickly addressing any impending debt crisis,
to avoid default. tiveness. Dublin, by as each has demonstrated in the past when deficits
contrast, has been a model of fiscal responsibility have expanded sharply.
for years; but like the United States, lax oversight However, a special caveat applies to the
of the domestic financial system allowed the coun- United States. As the only nation of the group
try’s dominant financial institutions to pursue reck- without parliamentary arrangements, there is a the-
less overleveraging built helter-skelter on a huge oretical possibility of a politically driven default if
housing bubble. the political opposition were to block an increase
When the U.S. financial crisis and subsequent in the legal debt limit. However, this almost cer-
deep recession reached Greece and Ireland, the tainly is an empty threat. Congressional opponents
Greeks found themselves with unmanageable pub- of sitting presidents have threatened such action
lic debt while Irish banks quickly turned insolvent. many times in recent decades, and the president
And in both cases, the fiscal austerity required to has won the debate and the fight every time.


Likelihood of default or “haircuts”
on the periphery?


Mallinckrodt Distinguished Ireland: ✔ Probable
University Professor,
Portugal: ✔ Certain
Washington University
in St. Louis Spain: ✔ Probable

ontinued international Major industrial countries

C conversation on weak-
nesses in sovereign debt
is bound to have a depressing effect on the finances of
losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Won’t happen
marginal economies in southern Europe, if not else- Japan: ✔ Unlikely
where. This negative impact may be offset in part by
the continued economic strength of Germany and also
Germany: ✔ Unlikely
the United States. France: ✔ Unlikely
Practical reasons will inhibit the rating agencies United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely
from seriously contemplating downgrading the
Treasury issues of the United States These agencies
may have escaped tough government oversight for
the time being. However, substantial discussions of
downgrading Treasuries could lead congressional United States will not lose its triple-A rating for sov-
committees and perhaps some regulators to initiate ereign debt and such an eventuality is unlikely for
investigations and public hearings. Any sensible Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Japan.
management would try to avoid opening itself to The peripheral countries will not all enjoy such
such potential problems. luxury. Haircuts are initially certain for Greece and
Thus, for the major industrialized nations, mud- Portugal and, to a lesser degree, probably for Ireland
dling through is the most likely outcome. The and Spain.

Likelihood of default or “haircuts”

on the periphery?
Greece: ✔ Certain
Ireland: ✔ Probable
Portugal: ✔ Probable
Spain: ✔ Won’t happen

Major industrial countries

losing their top rating?
United States: ✔ Unlikely Capra Asset Management
Japan: ✔ Unlikely
Germany: ✔ Won’t happen
France: ✔ Won’t happen
United Kingdom: ✔ Unlikely