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1948

r.

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1948
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1948

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Cnocooss

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16

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r. A,

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A, l1. QepeMHblx

17

npencraaaser ce6e 4eHHIO O).l,e}l{).I,hI. 3aTeM qmryphl, 3HaqeHIle )),aJIee no caenyer sospacra, npncrynaror

3a).l,YMaHHYIO <P0PMY BhI60p Ma~epHaJIa.

npaaeaurensao
Ilpa
Bbl60pe H npyr ax OCHOBhl -3a).l,YMallHOH

K Ha3HaMaTepHaJIa <jJOpMbI, IlMeIOlUliX BhIKPOI1KH, JI.eJIaIOT

llCXO).l,HT H3 H33HaqeHIHI <paKTOpOB. K

O).l,e}l{).I,b1, Ce30Ha, qeJIOBeKa

TeJIOCJIO}l{eHHH

KOHCTpYlipOBaHIiIO paCKpOI1

KOTOPOI1 6Y).l,eT

nponaaenea

O).l,e)K).I,b1. 3TO O).l,e}l{).I,blllJIH BpeM5I penxo, B

HJIIi no O).l,HOHH3 CHCTeM KOHCTpYlipOBaHIl5I

MYJIH)l{HhIM MO).l,eJIllpO60JIbIlle ).I,JI5I

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y.ace

1l3rOTOBJIeHHOH BhIKpOHKH KaK H3rorOBJIetIa paCKpOH

YTOlJHeHH5I B OTHOaar K pacxpoio

<jJOPMh!. BhIKpOHKa,

nOCJIe roro MaTepHaJIa. onpeneaars )),aJIhHellIIIlIll

Onepauas
creneas nponecc

noaoraer

nepexo

XY).l,O)l{HIiKY-MO).l,eJIepy YKa3a-

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HH5I K TeXHOJIOfH4eCKOll

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nposepxn TOJIhKO

).I,eJIaeTCH He TOJIhKO ).I,JIHroro, no <jJllrype. OHa IlMeeT npaBIiJIbHOCTH rorna, xorna BOllJIOlUeHII5I

6b1JIO nonornaao

oornero

3aMbICJIa

rOTOBa5I O).l,e}K).I,ananera ).I.OJI}l{eH noxasars nonoopars II npyrne ace

aa qeJIOBeKa,

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KOCTIOM

npeaaeru,

TOJIbKO rorzta, B )l{I:I3Hb caoa

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XY).I.O}l{HHK-MO,lI.eJIep npeTBOpHJI

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II

KOHCTPYMPOBAHHE
OCHOBH~e
n03HaKOMHBllUICb nepexonasr

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BbIKpOeK. MYlKCKOH O,n:e}K,n:bI Xy,n:OlKHHKY<PIIrypOH, CBHTHH MepOK, nH,n:maKOB H ,n:eJIO C qeJIOBeqeCKOH:

C OCHOBaMH MO,n:€'JUIpOBaHHH MYlKCKOH O,n:elK,n:bI,

K KOHCTpYHpOBaHIIIO KOHCTpYHpOBaHHH HMeTb qeM

B npaxraxe
n03TOMY,

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neotixo-

JJ.I1MblX .ll)IH ,n:aJIbHeHWerO CJIOlKeHHH qeJIOBeKa

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npa B
OT

Onpeneaeuae

TeJIOCJIOlKeHHH qeJIOBeKa

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aepxuero xorna

saacaoe aaaseaae
pa3JIMlJalOT CJIOlKeHHe, OTKJIOHeHH5I

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rropaaasacro.

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qaC'TO BCTpeqalOTCH <PHrYPbI CJIOlKeHHH: Ha pHC. qnrrypa

CJIe,n:YlOIII.HMH OTKJIO<pHrypa, nepern<pHrypa C BbICOKHl.:H HOpMaJIbHaH

HeHHHMH OT HOpMaJIbHOrO 6HCTaH <pHrypa, n.rlelJaMH, EPHrypa nOJIHaH qeJIOBeKa <pHrypa.

CYTyJIaH

C HH3KHMH nJIeqaMH,

11

noxasaau

H <PHrYPbI C nepeqHCJIeHHbIMH

OTKJIOHeHHHMH.

Pa3Mepbl

'1enOSelfeCKoro Tena
qeJIOBeqeCKOH OKpylKHOCTH MelK,n:y <PHrYPbI aa rpyna OCHOBY

Ilpa

onpeneaenna

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npIlHHMaIOT

nOJIOBHHY H3MepeHHH <PHrypbI nenarca Pa3HHua

H pOCT. 6JIHlKa:il:wHMH rpyna: OTHOCSIT

4eJIOBeqeCKHe pa3MepaMH paBHa

HU ,n:eTCKHe, He,n:OMepKH (non,n:ByMH

POCTKOBble) H B3pOCJIble.

1I.eTCKa51 rpynrra BKJIlOQaeT pasaepu nOJIYOKpYlKHOCTeA 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38. K noapocrxoaoa rpynne pa3MepbI 40, 42, 44.

2 eM.

2*

19

I10 Mepy

POCTY AeTCKa51 II nonpOCTKOBa51 rpynnbI HMeIOT

no

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II pOCT. B3POCJIhIMH paauepaaa Pasaepu 58, 60 H astute


II KaJKAbIll B3POCJIbIH

ClJlITaIOT

46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56


CpeAHHM

BCTpelJaIOTC51penxo.

AJI5I B3POCJIOll rpynrrhI

rrplIH5ITO ClJlITaTb

pasaep

48.
pOCTa:

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II

lIMeeT nerupe

I, II, III

IV.

CMATMe MepOH

AnA

HOHCTpYMpOBaMMA

CH51TlIe MepOK HYJKHO AeJIaTb npaBIIJIbHOCTH AeJilISI. Ha pHC. MepoK. JKaKy. CH51ThIX MepOK nOKa3aHhI MeCTa

oueas

TUI.aTeJIbHO, TaK nocrpoenne qJlIrypbI

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OT lI3-

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12

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CHSITlIeM MepOK nano

B nOp51AOK 0AeJKAY He 6hIJIO JIlIlli-

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CHlIMaIOT MepKH, onpeneaenna ero no

TO'lHOrO onoacars

TeJIOCJIOJKeHIISI lJeJIOBeKa JIIIHIIII rpy AH nIHypOM TaK,

nruyp
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MepKH

.IlJISI nOCTpoeHHH lJepTe}l{eA nH.Il}l{aKa, }l{HJIeTa II Me p K a -.II JI II HaT a JI II H. Mepxy CHIIMaIOT, HalJHurenaoro n03BOHKa AO TaJi II II. I1PII CH51THH srort nexoropoe OTKJIOHeHHe OT AeticTBHTeJIbHot'1 YCTaHaBJIIIno-

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2-51

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OAeJK,llhI, MOAb! H JKeJIaHH51 XYAOJKnrennoro

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3-51

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C n H H hI. OAHoii

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4-51
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CHIfMaIOT OT OCHOBaHII51 CHIIMaIOT OT COlJJIePYKII.

rrJIelJY AO COlJJIeHeHIIH PYKII PYKII C nJIelJOM

C nJIelJOM. MepKY nansua Ee

5-51 Me p K a HeHIfH

AO OCHOBaHII51 60JIbllIOrO II. 3TO

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no

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KOTopaH nOJIOJKeHa B OCHOBY nOCTpoeHIISI HaII60JIee TaJIbHO. I1pB CHHTIIB sroa Tyro MepKII

xepreacea,

nsrny KJIhIM T04K3M rpy An II JIorraTOK crporo HYJKHO nepxcari, cJIa60. 3TY MepKY T a JI II II. 51r OA H II He ocorieano

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7-51
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Me p K a -

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8-51 Me p K a HaII60JIee

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necma
CHflmlJf1 MepOH

PRC. 12. Mecra


CHJlTHll MepoK

10-51 Me p K a -,n; JI H H a )K H JI e r a C n e p e n H. MepKY CHHMalOT OT 7-ro ureauoro rr03BOHKa. JIeHTa-caHTHMeTp ornoaer OCHOBaHHe men H cnycxaercs BHH3 no rpy.an HH)Ke raaan, l(JIHHa )KHJIeTa 3aBHCHT OT cpacoHa • .IT.JHI KOHCTpYIIpoBaHHSI o,n;em,n;hI na HOpMaJIbHO CJIOmeHHYlO CPHrypy BIIOJIHe ,n;OCTaTOQHO yxaaanaux ,n;eCSITH MepoK . .llJISI Tor. QT06bI IIOCTPOHTb o,n;em,n;y aa cpHrypbI C OTKJIOHeHHSIMH OT aopxaasaero TeJIOCJIOmeHHSI, Heo6xo,n;HMO CHSITb,n;orrOJIHHTeJIbHO CJIe,n;YIOIUHe MepKH:
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BeJIHllHHhI BbIllBTalOT 4 CM. T a JI H H. H 6 0 K P Y >KHOC T b

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4-51 Me p K a 5-51 Me p K

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a MepKH B

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MYiKCKOll

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CH C

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nOCJIe,n:osaTeJIbHOCTH. nOHHMaHHH nOCTpoeHHH o,n:e>K,n:bI no HH-

CHJIY3Ta 1948-1949

npenaaraeaon

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nponopuaouaasuo-aeposnoa

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PYHpoBaHH H MY>KCKOfi o,n:e>K)J.blSlBJIHIOTCRnepeaeineaae ro uma 13. aa cepe.aauy nJIella H nepe.aaaacerrae MOHTaiK rraexesoro

XapaKTepHbIMH

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ursa

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KaK nOKa38HO

23

cnanxa, Yl\1eHblllaeTCH CYTIO)KKa nOJI01JKH B OOJIaCTH oopTa H nOHBJI5IeTCH BO~MO)KHOCTb CYTIO)KJ{H nOJI01JKH B OOJIaCTH npOHMbI, lITO

PHC.

13. Crapaa

(rrYHKTHpOM) H aoaaa rrocrpoeana 'IepTelKa

CHCTeMbl

H€{}6X.{}~{{~<J ~,({«. {{<JKYl{e«K«. CHJIY9Tij MY)J{CJ{Oti o.n;e)J{.n;bI.

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; 42

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20

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OTM=PllTb KY .lVIHHY TaJIlIlI no CHSlTOti: MepKe 1I nOCTaSlITb

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+ npaeassa + 1 C-'It,

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3

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2

C
1

II

TOtJKY

0603HatIHTb

TOtJKOM:
u

OTJIO}l{HTb no

1,5

eM H nOCTaBIITb

T1

BnpaBO

OTJIO}l{HTb OTpe30K, TOqKY

paaaua
TOtJKH

TOtJKH 2 H 3. OT OKPYlKliOCTH rpY.ll.H 3 ,H

nepecexeaaa 9ToA 1. OT roxe« 1 H Il


T()tJKH no-

CTaBHTl, paBHhIH

Ta.

OT , H

511

OTJIO}l{HTb TOqKY

OTPE!30K, 3aKOHQHTb

OKPYlKHOC~H HrOnIU~

nOCTaBHTb

512•

OCPOPMJ{eHHe CIIHHKH, COe.n;IIHIIB TOtI KH P2, 8, 2, T2 " fl2 JIIIHHSlMH, KaK YKa3aHo aa xepre ace. OPO.n;OJI}I{HTb JIHHHIO OT T()qKII

tr,

c;

fl2.n;0
TO':lKY

HI>

nepeceseaas

ee

ropH30HTaJIbIO

H3

TOtJKH

H,

OTMeTUB ()Tpe-

Ha .sepTHKaJIII, nposezrennort ' '" OKPYlKHOCTIi rPY.llH 30K, P <lBHbIu 4

+ rrpuoaBKa

H3 TOtIKH '

rz,

OTJIO.>KHTbasepx

II nOCTaBHTb TOtJKY

nl•

26

nor ns'

4epe3

TOt:IKY r3
1

npOBeCTH

BepTHKaJIb,

OTMeTHB TOqKH paBHbIH


u

T TOt:IKH

3 BBepX

H nOCTaBHTb TOt:IKY

OTJIO>K.HTb OTpe30K,
6•

2, 8, OKY}I{HOCTH rPYJJ.H

il

paaaua

OKpY}I{HOCTH rpY.llH

OT TOt:IKH
npH6aBKa

+2
OT

16

'

2 nnpaso

CM

(HJIH PP

OTJIO>KHTb OTpe30K,
1

+1

CM,

OTMeTHTb )KHTb nxesa,

TOt:IKY

P,.,. 113
npauoa OTpe3KY

TOt:IKH

JIHHHIO, KaK

YKa3aHO

na

CM,

0603Hat:IHB

sepreuce .. TOtJKY P4•


H na Hefi

Pa

npOBeCTH H na TOqKH

BHH3 BepTHKaJIbHYIO OT TOt:IKH H

Hefi

BCnOMoraTeJIbHOfi pasnyro

P2il,

ill TOt:IKH P4
TOt:IKY OTpe3KY

P,

P3

OT.TO-

COe,lI;IiHHTb

OTJIO>KHTb .IJ:JIHHY

0603Hat:IHB

BHH3 OTJIU>KHTb ,nJIHHy pOCTKa, paBHYIO TOqKY P5' 113 TOt:IKH >KHTb OTpe30K, COellHHHB rOpJIOBHHY 3aHO na
u

ilg• PPv

OT TOqKH

P4

H nOCTaBHTb Hefi TOqKY OTJIOn


t=«.

Pi

anpaso

npOBeCTH

rOpH30HTaJlb

II aa

paBHblH

OKPY}I{HOCTH rpyna

nOCTaBHB

BCIIOMOraTeJIbHOli

np51Mofi

TOqKH BJIeBO

Il ;

sepreare.
3

KPHBOfi

.1HHHefi, OT

COe.ll.HHHB TOtJKH

TOqKH

paaaua
OT

OKpY}I{HOCTH HfO.llHI.(

+1

H,

P4

P6,
H

BblqepTHTb KaK yxaOTpe30K,

P6,

OTJIO)l{HTb

CM, H nOCTaBHTb TOt:IKY

TOqKH

SHTb TOqKY )l{HTb sry

2 4.

BJIeBO no 3Ta

JIHHHH

r5c

a /1,.

OTJIO)l{HTb pacmapenae TOt:IKH ee JIHHHH

1
H

npnoasxa

,naHa aa npHMofi

Coe,nHHHTb TOt:IKOli

BCIIOMOraTeJIbHOH

npoaau. H4• Ilponoa1,5


CM

CM H nOCTa-

JIHHHIO H OTMeTHTb

nepecexeaae anpano na no

C JIHHHefi TaJIHH

TaJIHH II

T4•
OT TOt:IKH

OTJIO)l{HTb

nOCTaSHTb TOt:IKY

Buseprars,

7 i'

T,.

KaK YKa3aHO

COe.ll.HHIlB TOt:IKH KPHBOfi JIHHHH, CTaBHTb TOt:IKY

4, Ti

xepreace,

KOHTYP 60Ka

II f/4'

.QJIHHY orpesxa OT TOt:IKH

npoxozonnen

Ha•

T,

TsH2

nOJIOt:IKII, no

OTJlO)l{HTb

sepes

TOqKY

H4,

H no-

P U M e q a H H e. KOHTYP 60Ka $aCOHa. C 66JIbllIHM UJIn MeHbllIHM

IIOilbl Bbl'IepQUBaeTCH npaaeraaaea,

aa8HCHMOCTH OT

OT TOt:IKH

T3

snpaao

OTJlO>KHTb OTpe30K,

paauua

OKpY}I{HOCTH TailHH

+ 1 CM,
ssepx OTJIO)l{HTh

H nOCTaBHTb TOt:II<Y MeTHB TOt:II<Y TOt:IKH aaaoca,

T~.

T6•

OT

TOt:IKH

T.

CM, OT-

COe.ll.HHHTb TOt:IKH

T6

P6,

r4,

T6

JIHHHetL K

non

IIp,HMbIM

yr JIOM

JIHHHH

C JIHHHeli

HH3a H OTMeTIITb no JIHHHH rpynn

P6--5

OTJIO)l{HTb snpaso

TOqKY H4• .lI.JIH nOCTpOeHH5I OT TOqKH


4

Ilpononacars ee BHH3 OT T8 T7 no nepecexenaa Ilocrpoas JIHHHIO nOJIy.ranxaaa OT TOtJKH TOt:IKH

CM,

JIHH OT TOt:IKH T6 -

r;

T8•

3,5

r -5

CM, no JIHHHH ra-

CM, COOTBeTCTBeHHO npocrasan

P7, 27

Hs
TO'lKY

TO'lKH P, pa,ll,HYCOM P4HS sacexs H5• Buaeprtm, JIHHHIO HH3a IIOJIhI,

aa

JIHHHH

IIOJIY3aHOCa sepreIIO JKeJIaBHH3 OT-

KaK YKa3aHO na

)!{e. OCPOPMHTb IIOJIY3aHOC B HHilmett HRIO IIpHMhIM HJIH 3aKpyrJIeHHbIM. HaM eTKa
o

tIaCTH, ,lI,eJIaH ero

60 K 0 B 0 r 0 K a p M a n a. paSHhIH
.ZI.JIHHe T3JIIIH

Or
;

TO'lKH

T3

JIO)!{HTh OTpe30K,
,

' H IIOCTaBHTb TO'lKy


rpY.ZI.H

K.

,UJIH-

aa sxona
xaaa nan aa rpyna HaM TOtlKY no

xapxan

pasna
P x Her

OKPY*HOCTH

nepezmnn
JI H C TOil

xpaa
K H.

xapJIll-

CM HHJKe TOtIKH OT TO'lKH

K0

nenrpa

xapxaaa.

e T K aBe

Jl-

rs

!{ a p x a H a xapuana. rpyna

OTJIOJKHTh OTpe30K, paBHhItt ,UJIHHa ero pasen JIHHHH xpas

5 CM,

Ilo

Ha'l3JIO aepxnero OT HHe

HaKJIOH

cnepena

C T poe

B hI T a 'I e K.

OTCTYIIH OT nepezmero JIeJIbHO JIHHHH 60pTa. ,UJIH IIocTpoeHHH OTJIO»OITb

HHJKHerO

Flepeznnoro xapaana

2-2,5

pasna CM.

10-11 CM,
IIapaJI-

IIOCTaBHB

BhITa'IKY na

CTPOHT,

CM,

60!{OBOll

BbITa'IKH

HYJKHO OT TOlJ:KH

6
xa

4 cu,

Ta

BJIeBO BIIpaBO

a OT aanaero

Kp351 6oKoBoro
TO'IKH no

CM, COOTBeTCTBeHHO IIpOCT3BliB H

acnoaorareasnoa

npauon,

6.

K3pM3Ha

COe.ll.HHHB TO'IKH KaK noxaB COOT BeT-

BbI'lepTHTh

BbITa'4KY, TaJIHH

3aHO na sepreace,

C.lI.eJIaB BbleMKY

JIHHHH

CTBHH C ,lI,aHHhIM cpaCOHOM nH,lI,JK3Ka. Ha HYJKHO ,lI,e.llaTh npanycx

3-4 cu.

nO.ll.rH6KY

HH3a IIH.lI.JKa-

nOCTpoeHMe '4epTelHa pYHaBa


fIOCTpoeHHe fIPH H cnHHKH TOlJ:KOll PYKaBa, H HOCTH IIPOttMbI, fIOCTPOHTb lJepTeJKa pyxaaa llIHpHHhI IIPHMOH TOlJKH cyMMe IIOKa3aHO na nepenocar pHC.

15.
OKPYJKIIOJIbI

KOHCTpYHposaHHH IIH.lI.iKaKa.

pyxaaa

BeJIH'IHHhI

IIPOHMhI H BhICOTbI naesa yroa, BepllIHHY

C xepreaca

O. Or
na

xoroporo

BJIeBO OTMepHTh OTpe30K CJI3raeMbIX: llJHPIIH3

001 -IlHlPHHY

0603Ha'IHTb nH,lI,JI<aKa, B JIO!{Te

paSHbIH IlIBbI

II POllMbI

BeJIHlJ:HHa nocanxa

PYKaBa,

IIOJIOBIIHa BeJIHtIHHbl nepexara

2 CM 14)

B JIOKTe, T. B 10
rrpOHMbl

pHC. H

pa3)J.eJIIITb

04,

+ ua
2

OKpY}KHOCrb

+ --2-5
T2

)J.aHHOM caysae
eM nepexara

00;
CM.

+2

aTpe30K
aa

= T2 r3 (ex.
00

serupe

pasaue

3aTeM OT TO'l({H OTpe3KOB

BeJIH'IHHY nH.lI.JKaKa,

rn
2

lJ:aCTH H npOCTaSHTh TOlJ:KH

BHH3 OTJIOJKBTh II

r.n+r.nJ

H OTMeTHTh

TOtIl{Y

r.

n1,

O2, Os cpenneapaqiaerauecxyto
xepreace OKaTa PYKaBa

H3MepeHHbIX

BbIC01'3

OF =
'

Or TO'lKH
HJIH OTpe30K BHTh TO'lKY

BBepX OTJIOJKHTb01pe30K, H3MepeHHbIH aa

paBHbIH

OKPY}KHOCTH

16

rpY.ZI.H

raT6' Fl'

xepreace

IIH,lI,JKaKa, H IIOCTa-.

28

OT TOtJKH WOB BTatJKH OTpe30K

BHH3 OTJIO)l{HTb .n:JIHHY PYKaBa

I1JIIOC

PYKaBa

BHH3 OTJIO)l{HTb

1-13
BeCTIi

TOtJeK

Tl H paanenars I', JI, H H H1


YKa3aHO

3 esc aa

B I1POHMY, OTMeTHB TOlJKY CKOC PYKaBa nOnOJIaM I1pOH H H

H.

1 cu
TOtJKH TOtJKY TOtJKY

aa

OT

I10CTaBHTb nOCTaBIiTb

Hl.
.17.

ropH30HTaJIIi

BJIeBO, KaK

na

BIIpaBO

0,
~

(J

lJepTe)l{e.

Co e.JIJ!HHTb

BcrrOMOraTeJIbHOH

np5lMOH TOlJKH O2 H Tl• PasneJIHTb ee I10nOJIaM, nOCTaBHTb TOlJKY 06' 113 TOlJKH 01 BHH3 npoBeCTII BepTHKaJIb H na Hefi: OTJIO)f{HTb OTpe30K, HOpMaJIbHbIX paBHbIfi: nJIelJ

-4 -

UOl

.n:JI51

Ii ~I---~~-a-J..,~r

(.n:JI5!

HH3KHX

nnes

9TOT OTpe30I{ TOlJKY

pasen

O~)),

H nOCTaBHTb

Ilepeceneuae T04KII O, C TOLJeK T H JJ

06,
II3 II3 TOlJKaMH

BepTHKaJIH ropH30HTaJIHMIf OTMeTHTb TOlJKIf

r,

nposecra KOPOTKYIO ropII30HTaJIb Ii aa Hett OT T0lJKIf 06 OTJIO)l{HTb 5 CM aa rrepexar, OTMeTHB TOlJI<Y 07,
OTpe30K

JII• 1-13

06

anpaso

.17,

174

Tr2

pa3.n:eJIHTb H

JIaM

If

nOCTaBHTb TOLJKY TOlJKH JIIIHIIefi:.

ennnars
TeJlbHofi:

Ta

07

Ta.

noneCo-

BCUOMora-

3TO 6y.n:eT nOJIOBHHhI

nepx-

HHH yrOJI HH)I{Hett

aa.

OT TOlJKH

Hi

pyxa-

BJIeBO OTJIO)l{HTb OKPY)I{!IOC;H rpY.1LH ,

O1'pe30K,

pasnua

II nOCTaBHTb TOlJKY llIHPIIHY

H2•

nOJIYlJHM

HH3a PYKaBa.

PIIC.

15.

4epre}!{

PYKaBa K IIII.1UKaKY

n P II M e 'l a H H e. dror pacxer cneaaa AJllI PYKaBa IIIIA}!{aKa 48 paaaepa • .llJlI! ocransasrx paaxepon pacser umpansr HII3a PYKaBa OT pasxepa K paaMepy YBeJlU'lHBaerClI HIIH YMeHbillaerCI! aa 0,3 eM.
OT TOlJKII nepeKaTa

.n

BJIeBO OTJIO)lUITb JIIIHIIett no TOlJKII CM} nO.lIOBHHbl

Coe.n:HHHB KPIIBOtt

aepxnea

rl, JI2

1,5

eM H nOCTaBHTb
H OT

TOlJKY H

H,

JI2• H

nOJIYlJHM

JIlfHHIO TOlJKH JIHHHIO

PYKaBa.

TOlJeK

r., JIg

BnpaBO

OTJlO)l{HTb H H«.

COOTBeTCTBeHHO

F, JI2 npocraaas npoaens


H JIb KaK

BhllJepTllTb

KOHTYP

Qepe3 TOlJKH 06, 3aHO aa nepreace.

o; as, r;

sepxaen

nOJIOBHHbI PYKaBa,

T4, JIg,

u;

H, H2

noxa-

29

r",

OTJIQ)KHTb BJIeBO OT TOtIeK

TOtIKY

08, OT TOtIKH r5 Bsrseprar s KOHTYP 0" 6, s' JI4J H" H2,

JJ4

H4•

OT

TOtIKH

0,

T, JI2
snpaso

no

cu,

OTJIO)KHM

ssepx

OTJlO)KHM H

cu,

1 cu,

nOCTaBHB TOt:IKH nOCTaBHB

nOCTaBMB TOtIKY sepes

T6.

rr

HH)KHeii

nOJIOBHHbI

JIl

a"

PYKaBa

t OtIKH

KaK VKa3aHO aa xepre ace. TOtIKa 01 )tOJI)KHa COBna.n:aTb na C Ha.n:ce'lKUH HHlKe (CM. pHC. npOHMbI TO'lKH nH,U)KaKa, na xa na cnauxe KOTopaH HaXO)l.HTCH

2,5 cu

C,

nz

F,

14). To-r-

PYKaBa

.llOJI)KHa COBI1a-

)I,aTb C Ha.n:(_ lJKOH B :rOlJKe e nOJIe nanxcaxa. Ha nonrnoxy CH npHnycK ECJIH TO )tJIlI JIaIDT PYKaB

T6

PYKaBa naerCO lllJIHIJ,eH, ee neB JIOKTeBOH

3--4 eM.

nOJIyqeHHlI npHnYCK

tIaCTH PYKaBa HOH lIO 2 cu CM.

BHH3Y mapaH ,llJIHHOH 7-

nOCTpoeHMe '1epTeHfa HMHfHero BOpOTHMHa BOpOTHFIK HB.'!HeTCH sazcHOH tIaCTbID npaBHJIbHOrO KH ero XOPOlIIHH HH)KHerO xeprezce nanacaxa, nr;KpoH H OT H FI BTatI-

3aBMCHT

y.n:n6CTBO

BH.n: nH.n:X(aKa. BOpOTHHKa nOJIbI (pHC. aa nano

noaa

3TOMY CTPOHTb KOHCTpYKIJ,H10

16). HanH,llKO-

MeTHB neTJIH

60PTY neTJIH,

)KaKa, OT sepxnen TOPYID 0603HatIHM PHC.

16.

YepTelK

nojraopornaxa

OTJIOIKHTb

aaepx

CTaBHTb TOtIKY

51'

5 cu

TOlJKOH

5,

H no-

II

pH M e q a H H e. TOqKa Bl onpeaeaser crenens rrO.~OlKeHI1R Jl3I.{KaHil; qeM 6J1I1}Ke 6yp.eT OTCTORTb TOqKa E1 OT B. TeM 60JlbllIe 6yp.eT npnaerars JlaI.{KaH. B p'aHHoM cayuae BEl = 5 eM. Eho MOp'Hoe B nacrosmee apexs nOJIOlKeHue JIaI.{KaHa.

no

JIHHHH rOpJIOBllHbI T04KY

nOCTaBHTb

B. I--!3

nOJIbI TOtIKH

OT TOtIKJ:!

P4

OTJIO)KHTb

BCllOMOraTeJIbHYID npOBeCTH OT TOqKH lJepe3

npHMYID.

Ilepneanaxy
aa

51

sepes

TOtIKY ua

3 eM

npOBeCTH

JIHPHO K HeM: Fl3 TOlJKII HeH C.A-t H nOCTaBHTb TOtIKY

JIHHHID, KaK

nOKa3aHO

na CTOHKY DOpOTHHKa

TOQKH

B1

2,5 -- 3

xepreace,

OTJIOIKHTb npHMYID.

B1•

nposecrn

BcnoMoraTeJIbHYID

30

Ha JIHHHH B, 8 OTJIO}J<HTb OT TOlJLH P4 )J.JIHHY pocrxa PP2 (CM. pHC. 14) H nOCTaBHTb TOlJKY 82• BOCCTaHOBHTb
)J.HKYJI5IP H3 TOlJKIf

cnHHKH nepnenHeM OT

3 eM,

B2
H

TOlJKH

82,

KaK

YKa3aHO

aa sepreace. OT TOlJKH II

Ha

OTJIO)l{HTb IIIHPHHY nOCTaBHTb nonsoporuaxa, JIHHHIO TOlJKY npamasa

Bs;

CTOWKH BOpOTHHKa, ztanee

paBHYIO

2,5ero,

IllHPHHY

paBHYIO

4-4,5

ex,
II

B3

OTJIOlKHTb TOlJKY

H 01MeTHTb

B4..

BbIlJ:epTHTb J1IIHIIfI xoneaepa. K JIHHIIII C npaxoa,

COe.lJ.IIHIIB TOlJ:KH

B4,

s;

B2, B

nO.I(BOpOTHHKa H

e;

Cepe.lJ.HHY

OTJIeTa

3aBHCIIT

OT ¢aCOHa

P6P,

B .u.aHHOM CJIYlJ:ae J1IIHIIH OTJIera II paana OTpe3KY xepea

P6 P7•
B3

B5 P6
H

lKeJIaHHH

XY.lJ.O:lKHIIKaJIflPHIl

nepneanaxy

J1IIHIIfI II

CTOWKH BOpOTHHKa .lJ.aJIee cosnanaer

npOXO.lJ.IIT no KPIIBOfi

npoxonamea

lJ:epe3

TOLIKII

TOlJKII

B}

B, H E.

Il

p H M e q a H H e. Ilpa pacxpoe H3,nenHlI no npHBeJl.eHHLlM xepreacaa HdJl.Ocneaars npnnycx MaTepHana B CJIeJl.YI01l1MXMeCTax: B pocrxe, B np: liMe CITHHKH, B rpaaenxe noaa, B npoaue noaa y 60KOBoro uma, B ropnosane, 110 60KOBOMY may noasr II ITO BceMY HH3Y ITHillKaKa. B py. xasax npanycx neaaior no sanaeay llIBy HHlKHeli nOJIOBHHbI PYKaBa H It sepxaex yrJIy HHlKHeli nOJlOBHHbI PYKaBa, a TaKlKe BHH3Y acero pyxasa. 3TH sanacsr TKaHH .llJIOT B03MOlKHOCTb npa rrpnxepxe CJl.eJIaTb H3MeHeHHlI no qmrype. eCJIH STO 6y.neT aeooxonaao,

PaC'IeTbl

Ami

HOHCTPYMpoBaHMR OAHOC;opTHoro

nMAHlaHa

B TallHIO

(48-i1: paaxep)
MepKH 6bI.7III npHBE'.I(eHbI

asnue,
cnIIHKH H nOJIOlJ:KH

nOCTpoeHIIe

er =
PT

OKPYlKHO~Tb rpy,n~

+8 =

~8

+ 8 = 24 cu.
= 42
CM. CM.

==

.I(JIliHa TaJIHH no D)IHHa

CHHTOW MepKe

PH =
Tfl P~ PP1

nH,n;lKaKa no

CH5ITOli MepI<e

==t72

.nJIIlHa2TaJIHH _

2,5 CM.= cu.

~2

-2,5 cu = 18,5 cu.

rr 24 =-2-=-2-=12
OKPY)l{HOCTb rp~H CM.

+ ITpll6aBKa
CM.

+ 1 eM =

48

+ 1=

-= 7,9

PIP2

= PP1 =~=2 4 4

TT, RH,

= 3 CM

=3

CM

] nOCTOHHHaH Be~a~Haa.

CCr
=:.

CM.

OKflYlKHOCTb rpY.l(H +

;;

npH6aB!(a

r-,P?'.er.

20,3

= 19,3

rln =

OKPYlKHOCTb rpy.l(H +

npH6aBI(q

+1

eM

48

+1=
cu.

CM. rpyzta

f,f .. -= OKPY)l{HOCTb

nPli6allKa

= 48 + 7 = 55

fafs = 3 1-2

CM (nocrosanas

BeJIHlllilla).

1,5 cu .

H,fl2

OKPYlKHOCTb IlrO.l(Hl{

H,H2 = f/1Jl2 = 17 f2

CM.

n, 6

OKPYlKHOCTb rp~.l(H+ppH6aBl(a

= 48t7 = 13,7
48
CM.

CM.

rar

==

OKPYlKHOCTb rpy.l(H

16

= 16'- =s 3
npH6aBK'I

nP

OKpYlKHOCTb rpY.l(H +

23

S CM -

48 + 7 +2CM=-S-+2=9

CM.

PgP .. = 1

.rr.mI HO'p'MaJIbHOii4>HrYPbl

OKPYlKHOCTb rpy.l(H

= -_.(= 12 -

48

eM.

2-4

1 CM.
CM

T 4T 5 = 1,5 T5H3
=

(3a!BH'OHT OT MO.zu,I).

T2H2•

T 3K .llJIHHa

.!J.JIHHa TaJHH!

CM.
_

KapMaHa

OKPYlKHOCTH rpyna

-3- -

48

16

CM.

f3J!

=5

CM.

OTpe30K

001
-2-

pasen

cyaxe

CJIaraeMbIX: umpnna
OKPYlKHOCTH npOHMbI

npOHMbI

r2ra,

BeJIHqHHa nOCa)I,KH, K3Ta, pasaaa

p3BH3H

10

' nOJIOBHHa nepeB JIOKTe, T. e.

= 2,5

CM, rrpaoaaxa

CM aa IIlBbI

001

13,7+4,8+2,5+2=23

CM. CM.

OOl -= 020S 0304 =

00 23 = 0401 = --4)- = -4- = 5,75


(aa xepreace IIH)I,:tKaKa)

or =
33 -3-=
_

r,a ~ r.[Jl
CM.

= 19,3113,7

16,5

OKPYlKHOCTb rpYJlH

16

48

16 = 3

CM,

HJIH oTpe3KY

rgr&

Oli = MepK3 =64 CM.


3

)I,JIHHbI

pYKaBa

CM

aa

IIlOB

= 63

+ 1=
33

r. A.

CaMapoB, A. M. LJepeMHblX

HHI

=3

CM

(nocroanaas

BeJIHqHlla).

r.n

lH =-2-'

0106

O~l_

,l(JISI HOpMaJIbHhlX

nJIeq

O~l

,l(JISI HH3KHX.

0607 = 5 ff .3

CM

na nepexar (BeJIWIHHa nocrosnnaa).

- rr2 -- -2- -- -2- - 11 ,5 001 23 --2-

HH'J. = OKPY)I{HOC;b rpY.llH =


Il P "M
e 'I

+=

CM.

16

CM.

crarow,ffX passrepos rrpff6aBJflITb 0,3 c.« or pasxepa K paasrepy. lJalOLUHX paauepos OTHHMaTb 0,3 CJ.t OT paaaepa K pasaepy.

a H"

e.

Pacser

C,lJ,eJIaHTOJIbKO AJI!!

48-ro pasxepa. 1VI!!


Jf.-JIff

B03pa·

y6bl-

JIJI2 = 1.5 Fl';


=

CM

(nocrOHHB:35I

BeJIHtJHHa).

CM.

HH3 = 4

CM.

rr,
HH" 0703

=2 cu.
CM. CAt.

JI2JI4 = 2

=2

= 1 cu.
CM.

r5r6 = 1
EEl

Il o

cr

po

e a n e nO,l(BOpOTHHK3 MeHSlTbCH B 33BHCHMOCTH OT MO.l(bI.

=5
=3
=

cu.
CM. eM -

MO)!{eT

P4B
BE
I

croaxa

BOpo1'HHK3.

34

B2B. = 3 B3B4 = 4
P6B5

CM. eM. CM.

=5

nllAIKaH ABy60pTHblH B TanlllO


MepKH 6opTHoro IIpHHSlTbI re llH.lI.iKaKa. me, nro H .lI.JJSlKOfiCTpYHpoBaHHSl O.ll.HO-

Pz

7"

'7

fl

H,

PRe. 17. 4eprelK ABy6oprHoro IlIJAl!W(a

Ilocrpcenae .lI.By6opTHoro IIH.lI.iKaKa, H306paiKeHHoe na PHe. J 7, npoH3BO.ll.HTC5I IIO TeM me pacseraa, lfTO H o.ll.Ho6oPTHOro. Pa33*

35

uana T.-e.

npn

llOCTpOeHHIl

3aKJIlOqaeTCH

B TOM, 'ITO, JI,OBeJI,HnOCTpOenOJIYPYKaBa JI,JIH

P6, T4, Ts, H4 H H6, OTMepHIOT aa JIaUKaH H 3aXOJI, saaoca OT 8 JI,O 12 cu B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT MOJI,bl H rpacoua, Ilocrpoenae KapMaHOB, asrraxe«, nOll.BOpOTHHKa H nHJI,)K ixa JI,By60pTHoro OJI,H060pTHoro aHaJIOrHqHO nOCTpoeHHIO, llHJI,)KaKa.

HHe CnHHKH H nOJIOqeK JI,O OnpeJI,eJIeHHH TOqeK JIHHHH nOJIY3aHOCa,

npHHHTOMY

nMAJKaHM MOAeneM 1948/49 r,


C
3TO TeqeHHeM BpeMeHH MOll.bl MY)KCKHX KOCTIOMOB MeHHIOTCH.

aupaacaercs B H3MeHeHIiI1 oomero CHJIY3Ta, OTJI,eJIbHblX JIHHHH, nponopuaa II T. n. Ilocreneaao MeHHHCb OT ceaona K ce30HY, MY)KCKOH KOCTIOM npaoriperaer HOB, e xapaxrepnue qepTbl, KOTO' pblMH OH aaxanaer OTJIH'laTbCH OT cnoero npeacnero aa aa. 3TH fIOCTeneHHO npOHCXOJI,fllII,He H cnanaaa neaaaernue JI,JIH aeacxyureauoro rvraaa H3MeHeHHH CO npexenea npOW'JIHIOTCH
HaCTOJIbKO pHC. 18 1938 HCHO, r. HX CHJIY3Tbl, npOnOpII,HH, WJIO 113MeHeHIIe JI,p., OT 1923 r. MOJI,bI. JIHHHH TaJIHH, JIHHlIH, BHJI,HO, B IHIKO 'ITO COBepweHHO MeHHIOT BHJI, KOCTIOMa. 1934-Ha 35.

noxaaauu

<pacoHbl MY){{CKHX KOCTIOMOB 1923, 1927,

H II 1943

aanpaaaeuaa
BHH3Y Il.

Cpaanaaas

.r

.[{JII1Ha nHJI,)KaKa, JIIIHHfl npH06 ;JeTaIOT HaH60JIee YKOPOTHJICH, llJIeqH paCKJIeWeHbI. HOCTH Ha'tHHaIOT 60JIee

naes,

nmpnaa
K 6pIOKH 3TH

6PIOK 1938 r.,

nOCTeneHHO

II3MeHHHCb BblCOKH, r.

peaxoe nupaacenae;
xpeaaepuo
B r.

nHJI,lKaK MaKCHMaJIbHO BHH3Y

Ilocae

11 TaJIHR 1938

KOCTlOMe nOCTerreHHO

CrJIa)KHBaTbCfl. nJIeqIl.

xpaa6pIOKH

1943

nHJI,)KaK CTaJI JI,JIHHonycTHJIHCb, TaK)Ke

nee,

TaJIHfl

nOHH3HJIaCb,

HeCKOJIbKO BHII3Y. nHJI,)KaKa 1948 r.

npflHHJIII

HOpMaJIbHYIO

llIllPIIHY

l{oHCTPYKTI1BHOe H3MeHHeTCH• .[{JIH 6e3


1-

nocrpoenue
KOCTIOMa

Hec'KOJIbKO qepTaMH
B

MY)KCKOrO

xapaxrepauan

HBJIHIOTCR 60JIbWaH

araux

urapana

nO)I,KJlaJI,OK, rr. Wl1pllHbl o6lII,eH C 1943

xoropae

B 06JIaCTH rpy JI,H II CllHHKH nHJI,)KaKa,

yuorpecaaaacs
na
WBbl H

nHJI,)KaKaX

1938-1943

Y be.llHqeHHe HIIH.

nHJI,)KaKa JI,OCTHraeTCfl YBeJIIIqeHHeM npH6aBKH

npa
no}I,O

KOHCTPYHpoBaHI1H

CB060JI,Y 06J1era-

cpaBHeHHI1

r, naexa

Y nHJI,)KaKa JIflHH51 TaJIHII

erne nexaoro
nOHH3HJIaCb

HH3HJIHCb HO He CTaJHl nOKaThIMII.

npezteaa, a BMeCTe, C Heii COOTBeTCTBeHHOnOHH3IIJIHCb II YJI,JIIIHHJIHCb II npyrne qaCTH nII}I,)KaKa: nponxa, BOPOTHHK, JIaII,KaHhI, xapMaHhl II JI,p. Bee 3TO npHBeJIO K Y JI,JIHHeHIlIO IIHJI,)KaKa (JI,JI51 48-ro paaaepa III pocra JI,JIHHa nllJI,)KaKa KOJIe6JIeTC51 OT 76 }I,O 78 C14). nHJI,lKaKY CTpeM51TC51 npanart, uexoropyio "MelliKoBaTocTb" asepxy H aexoropce npnaer aaae B HII)KHeii qaCTH 6eJI,ep. Y3KHe
BOPOTHIIKH II JIaUKaHbI B rpyJI,II 36 II C03}I,aIOT Bne'laTJIeHIIe KOCTIOM JI,eJIaIOT 60JIbWeii WHpIIHbl

nxexax.

ECJIll

H3 TKaHH

B nOJIOCKY,

---

....
(VJ 0)

c.: ...

co ~

....

:s:

00

~
<':>

C'J

If)"

~ <':>

0)

.....
I 0)

r-: N
0)

~N ..... ~ ::a c:;: ::;;

.... sa ....
Q)

u
0 ld

ld

:s: :Ii
>.

:E ~ ....
oci ..... :s:

U 0..

io-------

---~~

~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~ ~~
tl ~ t:>

§~
::f :II ::II
f-o

!2

:.:
$I

~ t:> S.
<l:>

o :.:

ill

o
C'I

~I
U Po.

>.

~
/,

:s:

TO He HCI<a}!{aIOT nOJIOCKY Y HHH neJIaeTCH BpIOKH pa3pe3HOfi. 6pIOK CTaJIH

npoasru
B

H H:;) HH3Kax

cnnnxe,

eCJIH nOCJIen-

euie

III

zteaars
S

Y1Ke

pOCTa IlIHpHHa 60JIbille

nonuepxnaaer
M5I.fKHe no

HH3Kax

panna 25-26-27 nOJIHOTY nanxcaxa.


TKaHeil:

(.n:JI5I. 48·ro 4acTo

paaxepa
CM), lJTO 6pIOKH

.n:eJIaIOT 6e3

MaH}!{eT. .n:JI5I. KOCTIOMa. TKaHH.

H3MeHIIJIC5I. IJ;Ber II cpaKrypa lJIITaIOT TKaHH Hau60JIee cHHIIe, IJ;SeTHbIe pIICYHlJaThle

auparionce,

Ilpenno-

TpHI<O C IJ;SeTHoti nOJIOCI<oti,

nseroaue TOHa TKaHefi .n:JIH KOCTIOMa - aTO cepsre, KOpHlJHeBbIe H seaessre. Ha pHC. 19 H 20 IIOKaMo.n:HbIe 1948 r. nMAHeSK MOAenM 1948/49 r. C OTPe3HblMM C;O'lKaMM M3 TKaNM B nonocKY .n:JIH KOHCTpYHpOBaHHH IIH.n:lKaKa HOBOti

H 6YKJIIIpOBaHHble

aaua

KOCTIOMbI 1943,

AByfopTHblM

OpH ¢OPMhI HY}I{HO

CH5I.THH MepOK

6aBKY

YBeJIHI.J:HTb .n:JIHHY TaJIIIH, .n:JIHHY IIH.n:}!{aKa, ooutyro npaaa IllBbI H csoooaaoe 06JIeraHHe. B pacxerax rarose neooXO.n:HMO cnexars aexoropue H3MeHeHHH. OCHOBHhle MepKH .n:mI 48 ro pasxepa CJIe.n:yIOllI,He (B CM):
,UJIHHa TaJIliH •

aeooxonaao

YI.J:HTbIBaTb BhIIlleH3JIO}!{eHHhle

3aMellaHHH.

• nHAlKaKa • nJIeqa • • PYKaBi ..• OKPY)J(HOCTb rpY.lI.H TaJIliH

.77

.46

.63 .48 .44

. 14

Ocuiaa rrpnoasxa

HroAHU.

...
AnR KOHCTPYMPOB8HMR

.50
.9

PaC'IeTbl KOHCTpYHpOBaHue B01I,HTOI no

CJIe.rr.YIOllI,HM

nanac, xa, H306palKeH[IOrO pacserax:


48

aa

pHC. 21,

npoas-

PT=
lKaKa

OKPYlKHOCTb

rpYAH

+9=-3-+9=25(BblcoTycnHHKHIIH.n:-

HOBOH: CPOPMbI .rr.eJIaIOT no

aa

CM

60JlbIlle, CM.

I.J:eM 06bIlJHO).

PT = .rr.JIHHa TaJ4HH

CHHTOti no CH5lTOfi

xepxe = 46

PH = .rr.JIllHa nH,lI;}!{aKa Tr7 n

xepxe = 77 cu, 20

AJIHHa

2 TaJIHH

3 CM - ~-3 2

CM.

PC=

Pt" -2-

39

npOBeCTII

rOpH30HTaJUI

H3 rosex

C, T, T,

51

H.
48

pp

_
I -

OKPYlKHOCTb rpyn»

=8,17

+ npueaasa

-1- 1 CM

+9

+1=

CM.

Pa

PRC. 21. YepTelK .lI.By6oplHoro

nR.lI.lKaKa MO.ll.eJIR1948/49 r.

snpaao OTJIO)l{HTb 3 eM, OTMeTHB TOqKY HI' Buseprars cepenauy CITHHKH, COe,ll.HHHB TOqKH Hi Ii P npSIMOH JIHHHetl:.

nJiSI

COxpaHeHHSI nOJlOCKH no

cepenaae

CDHHKH

OT TOIJKH

40

TOlJKH 1f3 TOlJeK

nepeceneaaa

npoaenesnon

C, F, T

fl

0603HalJHTb

o, r;

npHM'OH

C If

C/C1 = OKPY}l{HOCTbrp~p.lI

+ np1I6aBKa

+2 =

TI

HI'

rOpH30HTaJlSIMK

= 21

CM.

II -

OKPYlKHOClb

rpYJJ.H

npaoasxa

57 + 1 = "'3 + 1 = 20

CM.

rlr. = OKPY)I{HOCTb

rpyna

npatiaaxa
_

= 48
48 9_ -4- -

+ 9 = 57 cu.
14 2
,

rr ~
2 3 ~

OKPYlKHOCTb

rpYJJ.H

npneasxa

-+-

eM. 1

raro = 3 cu. COe.ll.HHHTb


1-2=2
CM;

npHMOH TOlJI<H Fa H

C,

OTMeTHB TOQ"y

fl-8=1,5

cu.

r 2il I r F,e
3

OKpYlKHOCTb

rpYJJ.H

+ npaoaexa = -;r-= 57
~

142

, esc,

-.

OKPYlKHOCTb

16

rpYJJ.1I -

16

C At.

il 2P3
xpaaeaas

OKPYlKHOCTb

rpYAH

rrpaoasxa

+5

cu (caemeaae
BOBOIt ¢OPMIX

TOT.{KH H CO-

rop/IOBIlHbJ.

IIOIlO'lKH /I.ellaroT /I.llfl IIOIlY'leHHfl ~epTHKaJlbHOH nOJIOCJ{H MaTepliaJIa). .ll.JIH HOpMaJIhHOH qJIirYPbI.

PaP4

=- 1 CM

COe.ll.HHHTb TO'IKH

P4

Ii III

BcnOMOraT~JIbliOH

npsxoa.

P'Jl» = P2il.
P4P6 PsPe
flafl.

= PP = 8,1
I

eM.
rpYAH -

= OKPYlKH0C;b
=
OKPYiKHOC;b

CM

4-~1 = 11 cu,
18 cu. 41

lIrOAHU

+ 1 cu = ~ + 1 _

1I.JISi paCUm:peHIUI 'TO'lKH

514

4 1 cu.

npOHMbI 3TY

nOJIOtIKH OTJIO>KHTb OT TOl[KH BcnOMOraTeJIbHOH npHMOH

.z:r.0

Coe,n;HHHTb

TOtIKH

H nponoxacart,

JIHHHIO BHH3.

BbItIepTHTb

60KOBYIO

JIHHHIO IIOJIOtIKH xepes

TOtIKH

4, Ts

514,'

T5HS = T2H3•
T3T6
_ OKPYlKHOCTb

TaJIHH

+1

CM=-2-+1=23 npOBeCTII

44

cu.
acnoaorareasPi' 4 H T6• K JIHHHH TsT7,
H3

T3T7 = 1 CM. HyIO JIIIHHIO.

4epe3

TOtIKH T6 H T7

Ba-rep mrs
OTMeTHB TOTlKY no

JIHHHIO nOJIY3aHoca,

coenanas

TOtIKH yrJIOM

npO.z:r.OJI>KHTb3TY JIHHHIO BHH3 IIO,n: IIpSiMblM

H4
II

na

rrepecexenaa
or TOtIKH II

C TOPH30HTBJlblO

JIHHHH IIOJIY3aHoca YKa3aHo TOtIKH saceus

P6

zto TOtIKII

P7

H.

OTJIO>KHTh

CM, KaK

sepea

P4

P7• Hexoropoe
H5•

ua tIepre>Ke,

BbltIeprllTb nOHII>KeHHe CTpOHT

rOpJIOBuHY rOpJIOBIIHhI

noau
ooy-

CJIOBJIHBaeTCH HOBOH <popMofi

113,n:eJIHH. 113 TOtIKll TaK yrOJI 60pTa

P4HS
3areM

P4

pa,n:HYCOM KaK ,n:JISl neaaror IIOJIbI.

TOtIKY

nOJIY3aHOC TOJIbKO C

ace,

06bIKHOBeHHoro HeC!{OJIbKO

nn,n:>KaKa,

saepxy HH3 xapxaaa.

Y)Ke

B coorBeTCTBHH

xonoa.
46

Bsrnepmre 77

Hy>KHO lfaMeTHTb

nOJIO>KeHHe 60KOBoro

TK3 -

AJIHHa TaJIHH -

- -6- == ,

CM. tIaCTH InOJIbl

1I.aJIbWe

nepexozraa

II nepe,n:HeH BNTatIKH.

sepes ee

K - 6 = 5 cu, npOBeCTH BCnOMOraTeJIbHYIO npHMYIO JIHHHIO TOtIKH 5 H 6, npo,n:OJI>KHTI:. ee BH1l3 H TOtIKY IIepeCetIeHHSI
C JIHHHeH HH3a IIOJIbI o603Ha4HTb

K
3

nocrpoeamo

60KOBOfi

r 5=5

eM.

TO'lKOH Or BeCTH

Ts'

TO'Il(ofi

7,

a C JIHHHefi TaJIHH ero TOtIKOfi aaepx

nepeztuero na JIHHHIO

xpas

xapxana, BbITatIKH

0603HatIIiB

OTe ryIIHTb

CM, OTMeTHB TOtIKY ITO JIHHHH

9.

113 TOtIKH

8,
npo-

nepenaen

IIapaJIJIeJIbHO

JIHHIIII

6opTa.

Pacrsop
pasea

BbiratIKH

xapuana

CM, [[0 JIFHHH TaJIHH TO>Ke

OT TaJIHH paaaa 1l0CTaBHB TOtIKY BHB TOtIKY

6 cu.

12.

11.

OT

TOtIKIt

OT

TO'lKH

4epe3

TOtIKH

11

6
H

10

2 cu,

Me>K,n:y TOtIKaMH 1I.JIHHa BbITatIKll OrJIO>KHTb

9 0,75

10

saepx

aaepx

ssepx

12

OTJIO}KHTb IIp,)BeCTH

eM,

CM,

nOCTaJIHHHIO,

IIPSlMYIO

npo,n:)JI>Kf:lB ee ae vaoro paBHIJlH oTpe3KY

BJIeBD. OT

TOtIKH

9-6,

IIOCTaBHB TOtIKY

II 13.

OTJIO>KHTb oTpe30K,

42

Ts OTJIO)l{I1Tb BBepX OTpe30K, paBHhIH oTpe3KY 6-12, T9• 4ep23_TOIJKY T9 IIpoBecTII KOPOTKYIO IIPHMYIO JIHHHIO IIapaJIJIeJIbHO Jill I1H 12-18 II aa HeM: BJIeBO OT TOIJKII T« OTJIO)KHTh 1 cu, OTMeTI1B TO<IKY TIO' 4epe3 TOIJKH 5, T10' 6 H 7 BhIIJepTIITb JIHHIIIO orpeaa 60QKa
OT TOqIn:!: II IIOCTaBHTh TOIJKY IIOJIOQKH, KaK YKa3aHO aa xepreace. IIPOfi:MbI 60LJKa OT 'fOIJKH TIlTh JIHHHIO orpeaa Qep~3

aa

2 cu.

3aTeM

HY)l{HO CHH3HTb supes H

17oCJIe.n;OBaTeJIbf{o coenaasa HIOIO BhITa'lKY TO'lKaMH H 3aTeM, TOQKH 9,

TOllKH

5, lia, f8', f2
IIOJIhI. CJIerKa IIOJlbI. nepes IIOJIhI,

ff,

BhIllepnepe.a-

UOKOBOli: QaCTH

6H 7

10, 6 H 7,
orpesa

BhIIJepTHB

no KPHBOli: Me)l{.n;y TOIJKll

3aKOlIQffTh

JIHHHIO crpeaa

H3MepHB

.n;JIHHY orpesa

60QKa

7,

5,

T10

CpaBH5ITb

TOIJKH

Ilpa

.1lHHlfIO 60KoBoro

.n;o TO'lKH pacxpoe

14

y.n;JIHHHB ee OT aa 1lI0B B 60IJKe IIH.n;)l{aKa

na Tpe6yeMYIO nano no

BeJIHGHHY.

mrzosasa

CJI.eJIaTb

npunycx

II IIOJIO'IKe PYKaB

OT TSJIHH BHH3, T. e.

JIHHHH

T9 -- 7.

H IIO.n;BOPOTHHK CTRoHT,

KaK .n;JIH 06bI'IHOrO

Ilocrpoeaae seprexca TaKOrO nanacaxa nOKa3aHO aa pHC. 22. Hazce rrpaaeaenu IIpHHHTbIe .n;JHI 48-ro pasaepa MepKH (B eM)
H paCIJeThI: llJlHlJa ranHH .

46

• IIJleqa. . • PYKaBa ..• OKPYlKHocrb rpyna .. 06~.aH

raaaa

63 48 44
50

77 14

HrO)l.H~ • IIpH6aBKa. • •

PT

.n;JIliHa TaJIHH JlJlHHa raJlflH

= 46 esc. 3_
-

·o T/I -=

2-

46

= '>0 eM. -

PH = .n;JIHHa nIiJI.)l{aKa
PC=-2-=

= 77

cu. cu.
C,

er

-~=12,5

25

npOBO.n;HM rOpH<30HTaJm H3 TOIJeK

r,

T, f/

H.

43

T.

Buuepuasaex
Ii

JIllHHIO yxaaaao

HI.

cepenanu
aa q~pTe)l{e.

CIIllHKH

KaK

sepea Ilepecexenae

TOqKH JIHHHH

P, C,
cepe-

Puc. 22.

4epTe1K

llHM(3Ka

MO.ll.eJlH

19 t 8 49 r,

JJ:HHbl CDHHKH C ropH30HTaJIblO pH30HTaJlbIO H3) TOlJKH

51

H3

TOlJl{OH

571,

OTMelJaeM TOlJKOH: FI,

a C ro-

pp) __ OKpY1KHOCTb =8,1 CM.

rpyS.II.U

+ npaeaaxa

+1

CM:::::II

S--j-l=

48

+9

44

eel

= OKPY}f{HOCTb

rpY .11.H

+ npH6aBKa

+ 2 = 48t 9 + 2 = 21
= 48 + 9 = 57 cu,
48

cu.
cu.

r 2ll rtr.

= OKPY}f{HOCTb

rpY;H

+ npa6aSKa + 1 = 48: 9 + 1 = 20

= OKPYJf(HOCTb =

rpYAH

npnoasxa _

21 ~

r:

OKPYlKHOCTb 'PY.llH

+ npaoasrca

+ 9 -4

14 "

,'" eM.

COe){HHaTb TOlJKY

BCIIOMoraTe~bHOH

rrpHMOH ToqKH

1.

ra

C,

OTMeTKB

1-2= 2 cu.
ll-3= 1,5
eM.

_ fl Jla l2

OKPY}f{HOCTb

aronan

50 = -3-

= 17 cu.

r3 6

OKPY}f{HOCTb r-pynn

16

-16-

48

eM.
("MemeHHe

II 2 3-P
TOliKH

OKPYlKllOCTb Ita

rPY.II.1I

+ npH6asKa

+4 -12 1 eM -,

...

rop~OBHHbI

C It 06yc~OBJleHO

CPOPMOH H3)J.e~HH).

P3P4=

eM

-PPs = PPt = 8,1

CM.

a, fl3 II~

OKPY}f{HOCTb

lIrO,1{IIU:

+ 1 cu = -3- + 1 == 50

18

cu, 45

OT npotiMbI.

TOtIKH

.n:o TOtIKH

OTJIO)J{HTb

CM aa

pacnmpenne

Coe.n:IIHHTh

scnoaorareasnon

npsxoa

TOtIKY

H TOtIKY

f/4'

npoBHR3.

.n:OJDKHB npsxyro

4epe3 H

TOtIKH

4, To
60KO-

fl4

BbItIepTliTh JIHHHIO.

ByIO

OKpYlKHOCTh T3JIHH

+lCM

44 -2CM.

+ 1 = 23

+ +
T,

_I
, -

T3T7 = 1

CM. COe)l,H-

I
'

HHTh IIPSlMOi1 TOtJKH II 17, H

T6

4epe3

TOtIKH

Ps,

auseprnrs 3TY

JIHHHIO

nOJIY3aHoca. lKHB

IlponoaJIHHHIO BHH3 K JIHC roJlHHHell TOtJKY ne0603HatJHTh npOBeCTH ee

nepneH.n:IIKYJUlPHO

HHH

TG T7,

.n:o

nepecevenns

pH30HTaJIh Hoii

H3 TOtIKH

H.

peCetIeHHH 113

H4•
TOtIKH
PHC. 22a.~ 4epTelK I1H)J;lKaKa ~o.n.eJlH

1948:49

r.

.n:HYCOM P4 TOtIKY H5•

Ha

P4

pa-

aacexs OOCTPOH1;h OT TOtIeK:

JIanKaH H nOJIY3aHoc,

nOCJIe.n:oBaTeJIbHO OTJIOlKHTh snpaao

PG~4,5 cu,
B
rezce.

-4

CM,

T6-3,5

C.M. MOlKIIO .n:eJIaTh

3aBHCHMOCTH OT cpaCOHa HH3 fiopra

JIeHHbIM HJIH npHMbIM.

Buseprnrs

saxpyr-

HH3 nOJIbI, KaK IIOKa3aHO aa xepOOJIOlKeHHe cepe.n:HHbI 60KOBoro

OOMeTHTh 60KOBoii HaMetIaIOT

xapxaaa

xapxan.

CJJe.n:YIOmHM 06pa30M.
JlJlHHa T~~HH =c,.= ~

1"3 f{=
46

6'

= 77

CM.

Ilepenaxno
CTpOeHHe TatIKII 60KOBOH BBepX

asrranxy
OT TaJIIIII

CTpO~IT, KaK

06hItIHOrO

nIJ1()KaKa. ,UJIHHa

Ilo-

BhITatIeK BhITatIKH

npOH3BO,n:HT CJIe,nYIOUJ.I1M06pa30M.

8- 9

CM,

OT TOqKH

T3 no
6

pacrsop

1
CM.

au-

CM.

TOtIKH

CM

OTMeTilB TOqKY 7. Haneprna 60KOBYIO

Ilponecra

H OT TOtIKH f( ,n:o TOtIKH BepTIIKaJIhHyIO

TO)!{e

,UJIH nocrpoeaas HY)!{HO OTJIO)!{HTb. H

JIHHIIIO pa-

tIepe3

TOtIKH

BHH3.

BhITatIKY,

CTBOP KOTOPOH no JIIIHIIH TaJIIIII 6y,neT pasen 1,5 CM, OTJIO)!{HTb OT TOtIKH

7 no TOtIKH 8 2 cu, KaK YKa33HO aa xeprexe. 3aTeM paapeaars BhlTaLJKY no JIHHHH no B JIIJHHH CKJIa,n:KY.

xax 7 - 8 umpenne
II B 60JIhlllee

HH3 nOJIhI

5-6 H 3aJIO)KHTb 6 -- 7 B TOtIBxaronaps

3TOMY nOJIytIIIM

,nonOJIHHTeJIbHOe

r pyaa aa CtIeT, BhITatIKH npaaerauae B 6e,n:pax


CTP05IT TaK nII.lJ:-

pac-

(pHC. 22a). PYKaB II nonsoporaax xce, KaK na )I(aKa HOpMaJIbHYIO

H ,n:JI5I 06bIKHoBeHHoro

rparypy.

MOAenMpOBaHMe cnOpTHBHblX nMAlKaHOB

Cnopraanue
I{OCTIOMa HHTepeCHa5I BaHHH MY}KCKOrO

CPOPMhI 06JIaCTb B

MY)!{CKOrO HaH60JIee r.w,neJIHpo, llJIaTb5I.

3TO, noacaaya, sepxaero

Booeuie

oneacny MQ}KHO paanezurs BH,n:OM MbI

CnOpTIlBHbIX CPOPM na nsa BHJI.a: nac-

CHBHhlt'1 II aKTHBHhIH.

cnopraanux

ncnpasyaenaea
CPOPM, B

Flozr

naCCHBHhIM o,n:e)!{JI.Y

OCHOBY KOTO-

psrx nOJIO)!{eHhl 06hltIHhIe CPOPMhl MY)!{CKOrO KocTIOMa, ,n:onOJIHeHHhIe OTJ(eJIhHhIMH ':nopTHBHa5I KOHCTPYKIlIIIO, I1CIIOJIb3YH KaK cxeny ,n:eTaJI5IMH, 3aBIICHIlI.YIO nocrpoeaae IIMeIOUJ.HMH anna o,n:e)!{,n:a aKTIIBHoro

Puc. 23.

MY}KCKOii:

KOCTIOM

CiiOpTHBHoe ztaaaon

aupazceaae,
o,n:e)!{,L(hI.

HMeeT CBOIO onpeneaennyro 06hlqHOrO MO,L(HOrO IIH,L()!{aKa cpOpM.

OT Ha3HatIeHH5I tJepTe)!{et'r npopaoorxn,

,n:mr ,L(aJIbHeiillleit na

MO)!{HO C03,L(aBaTb anre-

pecnue 1.
HaMH, Ha

BapHaIlHII pIIC.

06bHCHHM

23

rrpauepax,
nOKa3aH II05ICOM co

HOBhIX MO,L(eJIeil: nH,n:)!{aKOB cnopTHBHhIX KaK 3TO ,n:eJIaeTC5I. MY)!{CKOH nazoxax B TaJIIIH. OH H He6oJIbIllOH IllJIHIleH.

C HaKJIa,n:HhIMH xapuana n5IT•. OTJIO)!{HOit BOPOTHH-

CT5IHYThIH

nyrosan, HMeeT Y3KHit tIOK. Cnnnxa paapesaaa

.nauxaa

3aCTerlIBaeTC5I

1T

Ha pac, 24

MhI HarJUIJI,HO BRJI,HM, KaKHe

H3MeHeHHJI

neorixo-

.lLRMO CJI,eJIaTb B KOHCTPYKIl;IHl 06hIliHoro MOJI,HOrO I1HJI,)KaKa, lITO.ohI CJI,eJIaTb MOJI,eJIb I1RJI,)KaKa, H306pa)KeHHYIO na pHC. 23.

rtI
T, T~-'-----

n,

- PHC. 24. 4epTelK

rrH~lKaKa CnOpTHBHoH~CP(OPMbI
6e3 ursa

2.
He

Ha

pHC.

25

26

nOKaaaHO I10CTpOeHHe cnHHO!\: B 9TOM cJIyqae KaK CI1I!HKy He 6bIJIa KOPOTKOtl: If, CJI,eJIaTh

nOCep~JI,HHe. JI,JISIroro, -pe3HHl{otl:

CKOC

CepeJI,HHhI CUlIHKH MbI XOTHM

JI,eJIaIOT rOBopHT, CTHHYTOtl:

lITo6hI

CI1HHKa ECJIR

"XBOCTHJIa".

I1pH pacnere

B T8.TIHH HJIH co CKJI'lJI,OllKaMH I10JI, XJIHCTHKOM, TO HalI,O YBeJIHlIHTb I1IHpHHy CI1HHKH B TaJIHH no JIllHRH T172•

·48

C'~;;::;:::==::'::::::;;;;d

Cz

c,

r.

r. 1

r ,'1--

T\

'l

fI, R'._.....!.---

PRC.

25.

4eprelK lIenbHOH IIH,u;lI(aKa

CIIHHKH

PHC. 26. tJeprelK CIIHHKH IIH,u;lKaKa <fJaHra3H

r.

A. Caaapos,

A. 11. 4epeMHhlx

PHC.

'2 7.

4epT&>K CfIHHKH Ha KOKeTKe

nH.u.lKaKa

PIlC.

28.

MYlKCKOH

KOCTIOM

Hr

Hz

H,J,

PHe

29 LJepTe}l{ TIHA}I{aKa

4T06bl OTpe3aB

C,l{eJIaTb ClIHHKY KOKeTKY, KOKeTKofi czeaars

aa

KOKeTKe, npHnYCK

Ha,l{O HaMeTHTb paCTBOp B mssr. ECJIH npHnYCK no aa

KOKeTKH, JIaTb non

ee JIHHHIO H Y npOfiMbI C60PKY,

cnenars

1 cu.

lIOJIOlKeHHe 3aTeM, c.n;eKaK

XOTHT

TO nexaror 3alOT

na C60PKY, JIHHHH: lJT06b1

nOKa3aHO aa cnHHKY

pHC. 27,

T. e. paspeTOlJKa

A - E,
MYlK,l{py-

H pa3BO,l{HT TaK, nepeurna

3.

B nOJIOlKeHHe

AI'

Ha

pHC. 28 H306palKeH ztpyroa CPOPMbI H CnHHKa

cxoa rHMH

KOCTIOM C HaKJIa.n;HhIMH xapJIHHHHMH. qaCTH non oTpc3HaH

MaHaMH

• •

B TaJIHH, co Hefi POKHMH nJIelJa xoro 3Aecb

CKJIa.n;OlJKaMH B sepxXJIHCTIIKOM II IlIH60KaM OT ra-

CKJIa.n;KaMII no

.n;o TaJIHH.

Ilocrpoenae

fIH.n;lKaKa nOKa3aHO aa pHc.29. HCnOJIb30BaHa C oTpe3HbIM xapuaau KOHCTpyK~HH 60lJKOM, HO

nanacaxa TaK KaK paspes xepreace CTpyK~IIIO TalJKII).

nepeaaen
60KOBOH paspesa

HaKJIa)J.Hble, TO BblTalJKH non xapxaa nepe(aa KOHnsrHe no-

BO)J.HTCH HHlKe

xapaan

Ka3aH, lJT06bI HCHee rroxaaars nepe.aaea ,UJIH nOJIYlJeHHH MaTepHaJI rrYHKTHpOM). IlIBbl. pHC.

60KOBOH:

CKJIa.n;KH K cnaaxe npHIlyCTHTb (nOKa3aHO orpesa nYCK aa Ha

H nOJIOlJKe aano aa CKJIa)J.KY no JIHHHH

B TaJIHH Ha)J.OC)J.eJIaTb npa-

4.
PRe. 30.
MY}KCKOH ¢aHTa3H KOCTIOM

30

H306palKeH JIeTHHfi 6e3 B

opnKOxap60OT-

rHHaJIbHblH: CTIOM. HO MaH xapxaau co HaKJIa)J.HbIe CKJIa)J.OlJKaMH non raxoro

MYlKCKOfi

nH)J.lKaK npopesaoa B aa

C BOPOTHHKOM. paMKY. pHC. ecrs

Bepxaaa

JIau.KaHOB,

xoaae
peauas
KaK

paMKY, CnHHKa

npopesnae

Ilocrpoeaae
CTPYK~IIH

XJIHCTHKOM. XJIHCTHK npaaepoa,

nH)J.lKaKa nOKa3aHO

31.

HaCTpOlJHOH. B03-

BH,l{HO H3 nepeqHCJIeHHbIX 06bIlJHOrO nH)J.jl(aKa.

60JIbllIIIe

MOlKHOCTH MO)J.eJIHpOBaHHH CIIOPTHBHOfi O)J.elK,l{bI aa

OCHOBe KOH-

nMAMlaHM

aa

!lJMrYPbl C OTHnOHeHMRMM TenOCnOMleHMR


pariore

OT HopMallbHoro
nsorna

B caoea npaxo.aurca

npaKTIIlJeCKOfi

XY)J.OlKHIIKY-MO)J.eJIepy

crpourr,

CBOH MO)J.eJIII II na .rllO)J.efi, IIMeIOIlf.HX OTKJIOTeJIOCJIOlKeHHH.

HeHIIH OT HOpMaJIbHOrO

52

.l1.JHI

C.lI.eJIaTb

TaKHX cayxaea 1I3MeHeHHH npa

ueooxonaxo 3HaTb, KaKHe Hy>KHO KOHCTpYllpOBaHlIlI O,n;e)K.lI.bI, B aa-

fl

FI,

Hz

PHC.

31.

tJepTelK

nH,lJ,lKaKa ljJaHTa3H

BPlCHMOCTlI o,n;e>K,n;a.

OT

roro,

na

KaKYIO

qmrypy

,n;eJIaeTCH

,n;aHHaH

nMAHlaK Ha cYTynylO Cl»Mrypy

Ilpa nOCTpOeHlIlI Qeple)Ka nH,n;)KaKa na CyTyJIylO qmrypy KpOMe 06hIQHbIX MepOK aeooxonaxo CHHTb ,n;onOJIHHTeJIbHhle MepKlI: BblCOTY CnHHKH, r JIy611HY npOHMbI nOJIbI, aacryn npof:iMbI, sucryn 53.

HrO)J,HU. BbICOTY n.te«. 6Y)J,eT 60JIbIlle, llIHpHHhI cj:mrypbI.

~' CyTY.lOH

qmrypbI

MepKa qc~!

BbICOTbI

CITUHbI

(B

npoiixur POCTK3, emma mnpe, a rpy)J,b y)!(e, JJ.JI5I nOCTpOeHH5I xepreaca npnxiexr
lJeM MepKa rJly611HbI ,JJ1H1l3 r3.11111 •
nH,II.lK3Ka. . Illnpaaa llO.1CIH!HKll .. •

TIOCJ1e BbIlJeTa 113

nopsia

aee

1bHOH: 1v!ep!..:H

C.1ell.Y10IUl!e

Cht):

.1liH!lla n.ie '!3 OKP Y)KHOC


" PYK3B3 fb

rpynn ramlli •

..•

· 43 · 73 .21 · 14 .63 .48 .44 .33 .33

Bucora
..

"

HrOJJ:Hu.
Crrl1HKI1

Bucryn npollMbi
HrOJJ:Hu..

fJIy6HHa

npollMbl • .

· 51 .26

Bsrcora nJIe'!. .. Otituaa npariaaxa

. 33 ·7 ·7

B
qmrypy

OCHOBHOM nOXO}Ke qmrypy.

na

TIOCTpOeHHe

seprezca

TIOCTpOeHHe

xepreaca

TIll)J,}KaKa I1H)J,}KaKa

na

aa

cyry

JIylO

HOpMaJIbTO'lKOH

nyio

Haneprars

DOCTpoeHIIe Ill,HM pacnerax:

xepreaca

TIP5IMOH

yroa

TIH)J,}KaKa (pHC.

nepumaoa, ,32)

0603Ha4eHHOH:

npoH3Bo)J,IITC5I TIO

c.renyro-

P.

PaC'IeTbl

AnA

KOHCTpYMpOBaHMR

Pl'

= BbICOTa

cnHHKII

no

MepKe

= 26 eM.

PI' = )J,JIIIHa
PH =

TaJIIIH

TIO MepKe

= 43 eM. 73 cu.
43

)J,JlIIHa I1II,lI,}KaKa

TIO MepKe;::.

2,5

C.M:

-2-

-2,5 = 19 CM.

rr 26 Pc= -2-" = -2- =


DpOBeCTII TaK or aa KaK y II3 T04eK HOpMaJIbHOrO 4epTe)I{e. OTKJIOHeHHe pOCTKa
cnHHKfi

13 eM.
II

C, T, T, H

ropII30HTaJIIi. I103BOHOK OTKJIOHeH ¢HKclipyeTcH

CyTy JIOH ¢lIrypbI rrOJIO}KeHII5I,

IlleHHbIH TO 3TO

OTKJIOHeHlIe

PP' =
-

=TTl

Bblcor3

(rJIy6flHa

npOllMbl

IllHpHH3

pOCTKa)

26-(33-7,9)

-,

05

CM.

=3

C.H. Of.

HHI =3

BbI4epnlTb

1'1

II

HI' Ilepecexeaae

.TJIIHIIIQ Cepe.lI,IIHbI CIIIIHKII, J111HlIli cepenaau OTMeTIITb T04KaMlI

COe.lI,lIHHB TOqKH II

P', C,

H3 T04eK

II

51

F,

CIIIIHKlI C rOpH30HTaJIHMlI

511.

t
r r;
i

Ij.

J::"::::::::i

~:~~~----~T..~b---~~~~F==-~
IJ 'Z

f(

f1

H,

H~H

H~~~.H~2~

__

Pac. 32. -leprezc nlf.D.){(aKa aa cyryJlyIO


npOBeCTH 1I3 T04KlI

!pHrypy
K JIHHRH

P'
II aa

IIepIIeH.lI,IIKYJIHP HeM or 8 TOqKII

YKa3aHO aa qepTe)l{e, pOCTKa

P'

P' C,

KaK

OTJIO}l{IITb lllHPHHY

PIp 1 = OKpY}!{HOCr b

rpY.llH

-t-

nplf6aBKa

=-8-

48+7

-+ 1 = 7,9

+1

ex

=
55

CM.

Ha nepnennnxyaape, OT TO'lIOI eel

BOCCTaBJIeHHOM H3 TOlJKH pOCTKa

P,

BhICOTY

Pl

P2

= -T =
pIp
llIOB::::=I

-2-

7,9

Pl,

OT.'IO)KHTb

=2

CM. c.u .

= WHpHHa r 2[]~
fJf4 fJf3 f3fS

ClIHHKH
rpY,lJ,H

+]
+

CAl HB

21

+ 1 = 22

o KPY)I{HOCTb

npH6aBKa

CM

_
-

55 3 +1-193 -,

CAl.

= OKPY)!{HOCTh rpynn + npacasxa = 55 cu. = aucryn npOHMhI + 2 CM: na IIIBhI = 33 + 2=35

CM.

=3

CAt. CM.

1-2= 1,5

fl-3= 1,5 CM.


-rr TJ1 2 ~
~ D}[PpliHDCTb

rpY.l1H

-_

16

CM.

na sepreace,

3aKOIPIHTb

e,

KOHTYP cnHHKH, P2• 3, ell

n,

2, T2,
48

COe,.a;HHlfB JIHHH5IMJf, KaK fl2 H H2•

YKa3aHO

r 3 r 6 = OKPY)I{HOCTb 16
f 2 II 1 Ol{PY)I{HOCTb

rpY,lJ,H

16

= 3 CM •
_

rpY,lJ,1f

+ nplf6allKa

13 7
,

eM.

II 2P 3 -

OKPY)I{HOCTb

rpY,lJ,1f

npH6asKa

+2
P4

eM -

+ 2 --

89
,

CoM.

113 TO'lKH PHHbI

Pa

BHH3 npOBeCTH BepTHKaJIbHYIO JIHHHIO. 113 TO'lKH pa3HOCTH sacexs e. T. MepKH TOlJI(y rJIy6HHbI npOHMbI H

pa,.a;HYCOM, paBHbIM

pOCTKa-P

HOt!: lI3 TOlJKH ~8=25 CJf.

Pa,

Ph

rSP4 = r JIy6HHe

na BepTHKaJIH, npOJIMbI -

P' PI

npcsenea-

rna-

rs

= 33-

56

:=1(33+2)-17=

flsfl4

= BhICTYII 51:rO.n;Hn 2 CAt: ua

18

IlIBhI

H MHHyC fl1fl2-= HOp-

CM .

.llaJIbHeHllIee TT')cTpoeHHe aenyr, MaJIbHyIO !l>Hrypy> 2-

xa K .n;JI5IIIH.n;maKa na

4:

=1

CM CM

Ha pacunrpeaae IIpOHMhI. ITOMo.n;e.

T4Ts TsH3

1,5

= T2H2•
T 3T 6

OKPYlKHO~Tb TaJiKH

+ 1:::::w + 1 = 23 cu,
~4

T3T7 = 1

CM.

Illapaaa JIanKaHa H IIOJIY3aHoca YCTaHaBJIHBaeTCSIB MOCTHOT rpacona.


DOKoBoH xapxan
u

3aBHCH-

TaK=
3

,lJ.mlHa TaJlHH

43 = 6 = 7,1

CM.

Bxon Bxapaaa

OKPYlKH. rpyaa

=-3-

48

16

CM.

BepxHHH KapMaH-JUiCTOqKa FsJl == 5 cu, PYKaB H IIO.n;BOPOTHHK D;JIHIIH.n;maKa na CyTy JJYIO !l>Hrypy CTPOHTIIO TeM me pacneraa, nro H .lIM! IIH,lI;maKa aa HOpMaJIbnyio <pHrypy. Ilpn IIOCTpoeHHH pyxasa H3MeHSleTCH TOJIbKO O,ll;HH paClIeT-OTpe30K

0106=O~I.
nMANlaK Ha neperMdMCTYIO $Mrypy

B neperaoacroa !l>Hrype HMeeM HBJIeHHe,06paTHoe TOMY, KO" ropoe acrpexaercs B cyryJIOH !l>Hrype. CHHMaeM Te me MepKH•. xro H ,lI;JISlCyTyJIOH !l>HryphI (B eM):
ll.JHlHa TaJiHII. ••• • nll,lllKa Ka • • • UJllpHHa nOJlCnHHKH .ll.JlIIHa nJleqa. •.• • PYKaBa •••• OKPYlKHOCTb rpY,llH • TaJlIIH • • 51rOJl.Hl{ Buco ra cnllHKH • • I'nyoaaa npOHMw Bucryn npOHMbI • " 51fO,llHl{ BWCOT8 niIeq '. 06maH npII6aBK8 •

41 71

48 44 51

64

19 14

33

23
36 5
7

32

57

Ilocrpoeune
'1{a3aHO na pHC.

33.

xepreaca

no

HHlKenpHBe,neHHblM

pacsera»

nc-

c
~
"--..___

r.

t;

1
"6

r!

i:

~
H

~~--

I 11

H,

Hz

J!l"

II

PMC. 33. 'Ieprex

nM.lI.lKaKa aa neperutincr

yx: qJHrypy

Pac~eTbl AnR KOHCTpYMpoBaHMR

PF

BbICOTa cnHHKH ,nJIHHa TaJIHll

= 23
71

cu.

PTe=:PH=

=41

CAL C.M.

)I,JIHHa nH,nlKal{a::o>

58

'G T/1= n:JHlHa 2Tamm

_~

\-

5- ~-25-18
2 ' -

CM.

PC = 3

er

= T=
')3

11,5cM.

OpOBeCTH H3 TOqeK nne aa pOCTKa=1/2 pocrxa

C, T, T, H

11 H

ropIl30HTaJIH. npOHMbI

OrKJIOHe-

Pa3HOCTU MepOK

rJIy6iIHbI

MHHyC nrapn-

11 BblCOTa CIIIlHKH, T. e. CM.

=.Pp'

= (33-7,9)-23 2

=,1 1

CM.

TTl =3

Bsmeprart, P',
nposecra

JIHHHIO aa

CepeL(HHbI CIIHHl{H xepreace.

sepea

TOlJKH

KaK YKa3aHo

JIHHHIO pocrxa

+J

eM

= 7,9

OepneHL(HKYJIHPHO K JIHHHH 'P OKPYlKHOCTHrpynn-l-npaoassa P 1> paBHyIO 8""

H, Tt, C, P'G

01, K JII1HHH

Ha
u

nepIIeHL(HKYJIHpe

P' P1

OTJIO>KHTb OTpe30K

PI P2,

P'P, 2 pasasta -4- = CM. CC, = rnapaaa F2FJ =


nOJICIIHHKH

+ 1 CM = 19 + 1 = 20 CM.
CM

OKPYlKHOCTb r~Y.rr.H+npH6aBK~.+2 nOTOMY, qTO

48i7

+2=20,3
qmryp

eM

(1

CAt npH6aBJIHeTCH

IIeperH6BCTbIX

nJIelfH

BhICOKHe).

FlT3

sucryn

npOH:MbI

+2

CM

= 32 + 2=

34 ex.

1 - 2 = 1,5 cu. FJ -3 T IT2


/11/12

= =

1,5

CM.

OKPYlKHOOTb rpY.llH

==

48 -3-

= 16
3=
51

CM.

aa _
-

OKpYlKHOCfb Hro.a:HU

17 CM.

59

Baxep
f/2 (I
II

tHIBaeM

CnHHKY

xepea

TOlJKH

pI, P2J _

tt, 3, CI! 2,
55

r.;
CM

H2•
_ OKpYlKHOCTb rpYAM

F'l.il\ =-

+
=:..

nplI6i1BKa

+1
'1

CIrl-""3

+1

~,

148

CIrl nprf6aBJI5IeM

,nJIH BbICOKllX 16
rQYJ111

nJIeq

neper

atiacroa

<pfrYPbl).

r tlf .="
il2P3:r

OKQYlKHOCTb

16-- v\,~.
npII£aBKa

48

OKPYlKHOCTb

rpYAII

+ /..= ~ + 2 == 8 9 cu. 8
c:
I

r3P4=::?
P4P5
d

rJIy6llHa

npofiMbI-P'Pl=33-7,9
lJepTe)Ke cnHIH)<ll.

==25,1 eM'

P4il3 :r P2il

aa

P'P, = 7,9
OK\)'j)li\\OC'lb

ex.
Y\)1l1J\

P5P6 d

-r = 12 cu.
... "

H 3H 4 =:f"- sucryn = (36 +!Z) -17


2- 4r

= 21

Hro,nHIJ.

cu.

+2

c)l

(npntiasxa

H8

ursa) -

flIP' =

1 eM na pacmnpenae

:rIPOM'Mbl.

T 3T 6

&

OKPYlKHOCTb

TaJlIIII

-t- 1 eM --

_44_
2

+ 1 --

23

eM •

.LJ:8JIbSeHmee nN,n)KaKa PYKaV )Ke,

nocrpoenae

qepTe)Ka

Be,nYT,

K8K <pnrypw

OObPllIO ,lI.J1R CTpOSITT8K

na

HOPM8JIbHYIO <plirypy. Ii rro,nBopoTHHK ,lI.JISI nepern6HcToH

KaK fl .1I:JIHHOPMaJIbHOfi.
nMAmaH Ha ClJMrypy C BblCOHMMM nne'laMM

ero
60

4epTe)K raxoro nH,n)K8Ka H306pa)KeH na pHC. 34. noc1poeHHe npo}J:3BO,n5lT no HH)KenpllBo,nJlMbIM MepKaM (B CIrl) If pacse-

TaW.!:

lI,JIHH\TaJIH!l •••• • lK.IJ;lKaKa... illHpHHa nOJICnHHKH lI,JIHHa nJIeqa. ••• • PYKaBa .•• OKPYlKHOCTb rpY.IJ;H: • TaJIHH. .. » lIrO.IJ;Hl{ BbiCOTa cnHHKH. • rJIy6HIla npoaasr •• Bucryrr npOHMbI' • • lIrO.IJ;Hl.{·" BbiCOTa nnes - 4 CM 06l.l.{aSI npaoamca

42 21,5 14 50

72

64 46

. .,

51 23 32 32 33

(KOHTpOJII>HaSI

srepxa) 7
BhICOTbI CIHiHauure H

113
KH

IIpliBeJI,eHHblX

MepOK

MhI BllJI,HM, 'ITO xepxa 'IeM

JI,aHHOfi cpHryphI

MeHhIlle, pacxerax

HOpMaJIbHOH:, CJIeJI.OBaTeJIbpaCIIOJIaraTbCSl aume. IIOCTpoeHllH DJiarOJI,apH HCIIOJlb-

HO, JIHHHH rpyJI,1I TO'lKH 3yeM

B 9TOM cay-rae

6YJI,eT

Il,

IIpH

IIepeMeCTHTCH

9TOMY Mbl IIOJIyqHM

..BbICOKoe IIJIeqo".

IlpH

JI,OIIOJIHHTeJIbHble MepKH. PaC'IeTbl AnR KOHCTPYMposaHMR

P[ PT = PH

BhICOTa CITllHKH )J.JIliHa TaJIHH

= 23 ot.
CM.

= 42

=-

)I.JlHHa IlH)J.)f{8,K8I=
.IJ;J1HllaTaJIHH 2

72 42

CM.

rs =

2,5=-2- -2,5 = 18,5cM.

PC=T=T=11,5cM.
TTl

er

23

CAt. CM. TOqKH

HHI = 3
(COeJI.HHHH CIIHHKH.

P, C,

1,

TI

HI
~

BbI'IepTHTb

CepeJI,HBy

PP 1 _ PP I

OKPYlKHOCTb rpy.a:H

rrpH6aBKa

+ 1 --,

81

CM.

PP, 8,1 2=-4- ="4


urapaaa

= 2 CAl.

eCI =

CIIH'HKH

+1

CM

= 21,5 + 1 = 22,5

cs:
61

r 2 l]

OKPYiKHOCTb rpYllH+rrpH6aBKa

+1

CM -

57!
3

+ 1 --

20
CM.

CM.

1,F4 = OKPYJKHOCTb rPY)l;I-!

+ rtpariaaxa

= 50 + 7 = 57

r r: 1

PHe.

34.

4epTeiK

Il!1.ll)!fal(a

aa

qJMry py
CM =

·Hs
C BblCOKHMH IJJleqaMH

Fl

r3

-= nsrcryrr npoHMbI
=3
=

+2

32

+ 2 = 34

CAt.

r3rS
1-2

CM.

1,5 C.M. 1,5 CM.

Il -3=

62

1112 aa

OKPYiKHOCTb

rpyA..
4.

_
-

3_

50

167

,eM.

/1

1 /l 2

OKPYiKHOCTb

lIrO.II.HLt

51 - 17 3 - 8ilCM.
_

F2

n1 =

OKpYiKHOCTb

rpY.II.H·+"npH6aBKa

_E_ - 1434 ,.

eM.

F3F6

OKPYiKHOCTb

16

rpY.II.rr

16 =
50

31

cu.

F3P4

rJlYOHHa npOHMbI -

PP2 = 32 -

8,1 = 23,9

cu.

PSP6
fl3fl4

OKPYiKHOCTb

rpY.II.rr

=""4='

50

125

eM.

18

=
CM.

(BblcTyn

51roJI.HU

+2

CM) -

fllfl2

= (33 + 2)

17 =

2- 4= 1 CM aa pacmnpeaae npoaxsr.
1415

= 1,5

CM (B COOTBeTCTBHHC MOJI.oii).

15H3 = 12H2• 1316 =


OKPYiKHO;Tb 'l"aJlrrH

+ 1= ~ + 1:= 24cM.

Bee JI.aJIbHeil:ume pacxeru nenyr aHaJIOrHlJHO pacserax nOCTpoeHHH nHJI.)!{aKa na HOpMaJIbHYIO qmrypy. EeJIII )!{e qmrypa cyryaaa, TO npa nOCTpoeHHH pyxana 30K 0106 pasea 1/5 OTpe3Ka DOt.
nMAHfBH Ha rIlMrypy

JI.JIW

orpe-

c:

HM3HMMMnne'laMM

OOCTpoeHHe II HJI.)!{aKa, 1I306pa)!{eHHOrO aa pac. 35, npolI3BO.lUlT no HH)!{enpIiBeJI.eHHbIM MepKaM (B CM) II pacserax:

.1(JIHHa • lllHpHHa .lI.JIHHa •

TaJIHH ••• nH.lI,maKa.. nOJICnHHKH nJleIJa .•• pYKaBa .•• Oxpyzcaocrs rpYJJ:H

. _.

42 72 20,5 14

63
50

ranau
" lIrO.ll.H~.. •• BblCOTa CllllHKR •• •••• fJIy6HHa npOHMbI ,• BblC1'yn npOUMbl • •

44
52

" Oeuras
KaK BIi.l(HO H3 MepoK, CHell
BblCO'fa

SlrO.Illiu,......
UJleq •••••••

26 33 32
7

34
()

npnriamca •....
BbICOTa CIIHHKH

3,lI.eCb 60JIbme, 6y,n;eT

qeM

''HOpMaJl:bHOll q:mrYPbI,

CJIe,lI.OBaTeJIbHO, JIHHH5I rpynn

HInKe,

BMeCre

IIOHH3HTC5I H TOqKH IIJIeqa.

Pac~eTbl

AnA KOHCTPy"pOBaHHA

Pl"
PT

= BbICOTa

CIIHHKH =

26

cu.

= .lI.JIHHa TaJIHH = 42 cu.

PH Tfl

= AJIHHa
-

IIHAJKaKa

= 72 cu:

.lI,JlHHa TaJlHH _

2' 5 eM - ~2 - 25 -18 , 5 eM. '


npOBeCTH ropH30HTaJIIf, KaK

PC
tKa3aHO

=2

rr = 2 = 13 cu. 26
3 cu.
eM.

no-

aa nepreace.
=

TTl Hl11
.cnHHK}I.

=3

COe.lI.HH5I5I TOqKH

P, C, Ft, Tt, fli


rPsY.ll.H

HI

BbI'IepTHTb

cepeAHuy

PPI

= OKpylKHOCTb
_PPJ=2 _ 4

+ npaoasxa + 1 Cht=8,1

cJt.

pp I

eM.

eel
F2il

= -

umpnaa

IIOJICIIHHKH
rpy.ll,H

OKpylKHOCTb

+ rrpH6aBKa

+ 1 eM = 21,5 cu. + 1 eM = 20 eM.

Ir. = OKPY»<HOCTb rpvna + npatiasxa =50 t 7 = 57. \ rlrS i = aacryn npoHMhI + 2 CM = 34 CM.

rr

R~~~------~~~----

-____.~s

PRe.

35.

lJepTelK

nH)J:lKaKa aa 4JHrypy

C HH3KHMR 1lJle'laMR

f3f5 = 3

CM.

1-2 = 1,5CM. Il -8=


.5

1,5CM • 65

r. A. CaMapOB, A. 11. 'IepeMHblX

-'-"-----'-

OKPY}f{HOCTb rp v J1.H npaoaaxa


._,
c..:_~

= 14,3

CM •

OKpY}f{HOCTb rpYJl.H 16

= 3,1,CAl.
-t • 2 91
, CM.

J12P3 F3P4 P4J13

OKpY}f{HOCTb rpyaa-l-npaeaaxa

rJIyooma TIpoftMbI -

IlIHpHHa pocrxa

(PP,)

= 24

CM.

= P2J1 ClIHHKH.

JIaf/4

= (asicryn
CM

sronan

+ 2 CM) -

HIH2 = 18,7

CAt.

2- 4 = 1 T4T6

(ua pacmapenae npoasra)

= 1,5 CM.

T5H3 = T2H2

.LI.aJIbHeHlllHe pacseru H nocrpoesae TaK ace, KaK npn nocrpoeaaa seprexa nyro <pHrypy.

qeptelK8

npOH3BOJUlTCH

nH,AlKaKa aa HOpMaJIb-

4epTe)l{ nanacaxa na nOJIHYfO qmrypy no CJIe,l{YfOllJ,liMMepKaM (a CM) H pacserax:

(pHC.

36)

CTPOHT

66

llnHHa TaJlHH. • • • • llH.lI.lKaKa ••• UlHpHHa llOnCnHHKH llnHHa llne'la. •.• • PYKaBa ••• OKpYlKHOCTb rPY.lI.H • TanHH. • .IIrO.ll.HI{ BbiCOTa CnHHKH • rJIy6HHa npOHMbI • Bucryn npOHMhI • • .IIrO.ll.HI{ •• 06ma.ll npaeaasa •

.42 .72
.14

.23

.63
.60 .64

.66
.27 .38
.39

.40
•7

Pac~eTbl

AnR

HOHCTpYMpOBaHMA
CM.

pr=

BhICOTa CmiHI<H )lJIHHa TaJIH!!

= 2i

PT =

42 CM.
= 72

PH = ,n;JIHHa T 51 =
PC . 2

[lH,n;}f(aKa

cu.
CM.

,lInHHa TaJIHH -

2,5

==

18,5

Pi' 27 -2- = 2= 13,5

CM. H

)13 10lJeK

C, F, T,
CM.

51

npOBeCTH

ropH30HT8JIH.

TTl HHl
CJIHHKH. H

=3
\

== 3 CM.
Ilepeceseune

COe,LI.!!HHB TOlJKH

P,:C, . TI
3TOi!

Hl)

BbllJepTHTb

JIHHHIO Cepe,LI.HHbI 03 TO'leK

OTMeTHTb

TOlJKaMH

fit

JIHHHH C rop030HT8JUIMO H

r;

fl

OKPylKHOCTb rpY.ll.H+npH6aBKa -=--.c~--~8-'-'--'--'--~

+ 1CM

60+7 -8-

+ 1 -_

9,4

cu.

=-4~= T=~'
= mapana
=

PP1

9,4

., 4

CM.

nOJ1cnHH\~

+1

= 23 + 1 =24
67

CM.

OKPYlKHOCTb rpY,llH+npH6aBKa

=3=

22 3

CJU.

(B
5*

3TOM pacsere nOJIHYIO

1 cu
qmrypy).

He

npH6aBJIflIOT,

JIaIOT na

67

r1r,.

=OKPY}I{HOCTb

rpyna

r1ra = IBbICTyn
i?. 2

IfPOHMbI

+ npariasxa = 60 + 7 = 67 + 2 = 39 + 2 = 41
CM CM.

CM.

r. r;

... _--

-_ -- - - - -_ --

--:'-::::-:~-~:;"~-~!..J

PHC. 36. lJepTelK

nH,ll;lKaKa aa nOJJHYIO cpHrypy

rars

=3

CM. CM. CM.

1-2 = 1.51 0-3= 1.5 68

1,12

OKPY1HHOCTbrpYAH _

-3-

60 _

20

CM.

9,92 -=

OKPY>KHOCTb aronau

66 = 3= 22 CM.

F2ll,
F3f6

--=-=------=--7-4 -!.-...!.---

OKPY1HHOCTbrpY.1lH+rrpn6aBKa

=::

T = 16,8CM.
67
CM.

OXPY1HHOCTbrpY.ItH

16

16= ,
rrpasaaxa

66

37

il2P3
F3P4

=
-

OKpY1HHOCTbrp~Jl.H+

+ 2 = ~7 + 2 = 10,4 ex.
PH =38-9,4=28~6 cs:

rJly6HHa

npoaasr

MHHyC

P4P5

= PP1•
OKPY>KH~CTb rpYJl.H

PsPe = 20

= ~ = 15 cu.
CM)-511512=(40+2)-22=

5l3fl4 = (sacryn
CM.

Slro)l.HIJ,+2

2-4=

1 CM.

T4 T5 = 1,5 cu. T5HS= T2H2• 1II T6 OKPY>KHOCTbTaJlHH _

62 2-

32

CM.

OCTaJlbHbIe pacxeru Be)l.YT TaK >Ke, KaK npa nOCTpoeHBH nn,l(>KaKa aa aopxaasayro q:mrypy. Y qmryp C HOpMaJlbHhIM TeJlOCJlO>KeHHeM 06bllJHO OKPY>KHOCTb TaJlHH MeHbille na 4 CM OKPY>KHOCTH pyna. Y nOJlHbIX ¢Hryp r 3Ta BeJlHlJHHa YBeJlHlJHBaeTCSI 1.0 8 CM (B .n;aHHOMcaysae). ) Ilocae nOCTpoeHHSI qepTema nH)I.>KaKa na nOJIHYIO 'C}mryp'y aa xepreace nOJIbI nano OT nepennero xpaa xapuana nposecra .I.Be acnoaorareasaue JlHHHH. Onaa JlHHHH )l.OJl>KHa npoxozars napaJlJleJlbHO JlHHHH nOJlY3aHoca, a )l.pyraSi rrapaJlJleJlbHO JlHHHH TaJlHH, K 60pTy. 1/3 pa3HHIIhI Me>K,l(YOKPY>KHOCThIO TaJlHH II OKPY>K-HOCTbIOrpy,l(H OTKJla)l.hIBaeMOT scnoaor-arensaux JlHHHHrro JlHHHH noayaanoca snepx, na JlHHHH HH3a BJleBO. 3aTeM paapeaaex seprex rrOJIbI rro JlHHHH OOKOBOH BbITalJKH, nponozosaex paspea

69

.n:aJIbilie H

OT

ssrrasxa

no

J111HHH xapxaaa II

no
KaK

ero

nepenaero

3aKJIa,n:bIBaeM

CKJIa.n:KH no BcnOMOraTeJIbHhIM

HRI.I.bl OKpYlKHocTetl:

ranaa

rpyna,

JIHHHSlM

YKa3aHO

na xepreace,

aa lis pas-

xpas

PHC. 36a.

tIepre>K
B

nH,IUKaKa aa nOJlUYIO <!mrypy


9THX H3MeHeHHH qepTe}K

Ilepeaens
PYKaB ¢rrrYPhI.

nOJ1YQeHHbIH

pesy JIbTaTe

6YMary, MbI nOJIYQHM (pRC. 36a).

KOHCTPYKII,HIO

ml.l1.lKaKa 06WIHO

ua

UI

nOJIHYIO qmrypy

H nO,1t,BOpOTHHK CTPOSIT, KaK

,1t,JI!! HOpMaJIbHoii:

rnaaa

III

HOHCTPYHPOBAHME nAnbTO M nETHErO


nanbTO AeMM ABytiopTHoe
l(OHCTpYHpOBaHHe H KOHCTpYHpOBaHHe nonpoeao pa36Hpa5I naJIbTO nopsnox paC'IeTOB C Be.n;eTCH no n03TOMY nocrpoeaas YKa3aHHeM IIaJIbTO. STO aepxaee nH.n;lKaKa. B

AEMH

B TanMlOti
TOMY lKe sepreaca, npHHII,Imy, 'ITO He .n;aHHOM pasneae, OTKJ10HeHHii, IIJIaTbe, rpYAH, xoropue naCHH-

OrpaHHQIIMC5I

TOJIbKO Ta6JIHII,eii BCTpe'laIOTCSl npa B nesaeaoe MaeMhlMH 3aBHCHT IIaJIbTO TO aa aa CBH3H C TeM,

KOHCTPYHP0BaHIIfI 'ITO naJIbTO YReJIfI'IeHbI TaK,

06bI'IHO

KOCTIOM, MepKH 6bITb

OKpYlKHOCTeii: IIHAlKaKa. AJl5! aa aeraero rpYAH,

TaJIHH H sroIIpH6aBOK

.n;HII" AOJllKHhl

IIO cpaBHeHHIO H

C MepKaMH,

AJlSl KOHCTpYHpOBaHHSl OT BHAa IIaJIbTO. OKpYlKHOCTeii: AJISl IIaJIbTO

BeJIHqHHa

AeMHce30HHoro

K MepKaM no sare

TaJIHH H 5!rOAHII"

IIpH6aBJI5!Tb IIbIIlIHOM

4 eM;

narnne=-no

HJIH xexy

C KOPOTKHM BOJIOCOM-

xexy

10 CM•

8 CM;

6 CM;

aaao
aa

,l{Jl5! IIaJIb-

AJI5! IIaJlhTO

.il.JISl nocrpoeaas .lI.YIOIII,He MepKH (B

xeprexa
eM):

rraasro

(pac, 37)
• • ••• '. -. • • • •

6blJIH CHSlThI cae-

LI.JIHHa TaJlHH . naJIbTO.

• •

• •

• •

naexa

....•.....

44 120 14,5 48

• PYKaBa... OKpYlKHOCTb rpyna T8JIHH

66
51 7

06~alI
CH5!Tble YBeJIHqHTb MepKH aa

npH6aBKa

sroaau

44

.
rpy.aa, paaaoa

OKpYlKHOCTen: npH6aBKH,

TaJIHH,

BeJIH'IHHY

48

'ITO OKPYlKHOCTb rpYAH paBH5leTC5! 52 CM, OKPYlKHOCTh 5!rO.l(HII, - 55 CM.

cu,

4 cu. Torna ny
scno

SlrOAHII"

HYlKHO

nOJIyqHM, TaJIHli-

OKpYlKHOCTb

Ilpa

pacxerax

nocrpoenaa

xeprexca

IIOJIh30BaTbC5! 5IrOAHII,

YBeJIHlIeHHhlMH

MepKaMH

OKPY lKHOCTeii:

rpYAH,

TaJIHH,

71

-~

------_----

- -_-

I
r

I
!
I

r;
0

I I
I

1G

T,

71

Ts

t;
7J
H

fit

flZ

JRS

.I
I I
I

r--..l-

PHC. 37. lJepTe>K naasro ,n;eMH B TaJIHIO --~--------------------~-~-------~-

nonpoeHMe nOCTpOHTb

'fepTeHfa

nOnO'fKM M CnMHKM B TOqKe

rrp51MOH yrOJI

C BepIIlHHOH

P.
CM.

PF -

OKpYJKHOCTb

rpY.l1.H

+8

C.M -

52 3

+8-,
CM.

253

PT =
PH
'n T/l

AJIHHa TaJIHH (rro nansro


_

MepKe)

= 44

= AJIHHa
-

120 CM.
CM -

)(JIHHa TaJIHH

25 '

_ji_ _ 25 2 ,-,.

19 5

CM.

PC = 2 113

rr

2=12,7
H

25,3

CM.

TOqeK

C, F, T, f/

rrpOBOAffM

ropaaouraaa.

11\

= 4 CM CM --

rrOCT051HHa51BeJIHqHHa. rrOCT051HHa51B~HqHHa. crrHHKH naasro

HH. = 4
Buseprara C H P, I<aK
JIefi

cepenany
YKa3aHo

H3 TOqeK

f/

na

xeprexce.

sepes TOqKH H;, Tl, Ha nepeceneuaa ropH30HTaCIIHHKH rrOCTaBlITb TOq-

c JIHJmeH cepeAHHbI

1(11 fll

H Fl'

PP,

OKpy)l{HOCTb

rp~D.1f.

npH6aBKa

+1

CM

= 52

7+1 = 8,4 CM.

P'P2=-r CC 1

PP1

8,4 21 =-4-= ,
rp[)(H

CM.

OKPYJKHOCTb

+ + +

npH6aBKa

r2n r,r4
2

= OKpyJKHOCTb

rp~)(1f

nplf6aBKa

= OKPY)I{HOCTb
OKPy)£(HClCTb 3-

rpYAH

+ 2 = 5: + 2 = 21,7 CM. + 1 CM= ~ -f- 1 = 20,7 -r- npneaaxa = 52 + 7-=59


CM CM. CM.

rr rar6=3
TOqKY

rpYD.H

npnriaaxa

59 = T = 14,8

CM.

cu.
BcnOMOraTeJIbHOH np51MOH TOqI{H

CoeAHHHTb

1.
CM-aa IIocaAKY.

T5

C,

OTMeTHB-

1l--3= 1,5

73.

.1-2=1,5 1 1 .I 2·-

cu.
d

OKPYlKHOCTb rpyAH

52 3

= 17,3 CM.
CAl

/1

a a·.. I/J 2 -

OKPY}KHOCTb lIrOAHI.l:

+j

= ~~ 1 - 19 3 3 -,

CM.

HIHi= HIH2 . BbltIepTHTb cnflHKY xepea TOtIKH P, P2, ClJ 2, 72, 5/2, H2, HI' KaK YKa32-HO aa nepresce.
12

n, 3,

n~
I~ f\

OKpYlKHOCTb rpYJ(H

+
-

npHOaBKa

~~

+ 7 --

14 , 8

CM.

r = OKPY}!{HOCTb rpY.lIH
16

16

= 33 '

CM.

p 5p6~ ~

OKPYlKHOCTb rpY.l\H

eM

= 12 CM (naasro

6e3

8b1TaQICH

B rOPJlOBllHe).

OT
penae

TOtIKH

no H

JIHHHH

rc
II

OTJlOIKHTb

BJleBO ee

npOHMbI

nocTaBHTb"

HOM npSlJ\10M TOqKII QTMeTHTb TOtIKOH:

4 T...
3Ta

5/4

TOqKY

4.

1 cs«

na

pacuraTaRHH

COe.l1.HHHTb ncnosorareasC JlHHlIeH:

nepeCeqeHIIe

1415

= 1,5

CM.

BeJllItIlIHa

gaBIICHT OT MOllbl.

T31e

OKpy}KHO~Tb

TaJIHH

+ 1 c)l

= ~8

+ 1 = 25

CM.

74

Bbl'IepTHTb .'IHHHlO CepeJI.HHhI nOJIY3aHOCa xepea TOqKH P6, F, H T6 H ztanee BHH3 non npHMblM yrJIOM K JIUHHH T6T7' Ha nepeceseaaa ropH30HTaJIU H3 TOqKH HI C JIHHHeH CepeJI.HHhI nOJIyaanoca OTMeTHTb TOqKY H4• 1 0

8-9 cu.

Ha IlIHPHHY nOJIY3aHoca .n:JIH JI.By60pTHoro naJIhTO HY}KHO OTxepars nnpaso OT JIHHHH P6 4 T6 13,5-14 eM; .n:JIH0.n:H060pTHoro-

TK -= :nJlHHa6 TaJlHH +- 2 eM = +6+2=9,3


44

cu.

naJIbHeHlllee nOC1'pOeHUe xep-rezca caenyer BeCTH coaepureuao aHaJIOrHtIHO nOCTpoeHHlO MYlKCKoro ITHJI.lKaKa.

1rrr------.:..:.:!PU:...&

nOCTpoeHMe ~epTeHCa PYKaBa B OCHOBYKOHCTpYHpoBaHHH pyxasa JI.JI5IIIaJIbTO JI.eMH (pHC. 38) nOJIOlKeH npHHIJ,Hn KOHCTpYHpoBaHHH pyxasa .n:JISIllHJI.lKaKa C He60JIblllHMH H3MeHeHHHMH,xoropsre yxasaau B npanat-aenoa Ta6JIHIJ,e
CJIaraeMhIX: urnpuaa npOllMhI naJIhTO, BeJIHtIHHa noca.n:KH PYKaBa, nOJIOBHHa BeJIHqHHbI nepexara B JIOKTeBOM IlIBe H 3 eM aa IlIBhI B JIOKTe 1I CBOoo.n:Hoe OOJIeraHHe, T. e.

pacseros. 001 = CYMMe

PHe. 38. 4epTelK PYKaBa K naasro Jl.eMH

00 1-

rr +
23

OKPYlKlIOCTb npoHMbI

10

+5

CM

nepeKaTa

+3

CM.

OTpe30K 001 pa3JI.eJIHTb aa TOqKH O2, 03 H 04'

xerupe pasaae
no

qaCTH, npOCTaBHB

or

=•
-

r.n i.r.n, (OTpe3KU 2•


20,7

+ 14,8 2

u3MepHTb

qepTelKY

cmmxa)

17 7
'

che.

75

rr = OKPYlKHO~~b rpYAH
l

= ~~ 3,3 cu, =

HJlIl

r,,,T6 na

xepreace

nOJIOQKIl.

OH = .lI.J1HHa PYKaBa HHI = 3


eM

+ 1 cu

HR mOB B OKaTe

= 66

+ 1 = 67

cu-

(na
.

CKOC

PYKaBa).

r JI
I

rlH
2

OJ 0 6=

-4-,lJ,JlH

001

HOpMaJlbHhIX nJleQ;

00 1

6=

001 -5- .lI.J1H HH3KIlX.

060~=5 cu (na nepexar).

rt 3

_rr2

2.
_

HH 2Il P If
Mepa.

OKPYlJ(HOCTb rpYAIf

----3

3-

52 -

17 3

, cu.
48·ro pas-

Me 'l a H He.

3TOT

pacser

npHHSlT TOJlbKO .D.JlSInassro

B OCTaJlbHhlX cayxasx AJiSI B03paCTalOJllHX paaxepon nano K 17,3 CM :1pH6aBJlSlTb 0,3 CM OT pasaepa K pasxepy, .lVISI y6b1BllIOI.l\HX pasaepos

flhI'IHTaTb 0,3

C)'(

OT paaxepy

K p-sxepy.

HH3=4

cu.

rrs=2CM.
HH~=2 0708= 1 r5f6=1 76
CM. CM. CM ..

nonpoeHMe

'IepTeHCa HMHCHerO BOpOTHMHa

'uJUI. nOCTpOeHfI51. BOpOTHlIKa MOii: 30K,

yroa

sepumuoa

B TOqKe

xep'reace nans'ro
BBcIJX

paBHbIH: cyMMe ,n:JIHH (CM. puc. TO'lKy

nOCTaBlITb BOpoTHIIKa, TOqKH

B1•

OT

TO\.}KH B H no-

B. pocrxa 37), H

(pac, 39)
OT

Hy>KHO

TOqKlI

OTJl.O>KHTb orpeII3MepeHHbIx

aasepnrn,

npsna

II rOpJl.OBIIHbI,

OTJl.O>KlITb umpuuy paBHyIO TOL[KY

CTOHKH

crasars

C.

eM,

.D.aJl.ee naepx

OT

OTJl.O>KHTburapany

CTaBHTb TOqKY 1<.., OT TOt.{KH K BJl.eBO no ropII30HTaJl.II OTJlO)I{HTb

BOpOTHlIKa,

nanpuuep

7 cu,

OTJl.eTa H no-

Puc.

39.

LJepreJK rrO){BOpOTHlfKa

1I nOCTaBlITb TO'-lKY K1• Ha seprnxa.ra I13 TOqKH B, asepx OTJIO)I{HTb 30K, BlITb

1 cu

pasaun

TO'-lKY

H2.

CK B,

+2

cu,

OT TOqKlI BOpOTHlIKa, 0603Hal.JHB aa

Bl

orpe-

T.

e.

nmpauy

1I nOCTaTOqKY

cI>opMa KOHIJ;a BOpOTHHKa 3aBlICHT BJl.eBO OTJl.O>KIITb BOpOTHHKa, 1I

OT MO,n:bI.

OT TOQKll

TO'-lKH

3,5 eM,

B2•

BbIl.JepTHTb OT <paCOHa.

KOHTYP

B1, B2, B, C, K1, K

K2

KaK

YKa3aHO

q -preace,

sepea

H ,n:aJl.ee 3aKOH'-IIITb

B 3aBHClIMOCTH

nanbTO AeMM
Ilansro
npnanany, )Ke '-ITO H nansro

MnM neTHee CBo6oAHOH


40)

~OPM~
TOMY ace TeM H3MeHeHHH-

CB060,n:HOii: <pOpMbI sepreaca

B OCHOBHOM CTPOllTCH no (pHC.

B TaJl.IIIO, HO C HeKOTopbIMH naasro B TaJl.HIO.

MH. DOCTpoeHHe

xepxaa,

npo1l3Bo,n:HTCSI no

'-ITO H naasro OKPY>KHOcTeii: rpyna raaaa

MepKH

OKPY>KHOCTb OKPY>KHOCTb

48 4 = 52 eM. 44 +4 = 48 CM.

OKPY>KHOCTb HrOAlIIJ; Haseprat s npSlMoii: yro,r PaC'IeTbl

+ 50 + 4 = 54

YBeJl.Hl.JlIBaeM na

4 cu.

cu.
B TOqKe

C BepUIIIHOH:

P.

Pl PT PH TO ,rl

OKpYJKHOCTb rpyna

+ 8 eM -CM. CM.

AnA KOHCTpYMpOBaHHA

52 3

+ 8 .-

21': 3 u,

CM.

= AJillHa = ,n:JllIHa
=,l(JlUHa

TaJlHH naasro

= 44

= 120

5 2TaJlHH -2 ,eM

44

-25-195 eM. ••
HS roxex

PC = -2-' Ilpoaecrn

pr

rop"30HTaJiH

C, F, T. fl

H.

71

--~----~-----

--~

I ,.

I
I

c
t;
J;

13

t;

1 " T..

'-I.~H~t~::~:~=~=H,:2:~=====!
Puc. 40. lJepreJK naasro .n;eMH-HJlH
aernero CBo6oJl,!tOH ~OPMbI
U 17.5

Buseprars
KH

OT TOtII{ll

anpaso

OTJIO){{HTb

CM

H nOCTaBHTb TOtIKY aa

H1-

cepennay

HJ•

TOtIKH

C',

HMM ropH30HTaJIeH

M3 TOtIeK

rl, Ts H e, F,

cnHHKH,

fll
T

coennaas H fl

np5IMOH: JIHHHeii: TOtInepecexecnanu.

6y.rr.YT JIe){{aTb

c JIHHHeH cepenaasr

_ pp 1 - OKpY}J{HOCTbrpy.u.1f 8

+ nplf5aBKa

+1

CM -

52

+ 7 + 1-

84 ,

CAt •.

e'c 1F 2n

OKPY}J{!WCTb rpy.rr.H 3 OKPY}J{HOCTb rpYllH

+ npH6aBKa+2

_ CM -

52+7+2=217 3 52

' CM._

+ nplf6aBKa

CM -

+ 7+1---, 20 3

CM~

FIF4 = OI<pY}KHOCTb

rpyna

npatiasxa

= 52
4

+ 7 = 59 cu.
14 8
, CM.
JIHHHe1i: TOlJKH

r 2 F 4 -H

OKpY}J{HOCTbrpY1l.H 4 CM.

+ npH6aBxa
acnoaor

_ -

52

+ 7 --

r6•

F3

r =3
S,

Coenamrrs

OTMeTHB TOlJKY

1.

areasaoa

1-2= 1,5

CM.

1,12 = paCCT05IHHe OT cepenaau cnHHKH 30HTaJIH 1 eM (B 3aBHCliMOCTH OT MOD,hl). Coeaaaars

D,O TOtIKH

no

ropa-

np5IMOH JIHHHeH TOlJKII

T2,

.1.0 nepecesesaa C ropU30HTaJIHMH U3 TOlJeK JIPIHHH: OTMeTHTb TOtIKaMH fl2 H H2•

npOJl.OJDKHB ee BHH3: H

fl. Ilepeceseaae-

Fr 3 6-

OKpY}I\HOCTb rpy.u.H _._ 16 OKPY)!{HOCTb rpy.rr.»

§2 -

16 -,

33
+

eM.

Il P 2 3-

-I-

npl!6aBKa

CM -

52

-8-

+ 7+

2-

-,

94

CM_

P3P4 =1

CM (.rr.JI5I HOpMaJIbHOH <pHrYPbI).


(aa xepreace CIIHHKH).

P411a= P2n

P P 56- CT CT _ /13/14-

OKPYlKHOCTh

rpY,!l,H

CM-T--

--

52

1~
3

1<) _CM.
-,

OKPYlKHOCTb 51rO,!l,Hl{

+ 3 eM --

+3 -

21 3

CM.

OT TO'lKII 2 no JIIIHIIII OTJIO>KIITb BJIeBO 1 CM na pa cuia peane npoHMbI II nOCTaBIITh TO'l!{Y 4. DpoBecTII npHMYIO JIIIHIIIO sepes TO'l!{II 4 II fl4' Ilepeceueuae 3TOM np5IMOM C ropII30HTaJIhIO lI3 TOlJ!{II T OTMeTIiTh, nOCTaBlIB TOlJKY T4•

rac

T4H3= T 35= T

T2H2•
OI'PYlKHOCTb TanHH

=2=24

48

CAl.

T3T6 = 1

CM.

BbIlJepTHTb JIHHHIO nOJJY3aHoc8.

P4H5=P4H3'
'T' 13

K-

.D,nHHa TanHH

+2

CM -

- ~6

+2 -9
-

, 3 eM.

BeJIIIlJlIHa nplInYCK8 ua noaysanoc


;nanbTO

3aBlICIIT OT cpaCOHa.
nOCTpOeHHR PYHaBOB

pernaa

C ABYMR

cnOCOCiaMH

Ll./IH nOCTpoeHHH xeprezca nansro peraan CBo6o,l{HOrO norI<pOH(pac. 41) CHIIMaIOT CJIeAYIOIIJ.lleMepKll (B CM):
!lilHHa TaJIHH. ••••••••• naJIhTO ••••••••• nJleqa ••••••••• nnesa H PYKaBa BMeCTe. • . •

44 116 15 44 51 7

rpYAH TaJlml • • HrOAHl{. 06ll1.a51 npaoaaaa •

OKPYlKHOCTb

83 48}

•. ••

•• ••

MepKH CH5ITbi no lKHJleTY

LlJIH npaBIIJIhHOrO nOCTpOeHIl5I xeprexca neocxonaao tIHTh MepKH OKPY>KHOCTeH (rpy AH, TaJIHll, 51r0)1HU;)aa 4 JIe sroro nOJIyqllM eJIe.uYIOIII.lIe BeJIll'lIIHbI (B CM):
OKPYlKHOCTb

CM.

YBeJIllFloc-

..

rpY.D,H • • • TanHH ••• 51fO,l(Hl{ ••••••••

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

52 48 55

Ilpacrynaa K nocrpoeaaro xepreaca, HY>KHOaaxeprnrs yrOJI C BepIIIIIHoit B TOlJKe P.


80

np5Jl.wit

---------------------6

PRe. 41. 4eprelK naasro

perJIaH

r.

A. CaMaOOB, A. H. 'lepeMHblX

OT TOqKH

BHH3 OTJIOJKHTb CJIe.ll.YlOlII.H~ BeJIHqHHhI:

Pl'

OKPYlKHO~Tb rpYJUl

+8
.c.JJ,

CM

= 25,3

eM.

p T =)J,l)»>>/J PH
PC

'J'/J,l)»>>

= 44-

= .ll.JIHHa naJIbTO = 116


=
2 = -2-= 12,7
JlJIHHa TaJIHH _

eM.

PT

25,3

C.M.

Tf/ -

2 5 -' --

ii 2

2 5 - 19 5
' ,

CM.

OT TOqKH

Cepezraaa

CIIIIHKH

P nsepx OTJIOJKIITb 1,5 CM II nOCTaBHTb TOqKY P'. rrpoxozmr sepea TOqKH P', P, C, F, T, 51. H.

PP1 = OKPYlKHOCTb rp~lI.H P1P2


KII

+ rrpH6aBKa
cu.

+ 1 = 5: + 1
na qepTe)!{e,

eM = 8,4 eM.

= p~_! =
P:J

84

= 2,1

Buueprart,
p]
II

POCTOK, KaK YKa3aHo KPIIBOfi JIHHHefi.

COe.ll.IIHIIB TOtf-

CC 1 -

OKPYlKHOCTb rpYJlH

+ rrpn6aJ3Ka

=2

eM _

- -3-

52

+ 7+

2-21
-,

CM.

11 p a M e lj a H H e. 11pH onucaann cnoco6a nOCTpoeHHH xepreaca naJIbTO peraaa 6ylI.yT YKa3aHbI nsa cnocooa nocrpoeaas byxaaa. llepBbIH cnoco6~ro nocrpoenne pyxasa OTJleJIbHO OT 'Iep!elKa naasro peraaa aa OCHOBe t(OHCTpYHpOBaHHH 06b1'1HOrO pyxaaa. Bropoa cnoco6 - 9TO nocrpoeaae py_ \{aBa peraan aa sepreace naJIbTO peraaa, Ilpn rrOCl'poeHHH lJepTelKeH nepauu I:noc06oM 6Yll.YT HylKHbI TOlJKH, xoropue He HY}KHbI lI.JIH nroporo cnocooa trocrpoeana pyxana, a TaK}Ke If JlJIH caa oro llqJIbTO peraan, 3TH TC'IKH l'! TeKCTe 6Yll.YT OTMe'leHbI 3Be3Jl:DtIKOH (*).

f,1 tr =
;, [':' _
'1 2-

OKPY}KHOCTh rp~ JlH

+ npH6aBKa

+1

C.M

5; + 1 = 20,7.
,

OKPYlKHOCTb rpYJlll

+ rrpll6aBKa =

59 =4 -<:::

14 8

CM. CM . TOqKH

1'F3 =
." 4

OKpYJKHOCTb

rpyzm

+
52 16 -

IIpH6aSKa

= 52 + 7 = 59
JIHHIIefi:

Jf

T4,

I'2r4

3 CM. COe.ll.HHHTb BcnoMOraTeJIbH()fi: OTMeTIIB TOqKY I.


OKPY}KHOCTb rpyna

fV.' r*& _ 2 -

16

__

33
,

CAt.

82

"" fl-3=t5 1-2= 1,5


I .;..

CM • CM.

.. 59 r n1- OKPY.MHOCTb rpYiJ.1I + "PH 6 aBKa = -4 = 4

14,8 CM.

P4fl3

""

= P fl...
2

na xepreace

cnanxa,
IIaJIhTO, II

Oopacyeu
nyacna TOlJKY

npoaxy

06bIKHoBeHHoro

HYIO JIllHHIO sepea OT TOllKIl

TOllKIl

** * ii, ell 2, f* 5'

* fl3•

nponens
3Ta

nynxrap6Y)J.eT s crrOCOOOM~

JIllHllH

)J.JIHnocrpoenaa

PYKaBa nansro

per-nan

r6•

nepasrx 2 2

OTJIO:lKHTh rrOJIYOKpY:lKHOCTh rpyna rrpOHMhI TOliKIf

JIllHHIO

rIr.
F;

II nocraaar

onycrars II

CTBeHHO npocraaas npHMoH TOllKIl OT

Il,
OT

P2 II 1 If

rs.

HH:lKe aa

Coenaaars P21

CM,COOTBeTfl4CM II nOCTaIf

BcrrOMOraTeJIbHOH

pa3)J.€'JIHTb ee nOnOJIaM, rrOCTaBHB TOlJKY K JIlfHllll OTJIO)J{IlTb TOliKH

rreprreH;I.llKYJIHPHO TOllKY

BIlTh

P4

)J.O P5 OTJIO:lKIlTh tlPHMOH. 3TY TOlJKH paBHhIH

flo.

CM, coenaaars pasneaart,

P5

ro

acno-

MOraTeJIhHOH BllTb TOlJKY

npuuyto

fl6.

OT

OTJIO:lKllTb oTpe30K,

Pa

OTpe30K

)J.O P6 OTJIO)l{HTh OTpe30K,


OKPYlKHOCTb rpYAII

r7rS

Il, rreprreH)J.HKyJIHPHO K JIHHIfIf P5r" 2 CM, H nocraanrt, TOliKY Il.;


paBHhIH

nonoaax

H nocra-

pa3)J.eJIHTb nOrrOJIaM If rrOCTaBIlTh TOlJKY

PP1•
4
-

r9.

OT

P 6 7P, -

CM-

2-

11

CM

ecxa

nans-

TO )J.eJIaeTCH 6e3

sepxuen
aa

BbITaliKH. H8

r, H r;
TOllKIl KIf,

P2, Il 5' 1 II

BbIliepTHTb

r6;

KOHTYP rrpOHMbI: lJepTe:lKe

xepreare

CrrHHKH -

lIepe3

nOJIOllKH -

xepes

TOliKH

P5,

TOlJKH

fl7'

rr"

Opll6aBHB

2 P7•

CM OT TOllI{H

JIOBFIHY rrOJIOllI{H,

P5 )J.O Pg na coe)J.HHHB KPHBOH, KaK


BbIliepTHTb TOllKH CM = 60KoBble

IllBbI,

suseprars na

rop-

YKa3aHO

neprexce,

Pg

,UJIH roro HY:lKHO 2


OKPYlKHOCTH

lIT06b1

JIHHHH cnHHKH H nOJIOll· OTpe30K, paBHhIH

rpynn

+2
3

OT

T
52

2 -1_

OTJIO:lKllTb

20

(JO

CM,

H nOCTaBHTh TOliKY

1-

112113-

aa_

OKP)lKHOCTb lIrOAHLl

3aa

55 -

18 3

CM. anpaso, npoaecra BHH3

3aTeM, Qepe3

orcryns

TOliKY

Tl

OT TOqKH npHMYIO

rs

CM

JIHHHIO (OOK cnHHKH),

OTMeTHB TOtJ'KH

fl1

6*

83

H Hi' DPH BbIlJeplJHBalHIH 60Ka nOJIOqKH Hy:aUIO, orcryna 01' TOtIKH. [II aa 1 CM BJIeBO, apOBeCTJ! BHfl3 rrp5IMYIO JIHHHIO qepea TOqKY fla, OTMeTIfB roq1{Y T,I•

TsH2= TiH1· T 24= T


48
OKpylKHOCTb ramlH

=2=24 cAt.

DOCTPOliTb CepeJI.IIHy noJIY33Hoca, nposena JIHHHIO sepea TOQI{H P7' II T4 H ,UaJIee BH1l3 non rrpHMbIM yrJlOM K JlHlHH'1. ToTi, OTMeTHB TOqKY Ha. P5H4 P5H2• KapMaHbI Y UMbTO peraaa JI,e.n.aIOTnpaMble, HaK.7IaJI.HbIe,upopesaae H ,UpyroH ¢OpMbI. ,llaJlhHeifIDee nocTpoeHHe aHaJlOfHlJHO nOCTpOeHIlIO Qepre)l(a 06brtlHOro rraJILTO .

r,

•nepBb'U cnocolJ nOCTpoeHHR PYKaBa perna .. DOCTpoeHFfe pyxasa perJI8H B aTOM cnyxae npoasBO,lI.5ITaa OCROBe KOHCTPYKIl,HII 06bIlJHorO pyxasa (pHC.

DpeJI.BapHTeJIbHonocrpoas seprea; 06bIQHOrO pyxaaa rra~bTO, orrHcaHae KOToporo 6bI~0 JI.aHOaume, rrepeH,UeM K caMOMY nocrpoeamo pyxasa perJIaH. TaK KaI{ rrpofiM~ naasro PRe. 42. 4epTelK PYKaBa naJIbTO peraaa per-nan rJIy6lKe npOHMbI "JIH (I-it cnocori nocrpoeaas) I-' 06bIQHOrO PYKaBa Ha 2 eM, TO II JIHHHIO npoHMbI pyxasa HYMHO nOHII3HTb !fa 2 cu, T. je. rr5 = r2r6 2 CM.
J,

42).

rr. ==
..

OKPYlKHOCTb rpy.1l;H,_

16

_-

16. -

52

33 , cu,

84

np0,II.OJDKHB TOt:fI{H

ae

r1 OTpe30K,
Fifl.
na
Hetl:

JlHHHlO

Me)l{,II.Y TOt:fKOH OTpe30K

P5

paBHhltl:

ro BBepX, HY)I{HO OTJlO)l{HTh aa Hell OT OTpe3KY npotl:MhI, H3MepeHHOMY aa noH r5 (CM. pHC. 41), H nOCTaBHTh TOt:fKY .0.
rrOnOJIaM H nOCTaBHTb rreprreH,II.HKyJI5IPHYlO TOt:fKY JIHHHH paBHbIH

TOt:fKH )l{HTb

.01

pa3,II.eJlHTh JlHHHlO, OTpe30K,

rrpOBeCTH

CM,

rrOCTaBHTb

fl.I' 113 JI.r, OTJIOTOt:fKY Oz.

COe,II.HHHB TOt:fKH PYKaBa TOl{KH

Ho'

Jl5
ee

puc,
aa

41) nmoc 4 cu na oxpyr aenae


cepezransr
PYI<aBa.

lI.

npO,II.OJI)I{HTb pa,II.HYCOM,

nsepx,

Fa,

Bblt:fepTHTb KaK YKa3aHO PYI<aBa,

JIHHHIO Cepe,II.HHhI

paBHhIM

,II.JIHHe rpHBeHKH

JIHHHH

na xepr eace nansro).


113 TOl{I<H H

Il Il; = P4ila llsfl.,

+4

ua seprexce. 113 P4ila (CM. sacess TOl{I<Y .03


nOJIhI,

eM

(H3MepeHHOH

nepecesenae ee J14• Or TOt:fKH II


TO'lKY

fl.s

pa,II.HYCOM, paBHhIM C JIHHHeH rro

rrpOBeCTH ,II.yry

lI.5;

JIO)l{HTb TOllI<H

2,5 cu,

,II.aJIee rro a

nyre

zryre

cepennnu

pyxasa

snpaso

OTJIO)l{HTb OT TOllKH

OT TOlJKH

114 anpaao ,II.O TOllI<H ll~ OTlI.6 ,II.O TOlJKH 117 OTJIO)l{HTh 2 cu.
KaK YKa3aHO

BJleBO

2 cu

OTMeTHTb TO'lKOH H rrOCTaBHTb

COe,II.HHHTb

ro

OJl,s = 0607 (nepexar 06hIQHOrO pyxasa). Coenaaars BcrrOMOraTE'JIbHOH np5lMOH TOQKH ./.(7 npO,II.OJI)I{IIB ee BHH3. Or TOllKII fl.7 aa npsuoa
npOHMbl crrHHKH, Il3MepeHHhIH H nOCTaBIlTb TOt:fKY

nn: u.u, H

I<pHBhIMH

R"JI.2rl'

JIHHH5IMH,

ua nepreace,
Has,

He MHO-

OTJIO)l{HTb OT-

pe30K

pac, 41),

J19•

MeJK,II.y TOlJKaMIl

P21

(CM.

J19.a1O = .a;D9; .D.I0fl.ll


KH

1 cu;
I<aK rrOI<a3aHO

J1t 7' JI.t 11' J1'9, Jl1.

COe,II.HHHTb

KPHBOH

JIIlHHeH, 113 TOllKH TOQKY JIHHHeif

J/1
1112'

pa,II.HYCOM

rrOJlOBHHe

xasa,

.olzJl.13

pyxana
=

cu.

sacess

na neprezae, TOllJ/1JI.9 na HHJKHeH


nOJIOBHHhI PYH
7•

3aI<OHlJHTh

nocrpoenne
TOlJKH

nepe.anen na
H llIBhI.

COe,II.HHHB KPHBOH

012

HH)I{Heif H
1

rrOJlOBHHbI PYKaBa,

COe,II.llHHB TOlJKH PYKaBa K KaJK,II.otl aa

Paspeaars BepXHlO1O npanycrnr s B MeCTe


PYI<aB perxan PYKaB.

rr

rg,

nocrpoenae

rrOJIOBHHY

rro JIHHHH

paspesa

H5, Jl5,
no uiape,

a3

nOJIOBHHe

C.M t:feM

B HH3Ke

Ha,II.O ,II.eJIaTb

0,5

eM

06hIlJHblif

BTOpoA
Cnoco6 rrOCTpOeHH5I na.n-ro MOM -repreace

cnocoti nocTpoeHMR
xepreaca

PYHaBa nansro
peraaa aa canOCTpoeHHH PYKaBa,

pyxasa

CJIOJKHee OT.lI:eJIbHOrO

HO 3HalJHTeJIbHO TOlJHee.

85

V1CnOJIb3YH ,ZI.JIHsroro 1<0 onamev

cnocooa

neprezc

naJIbTO

per JIaH, xpar(pIIC. II II

HaXQ}I{,ZI.eHlIe OCHOBHbIX TOIJeK pyxasa

nocrpoeuna HY)KHO pa3,Z1.eJIHTb norroaau oTpe3KII OTBeTCTBeHHO rrpocrasaa BCrIOMOraTeJIbHbre TO'1KII as TOIJeK

T1

II

MeTIITb

TO'1KY

P 0,

panaycana KOTopaH

PP2 II T2P4 nposecra HaXO,Zl.HTC5I a nepecevennn n


rOpJIOBilHbI no

TTl T1

['2.

T2T~,

43). Ilpa
CO3aTeM

,ZI.yrH.

OT-

nOJIY'leH-

HbIX zryr. Dpo.11.OJI)KIITb KPMBYlO JIIlHIIlO aa ero 'lepTe)Ke, rrOnOJIaM OTJIO)KIITb II oTpe30K T04KY OTMeTHTb

P511,

.01'

paBHbIH

nu, 4

KaK rrOKa3aHO CM, pa3.11.eJIHTb

COe.11.HHIIB TOIJI{II 113 TOIJKII HeM pyxaaa Ha

IIpRMClH JIIIHlIeH, CTaBHTb

npO.11.OJI)KIITb ee JI5Ip K JIIIHHH T04KY IllIIpHHa OTMeTlIB

,ZI.aJIee BHII3.

nepnenztaxy pyxasa, CJIaraeMbIX:

urapunu
cyMMe PYKaBa,

.02'

P5To'
eM

Po T5

II

To

BOC-

OTJI02KIITb

1/2

HCR urapaaa rr3J1bTO, ua IllBhl

pasaa

1/2

npOHMbI

BeJIHIJIIHa rIOCa.11.KH II cB060.11.HOe

BeJIM'lIIHbI

nepexara

Ii 3

06JIeraHHe. 1..J.epe3T04KY napaJIJIeJIbHYlO

1I.2 npOBeCTII JIIIHIIIO rreprreH.11.III<YJl}IPHYIO 1I.~T5 II PoT5' COe.11.lIHHTbKPIIBOH JIHHHeH, KaK YKa3aHO na

xeprea.e, TO'lKH OT T04KH Il, no BeCTII JIHHlIlO,

1I.1, 0, JJ2'

JIHHHII

0, 1I.2
JIHpHylO

BHH3

OTMepIITb

BMeCTe C .11.JIHHOH PYKaBa

II nOCTaBIITb TO'1KY

H.

.11.JIHHynaena

OT T04KH

npo-

PoT5,

nepnennaxy nepexara,

BcnOMOraTeJIbHOH

T. e. JlIIHHII CM (aa

II OTMeTHTb T04KY

HI'

npHMOH

HIH~= 2

CKOC PYKaBa).

H2Ha
Orpe30K 'T01JKII TOtIKII

=(

OKPY}KHO~Tb rpY.QfI

+ J)

2.
TOIJKY

JJ JJ1

T5H2
H II

pa3.11.eJIHTb nOnOJIaM rrpRMYIO JlHHIIIO, T04KY

II OTMeTIITb

JI.

113

npOBeCTH

rrepneH,ZI.IIKym:IPHO KPilBOH npOHMbI

K JIIIHIIH JIIIHIIeH aa qepJIII-

nepexara, Te2Ke nansro

OTMenITb

H3•

113MepIITb

)1,0 TOtIKH

JJ 1,5 CM II nOCTaBIITb TOIJKY JJ2• DOCTPOIITb nepexar PYKaBa T6T7 = JIaJI3 = H2H4 = 4 CM. OTpe30K P5Tr, pa3,Z1.eJIIITb nOnOJIaM II rrOCTaBIITb TOIJKY Jla. aaJJ4 = 1 CM.
HHII nepexara OT TO'1KII

T5,

JI1. Coe.llJIHlITb paCCTOHHIIe OT JIIIHHII


II nocrasars TOqKY JIOKT5I

OTJIO)lClITb 3TO paCCTORHIIe BHH3 no

T"

T6•

OT TOIJKH

BJleBO OTJlO)l<HTb no

JIIIHliH

BbltIepTIITb

-repea TOtIKII .lI.1, 0, Jl2, KaK YKa3aHO na nepreace. npO,Zl.OJI)I{IITb ,KPIIBYIO OT TOIJKII II

JIIIHIIIO

uepenaea

rrOJIOBIIHbI

JIv

n;

BepXHeH
JIB'

tIaCTII

H2, H4•
pOCTKa TOtIKY

T7, T5,
P2

.04

pyxasa II

Pi'
na

Hell

P2 4

JIIIHIIIO

crrIIHKII, a5'

CM

II OTMeTIITb T04KY TO'1KII

nOrrOJIaM rrpaxyro ua Hell or xasa,

nOCTaBHTb xepea TOIJKII

JIHHIIIO

rrOCTaBHB TOtIKY

.05 OTJIO}J.{IITb )I,JIIiHY


H5•

JIG' Ilpoaecrn BcrroMOraTeJIbHYIG flo II 0, npO)1,OJI)!{IIB ee anpano, H


IIJIe'la BMecre C )I,JIIiHOH PY-

JI6

OTJI02KIITb

paaneaars

H5JI4

= H JI
3

1•

86

PRC. 43. qepTelK pyxasa K naasro peraaa (2-ft

cnocoo nocrpoeaas)

HHH

1-13 TOIJKH JI4 ,05 H5.


CM;

npOBeCTH JIHHHIO JIOKTH nepneH,n;HKYJIHPHO K JIH-

JI4JI5 = 1,5
113 TOIJKIf

JI5JI6 = JI2JIl•
npOBeCTH nepneH,n;HKYJIHP K JIHHHH

H5

'o5H5. coeaaaeaaa
,07.

H5H6
aa

= H Hs·
2

Coe,n;HHHTb

TOIJKH

1, JI6, H6,

npo,n;OJI}KHB JIHHHIO

CM

snpaso,

OTpe30K

P21 pasneaars

H nOCTaBHTb TOIJKY

H7•

nOnOJIaM, nOCTaBHTb TOIJKY

BbIIJepTHTb

3a,n;HIOIO nOJIOBHHY
,09,

sepes

TOIJKH ,06'

nepxnen IJaCTH PYKaBa peraan 0, JI5, H5, H7• H6, JI" 1, IJs H P2• DoPYKaBa.

CTPOHTb

HHLKHIOIO nOJIOBHHY JIHHHIO H TOIJKOfi ee

CM

BJIeBO OT BepTHKaJIH

KaJIbHylO OT KY

0603HaIJHTb

TOQKH

aa nepennen

rs

rs.

nepeceseaae

H3 TOIJKH

llJIH
2

nponecrn

sroro

na paccrosuna
TaK}Ke

BepTHnaJIbTO

C JIHHHefi

npofiMbI

BHH3

OTJIOLKHTb

n;

nOJIOBilHe

sepxnen

orpesox,

paBHblfi

oTpe3KY

r6H2

IJaCTH PYKaBa,

H nOCTaBHTb TOIJ-

HSJI7

= H JI.
2

Ilpoaecrn

JIHHHIO JIOKTH

HsH9 = 2 c,,~

(CKOC).

HsHIO = (H2H3

+ H5H7)
6•

- 2 CM.

JI7JIS = 1,5 CM. J/SJl9


OT

= JI JI
l

+ JI.Jl
KOHTYP

TOIJKH

,n;o T04KH

.alO

OTJIOLKHTb 3 CM na nocanxy IJaCTH PYKaBa, H no

PYKaBa.

BbIIJepTHTb IJepTeLKe,

IJepe3 TOIJKII s, JIs, Hs, HIO' JI9 K nepeanea H 3a,n;Hefi IJaCTHM PYKaBa 0, JI5, H5 H G, ,02' H3 npHnYCTHTb aa IIIBbI

HHLKHefi

.DIO'
1

KaK nOKa3aHO na no CM. JIHHHHM

nano

IJ9•

nanbTO MOAeneii 1948/49


DaJIbTo, npOnOpII.HH CrBHH H JIHHHH.

r.
CHJIY3T, HMelOT COOTBeT-

KaK II KOCTIOM, BpeMH OT BpeMeHH MeHHeT caon

Hnorna H3MeHeHHH MYLKcKoro naasro CXO,n;CTBO H3MeHeHHHMH, xoropsre llOJIYIJaeT H llH,n;LKaK B C


C pa3BHTHeM MO,n;bI. H3MeHeHHe non BJIHHHIIeM DPOHcxo,n;HIII.ee 3JIeMeHTOB naJIbTO (JIHHIIH n.resa, HeHHeM cooTBeTcTBylOIII.HX H nH,n;LKaKa B 3TOM OTHOllieHIIII TaJIHH II np.)

MO,n;bI OT,n;eJIbHbIX COBIIa,n;aeT C II3Me-

3JIeMeHTOB

Y llII,n;LKaKa. CBH3b nansro

HeCOMHeHHa. Ha pHC.

44

nOKa3aHbI

88

_--------------

..: ~ "'"
0)

C':>

'"'

:.:

lI'5'

C':> C1>

00 C':> C1> N 0">

...... t-.:'
et5

0)

......
,Q

N 0

~ ~

'<;' "
Q)

'"
I::

::: :.:: u :Ii

::E:

>-.

..;:

"'" .;
e-,

0..

:::

""'

MY)I{CKIIe H

1943

naJIbTO

rr.

Xapaxrepaue
cpopMa

CBo60,lLHOrO qepTbI naJIbTO

noxpos

nH,lL)I{aKOB 3THX JIeT HCHO

1923, 1927, 1935, 1938 npoasOOKaTocTh nJIeq H

JIHIOTC5! ,lLa)l{e KJIeweo6pa3HaH

B naJIbTO

cBo6o,lLHOrO

1923

IIOKP051.

r. COOTBeTCTBeHHOOTpa)l{aIOT-

194Jz t7peJIfHRR tpops«: .M!j>kCf«(Jzo namrna


PMC. 45. MY>KCKMe IlaJIbTO

1948e HoBcm cpoP.MC1.My>lccxozo

rtansma

B TaJIHIO MOJl.eJIeH 1943 M 1948 rr. nII,lL)I{aK nOTepHJI CBOH KJIern,

<:51

B nH,lL)I{aKe

1I naJIbTO CTaJIO roace

1923 r. B 1927 r.
60JIee 60JIee

B 1935

r.

nazmcax CTaJI
naJIbTO, 60JIee H

POBHbIM. npHJIeraIOInIIM Y3KHM, a nJIeqH B TaJIHII, a nJIeqH HeCKOJIbKO

110BbICHJIHCb; naJIbTO CTaJIO nO,lLHHJIIICb.

paacaercs euie Hnrepecea


II nazosaxa.

npaaeraroutea
cpaKT

rozce

npa-

B TaJIHH, 3TO CXO,lLCTBOBbIH3MeHeHHH CPOPM

pe3KO. CBH3H

TaKOH

nansre

90

I13MeHeHHe 1'0. 4eM

,lJ.JIHHbIIlIl,lJ.)l{8Ka BbI3bIBaeT H3MeHeHIle ,lJ.JIIlHbInaasCTaHOBIlTC51 IlIl,lJ.}KaK, TeM TeM OOJIee y,lJ.JIHHHeTC51 HCHO BH,lJ.HOBoH IlaJIbTO CPOpMbI,

naJIbTO; qeM ,lJ.JIHHHeennzoxax, HO 1:13cpaBHeHIl51

xopoxe

Kaxae
¢OPMbI B TO B TaJIIlIO cpasy

pac, 1-6
r.

xopoxe puc. 44.

IlaJIbTO. Eho

me oc06eHHocTH

IlPOHBJI51IOTC51 MymcKHx B aaoopaacenaoe IlaJIbTO B

naJIbTO

1948/49
opocaerca

ECJIH BHI:IMaTeJIbHO cpaaaari, npe scnen CPOPMbI Il B rvraaa

na pHC.

45

TaJIHIO HOBO A B caaysre,

HX pa3HHIIa

nponopnna

1:1 np. TaJIIlH npOIIMbI, B rpy,lJ.Il ero Il

nOHIl3IlJIaCb, nyrosan, CIlHHKe.

qTO B CBOIO osepens OaJIbTO KopOTKaH ~HHa II 60JIee KOHII8MIl.

nOHtf3IlJIO nOJIOmeHIle CBOOO,lJ.HbIM nrapoIlaJIbTO IlO,lJ.qepKIlBaeT

KapMaHOB. fioJIee

CTaJIO 60JIee

cB060ny,

3TOMY me

Baeq8TJIeHIlIO

CilOCOOCTBYIOT60JIee

KO I10CT8BJIeHHble IlyroBIIIIbI

Y3KHe BOPOTHHK II JIaIIK8Hbi. BOpOTHIIK II JIaU;KaHhl HeMHoro nOHH3IlTO HCHO CHIImeOJIeqIl

,lJ.eTaJI5IXII30eraIOT C

yr.10BaTocTII,

n03ToMY

~JlaIOT JlllCb.

saxpyroreaauaa

ECJIIl Il8JIbTO CTHHYTO B TaJillIl Bblp8maE'TCH CTpeMJIeHIle HlleM acenas mllM nOJIOmeHllH T8JIllH.

,lJ.aTb sneuaraenae

XJIHCTllKOM aa cnanke, HIl3KOll T8JIllH

XJI51CTllKa HeCKOJlbKO Hllme

eCTeCTBeHHoro IlOJIO-

OaJIbTO CB060,lJ.Holl CPOPMbinpeaaaapyer B T8JIIIll ¢opMaM, TKaHIl

Ha,lJ.naJIbTO npaaeraro-

6JIarO,lJ.apH 06ru;eMY CTpeMJIeHIlIO K OOJIee CB060,lJ.HbIM IlO,lJ.XO,lJ.HT ,lJ.JIHTaKIlX BbIp800TKe, 8 raioxe cepue, HOBbIX CPOpMMY}KCKIlX IlaJIbTO 6e}J{eBbIe, II 0YKJIHpOBaHHble.

'He CTeCH51IOru;IIM ,lJ.BIImeHIIll II OOJIee y,lJ.06HbIM. rJIa,lJ.KIIe IIBeTHbIe: CIlHIIe, PIlCYHlJ8Tble

HaII6qJIee

M51rKlle no

xopauneasre,

nanbTO

AeMM B TanMIO

YqIlTbIBa5I 3JIeMeHTbI CllJIY3Ta IlaJIbTO CPOpMbI1948149 r., nOHII3IIM TaJIIlIO, YMeHbIlllIM nexoropue ,lJ.JIliHY Il8JIbTO, II3MeHeHIIH YBeJIIIqllM B pacxerax, H8 06ru;yIO nplIo8BKY llTOOhl II cnenaeu ,lJ.JI5Iroro

IlOCTPOIITb qepTem

n8JIbTO, noxaaaansra (B CM):


• •

pac, 46.

,UJIH nocrpoe-

HIIH CHHTbI CJIe,lJ.YIOIlI,IIe MepKll


,lJ,JIIfHa TaJIHll • naJIbTO •


"

nneua . pyxasa "


TaJIHH

47 114 15 44

65 50

OKpY}l{HOCTb rpyna

is }
9

Ooruas rrpaoaaxa
YBeJIIIqIITb " "

sronau

••

MepKH CHSlTbI no }l{liJIeTY H8

Oxpyacaocrs rpyna

MepKII

oxpyxcaocrea

TaJIIIII HfO,lJ.HII

48 44

50 + 4 =54

+ 4 =52 + 4 = 48

CM.

91

PHC.

46.

YepTe)K

naasro

B TaJIIHO M(I,D:enH 194849 r.

Pac~eTbl AnA KOHCTPYMpoaaHMA


nOCTpOHTb l1PSlMOH yrOJI H C sepumaon B roxxe

P.
CM.

PT = PT

OKPYlKHO~Tb rpY.Il

+9
esc.

CM

=~

+ 9 = 26,3

= .l{RHHa ralfHH
J];JIIfH8 T8JIHH _

= 47

PH = .n;JIHHa naJIbTO = 114 TO fl PC T,


= 2

CM.

25 ,CM

£_ 25 2 ,-

-- 21

CM.

rr = 26.3 = 13,2. 2" 2

Ilpoaecra

ropH30HTaJIll

H3 TOtf~K

C, l ,

51

H.

TTl = 4 cs: HHI =4 Coenauns


BbPlepTHTb CM. TO'lKH cepezraay

HI'

T1, C

11 P,

KaK

yxasauo

aa

q~pTe}l{e,

Cl1HHKH II OTMeTHTb TOtfKH Tl H + npH6aBKa

_ pp I -

OKpYlKHOCTb rpym

+1

CM -

52

+ 9 + 1-.86' ..eM. 8 -. ,

fll•

PPI 8,6 P IP 2=-4- = 4= 22 ,

CM.

CC 1

= OKpYlKHOCTb rp~)(H

+ npH6aBKa

+2

CM ....

52

t 9+2 = 22,3
_

CM.

r Il = OKpYlKHOCTb rpyna + npariasxa 3


2

+1

cM--J-+1-21,3

_52

+9

CM.

rrit

2 3-

01<PYlKHOCTbrpY.IlH+npH6aBKa

== 52+9 -4-==

152
t

CM.

T3T5 = 3 CM. Coe.n;HHHTb C, OTMeTHB TOtIKY 1. fl-3=1,5


CM. CM.

BcnoMOraTeJIbHOH

l1p5lMofi

TOqKH

Ts

1-2=2

93

PHc.46a.

4epTelK

naJIbTO B 'l'aJIHIO Mo.n.eJIH 1948149 r.

T 1T2
f1 1f1 2

==

OKPYlKHOCTb

rpY)l.H

17,30t. +1
CM

=-

OKPYlKHOCTh lIrO.1lHIJ:

=
HI,

54

+ 1 = 19
cnHHKH,

CM.
TOtJ-

H1H2= fllfl2'
KH.

P, P2, Il, 3, GI, 2, T2, 512, H2


r2ll,
OKPY)!{HOCTh rpynn

3aKOHtIHTb

o<popMJIeHHe H

coeAHHHB

KaK YKa3aHO na nepreace.

+ npariaexa

= 52 + 9 = 4'
Clrt. Cht =

152

CM.

r: r
3

OKPy)!{HOCTh rpY.Il.J1

16

52 == ----w- = 3,3

II 2P 3 = OKpy)!{HOCTh

rp~)l.H

npH6aBKa

+4

11,6 CM.

P 5P 6 -f13H4

OKPYlKHOCTh rpY.1lH

CM

52 = 4 - 1 = 12 CM. CM= ~4

OKPYlKHOC;h

llrO.ll.!fIJ:

+3

+ 3 = 21 cu.
JIHHHeH TOtIKH TaJIHH TOtIKY

2-4

= 1 CM

(na

paCIIIHpeHHe

nponau).
npflMoH no JIIIHliH

COel(HHHTb npOAOJI}KIIB ee

BcnoMOraTeJIbHOH BHIl3, II OTMenITb

4 H 51.. T4•

T4T5 = 1,5 eM

(3aSHCHT OT MOAbI).

TsH3

T2H2•
OKPYlKHOCTh raJiHH

T 3T 6 T3T7=I

+ 1 eM -H <popMa

~2

+ 1 --

25 eM.

CM H T. A.
nOJIY3aHoca nOCJIe H BeJIHtIHHa JIal.{KaHa 3aBHCllT sapxana H

BeJIHtIHHa HHe B aa

OT <paCOHa. ,UJIfl roro

tJTo6bI nOJIYtIHTb AOnOJIHHTeJIbHOe nocrpoenas JIHHHH xapuana,

nponxe,

pacnrapeasrranex BY)I{HO

paspeaars PYKaBa

60KOBOH CYCOH AO CTP05lT Tal{ )l{e, BOpOTHHKa.

H nOJIOtIKH BHH3Y

npOAOJI}KeHHH JIHHHH cycona

3aJIO}KHTb B CKJIaAKY. naJIbTO AeMH. OOABOPOTHHl{ npaanany lIOCTpOeHH5l CTPOflT no

KaK AJIH

.11,JIfl.11,8HHOrO<paCOHa naJIbTO nHA}KatIHOrO

95

nanbTO

cBoCioAHoe "eMM
csooonaoro naJIbTO HOBOfi <pOPMbI OCTaJIb,ZJ.O 10 CM.

(pnc.

0pH: 47)

KOHCTpYH:pOBaHH:H:

HY}I{HO YBeJIH:tIH:Tb orimyro '/

npH:6aBKY

-r

HOM pacseru Be,ZJ.YTC5I no 06~eMY npanuany C He6oJIbIIlH:MH: H3MeHeHH:51MH:. nJIH CTpOeHH5I (PH:c. sepreaca 6hIJIH noCJIenaJIbTO

48)

CH5IThI

,ZJ.ylO~H:e MepKH: (13 CM):


.ll:JlHHa TaJlHH naJlbTO nJIeqa
>

OKPYlKHOCTb
»

pysasa ...
rpY.lI.H • TamfH • nrO.1l:HI.( ••

47 .114 15 65 44 50
10 48

06man npaaasxa . .
YBe~HtIHB HOCTefi aa MepKH

OKpy~nOJIYtIH:M:

CM,

OKPY}l{HOCTb TaJIHH: 48

rpY,ZJ.H 52 CM, c.u, 51rO.l(HlJ,-

54

CM.

PaC'IeTbl

AnA HOHCTpyMpOBaHMA
npHMofi B TOqKe yrOJI

Ha xeprart, C BepIIlH:HOfi

P.

Pr

+9
PHC.

OKPYlKHOCTb rpY.lI.H

+
CM, CM..

CM=

3+9=26,3
TaJIHH:=47 naJIbTO

52

PT
47. Csooonaoc
naasro MO.ll.eJlH

=.l(JIH:Ha

1948149 r.

=
CM.

PH
114

=
CM.

,ZJ.m:IHa

Tf/ =
PC = HHI T1 '96
H

.lI.JIHHa TaJI!:!H

2,5

CM

= 21

2.

pr

OpOBeCTH:

ropH30HTaJIH:

H:3 TOtIeK JIH:HHefi

C, T, T, fI
TOtIKH HI

H: H.

=2
fI1>

CM. JUIHHIO

Coe,ZJ.HHHB cepenanu

npaxoa

'BbIllepTllTb

CnHHKH: H: OTMeTH:Tb

TOtIKH

II P, C', TI,

_--

-------~~-

rr,
0 76
J;;

r,

7i

7j

75

«
fI fI,

P PI =

OKPY)I{HOCTb rp~.1lH

+ npH63BK3 + 1 eM = 8,7

CM.

PIP? =-4-=4= ,
1

PPI

8,7

22 cu.

e'e __ OKPY"KHOCTb rpY.lI.H a


2

+ 2 = "3 + 2 = 22,7 cu.


eM

62

r [1 = OKPY)I{HOCTb rpy.u.H + npH6aBK3 + 1 eM 3


r.2r3 OKPY)I{HOCTb rpY.1lH

-~ 3

1 - 21 -,

7 cu;

+ npH6aBK3

15 5
,

cu,

rar5 = 3 CM. 1-2 = 1,5 CM.

Da == 1,5 CM.
T1T2 = paccroanae
30HTaJIH. Coe.n,HHHTb npHMoA no nepecesenaa TO'lKH JIHHHeil: TO'lKH H3 OT

cepenaau

cnHHKH .n,o TO'lKH

no

rops-

T2,

npo.n,OJI}I{HB ee BHH3

512

H2.

C ropH30HTaJIHMH

TOtIeK

fl.

OTMeTHTb

r 2 II 1 r 3r 6 Il P 2 3-

Ol\PY)I{HOCTb rpY.llH

+ npH6aBKa
-16 52 -

52+ 10
4

== 155 ,

CM.

OKPY)I{HOCTb rpY.llH -

16

33 ,

eM.

OKPY)I{HOCTb rpY.D.H

+ npH6aBKal

+4

CM -

62 +

4 - 11 7
-,

CM.

P3P4 = 1

C.Jt.

P4113=P211. P4PS =PPI


D P 516 _
-

OKPY)I{HOCTb rpy.u.H

eM

52 = T .-_1= 12ex.

flafl4

= OKPY)I{HOC;b SlrO.D.HI.{+ 3

CM

= ~4

+ 3 = 21 cu.

2-4 = 1 ex (na pacurapeane npoasu). 98

COeJI,IJHHTb npSlMoA BHB3, OTMeTBTb TOtJKY

JIHHBeA

TOqKH

II

T•.

fl,

H,

npoJ(OJI}f{HB

ee

T3T5-

OKPY}!{ROCTb TanHH _

48 -

2-

24

CM

T3T6 = 1 eM
PYKaB no B

H T. JI,. nOJI,BOp01HHK J(JIH CTpOHT

npHHUHny

nOCTpoeHHSI pYKaBa 06hItJHoro

nOJIBOpOTHHKa

naJIhTO.

nanbTO cBoGoAHoe AeMH C nOHHlHeHHo&t npOMMo&t H PYHaBOM co WBOM nocepeAHHe


naJIbTO, 11306pa}f{eHHOe aa pac. 49, xapaxrepasyercs nOHB}l{eHHeM nponxsr na 3 eM B nepeMemeHlleM naeseaoro ursa HeCKO.lJbKO

snepen

TaK,

tIT06hI

mOB C

PYKaBa nocpe)J,HHe nJIeqeBhIM mBOM. PYKaB ¢OPMY llMeeT -

COBnaJI,aJI cBoeo6pa3HYIO

xoropoa
.ami

JIaCTOBlluhI, 6J1arOJI,apH npa nOHn}f{enHOH npOHMe CBo60.li.Y

coxpaHSleT TO,

nOCTpoeHlIH

npaseneaaoro

xepreaca naxsna puc. 50,


(B CM):

nom.eaa .

CHHThI CJIe)J,YlOlII.lle MepKn .llJIHHa TallHH • naJIbTO ••• nJIe'la •• , • pYKaBa ••• OKpY}!{HOCTb rpY.IJ.H TaJIHH • JIrO.IJ.HI.( 06l1.(aJI npaoaasa • YBeJIHqHB MepKH

• 15 · 65

· 114

· 47

PHC. 49. CBo6o.IJ.HOe naJIbTO C pYKaBOM, HMelOlI.(HM lllOB nocpeaaae

....
-

. . . ~. . . .
aa

48 44 50
10

OKPY}f{HOCTeH

54

OKPY}f{HOCTb CM. OCHoBHoe naJIhTO

rpyna

52

cu, noayuax:
48
CM, HrO)J,HUnocrpoenmo B3MeHe-

CM,

TaJlHH -

nocrpoeaae cBo60)J,HOH

xepreaca ¢OpMhI,

aHaJIOfHqHO

sepreaca HHHMH.

HO C He60JlbllIHMH

7*

99