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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное агентство по образованию


Тихоокеанский государственный экономический университет

Л.А. Морозова

EATING THE AMERICAN AND BRITISH WAYS

Рекомендовано
Дальневосточным региональным учебно-методическим
центром (ДВ РУМЦ) в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов специальности 260501
«Технология продуктов общественного питания»
вузов региона

Владивосток
Издательство ТГЭУ
2007
УДК 802. 0(075. 8)
К 17 Морозова Л.А. Eating the American And British Ways: учебное пособие. – Владивосток: Изд-
во ТГЭУ, 2007. – 260 с.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов высших учебных заведений, подготавливающих
специалистов в области технологии продуктов общественного питания.
Содержит страноведческие и профессиональные тексты, продуманные лексические упражнения на
устную и письменную речь, рецепты национальных блюд, глоссарий специальных терминов и словарь с
используемой лексикой, способствуют успешному овладению материалом и активизации лексики по теме.
Тематический материал данного учебного пособия представляет интерес и для широкого круга лиц –
работников в этой сфере.
Учебное пособие рассчитано на лиц, овладевших базовой грамматикой и лексикой английского языка.
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета ТГЭУ
Рецензенты: Кэролин Лопухов, преподаватель Международной
школы English First;
О.В. Круглякова, доцент кафедры иностранных
языков ВФРТА

ISbN 978-5-93362-403-5 © Морозова Л.А., 2007 г.


© Издательство ТГЭУ, 2007 г.

Морозова Лариса Алексеевна

EATING THE AMERICAN AND BRITISH WAYS

Учебное пособие

Редактор Г.В. Орловская


Редактор компьютерной верстки Е.В. Скажутина
Свод. тем. пл., поз. № 8
Подписано в печать 23.01. 2007. Формат 60х84/16
Усл.-печ. л. 15,12. Уч.-изд. л. 16,25
Тираж 500 экз. Заказ №
Издательство
Тихоокеанского государственного экономического университета
Участок оперативной полиграфии
690091, Владивосток, Океанский пр., 19

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ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Основной целью предлагаемого учебного пособия является введение и


закрепление лексики по темам, объявленным в заглавии, формирование
навыков общения по специализированной тематике. Для достижения этих
целей предлагается оригинальная методика работы с материалом, которая
основана на использовании разнообразных способов подачи материала,
систематическом повторении лексики по темам и активном применении
различных коммуникативных приёмов.
Структура пособия включает три части: “American and British Etiquette”,
“Eating the American and British Ways” и “Purchasing and Preparing Food”. Все
три части делятся на десять разделов (Units), в каждом из которых
отрабатывается определённая тема. Каждый раздел содержит оригинальные
тексты с послетекстовыми лексико-грамматическими упражнениями,
система упражнений единообразна и способствует поэтапному закреплению
лексики по теме, даёт обширный материал для обсуждения и готовит
студентов к активному владению материалом.
По желанию преподавателя и в зависимости от уровня знаний группы
могут быть проведены дополнительные виды работы с целью более
тщательного изучения материала. Так, для более тщательной отработки
основного тематического текста можно предложить следующие виды
дополнительной отработки текста: выбор терминологической лексики из
текста; выписывание устойчивых выражений, встретившихся в тексте;
составление студентами плана текста и обсуждение различных планов с
целью выработки наиболее адекватного для последующего пересказа текста;
письменный перевод отдельных фрагментов текста и обратный перевод.
В конце каждого раздела даются дополнительные блоки “Vocabulary
and Speech Exercises” и “Dialogues”.
Конечной целью обучения английскому языку является, как известно,
обучение общению, под которым понимается обмен мнениями, выражение
собственных мыслей собеседников по тому или иному вопросу, а также
извлечение информации при чтении профессионально-ориентированного
текста или при обсуждении вопроса в процессе непосредственного общения.
Именно эта методическая задача ставится в последней части каждого
раздела. Данная часть является итоговой по отношению ко всем
предыдущим. Здесь параллельно решаются две задачи: контроль усвоения
тематического материала и «выход в речь».
Материал, приводимый в грамматическом справочнике («Краткие
сведения по грамматике английского языка»), должен привлекаться в
зависимости от того, какие индивидуальные пробелы в знаниях
обнаруживает та или иная учебная группа. В целом раздел грамматики
построен как коррективный курс и имеет максимальную наглядную подачу
материала. Каждый грамматический раздел снабжён достаточным

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количеством упражнений.
При составлении пособия автор руководствовался следующими
методическими принципами:
1. Развитие навыков монологической речи осуществляется на материале
страноведческих текстов. Оригинальные тексты дают широкие возможности
для стимулирования высказывания или дискуссии, создавая тем самым
мотивацию к говорению. При подборе текстового материала автор учитывал
информативность и познавательную ценность текстов, так как сочетание
этих факторов дает возможность расширить знания студентов о странах
изучаемого языка, познакомить c национальной культурой и бытом этих
стран.
2. Развитие навыков и умений диалогической речи происходит на базе
ситуативных диалогов, так как диалог – наиболее естественная форма
устного речевого общения. Диалоги, взятые из оригинальных источников,
знакомят студентов с разговорным стилем современного английского языка,
позволяют ввести в процесс обучения игровые моменты, моделируют
различные жизненные ситуации и развивают умение давать на них быструю
и адекватную речевую реакцию. Этой основной задаче подчинена вся
система упражнений: работа с отобранной лексикой и грамматическими
структурами, диалоги с подстановками, вопросно-ответные упражнения.
3. Знакомство студентов с рецептурой блюд и изложение процессов
хранения и переработки продуктов на английском языке формируют навыки
перевода неадаптированных кулинарных рецептов.
4. При составлении текстовых упражнений в пределах каждой темы
соблюдается основной методический принцип – “от простого к сложному”.
5. Тематический принцип отбора текстового материала обеспечивает
повторяемость общественно-бытовой лексики, подлежащей активному
усвоению и, следовательно, лучшее ее запоминание.
Автор использовал современную методику изучения иноязычных
материалов, основная концепция которых состоит в создании комплексного
подхода и возникновения неразрывности процессов познания и говорения на
основе постепенного накопления информации.

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PART I. AMERICAN AND BRITISH ETIQUETTE

UNIT 1. THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD “ETIQUETTE”

Do you know what “etiquette” means in French? Read the passage and
answer the questions.

1. In the 17th century, King Louis XIV of France gave people who came into
his court une etiquette (а ticket) containing а list of rules of acceptable behavior in
his palace. Fortunately, for immigrants and visitors to the U.S.А., Americans are
far less rigid about right and wrong ways to behave.
2. Most American rules of etiquette are simply ways to show respect and
consideration for others. People who show concern for others are usually
considered polite even if the words or gestures are not quite, what is expected. The
foreign student who addresses а female teacher as «Sir» has made а mistake. But
the teacher understands the intention and considers the student well mannered.
3. There are many books about American etiquette in libraries, but it probably
is not necessary to read any of them. Americans are quite casual about manners
and accept а wide range of behavior as appropriate. If you follow the suggestions
and warnings in this chapter and your own good judgment, your behavior will
probably satisfy even the most proper American.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What does French word “une etiquette” mean in the English language?
2. In what century did King Louis XIV of France give “une etiquette” to
people who came into his court?
3. Are Americans more rigid about right and wrong ways of behavior?
4. What do most of American rules of etiquette show?
5. What happens when a foreign student addresses a female teacher as “Sir”?
6. When are people considered polite?
7. Is it necessary to read books about American etiquette?
8. Do you think that Americans are quite formal about manners?
9. When will your behavior satisfy even the most proper American?
10. What does the word “etiquette” mean for you?

Ex. 2. Give the plural of the following:

1) a potato; 2) a dish; 3) a knife; 4) a church; 5) a piano; 6) a city; 7) a


handkerchief; 8) a baby; 9) a roof; 10) a valley; 11) a shelf; 12) a manservant; 13) a
radio; 14) a lady; 15) a cliff; 16) a donkey; 17) a tooth; 18) a photo; 19) a goose;
20) a gulf.

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Ex. 3. Match the opposite words:

1) polite; a) stupid;
2) casual; b) most;
3) fortunately; c) ugly
4) right; d) stingy;
5) true; e) narrow;
6) well-mannered; f) ordinary;
7) sociable; g) rude;
8) conscientious; h) more;
9) less; i) formal;
10) wide; j) wrong;
11) intelligent; k) unfortunately;
12) gifted; l) careless;
13) good-looking; m) ill-behaved;
14) least; n) false;
15) generous; o) timid.

Ex. 4. The sentences are in two parts. Match each first half with the correct
second half:

1.Americans are far less rigid a. considers the student well-mannered.


2. There are many books b. even the most proper American.
3. Most American rules c. a wide range of behavior as
of etiquette are appropriate.
4. The foreign student who d. has made a mistake.
addresses a female teacher as “Sir”
5. Americans accept e. simply ways to show respect and
consideration for others.
6. Your behavior will probably f. about American etiquette in libraries.
satisfy
7. The teacher understands g. about right and wrong ways to behavior
the intention and

Ex. 5. Give the singular of the following:

1) teeth; 2) mice; 3) women; 4) feet; 5) children; 6) sheep; 7) heroes; 8) flies;


9) oxen; 10) deer; 11) loaves; 12) sisters-in-law; 13) stories; 14) men-of-war; 15)
geese; 16) thieves; 17) nephews; 18) nieces; 19) wives; 20) people.

Ex. 6. What are they saying? Match the words to the pictures. Write the
letters a to j in the balloons:

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a) After you. b) Watch out. c) Nice to meet you. d) Excuse me, please. e)
Hold on. f) Bless you. g) Help yourselves. h) Take a seat. i) Cheers. j) I’m terribly
sorry!

Ex. 7. Make negative sentences affirmative and affirmative ones negative:

1. “Une etiquette” did not contain a list of rules. 2. Americans are not far less
rigid about acceptable behavior. 3. The words and gestures are quite what are
expected. 4. People should not show concern for others. 5. Americans are not
casual about manners. 6. Americans rules of etiquette do not show respect and
consideration for other people.

UNIT 2. MAKING INTRODUCTIONS

Read the text how to present two strangers to each other because there are
traditional rules for doing this properly. Answer the questions.

4. Making introductions (presenting two strangers to each other) is one of the


most common social duties. There are traditional rules for doing this properly, but

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many Americans do not know them, and others do not notice when the rules are
broken. When introducing people of different sexes, it is polite to say the woman’s
name first; for example, “Mrs. Fox, this is my neighbor, Mr. Wolf”. But if the man
is elderly or famous, then his name or title should be mentioned first: “Mr.
President, I’d like you to meet my sister, Luisa Rivera”. When two people of the
same sex are introduced, the older person is named first: “Grandfather, this is my
friend, Narish Patel. Narish, this is my grandfather, Mr. Кim”. А very formal
introduction of someone important often begins, “May I present...?”
5. Appropriate responses to an introduction include “How do you do?”, “It’s
very nice to meet you”, or simply a universal informal, “Hello” often accompanied
bу а handshake. People do not think of “How do you do” as a question, it is a
greeting. If you are really want to know about someone’s health, you say “How are
you?” At one time, only American men shook hands. Today, а woman may also
extend her hand to а man for an introduction. Two women do not usually shake
hands in а social situation, but they may in а business situation.
6. At the end of а conversation with а new acquaintance, it is polite to say,
“Good-bye. It was nice meeting you.” But there is a number of other less formal
ways of parting, such as: “ Bye-bye, Cheerio, Bye for now!, See you later, Bye!,
See you!” or “I’ll be seeing you soon”. When parting for long you can say
“Farewell”. One might also add some appropriate conclusion that wishes the
person а good time or good luck; for example, “Enjoy your visit to our city” or
“Good luck with your new job”.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What do you say when you are introduced to someone? What does he
answer?
2. What is the universal informing greeting?
3. What are the standard replies to the question “How are you”?
4. What do you say if you are inquiring about his/her health?
5. What replies might you get to these inquiries?
6. What do you say at Christmas?
7. What reply do you get to that greeting?
8. What do you say to someone on his/her birthday?
9. Which are the less formal ways of saying good-bye?
10 .What do you say when parting for long?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words:

1) to introduce; 2) properly; 3) to break; 4) a neighbor; 5) to mention; 6)


appropriate; 7) to present; 8) a response; 9) formal; 10) informal;11) to respond;
12) a basis; 13) to extend; 14) an adult; 15) a lawyer; 16) to precede; 17) to marry;
18) rude; 19) to divorce; 20) to widow.

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Ex. 3. Match the word to its explanation:

1) appropriate a) to have particular opinion


2) intention b) without including anything else
3) judgment c) a plan in your mind to do something
4) rabbi d) an opinion that you have after thinking
carefully about something
5) consider e) suitable or right for a particular situation or
purpose
6) foreigner f) someone who comes from another country
7) doubt g) a Jewish religious leader
8) alone h) to think that something is probably not true or does not
exist
9) etiquette i) something sad or disappointing
10) unfortunately k) a set of rules for behaving correctly in
social situation

Ex. 4. What are they saying? Match the words to the pictures. Write the
letters a to h in the balloons:

a) Don’t worry. I won’t. b) Thanks. I’ll need it. c) Same to you. d) Sure.
What’s the problem. e) I’m bored. f) Me too. g) Not do I. h) I’m afraid I’m using it.

Ex. 5. Find the opposite adjectives of the words on the left in the square and
write them down. The word go down or across:

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Ex. 6/1. What makes a best friend? Complete these sentences:

1. A best friend is ____________________________ .


2. A best friend never _________________________ .
3. A best friend always ________________________ .

Ex. 6/2. Look at these answers given by a group of people. Underline any that
are similar to your sentences in ex. 6/1:

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Ex. 6/3. Which answers in the table 6/2 mean: amusing, caring, comforting,
kind, patient, reliable, understanding?

UNIT 3. ADDRESSING PEOPLE AND USING TITLES.

Read the text about another difficult question to foreigners how to address
people and answer the questions.

7. Proper forms of address аre often а puzzle to foreigners. In the U.S.A.,


people in the same general age group tend to get on а first-name basis very
quickly. Coworkers, classmates, and neighbors often call each other by first names.
but an adult is likely to continue to call doctors, lawyers, teachers, religious
leaders, and bosses by their last names. However, it is not polite to call someone by
the last name only. Titles that precede the last name include Mr. (mister, for а
man), Miss (for а single woman), Mrs. (pronounced missus and used for а woman
who is married, divorced, or widowed), and Ms. (pronounced miz and used for а
woman whose marital status you do not know). Some single or divorced women
may prefer the title Ms. When in doubt about which title to use when introducing a
woman, use her full name without any title at all. То address а man whose name
you do not know; use sir. (It is rude to call him mister.) То address а woman you
do not know, use madam or ma’am. Remember that the title doctor (Dr.) is used
not only for а medical doctor but also for а dentist and for а person with an
academic doctorate degree.
8. It is also important to remember that very few titles аre used without the
last name (family name). Those that can be used alone include Doctor, Professor,
and some of the titles for religious leaders (such as Father or Rabbi). It is not
correct to address а teacher as Teacher.

Ex. 1. Answer the following questions:

1. What proper forms of address to Americans do you know?


2. When do people in the same general age group tend to get on a first-name
basis?
3. Whom do Americans call by their last names?
4. What is the difference between the title Mrs. and the title Ms.?
5. What should you do when you are in doubt which title to use when
introducing a woman?
6. Which title is appropriate to use when you address to a man whose name
you do not know?
7. Which title should you use to address a woman whose name you do not
know?

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8. What titles for religious leaders do you know?
9. When is the title doctor used?
10. Do the titles precede the first or the last name?

Ex. 2. Insert a suitable form of address:

1. “____, could you tell me the quickest way to the railway station?” (to a
stranger). 2. “____, it hurts here” (to your doctor Alan Price during the
examination). 3. “How nice to see you again,____” (to an old friend of yours).
4. “Will you come in and sit down,_____. Mr. Green will be with you in 5
minutes.” (a visitor, Michael Black). 5. “_____, I wonder if you could find time to
read my paper.” (to a university professor, William Greenpiece).
6. “I’ll call you back as soon as I find the book,____” (to your older
colleague, Alice Blackboat). 7. The chairman introduces the lecturer to the
audience. “____, I have great pleasure in introducing Professor Robinson from
Chicago University.” (to an audience).

Ex. 3. Put the words in order to make sentences or questions. What replies do
you give to them ?

1. “ is / Mr. / Oh / brown / ! / Miss / this / Green / ”


2. “ you / How / ? / are / ”
3. “ A / ! / Christmas / Merry / ”
4. “ today / twelve / I / old / am / years / ”
5. “ have / you / ? / a / Did / good / journey / ”
6. “ very / all / you / Thank / for / kindness / your / much / ”
7. “ white / coffee / your / ? / Do / prefer / black / you / or / “

Ex. 4. What are they saying? Match the words to the pictures. Write the
letters a to j in the balloons:

a) To eat here or take away? f) Have you got the time, please?
b) Have a good trip. g) Sleep well!
c) Good luck! h) Congratulations!
d) Would you mind changing i) Excuse me, is this seat free?
places with me?
e) Goodbye. It was nice meeting j) What’s your job?
you.

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Ex. 5. Write the opposite of each word in the puzzle: 1) interesting; 20 heavy;
3) clean; 4) clever; 5) easy; 6) kind; 7) cheap; 8) early; 9) pretty; 10) right; 11)
safe; 12) shallow; 13) quiet; 14) asleep; 15) friendly. What is the sentence in the
darker squares.

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Ex. 6. Decide which of these rules are true or false:

1. Men are introduced to women. 2. Older people are presented to young


ones. 3. Newcomers are introduced to old friends. 4. Women are never
presented to men. 5. A young girl is mentioned to a married woman. 6.
Famous person is never presented first.

Ex. 7. How would you address the following people?

1.A friend of your own age (Sandra Richards).


2. Sandra’s father/mother.
3. Your aunt Gamma Brown .
4. A university professor PhD (John Robinson).
5. A girl of 17 not married (Judy Foreside).
6. A stranger.
7. Your English teacher.
8. Your doctor (Parish Patel).
9. Director of the Company you work for.
10. An older coworker (Paul Kim).
11. An elderly woman in the street.

UNIT 4. CONGRATULATIONS AND REQUESTS

Read the text about appropriate behavior in a great many happy social and sad
occasions and answer the questions.

9. Congratulations is а wonderful word that fits а great many happy social


occasions. In general, it is polite to say “Congratulations!” (with а lot of
enthusiasm in your voice) when а person has accomplished something. The
accomplishment may be academic (such as а graduation), vocational (such as а job
promotion), or personal (such as the birth of а child or grandchild).
10. When congratulations are in order, it is sometimes also appropriate tо give
а gift, especially if you are invited to а party to celebrate а particular occasion or
accomplishment, such as а birthday, graduation, wedding, or anniversary.
11. When you receive а party invitation, it may say on the bottom R.S.V.P,
initials that refer to а French expression meaning respond, please. That means you
must write or phone to say whether or not you can come. If the invitation says
R.S.V.P. regrets only, it means that you should respond only if you cannot come.
12. Equal attention must be given to good manners on sad occasions. If you
know that an American coworker, classmate, or neighbor has had а recent death in
the family, you should express your sympathy (condolences). Even if you hate

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mentioning the sad event, do so. It’s a good idea simply to say, “I was sо sorry to
hear about your loss” (or “...about your father”).
13. The simple words I am sorry display very good manners in а great many
difficult social situations. I am sorry has two main uses to express your sympathy
to someone who has had а bad experience and to express your regret when you
have bothered someone or caused а problem. Other useful apologies аrе excuse me
and pardon mе, which mean the same thing. These expressions are appropriate
when pushing your way out of а crowded elevator or stopping а stranger to ask
directions.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. On what occasions should you say “Congratulations”?


2. What does the accomplishment mean?
3. What is it polite to do if you are invited to a party?
4. Where can you find the initials R.S.V.P.?
5. Should you respond in case you cannot come if the invitation says R.S.V.P.
regrets only?
6. How should you behave on sad occasions?
7. What two main uses does “I’m sorry” have?
8. What other useful apologies do you know?
9. When are “Excuse me” and “Pardon me” appropriate?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words:

1) condolence; 2) apology; 3) experience; 4) sympathy; 5) request; 6)


vocational; 7) to bother; 8) a crowd; 9) to cause; 10) to display; 11) to push; 12) an
elevator; 13) a coworker; 14) a neighbor; 15) a stranger; 15) to accomplish; 16) a
wedding; 17) an anniversary; 18) a bottom; 19) promotion; 19) to fit; 20)
particular; 21) to respond; 22) to regret; 23) appropriate; 24) a graduation; 24) an
invitation, 25) RSVP.

Ex. 3. Match the opposite words:

1) birth a) ordinary
2) top b) happy
3) respond c) pass
4) good d) hate
5) love e) death
6) a sympathy card f) bad
7) difficult g) a greeting card
8) stop h) ask
9) particular i) bottom

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10) sad j) easy

Ex. 4/1. Robert Redhead sent Penelope Wigley this invitation to a party. Read
it and complete it with her name.

Ex. 4/2. Penelope has a friend called Harvers. He also got an invitation – but
to a different party. What differences can you find between the two invitations?

Ex. 4/ 3. How are the invitations different? Write the differences below.

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Penelope’s invitation Haver’s invitation
(Formal) (Informal)

1 ____________________ 1 ____________________
2 ____________________ 2 ____________________
3 ____________________ 3 ____________________
4 ____________________ 4 ____________________
5 ____________________ 5 ____________________

Ex. 5. Do you agree there are not enough holidays in the world? Create a
new holiday! Decide on a name and a date for your holiday. What is the reason for
the holiday? What are people going to do on this day? What are they going to
wear? What are they going to eat? Write a few sentences about your new holiday.
Use these texts as an example for your composition:

Boxing Day is on December 26 in the United Kingdom and some other


English speaking countries. In the past, people gave presents to their employees,
but now it is part of the Christmas holiday for everyone.

El dia de los muertos, the Day of the Dead, is an important holiday in


Mexico. It’s really a three-day celebration, from October 31 to November 2. The
holiday comes from Spanish and Indian traditions. The traditions say that it is the
time of year when the spirits of the dead return for a visit.
In the markets, you can buy candy skulls. These are treats for the children. On
October 31, families bring gifts for the dead to the cemeteries, and spend the night
there.
On November 1, there are big dinners with all of the favorite foods of the
dead. People eat a special bread called pan de muertos, or bread of the dead.
November 2 is the last day of the holiday.

The Obon Festival in Japan is similar to the Day of the Dead in Mexico. It is
celebrated in July or August, depending on the region of Japan.

Kwanzaa means “first fruit”. This holiday is from December 26 to January 1.


It is a time for African Americans to celebrate their history and culture.

Ex. 6/1. Match the parties with the party ingredients:

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Ex. 6/2. These are the names of some popular American holidays. Match the
holidays with the descriptions.

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UNIT 5. DINING ETIQUETTE

Read the text about some rules for polite behavior at American friend’s home.

14. If you are invited to an American friend’s home for dinner, keep in mind
the general rules for polite behavior. First of all, arrive approximately on time (but
not early). Americans expect promptness. It’s OK to be 10 or 15 minutes late but
not 45 minutes late. Dinner might be overcooked and ruined by then. When you
are invited to someone’s home for а meal, it is polite to bring а small gift. Flowers
or candy is always appropriate. If you have an attractive item made in your native
country, your host and/or hostess would certainly enjoy receiving that as а gift.
15. Some Americans do not know about the dietary restrictions of various
ethnic and religious groups. What do you do if you are served а food that you do
not like or cannot eat? Do not make а fuss about it. If your host does not say
anything about what you aren’t eating, then you should not, either. Simply eat what
you can and hope that no one notices what you left. If you are questioned, you may
have to admit that you do not eat meat (or whatever), but you can also say that you
have enjoyed the other foods and have had «more than enough» to eat. Do not
make the cook feel obliged to prepare something else for you. Be sure to
compliment the cook on the food that you enjoyed.
16. Don’t leave immediately after dinner, but do not overstay your welcome,

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either. When your friends seem to be getting tired and running out of conversation,
take their behavior as а cue to leave. The next day, call or write а thank-you note
to say how much you enjoyed the evening.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What do Americans expect from you, if they invite you for dinner?
2. When should you arrive for dinner?
3. What might be if you are 45 late?
4. What things will be appropriate gifts to bring to an American friend’s
home?
5. What should you do, if you do not like served food or you cannot eat it?
6. What could you say if you are questioned about the food left?
7. Should you compliment the cook on the food that you enjoyed?
8. When should you leave after dinner?
9. What will you do after dinner the next day?
10. Do you have the same rules for polite behavior in your country?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and


phrases:

1) promptness; 2) to ruin; 3) dietary restrictions; 4) an ethnic group; 5) a fuss;


6) to oblige; 7) to run out; 8) a thank-you-note; 9) to overstay; 10) behavior; 11)
approximately; 12) to admit; 13) to keep in mind; 14) a cue; 15) a hostess.

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences with the verbs: can, like, have:

1) ____I have some soda, please? 2) We’d____ some oranges, please. 3) I’m
thirsty___ I have some water, please? 4) ____we have some wine with our
chicken, please? 5) They’d ___two beers and some mineral water. 6) ___ we
_____ some rice, please? 7) He’d ____some fish. 8) ___ I ___ some coffee,
please? 9) She’d ____some bananas. 10) ___ they___ some cheese?

Ex. 4. Write the sentences in the correct order:

1. those / How / apples / are / much / ? /


2. I / have / Can / coffee / please / some / ? /
3. like / beers / mineral / water / They’d / two / some / and
4. I / that / steak / and / chicken / that / have / please / Can / ? /
5. like / a / wine / I’d / of / bottle
6. eat / and / you / fruit / many / vegetables / Do / ? /
7. is / father / low-fat / on / diet / my
8. bones / makes / D / stronger / vitamin / your

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9. did / become / a / you / Why / vegetarian / ? /
10. she / that / said / stopped / meat / had / eating / Maggie
11. basic / know / food / you / Do / the / groups / ? /
12. I / a / time / have / only / little

Ex. 5. Which sentences do you say for ordering and which ones for offering
food in a restaurant?

1. Would you like something to drink? 2. How about California Chablis? 3.


Do you have a dry white wine? 4. What would you like to eat? 5. Would you like
to see a menu? 6. May I bring you a salad? 7. I’ll have chicken salad. 8. What do
you recommend today? 9. I’ll take care of everything. 10. I’d like a glass of ginger
ale with ice. 11. Chablis is fine. 12. May you bring me a menu?

Ex. 6. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give the reason. The following
phrases may be helpful:
That’ right; Exactly; Quite so; I agree with you; I don’t agree with you;
That’s where you’re wrong; It depends; Tastes differ.

1. There is always a chance of going to a party at somebody’s place on a


Saturday night.
2. Young people do not need to ask their parents’ permission when they want
to have a get-together.
3. The success of the party depends on what is going to be served.
4. Everything goes on the table when young people are having a get-together.
5. A party young people have in somebody’s home always looks formal when
parents happen to stay at home.
6. It is convenient to use matchsticks with small lumps of cheese, ham,
sandwiches and fruits as you can eat while standing up.
7. When you give a party, all your friends are expected to bring some food
and drinks with them.
8. A party cannot be given if you are short of money.

Ex. 7. Complete the crossword. Choose from the following adjectives:


final, flat, fresh, general, glad, grateful, honest, main, natural, pale, plain,
pleased, private, real, sharp, shiny, single, smooth, special, useful.

Across
1. This bread ____. I’ve just bought it.
3. This is the ____ call for flight AZ231. Please go immediately to Gate 11.
6. He never tells lies. He’s very _____ .
8. Let’s take a map. It might be _____ if we get lost.
9. I’m so ____ they’re getting married. They’re made for each other.

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11. She was really _____ with her exam results. She got 98%.
13. In summer she’s quite brown but in winter she always looks _____ .
14. Would you like two _____ beds or one double bed?
16. I didn’t understand every word but I got the ____ idea.
17. I had soup to start with and fish for the _____ course.

Down
1. This packet is very _____. It must be a CD or a picture. (The opposite of
round.)
2. Your legs are very _____. Have you just shaved them? (The opposite to
rough.)
4. I don’t think that is her ____ hair colour. Last time I saw her, she had black
hair.
5. These noses are _____ . They aren’t plastic.
7. Use this knife to cut the meat. It’s very _____ .
9. Thank you so much. I’ m very _____ to you for all your help.
10. I want a _____ white shirt without any stripes or patterns.
11. Can I speak to you in ____? I don’t want others to hear.
12. He doesn’t drink ordinary tea.. He only drinks a _____ kind of fruit tea.
15. I’ve cleaned the windows. They’re lovely and _____ now.

UNIT 6. DINNER IN A RESTAURANT

Read the text about appropriate behavior in a restaurant.

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17. If you invite someone to join you for dinner in a restaurant, phone the
restaurant first to find out if you need а reservation in order to avoid а long wait for
а table. То make а reservation, just give your name, the number of people in your
group, and the time you plan to arrive. When you invite someone to dinner, you
should be prepared to pay the bill and reach for it when it arrives. However, if your
companion insists on paying his or her share, do not get into an argument about it.
Some people prefer to pay their own way so that they do not feel indebted, and
those feelings should be respected. In most American restaurants, the waiter or
waitress’s tip is not added to the bill. If the service was adequate, it is customary to
leave а tip equal to about 15% of the bill. In expensive restaurants, leave а bit
more.
18. Today’s liberated woman may take the initiative in suggesting an evening
together by inviting а man she likes to а party, to а home-cooked meal, or to an
evening at the theater. If she does the inviting, she pays for at least part of the
evening’s expenses. Often, а man and woman who are friends but not
romantically involved go out together Dutch treat, which means that each
person pays his or her own way.
19. American table manners are easy to learn by observation. А few
characteristics to note: the napkin should not be tucked into the collar or vest but
should be placed across the lap; the silverware placement is quite different from
the European style, but you can’t go wrong if you use the piece of silverware
furthest from the plate first and work your way in toward the plate as the meal
progresses. Before cutting food, some Americans switch their knife and fork to the
opposite hands, but is not necessary to do this.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Do you need to make a reservation, if you invite someone to a restaurant?


2. How will you make a reservation?
3. Who will pay the bill, if you invite your friend to a restaurant?
4. Why do some people prefer to pay their own way?
5. What should you do, if someone prefers to pay his or her own way?
6. What is an ordinary tip, if the service in a restaurant is adequate?
7. Who pays the bill if a woman does the invitation?
8. What is the difference of liberated woman’s behavior to a man she likes?
9. What does Dutch treat mean ?
10. How can you learn American table manners?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) a reservation; 2) silverware; 3) a knife; 4) a fork; 5) a plate; 6) a napkin; 7)


to tuck; 8) a lap; 9) a vest; 10) a collar; 11) a bill; 12) at least, 13) to avoid; 14) to

23
suggest; 15) customary; 16) to reach; 17) to insist on; 18) a share; 19) to feel
indebted; 20) adequate; 21) expense; 22) furthest; 23) to get into an argument; 24)
to switch; 25) to make a reservation.

Ex. 3. Complete each sentence with the correct word:

1. Americans (expect, expects) promptness. 2. Flowers or candy (is, are)


always appropriate. 3. If your host (don’t, doesn’t) say anything, simply eat what
you can. 4. You (was, were) invited to an American friend’s home for dinner. 5.
My American friend (made, makes) a reservation yesterday. 6. Some Americans
(doesn’t, do not) know about dietary restrictions. 7. In most American restaurants,
the waiter or waitress’s tip (aren’t’, isn’t) added to the bill.

Ex. 4. Odd one out:

1) a date, an appointment, a party, a blind date; 2) self-sufficient, independent,


confident, protective; 3) a cafe, a counter, a restaurant, a cafeteria; 4) Danish,
Denmark, German, Dutch; 5) men, woman, children, wives; 6) stronger, weaker,
more casual, ruder.

Ex. 5. How many words do you know connected with food? How many can
you add to the vocabulary net below?

Ex. 6. Find words with same meaning in the word square (→ ↓ ← ↑) and
write them down:

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Ex. 7. Complete the sentences with the right endings:

1. Still he did not speak, _______________ .


a) just listened attentive. b) just listened to attentively. c) just listened attentively.
2. I think it will _______________ .
a) have to be do sooner or later. b) have to be done sooner or later.
c) have be done sooner or later.
3. I don’t see how you can be ____________ .
a) so sure in that. b) so sure of that. c) such sure of that.
4. He had not __________________ .
a) least idea of what to say. b) less idea of what to say. c) the least idea of what to
say.
5. I am looking at ________________ .
a) most famous avenue in the world. b) more famous avenue in the world.
c) the most famous avenue in the world.

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UNIT 7. DINNER AND OTHER TIPPIHG

Read the text about tipping in a restaurant and other places. Do you oppose it
or not? Do you have the same phenomenon in your country?

Some people from other countries and also many in the U.S. oppose tipping,
considering it undemocratic and demeaning, furthermore, it is illogical – some
people are tipped and others, such as airline attendants, store clerks and insurance
agents, are not. Many feel that people should receive an adequate salary rather than
tips.
However one – feels about this, the fact is that in the U.S. many people do
depend to a large extent on tips for their livelihood. In some fields of work, wages
are simply not adequate. The theory is that by compensating people through tips
rather than on a straight salary, you encourage good service. While that is
debatable, the system prevails.
People you do not tip in the United States : Customs officials or other
government employees, such as police officers or firefighters. This is considered
bribery.
Post people. You do not tip them, but often people give them a Christmas gift
of $5 to $10 each.
Airline personnel. No tips to stewards, stewardesses, or ticket agents.
Room clerks or people at hotel desks. (Not like the European concierge
system.)
Bus drivers. Except when they also serve as guides on guided tours – then
give them $1 with a “Thank you” as you leave.
Store clerks, gas station attendants, elevator operators, receptionists,
telephone operators, employees in private clubs, theater ushers or movie ushers.
Programs are also free (paid for by the advertisements in them).
People you do tip in the United States: waiters, taxi drivers, porters, doormen,
hat-and coat- check attendants, barbers, shoeshine boys, hair stylists (or
beauticians), and so on.
Waiters. Give at least 15% to the waiter. Tips are generally not included in the
bill. Give the waiter more if you are particularly satisfied with the service, have
asked for extras, been particularly slow, had a large group, or requested help in
understanding the menu or in serving young children – that is, if you have received
more than minimal service in any way.
As everywhere, tips are naturally higher in finer restaurants. If you order
wine, the wine steward may expect a tip as well as the waiter. In such a place, your
tip for the waiter should be not less than 20%.
In a low-priced snack bar or coffeehouse, the tip is about 30c for a bill that
totals $1.25. Leave 25c under your plate for anything less than that. If you have
just a single cup of coffee or tea, you can leave a dime (10c).
One does not have to tip. If you are dissatisfied with service, you can show it

26
by reducing or withholding a tip. but generally speaking, tipping is expected in the
U.S. It is a way of saying “Thank you” to porters, waiters, hotel maids, cab drivers,
doormen, barbers, hairdressers, parking attendants and others who help you to
move about or to live more easily, more safely, more comfortably.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What do people from other countries and the U.S. think about tipping?
2. Why do many people in the U.S. depend on tips?
3. What is an ordinary tip, if the service in a restaurant is adequate?
4. In what case can you reduce or withhold a tip?
5. Are tips the same in finer restaurants as in ordinary ones?
6. What is the tip in a low-priced snack bar or coffeehouse?
7. What people do you tip in the U.S.?
8. Why do you harm the worker when you do not tip him?
9. What people don’t you tip in the U.S?
10. Discuss the prices of tipping to different workers.

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) a receptionist; 2) an usher; 3) a hotel maid; 4) a cab driver; 5) an elevator


operator; 6) a napkin; 7) to dissatisfy; 8) a firefighter; 9) a government employee;
10) bribery; 11) a bill; 12) livelihood, 13) to oppose; 14) furthermore; 15) an
insurance agent; 16) a hairdresser; 17) to withhold; 18) a wine steward; 19) a larger
extent; 20) a parking attendant; 21) a barber; 22) a straight salary; 23) a
coffeehouse, 24) a beautician, 25) demeaning.

Ex. 3. Choose and circle the correct answer to the following:

1. People you do tip in the U.S…


a) policemen; b) firemen; c) delivery people; d) customs officials.
2. If you have just a single cup of coffee or tea, you can leave….
a) $-1; b) $-2; c) 20 cents; d) 10 cents.
3. People you don’t tip…
a) government employees; b) doormen; c) parking attendants; d) hotel maids.
4. In fine restaurants your tip for the waiter should be not less than:
a) 10%; b) 15%; c) 20%; d) 25%.
5. The napkin should be:
a) tucked into the collar; b) placed across the lap; c) tucked into the vest.

Ex. 4. Make up questions to which the following sentences might be the


answers:
1. In some fields of work, wages are simply not adequate. 2. Tipping is

27
expected in the U.S. 3. Often people give post people a Christmas gift of $-5 to $-
10 each. 4. Americans don’t give tips to airline personnel. 5. You should ask about
amounts of tipping locally. 6. Tips are generally not included in the bills. 7. Most
people give the doormen of their apartment houses occasionally tips. 8. An
occasional tip is considered a “sweetener.” 9. In a low–priced snack bar, the tip is
about 30c. for a bill that totals $1.25. 10. Before cutting food, some Americans
switch their knife and fork to the opposite hands.

Ex. 5. Write these words under the correct food group: butter, semolina, sour
cream, milk, tangerine, asparagus, plum, doughnut, steak, partridge, yogurt,
cereal, bacon, ice cream, grapefruit, pasta, lettuce, mutton, pumpkin, corn, turkey,
ham, pear, red pepper.

Fruit Vegetable Grain Dairy Meat

Ex. 6. Fill in the speech bubbles useful everyday phrases in the cartoons,
using one sentence from each column:

1. Excuse me, is anyone sitting here? a. A pleasure.


2. Do you mind if I switch the light off? b. Ah! That’s life!
3. Could I borrow your mobile? My c. Certainly. Here you are.
battery is flat.
4. I wish I hadn’t said that to her. d. No, it’s free.
5. I’m sorry I’m late. e. No, please don’t. I feel frightened
enough with it on.
6. May I come in? f. Oh, I’m so pleased to hear it.
7. Pass the salt, please. g. Oh, that’s alright. You got your
job.
8. Thanks for the lift, Amina. h. You are joking, aren’t you, Sir.
9. The baby’s much better now. i. Yes, of course. What can I do?
10. You couldn’t give me a hand, j. Yes, please do.
could you?

28
UNIT 8. ENGLISH TABLE MANNERS

Read the following text about English table manners and compare them with
ones in your country.

On the continent people have good food; in England, people have good table
manners. Do not put your elbows on the table. Sit facing the table and keep your
feet under you, do not stretch them all the way under the table. Never stretch over
the table for something you want, ask your neighbor to pass it. Take а slice of
bread from the bread-plate by hand; do not harpoon your bread with а fork. Do not
bite into the whole slice; break it off piece by piece. Vegetables, potatoes,
macaroni are placed on your fork with the help of your knife. Cut your meat into
small pieces, one piece at а time. Chicken requires special handling. Just cut as
much as you can, and when you cannot use knife and fork any longer, use your
fingers. Do not use а knife for fish, cutlets or omelettes. Do not use а spoon for
what can be eaten with а fork. Do not eat off the knife. Do not lick your spoon. Try
to make as little noise as possible when eating, or they will say you are а noisy
eater. Do not talk with your mouth full. Never read while eating (at least in
company). Never spoil your neighbor’s appetite by criticizing what he is eating.
The customary way to refuse а dish is by saying “No, thank you”. Don’t say, “I
don’t eat that stuff”, and don’t make faces to show you do not like it. If you really

29
feel hungry, ask for а second helping. And finally, do not forget to say “thank you”
for every act of kindness. By the way, English people do not wish each other
“Good appetite”.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Speak of the table manners you should keep in mind and follow them.
2. Which of them have you known before and which are a sort of a surprise to
you?
3. What would you like to add to the given list?
4. What person is called “a noisy eater?
5. Make a list of Does and Don’ts.

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents to the following phrases:


1) to put elbows on; 2) to sit facing; 3) to spoil the appetite; 4) to make faces;
5) the customary way; 6) to require special handling; 7) stuff; 8) to harpoon; 9) an
elbow; 10) a mouth; 11) a bread-plate; 12) to lick; 13) to require; 14) to stretch; 15)
a foot; 16) a slice of bread; 17) to eat of the knife; 18) a noisy eater; 19) a second
helping; 20) one piece at a time.
Ex. 3. Respond to the statements with the answers given below. Keeps the
conversation going. Make use of the following replies:
1) I appreciate it; 2) Thanks anyway; 3) I appreciate your help; 4) It was very
nice of you; 5) Thank you very much; 6) Much appreciate; 7) Thanks a lot.

a) You are welcome; b) Anytime; c) Not at all; d) Don’t mention it; e) Glad
that I could help; f) It was nothing; g) My pleasure; h) I’m glad that I could help; i)
That’s all right.

Ex. 4. What are they saying? Match the words to the pictures. Write the
letters a to h in the balloons:

30
Ex. 5. Do you enjoy cooking? Here is a recipe for some biscuits. They are
healthy, easy to make and they taste really good. Put the instructions for the biscuit
recipe (A-F) in the correct order. The first one has been done for you.

Ex. 6. What’s the opposite of each word on the left? Choose from the words
on the right:

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Unit 9. AMERICAN ATTITUDES

Read the text about an American democratic outlook and answer the
questions.

20. Remember that Americans have а democratic outlook, a strong belief that
all people аrе entitled to equal opportunity and equal respect. No one is а
privileged being, and nо one is worthless. А person who acts very humble and
timid may make his or her American friends uncomfortable. On the other hand, а
person who acts as if he or she is a ruler of the world will have trouble keeping any
American friends. А polite but assertive manner is what is socially acceptable. So,
nо matter what your status in relation to the person you are with, feel free to look
directly into his or her eyes and speak your true feelings. You have nо obligation to
say what the other person wants to hear. Occasionally, it is necessary to tell а
white lie and compliment your friend on something you do not really like. But,
most of the time, you can express your true opinions, and Americans won’t mind at
all if you disagree with them. Also, you need not worry much about asking
inappropriate questions. Americans (like people everywhere) enjoy talking about
themselves. Your interest in them will be considered good manners as long as you
stay away from questions about three subjects that most American adults do not
want to discuss their age, weight, and income.
In the United States, democracy is not only a form of government; it is a way
of life. “All men are created equal”, says the Declaration of Independence. This
statement does not mean that all human beings are equal in ability or ambition. It
means, instead, that people should be treated equally before the law and given
equal privileges and opportunities.
Most people agree that the direct, assertive American personality is virtue, but
it sometimes surprises foreigners. In many cultures, respect for older people or

32
those in positions of authority keeps others from expressing their true feelings. But
in the USA, children often argue with their parents, students may disagree with
their teachers, and citizens may express opposition to the actions of the
government. If the soup has a fly in it or the meat is too tough to chew, the diner
can complain to the waiter. If a teacher is wrong or confusing, a student will say
so. If the boss makes a mistake, an employee will politely point it out.
Also, Americans admire what is practical, fast, efficient, and new. Sometimes
they fail to understand and appreciate cultures that have greater respect for more
traditional, leisurely ways of doing things. Conversely, people from other cultures
may dislike the practical, hectic American lifestyle.
Despite cultural differences, most foreigners give Americans credit for their
virtues. Americans are generally viewed as friendly, adaptable, energetic, and
kindhearted. Most newcomers to the USA like Americans, and the feeling is
usually mutual. Perhaps the greatest American virtue is a deep interest in new ideas
and new people. In a nation of immigrants, the foreigner does not remain an
outsider for long.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What does democracy mean for Americans?


2. Which person may make American friends uncomfortable?
3. What manner is socially acceptable?
4. How do American democratic attitudes affect manners?
5. When is it necessary to tell a white lie?
6. Will Americans mind if you disagree with them?
7. Do Americans hate what is practical and new?
8. What questions should you stay away?
9. What is the greatest American virtue?
10. How do American manners compare to those in your country?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

1) respect, 2) worthless, 3) humble, 4) assertive, 5) a ruler, 6) an obligation, 7)


a weight, 8) income, 9) opposition, 10) confusing, 11) leisurely, 12) hectic, 13) a
lifestyle, 14) an outsider, 15) adaptable, 16) acceptable, 17) kindhearted, 18) to
entitle; 19) to admire; 20) timid; 21) acceptable: 22) occasionally; 23) virtue; 24)
authority; 25) conversely.

Ex. 3. Complete each sentence with the correct word:

1. Remember that every American (have, has) a democratic outlook. 2.


Americans enjoy (talk, talking) about themselves. 3. Point out means (write out
something, make someone notice something). 4. A polite but assertive manner (is,

33
are) what is socially acceptable. 5. If the boss (will make, makes) a mistake, an
employee (will point, point) it out. 6. Perhaps (the greatest, greatest) American
virtue is a deep interest in new ideas and new people. 7. (Despite of, despite)
cultural differences, most foreigners give Americans credit for their virtues. 8. If
you tell a white lie (it does not hurt anyone, it insults someone).

Ex. 4. What are they saying? Match the letters a to h in the balloons:

Ex. 5. Unscramble the nouns from exercise 2.

1) pcrtese; 2) rlure; 3) taboingilo; 4) hgitew; 5) cenimo; 6) sinotopip; 7)


selylefit; 8) rusotedi.

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences below with the correct adjectives: bad-
tempered, big-headed, bossy, calm, friendly, helpful, lazy, loud, selfish, serious,
shy, studios.

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1.The other students in the group are very friendly and we all get on well.
2. Gina shouts instead of talking and always laughs at her own jokes. She’s
a very ______ person.
3. He always worked hard at school and university. He’s a ______ person.
4. John gave me a lift when I missed the bus. He’s so kind and ______.
5. He thinks he’s the cleverest guy in the world. He’s very ______ .
6. I’m very _____ in the mornings. It’s best if you don’t speak to me before
nine o’clock.
7. My sister is terribly _____. She drives everywhere and refuses to walk.
8. She is quite a _____ person. She always looks down at the floor when she
speaks to you.
9. He never shouts and he’s never in a hurry. He’s always _____ .
10. She’s a bit _____. She always tells you how you should do everything.
11. Why are you so _____ ? You’ve eaten all the ice cream. There are other
people in this family.
12. Why is she always so _____ ? She never laughs or smiles.

UNIT 10. LANGUAGE ETIQUETTE

After reading the text, you will be ready to face the world of Americans with
confidence.

21. Americans аrе usually tolerant of non-native speakers who have some
trouble understanding English. But they become annoyed when а person pretends
to understand but does not really and then creates problems because of
misunderstanding what was said. No one wants soap when he asked for soup. So if
you do not understand what is said to you, admit it and politely ask the person to
repeat or explain.
22. Second, it is quite rude to converse with а companion in your native
language and leave your American friends standing there feeling stupid because
they cannot understand the conversation. The Americans may also feel that you are
talking about them or saying something you do not want them to hear. If you must
switch to your native language to explain something to а non-English-speaking
companion, at least translate for your American friends so they do not feel left out.
23. The relationship between student and teacher is less formal in the U.S.A.
than in many other countries, especially at the college level. American college
students do not stand up when their teacher enters the room. Students are generally
encouraged to ask questions during class, to stop in the professor’s office for extra
help, and to phone if they are absent and need an assignment. Most teachers allow
students to enter class late or leave early, if necessary.
24. Despite the lack of formality, students are still expected to be polite an

35
considerate of their teacher and fellow classmates. When students want to ask
questions, they usually raise а hand and wait to be called on. But if а professor is
giving а formal lecture that is the wrong time to interrupt with а question. When
the teacher or а student is speaking to the class, it is rude to begin whispering to
another classmate. When а test is being given, talking to а classmate is not only
rude but also risky. Most American teachers assume that students who are talking
to each other during а test are cheating.
25. Learn just а few more polite English expressions, and you will be ready to
face the world of Americans with confidence. The polite response to а compliment
about your looks or your work is “Thank you”. (А smile and а nod is not enough.)
The response to “Thank you” is, of course, “You’re welcome”. If someone asks,
“How are you? “ don’t give your medical history. Just say, “Fine, thanks. How are
you?” Finally, what should you say when someone sneezes? It mау not seem
logical, but the correct response is “God bless you”. That’s about all there is to it.
Now that you have studied this quick overview of manners in the U.S.A., you are
ready to be polite in English. Let’s hope your American friends will be just as
polite.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What is usual American attitude to non-native speakers?


2. When do Americans become annoyed of non-native speakers?
3. What is the best thing to do if you do not understand something?
4. Why do your American friends feel stupid if you switch to your native
language?
5. What should you do if your American friends do not understand the
conversation in your native language?
6. What are students encouraged to do at the college level?
7. When do teachers allow students to enter or leave class?
8. If students want to ask a question, what do they do?
9. What student’s behavior considers rude?
10. When is a test being given, what student’s behavior is expected?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words:

1) to annoy; 2) to admit; 3) to converse; 4) at least; 5) to face; 6) to sneeze, 7)


a medical history; 8) to bless; 9) an overview; 10) confidence; 11) to
misunderstand; 12) to create; 13) logical; 14) manner; 15) tolerant.

Ex. 3. Find in the text English equivalents to the following and use them in
the sentences of your own:

1) недостаток; 2) отношения; 3) поощрять; 4) тактичный; 5) прерывать;

36
6) обманывать; 7) задание; 8) отсутствовать; 9) менее; 10) разрешать; 11)
шептать; 12) опасный; 13) «Будьте здоровы!»; 14) родной язык; 15)
отсутствовать.

Ex. 4. Find the errors. Write the sentences correctly:

1. Americans are usually tolerant to non- native speakers. 2. They become


annoyed when person pretends to understand but does not really. 3. The Americans
may also to feel that you are talking about them. 4. The polite respond to a
compliment is “Thank you”. 5. If someone ask, “How are you?” do not give your
medical history. 6. Let’s hope your Americans friends will be just as polite. 7.
What you should say when someone sneezes? 8. Now that you have studied this
quick overview of manners in the U.S.A, you ready to be polite. 9. To learn just a
few more polite English expressions. 10. It may not seem logical, but the correct
response is “God blesses you”.

Ex. 5. Unscramble the verbs from exercise 2:

1) nynoa; 2) ersoceve; 3) ceaf; 4) tmida; 5) lsebs; 6) sudntermasnid; 7)


zsenee; 8) acetre.

Ex. 6. Decide if the following statements true or false.

1. If you don’t understand what is said simply don’t answer. 2. It’s rather rude
to converse with a friend in your native language. 3. If a person sneezes, don’t pay
attention. 4. The response to “Thank you” is “Please”. 5. American college
students stand up to greet their teacher. 6. Students are never encouraged to stop in
the professor’s office for extra help. 7. Students usually raise a hand and wait to be
called on, when they want to ask questions. 8. It is forbidden to enter the class late.
9. In many other countries, the relationship between students and teachers is more
formal. 10. It is not risky talking during a test. 11. American students are allowed
to interrupt professor with the question during a formal lecture.

Ex. 7. Put the words below into the following text:

a) about, e) them, i) politics,


b) have, f) by, j) still
c) another, g) to ask,
d) much, h) can,

You (1) ____ “break the ice” with strangers (2) _____ talking (3) ____ the
weather: “Shame about the weather.” “Is it (4) ____ raining?” or “bit chilly today,
don’t you think?” When you (5) ___ broken the ice like this, you can then go on to

37
ask the person you are talking to how (6) ___ money they earn. (7) ___ good topic
for conversation is work. However, people do not like talking about (8) ___ except
in a general way, and you should avoid asking (9) ___what political party they
vote for. On first meeting someone, it is also not appropriate (10) ____ about their
age or much they weigh.

VOCABULARY AND SPEECH EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Vocabulary Practice. Pronounce the following words after your


teacher, and discuss their meanings. Then use some of them to complete the
following sentences. You may need to use the same word twice:

Acquaintance manners condolences


etiquette behavior properly
address mention confidence
fortunately casual rude
appropriate polite congratulations
logical compliment silverware
assertive proper

1. If you have good manners, then you аrе ______________.


2. Rules of ______________ tell people how to behave in different social
situations.
3. The word title sometimes means the name of a piece of writing, but in this
chapter it means polite forms of __________ (such as Mr., Dr., or Mrs.) used
before а person’s family (last) name.
4. The adverb for the word proper is properly. We say, “His behavior is
____________” but “Не is behaving ___________.”
5. The adjectives ____________ and proper have related meanings. both refer
to behavior that is considered polite and socially correct for а particular occasion.
6. When someone dies, you should express your __________to members of
the family.
7. When your friend graduates from college, you should say __________ to
him or her.
8. Americans believe people should not be afraid to ask for the things they
want. In other words, people should be ___________. However, in expressing their
needs or wishes, they should be not _________ to others.

Ex. 2. Make up sentences using one from each column. Make sure that all the
items are of the same degree of formality. being introduced, start a conversation:

38
Ladies and May I introduce a friend of mine, Tom Sweet
Gentlemen Let me introduce your guide
Farther I’d like you to meet our new personnel manager
Mr. brown Let me introduce my brother, John
Mrs. Miller myself our managing director, Mr. Robs
Peter our new colleague, Jane Small

Ex. 2. Read the text about the most striking features of English life and
answer the questions. Choose the best answer.

English people as they are

One of the most striking features of English life is the self-discipline and
courtesy of people of all classes. There is little noisy behavior, and practically no
loud disputing in the streets. People do not rush excitedly for seats in buses or
trains, but take their seats in queues at bus stops in a quit and orderly manner.
Englishmen are naturally polite and never tire of saying “Thank you,” “I’m
sorry,” “Beg your pardon.” If you follow anyone who is entering a building or a
room, he will hold a door open for you. Many foreigners have commented on the
remarkable politeness of the English people.
English people do not like displaying their emotions when in dangerous and
tragic situations, and ordinary people seem to remain good-tempered and cheerful
when having difficulties. The Englishman does not like boasting or showing off in
manners, dress and speech. Sometimes he conceals his knowledge; a linguist, for
example, may not mention his understanding of a foreign language.
The Englishman prefers his own house to an apartment in a block of flats,
because he does not wish his doing to be observed by his neighbors. “An
Englishman’s house is his castle.”
Many Englishmen are very good to their wives at home. They help their wives
in many ways. They clean the windows when they are at home on Saturday
afternoon. They often wash up dishes after supper in the evening.
Sunday is a very quiet day in London. All the shops are closed, and so are
theatres and most of the cinemas. Londoners like to get out of the town on
Sundays. The sea is not far – only fifty or sixty miles away and people like to go
down to the sea in summer or somewhere to the country for skiing in winter.

1. What is the most striking feature of English people?


a) They are noisy. b) They are very polite. c) They like arguing in the streets.
2. How do English people behave in buses?
a) They hold the door open for other people. b) They say, “I’m sorry” to the
driver. c) They take their seats quietly, without pushing and shouting.
3. How do they behave in difficult situations?
a) They do not like showing how they feel. b) They do not like displaying

39
their situations. c) They seem to be dangerous when having difficulties.
4. What dos the saying “An Englishman’s house is his castle” mean?
a) The English prefer to have many neighbors. b) They like live in separate
houses. c) They feel safe only at home.
5. Where do Londoners spend Sundays?
a) In the theatres or cinema; b) In the shops; c) In the country.

Ex. 3. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

1. I am not acquainted _____ Mr. Jones, could you introduce me__ him. I
would like to make his acquaintance____. 2. He greeted____ me ____a smile.
3. The chairman introduced the lecturer____ the audience. 4. It was necessary
to make introductions____ all round. There were many people present at the party.
5. ____further acquaintance I found out that he is a very difficult person to
deal____. 6. Remember me ____your mother. She is such a nice person. 7. Give
my kind regards___ your sister. I haven’t seen her____ ages.
8. How are you getting___? –Not too bad, thank you. 9. Fine, thanks. What__
you? — Oh, more or___ the same___ usual. And how are things__ you?

Ex. 6. Read the text and fill in the missing words:

a) tiredness; e) quite; i) even;


b) in; f) to; j) or.
c) a tie; g) first;
d) generally; h) after;

If you are invited (1) ____ dinner at someone’s home, you should take some
flowers (2) ___a box of chocolates. If you are invited to an informal party, it is (3)
____ common to take a bottle of wine or (4) ____ a few bottles of beer. At English
parties men are expected to wear a suit and (5) ____. If you wish to bring a friend
along, that’s fine, but it is polite to ask (6) ____. You are not expected to turn up
with very expensive presents. People (7) ____ Britain are (8) ____ quite careful
about time. When you are invited to someone’s house, you should either arrive on
time or no later than fifteen minutes (9)____ the time arranged. If in doubt, give
your hosts a ring. You should be careful about overstaying your welcome. Look
out for signs of (10)____ in your hosts. The best time to leave is when they appear
with their pajamas on. You can say, “Well, I think it’s time we were going...”

Ex. 8. Read the text. What Russian custom does the Pancake Day remind
you? Complete the sentences after the text, find the best answer.

40
Pancake Day

Pancake Day is a gay and tasty holiday for the English. It usually occurs in
March. Do people eat pancakes! They have pancakes not only at home, but at
school as well. But not only they eat pancakes, they run with them!
In some villages and towns in England, pancake races take place every year.
These races are run by housewives. There are special rules for pancake races:
housewives must wear aprons and they must put hats or scarves on their heads.
They must run about 415 yards (410 meters). A bell rings twice before the race.
After hearing the first bell, the women must start making their pancakes. With the
second bell, they start running with pancakes in their frying pans. While running
the race, they must toss the pancakes three times and catch them back in their
frying pans. If a pancake falls on the ground, the runner may pick it up and
continue the race. The other members of the families watch the runners and cheer:
“Run, Mum, run quickly!”

1. Pancake Day occurs usually ... a. in spring; b. in summer.


2. Pancake races take place ... a. from time to time; b. regularly.
3. Pancake races are run by ... a. children; b. women.
4. There are ... a. certain rules for pancake races;
b. no special rules for pancake races.
5. The other members of the family ... a. can also take part in the race;
b. can only watch it.

Ex. 10. Complete the sentences. Choose the best answer:

1. Не speaks .... a. a good French; b. good French.


2. That was the end ... a. that business; b. of that business.
3. Don’t ask ... a. too many questions; b. such a questions.
4. But it was clear that the lady … a. did not believe him; b. did not
believed him.
5. That is why ... a. they is here; b. I am here.

Ex. 4. What are they saying. Watch the words to the pictures. Write the letters
a to j in the balloons:

a. Yes, that’s right. How did you know. f. Of course. I can..


b. Never mind. It doesn’t matter. g. No problem. Go ahead.
c. That’s awful. I’ m so sorry. h. What a shame1 Why not?
d. Really? I think he prefers you. i. Yes, isn’t it great!
e. It’s really good to see you, too. j. Not too bad, thanks.

41
Ex. 5. Complete the crossword with the plurals of the words:

42
Ex. 7. There are different parties in the United States. Match the names of the
parties with their descriptions:

1. A get-together to honor a mother-to-be- a) a potluck;


prior to the baby’s birth. It is customary to
give presents, such as baby clothes, money,
toys etc.
2. A meal, especially for a large group, to b) a pajama party;
which participants bring food to be shared.
3. An overnight informal house party, espe- c) a baby shower;
cially for teenage girls. A group would stay
overnight at one girl’s house and have listen
to the music, chat, share secrets about their
crushes, tell stories, and so on.
4. Also called a bachelor party, it is given d) a housewarming;
for the bridegroom the night before his
wedding. It is an all-male party when the
groom usually receives gifts. It is supposed
to be the last «fling» before «setting down.»
5. A party where one’s friends and neigh- e) a hen party;
bors buy drinks, food, etc. and help one
pay the rent.
6. A dinner and /or reception given for a f) a stag party;
long-time employee when he or she retires.
In the united States, both men and women
may retire at 65.
7. A party given by people who have just g) a retirement party
moved into a new home.
8. Close friends of the bride often arrange h) a rent party;
«a shower» – a party just for women each guest
gives the bride-to-be a gift for her new home.
The immediate family is not to give showers.
Sometimes, several showers are held: a kitchen
shower, where only kitchen utensils are given,
a linen shower, a bathroom shower, etc. It is
rather expensive for the inviters, and only well-
off people can afford the luxury, of several
showers.
9. A party thrown by a teenager during i) a bridal shower;
his/her parents’ absence from home.
10. This is not a party on a particular j) my-parents-are-out-of-town;
occasion, but is any party when there are only

43
women. It is not connected with weddings. It is
colloquial and addition may have a slightly
derogatory connotation.

Ex. 9. Find the hidden holidays and circle them. There are eight:

Ex. 13. Read the order of adjectives when several are used together. Put the
adjectives in the sentences according to this rule:

opinion size age style color origin material purpose noun


horrible little white dog
lovely short curly blonde hair
beautiful long black silk party dress
nice old French soup bowls

1. Why didn’t you buy those (china rose beautiful antique) cups?
2. We’ve got a (free special) offer on this item.
3. I like your (furnished lovely small) apartment.
4. They ate some (local excellent seafood) dishes.
5. The cook’s looking for a (large red salad plastic) bowls.
6. Each room has a (red-and-white enormous superb bedside Japanese) lamp.
7. One of the guests stole our (pepper antique silver) pot.
8. In the lobby there was a (writing Flemish heavy sixteenth-century) desk.
9. Can you show me this (porcelain exquisite Ming-dynasty) vase?
10. I want to throw away our (wooden old large white double) bed.

Ex. 11. Match the correct words from the box with each of the words below.
The clues will help you: bin, child, clock, code, drink, fiction, food, forecast, gown,
hail, lenses, license, lights, park, reserve, store, toy, water.

44
Clues

Ex. 14. Word Study.

A Write the nouns for each of the following verbs:


behave ____________ converse _____________
congratulate ________ compliment ___________

В. What is the meaning of the word-part mis-, as used in misunderstand and


misinterpret? – _________________________

C. Sometimes -еss is added to an English noun to change a masculine form to


а feminine form, as in prince and princess. Check the dictionary, and then write
the feminine form for each of the following words: waiter, duke, host, actor.

Ex. 15. In each group of words on the left, one word shouldn’t be there.
Underline it and write it in the correct sentence on the right:

45
Ex. 16. Idiom Study.

Underline the correct answer to complete each statement: (The numbers in brackets
give the paragraphs in which the idioms are used.)

1. R.S.V.P. [11] on а party invitation means that you should а) phone the host
or hostess to respond b) соmе on time с) bring your own wine.
2. If you have run out of [16] postage stamps, а) you had some before, but
you used them all, so now you don’t have any b) you have run out to get some с)
you have а few left.
3. If you and your friend go out for dinner Dutch treat, [18] а) you eat Dutch
food b) you each pay for your own meal с) the meal is free.
4. If you tell а white lie, [20] а) it’s not really а lie b) it insults someone с) it
doesn’t hurt anyone.

Ex. 17. Complete each phrase on the left with the most suitable adjective.
Mind that certain adjectives and nouns tend to stick together. You just have to
learn these combinations as idioms:

46
1. a /an magnificent occasion active
2. a /an__________ guess ambiguous
3. a /an _________ rain brief
4. a /an__________ poison convenient
5. a /an _________ twins deadly
6. a /an__________ law dense
7. a / an_________ volcano disused
8. a /an _________ arrangement fatal
9. a /an _________ joke flat
10. a/an _________ search gifted
11.a /an _________ coal mine golden
12.a /an_________ statement identical
13.a /an _________ area magnificent
14.a /an _________ musician practical
15. a /an _________ accident residential
16. a /an _________ glimpse roaring
17. a /an _________ opportunity rough
18. a /an _________ fire thorough
19. a /an _________ tyre torrential
20. a /an _________ fog unwritten

Ex. 18. Reading Skills.

А. Pronouns and possessive adjectives generally refer to а noun that is used


earlier in the same sentence or in the preceding sentence:

1. In paragraph 8, sentence 2, what word does those refer to? ____________


2. In paragraph 9, sentence 1, what word does that refer to? _____________
3. In paragraph 16, sentence 2, what word does their refer to? ___________
4. In paragraph 21, sentence 2, what word does they refer to? ____________

В. What does the last sentence of the chapter imply about Americans?
________________________________________________________

Ex. 19. Translate from Russian into English:

1. В 17-м веке король Луи 14 выдавал людям, посещающим его, билет с


правилами поведения при дворе. 2. Большинство американских правил
поведения – это простой способ показать уважение и понимание
окружающих людей. 3. Учительница, когда студент-иностранец обращается к
ней сэр, понимает его желание быть вежливым и считает его хорошо
воспитанным. 4. Американцы довольно небрежны, что касается манер, и

47
считают разные способы поведения приемлемыми. 5. Существуют
традиционные способы представления друг другу. 6. Правильные формы
обращения американцев друг к другу являются загадкой для иностранцев. 7.
Когда-то только американцы-мужчины пожимали руки друг другу. 8. Сейчас
в деловой ситуации уже и женщины могут пожимать друг другу руки. 9.
Американцы часто называют друг друга по именам. 10. Но не вежливо
называть кого-либо только по фамилии. 11. Важно помнить, что некоторые
обращения используются без фамилии. 12. Такие обращения, как доктор,
профессор, и религиозные, как, отец и раввин, используются самостоятельно.
13. Но не правильно обращаться к учителю, как учитель. 14. Достаточно
вежливо сказать поздравляю, если у человека произошло какое-то радостное
событие. 15. Если вы приглашены на вечеринку, чтобы отпраздновать какой-
нибудь особый случай, то следует сделать хозяевам небольшой подарок. 16.
Цветы и конфеты будут подходящим подарком. 17. Если вы приглашены в
гости к вашему американскому другу, то приходите точно в указанное время
или чуть попозже. 18. Если еда, которую вам подают, вам не нравится или вы
не можете есть, то просто ешьте то, что вы можете. 19. На следующий день
позвоните или пошлите благодарственную записку своим друзьям, что вам
очень понравился прием. 20. Если вы знаете, что у вашего одноклассника
кто-то недавно умер, вам следует выразить свое соболезнование. 21. Будьте
вежливыми с друзьями и в случае, если с ними произошло несчастье. 22.
Простое слово извините, подходит ко многим трудным случаям. 23.
Пригласив друга в ресторан, узнайте, нужно ли делать предварительный
заказ, чтобы не ждать долго свободного столика. 24. Будьте готовы к тому,
чтобы оплатить счет, если вы ведете друга в ресторан. 25. Очень часто друзья
в ресторане платят каждый сам за себя. 26. Обычно чаевые не включают в
счет, оставьте официанту около 15%. 27. Хорошие манеры американцев
легко выучить путем наблюдения. 28. Сегодня женщине нет необходимости
сидеть дома и ждать от понравившегося ей мужчины звонка. 29. В США,
особенно в колледжах, отношения между студентом и учителем менее
официальные, чем в других странах. 30. Обычно студенты поощряются,
когда они задают вопросы во время занятий. 31. Когда преподаватель входит
в класс, студенты не встают. 32. Во время теста не только грубо, но и
рискованно разговаривать с одноклассником. 33. Американцы считают, что
люди обладают одинаковыми возможностями и требуют к себе одинакового
уважения. 34. Чтобы Вас считали хорошо воспитанным, следует избегать
трех вопросов: о возрасте, весе и доходах. 35. Если вы не поняли, о чем вас
спросили, то лучше это признать и переспросить. 36. Неприлично
разговаривать на своем родном языке в присутствии американцев, которые
не знают этого языка, и ставить их этим в неловкое положение. 37. Выучите
несколько вежливых выражений и будете чувствовать себя уверенно,
приехав в Америку.

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Ex. 20. Comprehension questions. Answer the following questions on paper
or in class discussion:

1. Say a few words about introductions and titles.


2.On what occasions should you say “Congratulations!”?
3. On what occasions should you say, “I’m sorry” and “Excuse me”?
4. What American parties and holidays do you know?
5. What can you say about American table manners?
6. Say a few words about English table manners?
7. What people do you tip and what ones don’t?
8. How can you explain “Dutch treat”?
9. How do American democratic attitudes affect manners?
10. How do American manners compare to those in your country? What are
some differences?

DIALOGUES

Ex. 1. Read the dialogues and dramatize them in class.

1.
— Can you do me a favor, Jim? Would you mind introducing me to Miss Jones?
— Oh, yes, with pleasure, though it is rather strange you do not know each other
yet.
— I just did not have a chance to get acquainted with her. Is she a nice girl?
— Yes, of course, and she has a very nice dog.
2.
— Harry, have you met Mr. Grey?
— No, we have not met.
— Come along then, I’ll introduce you to him, if you like.
— With pleasure.
— Mr. Grey, I should like to introduce Mr. Smith, a friend of mine.
— How do you do, Mr. Smith? Pleased to meet you.
— How do you do, Mr. Grey? I’m very glad to know you.
3.
— James, may I introduce Henry Brown? Mr. Smith, this is Henry Brown. You are
sure to have plenty to say to each other.
— How do you do, Mr. Richardson?
— How do you do, Mr. Brown? (They shake hands)
4.
— Have you met Mr. Hall?
— No, we haven’t met.
— Come along, I’ll introduce you to him, if you like.
— With pleasure.

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— Mr. Hall, I’d like to introduce Mr. Brown, a friend of mine.
— How do you do, Mr. Hall?
— How do you do, Mr. Brown? I’m very glad to know you.
5.
— I’m sorry. Are you acquainted? No? Harry, this is James Richardson.
Mr. Richardson, Larry Smith.
— How do you do? I’m so glad to meet you.
— How do you do? I’m so pleased to have made your acquaintance, Mr. Smith.

Ex. 2. Working in pairs make up a dialogue using the following variations.

1.
— Hallo, Nick, here you are! Glad to meet you!
I’m glad we’ve met.
Nice to see you
It’s good to see you again
— Cheerio! Glad to see you too
2.
— How are you? — Thanks, fine! How are you?
are you getting on? so-so
are things? as usual
is life? pretty well
is your mother? not too bright
not bad
could be better
3.
— How do you do, Mr. West? Pleased to meet you!
Glad to meet you!
Haven’t seen you for ages!
— How do you do, Peter?
4.
— Well, good-bye. Many kind regards — Thanks, I will by all means,
Good bye!
to your sister!
Remember me
My love
5.
— So long! See you later! — Cheerio!
the day after tomorrow
on Monday during
my next visit to France
6.
— Nora, meet my friend. Jack. — How do yon do, Jack?

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classmate
fellow student
brother
colleague
7.
— Miss Jane! Allow me to introduce Mr. Fox to you!
our managing director
our department head
— How do you do, Mr. Fox? Pleased to meet you.
Happy to meet you.
It’s a pleasure to make your
acquaintance
8
— Mr. Hopkins, I guess — That’s right. That’s me.
It’s my name.
9.
— I beg your pardon. I seem to know your face.
I saw you somewhere.
I bet I know your name.
Your name has slipped my mind.
— I am sorry, you take me for somebody else.

Ex. 3. Expand the situation introduced by the opening sentences:


1.
— How do you do, Mr. Jones?
— How do you do, Mr. Hardy?
— Sit down, please. What can I do for you?
2.
— Good morning, Mrs. Garland.
— Good morning, Mrs. Davis. How are you today?
— I’m quite well, thank you.
3.
— Morning, Frank.
— Hallo, Jim. How are you getting on?
— More or less all right, thanks and you?
4.
— Hello, Charles.
— Hello, Dick, lovely day, isn’t it?
— Absolutely wonderful...
5.
— Good afternoon, Mrs. Ferris.
— Good afternoon, Mrs. Collins, nice day, isn’t it?
— Oh, yes, just lovely...

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Ex. 4. Translate the dialogues into English:

1.
— Господин Джонсон, разрешите представить Вам господина Смирнова.
— Здравствуйте, господин Смирнов.
— Здравствуйте, господин Джонсон. Бернард Грей недавно рассказывал мне
о вашей последней работе. Это чрезвычайно интересно.
2.
— Разрешите Вам представить господина Маркова из Санкт-Петербурга.
— Здравствуйте, господин Марков. Рад с Вами познакомиться.
— Здравствуйте, господин Холл. Я также очень рад.
3.
— Не могли бы Вы представить меня господину Томпсону из Британской
делегации?
— С удовольствием. Господин Томпсон, разрешите Вам представить
господина Петрова из Российской делегации.
— Очень рад, господин Петров.
— Здравствуйте, господин Томпсон.
4.
— Генри, познакомься с моей женой. Элиза, это мой друг - Генри.
— Очень рада с Вами познакомиться, Генри.
— Я также очень рад, Элиза.
5.
— Вот идет Билл. Ты его знаешь? Он один из моих лучших друзей.
— Нет, я его никогда не встречал.
— Хочешь с ним познакомиться?
— Конечно.
— Привет, Билл. Как твои дела?
— Неплохо, спасибо. А как твои?
— Спасибо, прекрасно. Знаешь, Билл, я хочу познакомить тебя с Гарри. Он
один из моих старых друзей.
— Здравствуйте!
— Здравствуйте!
6.
— Привет, Билл. Как дела?
— Спасибо, прекрасно. Знаешь, Билл, я хочу познакомить тебя с Гарри. Он
один из моих старых друзей.
— Здравствуйте, Гарри!
— Здравствуйте, Билл!
7.
— Доброе утро, господин Джексон, как Вы себя чувствуете?
— Спасибо, хорошо, а Вы, господин Грин?

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— Я тоже хорошо, спасибо.
8.
— Добрый день, господин Хилл. Хороший день, не правда ли?
— Чудесный день! Как Вы себя чувствуете?
— Хорошо, спасибо. А Вы?
— Сегодня лучше, благодарю Вас. До свидания.
—До свидания, был рад с Вами повидаться.
9.
— Привет, Майк. Рад тебя видеть, как живешь?
— Ничего, спасибо, иду на работу. Увидимся позже.
— Пока.
10.
— Здравствуйте, господин Блейк, пришел с Вами попрощаться.
— Добрый день, господин Иванов, Вы уезжаете?
— Да, возвращаюсь домой. Я закончил свою работу здесь.
— Как жаль, Вы нам очень понравились.
— Спасибо, Вы очень добры. Всего хорошего.
— Передайте привет Вашей жене.
— Спасибо, передам. До свидания.

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II. EATING THE AMERICAN AND BRITISH WAYS

UNIT 1. AMERICAN AND BRITISH MEALS AND SNACKS


FOR BREAKFAST

Read the text about the most popular meals for American and English
breakfast.

1. Three square meals а day – that’s what Americans are supposed to eat but,
in reality, most add between-meal snacks and have а bite five or six times а day. Is
this healthy? Americans believe that what they eat is more important than how
often. However, the quality and the quantity of American consumption are both
matters of concern.
2. The meal that breaks the overnight fast is, of course, breakfast. What do
you have for breakfast? Toast? Cereal? Just a cup of coffee? These days eating
breakfast has become a bit of international thing, with cereals from popular brands
available all over the world; and restaurants like McDonald’s and Starbucks
serving coffee and cakes to everyone, anywhere. Of course, every country has its
own specialities: the French have their “café au lait” and croissant; the Germans
have their black bread and sliced ham; and the Spanish have their cupcakes and
“café con leche”. But what about the American people?
Breakfast is а meal that about 25% of Americans skip, either because they are
in а hurry or on а diet. Many adults that do eat breakfast have only а small meal,
perhaps just orange juice or toast along with the traditional wake-up beverage,
coffee. but others eat а real meal in the morning. А complete American breakfast
begins with fruit or fruit juice. The main course is generally hot or cold cereal or
eggs. The eggs are usually served with toast and perhaps also bacon, ham, or
sausages. Other popular breakfast foods are pancakes, waffles, and French toast
(bread soaked in а mixture of eggs and milk and then fried), all served with maple
syrup.
3. Americans usually eat breakfast between 7 and 8 a.m. by 10:30 or
thereabouts, they are ready for their mid-morning coffee break. Most workers are
given 10 to 15 minutes off the job to have coffee, а snack, and а chat with
coworkers.
What typical things do the British have for breakfast? Let’s see. Perhaps the
most internationally famous contribution to breakfast has been the English
breakfast. Of course, there are Irish and Scottish varieties too, but these breakfasts
are basically the same, and consist of the following: a pot of tea, baked beans,
eggs, toast, bacon, sausages (bangers), fried bread, mushrooms, black pudding and
tomatoes.
Apparently, this breakfast was invented by English aristocrats who would
often eat enormous amounts of food in the morning, ending with a whole sheep.
The idea was that they would spend the rest of the day hunting, fighting and

54
dueling until the evening when they could eat again.
One of the key components of the English breakfast is the eggs. This can
come in many shapes and forms, and you’ll need to know all the options so you
can have your eggs: a fried egg: this is an egg cooked in hot oil; scrambled eggs:
these are eggs that have been broken open and mixed together. The mixture is
cooked in oil with salt, pepper and milk (optional); a poached egg: this is an egg
that has been broken open and cooked in boiling water; a boiled egg: this is an
unbroken egg that is cooked in boiling water, if you cook it for just a couple of
minutes, the inside of the egg will be runny and you will have a soft-boiled egg; if
you cook it for longer the inside will be harder and you will have a hard-boiled
egg.
Of course, not everyone in England has an English breakfast in the morning.
In fact, English breakfasts are mostly eaten at the weekends or during holidays.
However, there are many lighter variations on the English breakfast. These dishes,
as well as the full English breakfast, may be eaten at any time during the day.
There are lots of different combinations, but the main ones are: baked beans on
toast; fried egg on toast; a bacon butty (a sandwich with hot bacon inside);
scrambled egg on toast.
But it isn’t all a question of fried food. There are lots of other typical things
that the British eat for breakfast. Here are some of the main ones: porridge: this is a
type of cereal that is cooked with milk or water and may be served with milk,
sugar or salt, originated in Scotland; marmalade: this is a fruit conserve that is
made with oranges, or other citrus fruits, if it’s made from any other type of fruit,
such as strawberries or apricots, then it’s called “jam”; marmite: this is a black
paste made with yeast and salt and has an acquired taste and delicious on toast with
butter; kippers: these are smoked fish that are typically eaten at breakfast time,
often served with a knob of butter and toast. Now you’re ready for your slap-up
British breakfast, complete with marmalade and kippers. Try one and you won’t
need to eat again for quite a few hours afterwards… unless you go for a long walk,
and then you can have another one.

BREAKFAST QUOTES

Here are some things that people have said about breakfast:

“How do you live a long life? Take a two-mile walk every morning before
breakfast.” Harry S Truman (American President).
“Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, and dinner like a pauper.”
Adelle Davis (American politician).
“A bachelor’s life is a fine breakfast, a flat lunch, and a miserable dinner.”
Francis Bacon (British politician and philosopher).
“My body is like breakfast, lunch, and dinner. I don’t think about it, I just
have it.” Arnold Schwarzenegger (American politician).

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“If a man should breakfast well, then he should breakfast in Britain.” Samuel
Johnson (British author).
“Only dull people are brilliant at breakfast.” Oscar Wilde (Irish writer).
“My wife and I tried two or three times in the last 40 years to have breakfast
together, but it was so disagreeable we had to stop.” Winston Churchill.
“Expect problems, and eat them for breakfast.” Alfred A. Montapert.
“I was at this restaurant. The sign said ‘Breakfast Anytime’. So I ordered
French Toast in the Renaissance.” Steven Wright (American comedian).
“To eat well in England you should have breakfast three times a day.”
Somerset Maugham (British author).
“Laugh before breakfast, and you’ll cry before supper.” (British proverb).

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. How many square meals a day are Americans supposed to eat?


2. But in reality how many times a day do Americans have a bite?
3. What is more important for Americans: what they eat or how often?
4. Why do about 25% of Americans skip breakfast?
5. What is the main course of American breakfast?
6. What are other popular breakfast foods?
7. When do Americans eat breakfast?
8. What time are they ready for their mid-morning coffee?
9. Who would often eat enormous amounts of food in the morning in
England?
10. What are the main ways you can have your egg as a key component of an
English breakfast?
11. What is the difference between fried eggs and scrambled ones?
12. What is a poached egg?
13.What is the difference between a hard-boiled and a soft-boiled egg?
14. What are there lighter variations on the English breakfast?
15.Which of these two breakfasts do you prefer?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents to the following words:

1) square; 2) to bite; 3) snack; 4) however; 5) quality; 6) quantity; 7)


consumption; 8) a matter; 9) to skip; 10) also; 11) a waffle; 12) a French toast; 13)
to soak; 14) mixture; 15) chat; 16) marmite; 17) black pudding; 18) bangers; 19) to
hunt; 20) to duel; 21) a bacon butty; 22) slap-up breakfast; 23) yeast; 24) a knob;
25) kipper.

Ex. 3. Put the pictures into a logical order to make scrambled eggs. Then
write the recipe using the adverbs: first, then, after that, and finally.

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1 _____________________________________________
2 _____________________________________________
3 _____________________________________________
4 _____________________________________________
5 _____________________________________________
6 _____________________________________________
7 _____________________________________________

Ex. 4. Complete sentences (1-6) below, using the correct form of the words:
boil, mix, grill, roast, bake, stir, fry.

1. You can ______sausages in a pan or _______ them on a barbecue.


2. Bread must be ______ in a hot or it won’t rise properly.
3. A traditional British Sunday lunch is a large piece of meat ______ in the
oven with vegetables.
4. The easiest way to cook an egg is to _______ it in a pan of water.
5. It’s best to use a wooden spoon to ______ food while it’s cooking.
6. You can _____ all the ingredients for your cake in this big bowl.

Ex. 5. Find the words on the left that go with the words on the right and write
then on the line:

Ex. 6. Fill in the blanks with a, an, or some:

1. Would you like … apple? 2. Could I have … hamburger and … juice? 3.

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Would you like … pancake? 4. Jason would like … soup. I’d like … hot dog. 5.
Would you like … rice or … pasta? 6. Are you going shopping? Could you get …
eggs, … cheese, … potatoes, and … tomato? 7. Can I have … egg for breakfast? 8.
Would you like … bacon? 9. I’d like … steak and … peas, please.

Ex. 7. Read the words and match them with the picture:

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Ex. 8. Look at the group of words (1-9) below. Which is the odd one out?

1) knife/ mug/ chopsticks/ spoon; 2) turkey/ duck/ chicken/ lamb; 3) roll/


cake/ pizza/ toast; 4) tea/ cocoa/ coke/ coffee; 5) plate/ pan/ saucer/ dish; 6) grapes/
cabbage/ spinach/ peas; 7) frozen/ bitter/ sweet/ sour; 8) microwave/ kettle/
barbecue/ oven; 9) burger/ French fries/ hot dogs/ omelette.

Ex. 9. Find these things in the pictures. Match. Compare with the partner:

biscuit (cookie US), bread, bun, cake, chocolate, crisps (potato chips - US),
pancake, pastry (Danish), pie, sandwich, sweets (candy - US), tart, beer, coffee,
cream, juice, milk, tea, water, wine, bacon, butter, cheese, chicken.

UNIT 2 . AMERICAN FARE FOR LUNCH

59
Read the text about the most popular foods for lunch and favorite places
where people eat it.

4. Most Americans eat lunch between noon and two o’clock. This mid-day
meal is eaten away from home more often than breakfast or dinner. It is rare for
working adults to go home for lunch, and many schoolchildren eat at school. Some
people brown-bag it – that is, they bring food from home in а paper bag. For this
purpose, they need а meal that is small and portable. The sandwich meets these
requirements. In addition, it is inexpensive and, easy to prepare. The sandwich chef
needs only two pieces of bread, something moist to smear on the bread (butter,
mayonnaise, mustard, or catsup), and some meat, cheese, fish, or poultry to stuff in
between. Some popular cold sandwiches are those made with ham and cheese,
peanut butter and jelly, sliced chicken or turkey, tuna salad and roast beef.
5. People who eat lunch in restaurants are more likely to order hot
sandwiches. The most popular of these are hamburgers and hot dogs. Hamburgers
are patties of chopped meat, usually served in round buns.
Hot dogs are 5 to 7-inch sausages (also called red hots, frankfurters, or
wieners) served in long thin buns. The name hot dog was inspired (about 1900) by
an American vendor who compared the frankfurter to the long-bodied German
dog. His hot dachshund sausages eventually became simply hot dogs.
6. The sandwich is standard lunchtime fare, but for а bigger meal, the diner
might add а bowl of soup, а salad, French fried potatoes or potato chips, and а
sweet dessert or fruit
7. Because most people eat lunch around the same time, restaurants are quite
crowded between noon and two o’clock. At counters, where customers sit on а row
of stools rather than at separate tables, waiters and waitresses can provide faster
service. То save time, many people eat in cafeterias, where customers walk by
displays of food, place what they want on their trays, and then pay а cashier at the
end of the line. Self-service cafeterias handle big crowds quickly and efficiently.
Large institutions such as factories, hospitals, and schools often have cafeterias
and/or lunchrooms with food-dispensing machines from which customers can
purchase soup, sandwiches, drinks, fruit and sweets. Microwave ovens for heating
foods quickly may be set up near these machines. Fast-food restaurants (where
customers order food and get it in about two minutes) also do а thriving business at
lunchtime.
8. On the other hand, those who want а more leisurely lunch served to them
can find many traditional restaurants. At nice restaurants, diners sometimes
combine business and pleasure at а business luncheon, where work is discussed
while eating.
9. The mid-afternoon snack is also an American tradition. Office and factory
workers take а second coffee break. Children coming home from school usually
head immediately for the refrigerator. In warm weather, ice cream is а popular

60
snack food. It’s consumed in cones, bars, and sundaes (with а sweet sauce on top).
It is also used in two popular drinks, milkshakes and ice cream sodas.
Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:
1. When is the mid-day meal eaten?
2. Why is the sandwich popular among those Americans who have brown-bag it?
3. What food does the sandwich chef need to prepare the sandwich?
4. What food is popular for cold sandwiches?
5. What are the most popular hot sandwiches?
6. What are hamburgers?
7. What are hot dogs?
8. Who inspired the name hot dog?
9. What do Americans eat in restaurants for lunch?
10. Where can waiters and waitresses provide faster service?
11. What is a cafeteria?
12. What are food-dispensing machines?
13. Why do fast-food restaurants do a thriving business at lunch time?
14. Where do Americans combine business and pleasure?
15. When do office and factory workers take a second coffee break?
16. What is a popular snack food in warm weather?
Ex. 2. Give English equivalents to the following words and word
combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:
1) полезный, 2) диета, 3) главное блюдо, 4) блины, 5) кленовый сироп, 6)
коллега, 7) горчица, 8) домашняя птица, 9) арахисовое масло, 10) дюйм, 11)
рубленое мясо, 12) продавец, 13) картофельное пюре, 14) прилавок, 15)
отдельный стол, 16) покупать, 17) микроволновая печь, 18) поднос, 19)
перерыв, 20) холодильник, 21) сосиски, 22) молочный коктейль, 23) пирожок,
24) изобретать, 25) булочка, 26) кассир, 27) ряд, 28) толпа, 29) тунец, 30)
бодрящий напиток.
Ex. 4. Write the words in the correct box.

61
Ex. 5. Write the numbers 1 to 14 next to the correct words.

Ex. 6. In each list there is only one countable or uncountable noun. Check the
odd one out.
Example: apple, orange, banana, COFFEE:

1) coffee, egg, pancake, sandwich; 2) wine, water, sandwich, milk; 3) soup,

62
peas, sugar, tea; 4) potato, tomato, bread, orange; 5) hot dog, cheese, cereal, butter;
6) meat, rice, cookie, bacon; 7) bacon, onion, cheeseburger, apple; 8) milk, French
fries, pasta, beer; 9) orange, butter, salt, pepper; 10) beans, peaches, fruit,
tomatoes.

Ex. 7. Complete the sentence with the best word.

1. He must_____ a) taught; b) be taught; c) is taught; d) has taught.


2. I have no right to ask you__ question. a) such; b) so; c) such a; d) an.
3. He’s put on a hat and changed his suit, ___? a) isn’t it; b) hasn’t he; c) isn’t
he; d) doesn’t he.
4. ____a moment or two no one spoke. a) in; b) at; c) during; d) for.
5. We were___ there when I was at school in Paris. a) take; b) took; c) taken;
d) taking.

Ex. 8. Match the English words and phrases with the Russian ones:

1) dills; a) кочан капусты;


2) overdone meat; b) передавать;
3) cauliflower; c) положить себе;
4) help oneself to; d) общий стол;
5) pass; e) судок для горчицы;
6) bitter; f) горький;
7) head of cabbage; g) ножи и вилки;
8) table d’hote; h) пережаренное мясо;
9) cutlery; i) укроп;
10) mustard-pot. j) цветная капуста.

UNIT 3. FAMOUS BRITISH TRADITION: AFTERNOON TEA

Read the texts (A-E) about an afternoon tea. After reading decide which are
the best titles for each of them:
1) Some Food With Your Tea? 2) Bored Lady. 3) Tea Time Is Any Time. 4)
The Ultimate Experience. 5) Tea Drinking Etiquette.

You’ve probably heard of the British tradition of making tea at 4pm. But does it
really exist? Actually, it does, and every day, millions of Brits stop work to take part in
this tradition that goes back centuries.
A) The British drink enormous quantities of tea. Some have as many as 10 or 20
cups a day. And this custom is common all classes, including the workers on a break,
and posh ladies in their country mansions. Just go round to any house during the day
and you’ll hear the familiar question, “Shall I put the kettle on for a cuppa”. And every

63
“cuppa” becomes at least 2 or 3 cups. In fact, experts estimate that Brits drink about
200,000,000 cups for every adult, child and baby. The special time to enjoy tea is
during the day at approximately 4 p.m. This is known as “afternoon tea”, and it’s
tradition that’s still going strong. Some take their afternoon tea at home; while others
enjoy their cup in quaint tearooms, which can be found all over Britain. So when did it
all start?
B) The famous tradition began when companies started shipping tea from India to
Britain in the late 17th century. In those days only the wealthy could to buy tea. The
actual person who claimed to have “invented” the tradition was Anna, the seventh
Duchess of Bedford (1783-1857) in 1840as “a way to quell the hunger pangs one feels
between lunch and dinner”. In other words, she got hungry before dinner and needed
something to keep her going. In the 19th century it was common to have large
breakfasts, a very light lunch at about 2 p.m., and nothing else until dinner at about 8
p.m. So it was perfectly logical that the poor duchess got a little hungry in the late
afternoon.
C) Rich ladies soon copied the new custom and afternoon tea developed its own
ritual and set of rules. First of all the hostess would bring out the finest porcelain called
“the China”, which was extremely thin, fragile and intricately painted cups and saucers.
This would be carried on a silver tray.
The tea would be served, and the hostess would politely ask her guests if they
wanted any sugar or milk with their tea. Each guest took a napkin, and tried their best to
balance a full cup, saucer, a plate piled high with cakes, a knife and a napkin without
spilling any tea or dropping anything on the floor. That was part of the fun.
All the guests would exhibit their best social skills, and converse politely on the
weather, their homes and the latest society gossip. The women would be dressed in
summer dresses, fashionable hats, and the men would be wearing light linen suits.
Everyone was expected to behave with exquisite manners, and there was no slurping,
drinking from the saucer, or loud conversation.
D) Soon, people started adding special items of food for their guests to enjoy –
things that are still eaten today. The most typical things are small cakes, crumpets,
muffins and scones. Sandwiches are popular. And the most typical ones are cucumber
sandwiches. These are prepared with finely sliced bread (crusts removed), a layer of
butter, slithers of cucumber, and a sprinkle of salt and black pepper. Other popular
ingredients for sandwiches include egg mayonnaise, smoked salmon, and chicken.
Yummy!
E) So where can you enjoy a typical afternoon tea? There are literally thousands
of tearooms all over Britain where you can participate in this very British tradition.
However, the place to really experience the tea-taking ceremony is at the Ritz in
London. Every day of the year you can enjoy an afternoon tea in The Palm Court. Tea,
cakes and sandwiches are served from 12 noon and there are five sittings: 11.30 a.m.,
1.30 p.m., 3.30 p.m., 5.30 p.m. and 7.30 p.m. During the week a pianist plays, and at
weekends there’s a harpist. You have to make your reservation at least six weeks in

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advance. The Ritz also has to wear a formal dress code, and gentlemen have to wear a
jacket and tie. So, where will you be having your afternoon tea?

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Does an afternoon tea really exist?


2. How many cups of tea do Brits drink every day?
3. When is the special time during the day to enjoy tea?
4. Who could buy tea in the late 17th century?
5. How did the tradition start?
6. Can you say a few words about tea drinking etiquette?
7. What does an afternoon tea consist of?
8. What are the most typical sandwiches?
9. Where can you enjoy your very own afternoon tea?
10. How many sittings are there in the Palm Court and the Ritz?

Ex. 2/1. Study Afternoon Tea Vocabulary.

AFTERNOON TEA VOCABULARY

1. A Chelsea bun – delicious cake with icing on the top and currant inside.
2. Crumpets – dry rubbery little cakes with holes in them. That are best eaten
toasted with lots of butter that melts down into the holes. Some people like them with
jam or even a piece of cheese.
3. Danish Pasty – a cake filled with variety of fillings including fruit, cream
cheese, almost paste and spiced nuts.
4. Eccles cakes – these are light cakes filled with currents. Eccles cakes were first
sold in 1793. In 1850, the cakes were temporary banned because of their “juicy and
exotic richness”. Nowadays, the Manchester-based Lancashire Eccles Cakes company
makes 600,000 cakes a week, and exports them all over the world. Incidentally, the
word Eccles” means church and is derived from the Greek word “Ecclesia”.
5. Scones – a small type of cake that is often served with butter and jam. There are
two ways to pronounce the word “scone”: “scon”, which is used in Scotland, Wales and
northern England; and “scoan”, which is used in the south of England.
No one is really sure of the origin of the name. Some say it comes from the
place where the kings of Scotland were crowned, the Stone (Scone) of Destiny. Others
believe the name comes from the Dutch word “schoonbrot” meaning “beautiful bread”.
Still others say it comes from the Gaelic “sgonn”, which means “ large mouthful”.
6. High tea – a hot meal that served around 6 p.m. The word “high tea” is not used
so much these days, but people do often refer to the food they have about this time as
“tea”. It has nothing to do with afternoon tea.
7. A cream tea – this is a version of the afternoon tea that consists of a pot of tea
with a scone, some strawberry jam and clotted cream, also known as Devonshire

65
cream. This is a type of cream that is produced by heating the milk until a layer of
cream forms on the surface. Later, it is cooled down. It is delicious on the scones.
8. A cuppa – a cup of tea. Other familiar words are “cup of char’, “a cup of Rosie
Lee” , which is Cockney rhyming slang for tea “Lee” rhymes with “tea”)
9. Afternoon tea – a cup of tea that is taken at about 4 p.m. in the afternoon. It is
often accompanied by cakes or sandwiches.
10. Muffins – a small cake with soft dough in the middle. Typical ones are made
with chocolate or blueberry.

Ex. 2/2. Match the words from “Afternoon Tea Vocabulary” and the text
above with their definitions:

1) a cuppa a) the outside part of a piece of bread. It is usually hard


2) wealthy b) a cup of tea.
3) a posh lady c) someone with “exquisite manners”, is very polite and
behaves very well
4) exquisite manners d) a person who plays the harp (a large musical
instrument with strings). You sit down to play it.
5) a sitting e) with lots of things one on top of another
6) piled high with f) attractive because it is old, nice and traditional
7) a harpist g) a rich, sophisticated lady
8) yummy h) to eat food so you don’t feel hungry
9) a ritual i) a series of actions that people do regularly or as part
of a ceremony
10) to quell a hunger j) a period when food is served
pangs
11) quaint k) a large breakfast with lots of food
12) to try one’s best l) a very thin piece of something
13) to spill m) information about the private lives of famous people

14) society gossip n) if you “spill” a liquid, that liquid falls out of the
container
15) sprinkle of salt o) a small amount of salt
16) a slither p) a type of restaurant where you can buy tea
17) a crust q) to make a big effort
18) a slap-up breakfast r) rich
19) intricately painted s) this is what people say when they like food
20) a tearoom t) with complicated designs

Ex. 3. Match the words, which have something in common:

bun; peanut; roll; currant; saucer; bottle; partridge; gooseberry; soup; plate;
duck; rusk; almond; napkin; cheese; pitcher; walnut; plum; pie; sturgeon; noodle-

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pike; mushroom; herring; pickles; cups; salted cucumbers; pasta.

Ex. 4. Put the following pictures into a logical order to make English tea.
Then write the recipe using the adverbs: first, then, after that, and finally.

1 ______________________________________________
2 ______________________________________________
3 ______________________________________________
4 ______________________________________________
5 ______________________________________________
6 ______________________________________________
7 ______________________________________________
8 ______________________________________________

Ex. 5. Make adjectives from these nouns: cream, fish, fruit, juice, salt, taste
and then, complete sentences (1- 6) below:
Vocabulary note: We can add –y to some nouns to make adjectives: salt-
salty; juice-juicy. Notice what happens when the noun ends in -e.

1 Let’s buy some of these oranges; they look really __________.


2. This soup tastes quite __________. There must be some seafood in it.
3. I’m afraid the potatoes were too ___________. Are you feeling thirsty as
well?
4. I’d love another slice of pizza. It’s very ______________.
5. Mix the flour with the eggs and milk it is nice and _____________.

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6. This drink is supposed to be made from fresh melon and bananas but it
doesn’t taste very ____________ to me.
Ex. 6. There are 20 words for food and drinks in the square. Can you find
them?

C O F F E E Q B E E F Y U B

S A N D W I C H K K L T E A

Z A P P L E C R I C E A S C

B R E A D R U T O A S T F O

C G D F G H J Y L K W B H N

C H E E S E T G F E A U A P

F T C H I C K E N S F T M P

I Y S P I N A R C H F T C E

S P A N C A K E A N L E P A

H D G T U R K E Y Z E R S S

I B E D T O M A T O P L U P

R E B H T U N A W D V H G J

L E M O N C V B N C R E A M

T E A F G P A S T A W R R X

Ex. 7. Match the pairs of adjectives on the left to the nouns of food and
drinks on the right.
1. baked or mashed __k___ a. boiled eggs
2. fried or scrambled _____ b. bread
3. brown or white _____ c. cola
4. fried or grilled _____ d. chocolate
5. hard or soft _____ e. cream

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6. hot or mild _____ f. curry
7. plain or milk _____ g. eggs
8. rare or medium _____ h. fish
9. regular or diet _____ i. milk
10. skimmed or full-cream _____ j. mineral water
11. single or double _____ k. potatoes
12. still or sparkling _____ l. tea
13. strong or weak _____ m. steak
14. sweet or dry _____ n. tomatoes
15. tinned or fresh _____ o. wine

Ex. 8. Find these things in the pictures. Match. Compare with the partner:

Egg, fish, jam (jelly - US), omelette, meat (beef), sauce, sausage, soup,
cereal, chips (French fries - US), rice, spaghetti, barbecue, boil, fry, grill, roast

UNIT 4. THE BIGGEST MEAL OF THE DAY AND MEAL SHEDULE


ON WEEKENDS AND HOLIDAYS

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Read the text about dinner time when everyone gets together and shares the
day’s experiences and when it is served. Then, answer the questions.

10. The biggest meal of the day is dinner, served about six o’clock. Dinner
may include several courses: an appetizer (consisting of fresh fruit, fruit juice, or а
small portion of fish); soup; a salad; an entree of meat, poultry, or fish; and side
dishes such as cooked vegetables, rice, or noodles. Coffee or tea and dessert finish
off the meal.
Most Americans prefer а sweet dessert such as cake, pie, or ice cream. Apple
pie, served hot with а scoop of ice cream (a la mode) or with а slice of cheese, is а
national favourite, hence the popular expression, «as American as apple pie.» Most
Americans don’t eat all these courses for dinner every evening, but they often do
sо when eating out or serving guests at home.
11. With lunch and dinner, Americans commonly drink water, fruit juice,
beer, coffee, tea, or а carbonated drink called soda or pop. Though children are
urged to drink milk with every meal, many prefer soda or juice instead. Wine is
considered festive and is likely to appear on holidays, at celebrations, and when
dining out.
12. Since dinner is customarily served early in the evening the late evening
snack is а ritual in most households. Children often have milk and cookies before
bedtime. Adults may nibble on fruit or sweets.
13. On weekends and holidays, the meal schedule may vary. On Saturday
evenings, many people eat very late dinners, particularly those who dine out. On
Sundays, many families have brunch, а meal that combines breakfast and lunch. It
is usually served between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. and includes typical breakfast foods
plus cheese, fruitcake, and perhaps cold fish. Families who go to church on Sunday
morning may have their usual weekday breakfast before services and then eat their
biggest meal of the day about two o’clock. The main meal of the day is always
called dinner, nо matter what time it is served. When dinner is eaten in mid-
afternoon, а smaller evening meal, called supper, is served around seven o’clock.
14. On Sundays and holidays when the weather is mild, Americans often eat
outdoors. They enjoy picnics in parks, backyard barbecues (usually featuring
charcoal-broiled steaks, hot dogs, or hamburgers) and clambakes.
15. In the U.S.А. as elsewhere, eating is an important part of family life and
social activity. In many homes, dinner time may be the only time when everyone
gets together and shares the day’s experiences. It is also an occasion for inviting
friends.
16. Dining out is also an important part of American social life. For single
men and women, dates often begin with dinner at а nice restaurant. Married
couples often get together in groups to eat out, especially on weekends. In their
desire to use time efficiently, Americans may rush through breakfast and lunch, but
dinner is usually а more leisurely meal at which enjoyment of food is enhanced by
pleasant conversation.

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Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1.When is the biggest meal of the day served?


2.What courses may dinner include?
3.What is usually an apple pie served with and what “ a la mode” means?
4.What do Americans commonly drink with lunch and dinner?
6.When do many families have dinner on Saturdays?
7. What is brunch?
8. When is it served?
9. What food does brunch include?
10. What is the main meal of the day on the weekends and holidays?
11. How is a smaller evening meal called?
12. What is barbecue?
13. Why is dinner time an important part of American family life?
14. Where do single men and women often date?
15. What does dining out mean for American social life?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) an appetizer; 2) entree; 3) side dish; 4) noodles; 5) a schedule; 6) a scoop;


7) carbonated drink; 8) festive; 9) nibble; 10) a church; 11) a backyard; 12) steak;
13) enjoyment; 14) a married couple; 15) a leisurely meal.

Ex. 3. Ask questions to these sentences:

1. Coffee or tea and dessert finish off the meal.


2. Most Americans prefer a sweet dessert such as cake, pie or ice cream.
3. Children often have milk and cookies before bedtime.
4. On weekends and holidays, the meal schedule may vary.
5. For single men and women dates often begin with dinner at a nice
restaurant.

Ex. 4. Match the places where you can eat with their definitions:

1) sports bar; 2) oyster bars, 3) Golden Arches; 4) White Castle; 5) chop


house; 6) Automat; 7) taqueria; 8) smorgasbord (Swedish cold buffet); 9) drive-
thru; 10) salad bar.

a) An inexpensive, self-service cafeteria where patrons may get food from


small compartments with doors opened by hutting coins into slots. The first one
was opened in Philadelphia in 1902. New York City used to have many of these
restaurants until the rise of fast food in the 1960s.

71
b) A restaurant specializing in chops and steaks.
c) This term refers to the services offered by fast-food restaurants. For the
driver to order food without leaving the car.
d) Small outdoor restaurants on the streets of New Orleans famous for
delicious seafood, such as Gulf shrimps and oysters. Seafood is important
ingredient in Cajun cooking.
e) A self-served assortment of salads, salad ingredients, and dressings, as in
restaurants or takeout establishments, such as delis or supermarkets.
f) A self-served buffet meal offering a wide variety of hot and cold foods,
such as buttered bread, relishes, meats, smoked and pickled fish, eggs, salads, and
cheeses. Also called “Swedish cold buffet.” The term is of a Scandinavian origin.
Swedish-style buffets first gained popularity among American diners in the early
decades of the 20th century. In the 1930s, some restaurants were advertising “all
you can eat” smorgasbord for fifty cents.
g) In the United States, a bar where non-stop televised sport is shown. Such
bars developed in the 1970s and have become increasingly popular with the advent
of Cable TV sports programs, such as ESPN, televising sport on the 24-hour basis.
h) A restaurant specializing in Mexican food, particularly tacos. The word is
formed on the model of pizzeria.
i) An alternative informal name for a McDonald’s restaurant. The gold-
colored “M”, which looks like a pair of arches, is a trademark of McDonald’s.
j) The first in the United States fast-food hamburger chain. It was started by
two entrepreneurs from Wichita, Kansas, in the 1950s, and is still in business, but
remains much smaller than McDonald’s, Wendy’s, or Burger King. Many
Americans say the White Castle hamburger is an all-American institution and that
there’s nothing better than little steam-grilled burgers.

Ex. 5. Now write down some things Americans eat during the day:

Breakfast Lunch Dinner


______________ ______________ _____________
______________ ______________ _____________
______________ ______________ _____________

Ex. 6/1. Read the text about what your coffee says about you.

What kind of coffee do you drink? Cappuccino? Irish coffee? Black coffee? A
recent psychological study claims that there is a connection between the type of
coffee you drink and your personality. Learn what different coffees mean, and use
this information to analyse your friends, business associates, family and neighbors.
This will give you a competitive advantage:

Decaf Coffee (decaffeinated coffee)

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Decaf coffee drinkers have a strong need to have some control of their lives,
and they need to be in the driving seat at all times. They also hate feeling any form
of dependence – especially on drugs, such as caffeine.
Instant coffee
Instant coffee drinkers are pathologically lazy. They cannot abide hard work
and will do anything to avoid messing around with complicated instruments and
machines such as coffee percolators. They love the fact that making a coffee
consists of merely throwing in a spoon and chucking some hot water over it.
White Coffee
Coffee drinkers who succumb to the temptation of the “white liquid” (milk)
are often weak-willed people who suffer from self-destructive tendencies.
Espresso
This is the classic, dark Italian coffee that has a rich flavor and smoky aroma.
Drink it Italian-style by knocking it back in one or two gulps, giving yourself third-
degree burns to the tongue.
Espresso drinkers are traditionally stubborn, although the modern trend is to
be more open to argument and disagreement.
Caffe latte
This coffee is a classic Italian drink, made with a small cup of freshly-brewed
espresso and topped up with hot milk. It is also known as “café con leche” in
Spain, “café-au-lait” in posh cafes in England (ordinary “cafes” in France), and
“milky coffee” to your average English person. Caffe Latte drinkers have a happy-
go-lucky nature. They are jolly, full of good humour and often to be heard cracking
jokes at other people’s expense.
Cappuccino
This drink is made from one-third coffee, one-third milk and one-third froth.
Make your own froth by heating milk in a pan and then whisking briskly with a
fork. Pour the frothy milk onto your hot black coffee. Sprinkle chocolate powder
or cinnamon on top for added color. Cappuccino drinkers are authentic people who
enjoy all the ups and downs life tosses their way.
Mocha
This novel form of coffee is created by mixing together a cup of coffee and a
cup of hot chocolate. Inexperienced drinkers may like to soften the taste by adding
cream on top. Mocha drinkers have little concept of time and money, and have an
inability to administer their own finances.
Irish Coffee
This original method of disguising the taste of coffee involves the addition of
coffee, whiskey, sugar and cream. Pour the cream over the black of a teaspoon to
demonstrate your high level of cultural awareness. Irish coffee drinkers have an
aggressive streak which tends to manifest itself after 52 glasses of the drink.
Sippers and Gluggers
Psychologists have identified two distinct drinking styles: sipping and
glugging. “Sippers” tend to approach things cautiously and with trepidation,

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particularly new relationships, jobs and types of food. “Gluggers” have few
inhibitions in life and will happily jump in where others fear to tread.
Cups and Saucers
Coffee drinkers’ accessories can also give us many clues to a person’s
personality. Those who use saucers overwhelmingly have a history of insanity in
the family. After all, who would be stupid or crazy enough to bother with those
silly little plates? Plastic cup coffee drinkers are too busy thinking about their own
lives to notice that they’re drinking from plastic.
Sweet Coffee
People who heap sugar into their coffee are either suffering from acute
absent-mindedness, or have an inability to say “no”. Sweet-coffee drinkers
traditionally have low self-esteem and can only boost their confidence through the
use of sugar.

Ex. 6/2. Match these adjectives describing personality with the definitions:

1) lazy a) sure that you have the ability to do things well or deal
with situations successfully
2) weak-willed b) enjoying life and not worrying about things
3) stubborn c) someone who always tells the truth and doesn’t cheat
or steal
4) happy-go-lucky d) someone who does not do something difficult that
they had intended to do
5) jolly e) deliberately doing things that are likely to seriously
harm or kill yourself
6) absent-minded f) needing someone or something in order to exist, be
successful, be healthy
7) confident g) not liking work and physical activity, or not making
any effort to do anything
8) dependent h) likely to forget things, especially because you are
thinking about something else
9) self-destructive i) happy and enjoying yourself
10) honest j) determined not to change your mind, even when
people think you are being unreasonable

Ex. 6/3. Odd one out. Find the word in each group which doesn’t belong to it:

1) Mocha/ Espresso/ Cappuccino/ Sipper/ Caffe Latte; 2) teaspoon/ coffee


percolator/ instant coffee/ cup, saucer; 3) flavor/ aroma/ gulp/ taste/ smell;
4) chocolate powder/ cinnamon/ hot chocolate/ froth/ cream; 5) temptation/
integrity/ humor/ concept/ caffeine.

Ex. 6/4. Match the words from the text with their definitions:

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1) to be in driving seat 7) a froth

2) to mess around 8) to disguise

3) a fad 9) to sip
4) to knock 10) to heap
11) where others fear to tread
12) to bother with
a) to say jokes 13) briskly
that humiliate and 14) to boost
make fun of other 15) to glug
people
b) if you “ disguise”
the flavour of food, e) to drink quickly
you add salt, sugar or
something to hide the f) if you “heap” sugar into your cup, you put a lot of it in
flavour your cup
c) a temporary fashion g) to drink all the contents of a cup or glass, etc. very
d) a mixture of liquid quickly
and air similar to what h) where other people are too frightened to go. literally,
you find on the top of “to tread” is to go
a cappuccino i) to drink by taking very little amounts of liquid
j) an ordinary English person
k) to be in control of a situation

l) to increase
5) average English m) to use, in this case
person n) quickly
6) to crack jokes at o) to spend time doing stupid things
other people’s expense

Ex. 6. Write the numbers 1 to 14 next to the correct words of fruit and
vegetables:

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UNIT 5. ENGLISH MEALS

Read the dialogue between Mr. Priestley and his foreign student, Frieda about
English meals and cooking.

Frieda: Could you please tell us something about English meals and food and
cooking – how to lay the table and so on? I am going to keep house for an English
family in the summer holidays and I want to know as much as I can about it before
I go.
MR. Priestley: Well, here is Mrs. Priestley. She can tell you about it better
than I can.
Mrs. Priestley: Oh, yes, I will do that gladly. The usual meals are breakfast,
lunch, tea and dinner; or, in simpler homes, breakfast, dinner, tea and supper.
breakfast is generally a bigger meal than you have on the Continent though some
English people like a «continental» breakfast of rolls and butter and coffee. But the
usual English breakfast is porridge or «Corn Flakes» with milk or cream and sugar,
bacon and eggs, marmalade (made from oranges) with buttered toast, and tea or
coffee. For a change, you can have a boiled egg, cold ham, or perhaps fish. We
generally have lunch about one o’clock. The businessman in London usually finds
it impossible to come home, for lunch, and so he goes to a cafe or a restaurant; but
if I am making lunch at home I have cold meat (left over probably from
yesterday’s dinner), potatoes, salad and pickles, with a pudding or fruit to follow.
Sometimes we have a mutton chop, or steak and chips, followed by biscuits and
cheese, and some people like a glass of light beer with lunch.
Afternoon tea you can hardly call a meal, but it is a sociable sort of thing, as
friends often come in then for a chat while they have their cup of tea, cake or
biscuit. In some houses, dinner is the biggest meal of the day. We had rather a
special one last night, as we had an important visitor from South America to see
Mr. Priestley. We began with soup, followed by fish, roast chicken, potatoes and
vegetables, a sweet, fruit and nuts. Then we went into the sitting room for coffee

76
and cigarettes. but in my house, as in a great many English homes, we make the
midday meal the chief one of the day, and in the evening we have the much
simpler supper—an omelette, or sausages, sometimes bacon and eggs and
sometimes just bread and cheese, a cup of coffee or cocoa and fruit.
Hob: My uncle Albert always has “high tea”. He says he has no use for these
“afternoon teas” where you try to hold a cup of tea in one hand and a piece of
bread and butter about as thin as a sheet of paper in the other. He’s a Lancashire
man, and nearly everyone in Lancashire likes high tea. So do I. We have it between
five and six o’clock, and we have ham or tongue and tomatoes and salad, or a
kipper, or tinned salmon, or sausages, with good strong tea, plenty of bread and
butter, then stewed fruit, or a tin of pears, apricots or pineapple with cream or
custard and pastries or a good cake. And that’s what I call a good tea.
Mrs. Priestley: Have you now got what you wanted, Frieda?
Frieda: Yes, that is very useful, but I’d like to know exactly how to lay a table
and the names of all the things you use.
Mrs. Priestley: Well, here is Susan. She does it every day and will tell us what
she does.
Susan: First, I spread the tablecloth and then I put out tablemats to protect the
table from hot plates and dishes—a small mat for each guest and larger ones for
the hot dishes. I take out of the drawer in the sideboard all the cutlery—a fish knife
and fork for the fish, a large knife and fork for the meat, a small knife for the
butter, and a fruit knife for the dessert. Then there is a pudding-spoon and a fork
for the sweet, and a soupspoon for the soup.

I put the knives and the soupspoon on the right-hand side and the forks on the
left, except the pudding-spoon and fork, which I put across the top. Then I put out
the serving-spoons and forks, the carving knife and fork, the breadboard and a
knife to cut the bread, and I sharpen the carving-knife, as I know Mr. Priestley
hates a blunt carving-knife. On the left of each guest, I put a small plate for bread
and on his right a wineglass if we are having wine, and in the middle of the table, I
put a jug of water with a few pieces of ice from the refrigerator in it. Then I put out
the table-napkins for each guest, put the coffee-cups and saucers, with cream and
brown sugar and coffee-spoons on the tray, and I am ready for the guests to come
in.
Frieda: Thank you very much, Susan. There’s another thing I want to ask you

77
about, Mrs. Priestley. I have never tasted anywhere else such lovely cake as I get at
your house; will you please tell me how you make it?
Mrs. Priestley: I’m glad you enjoy my cakes and it’s very nice of you to say
so. They are quite easy to make. I’ll write down the quantities of flour, butter,
sugar, fruit, etc., that you need and the directions for mixing and baking. If you
follow these directions, you can’t go wrong.
Frieda: Thank you very much, Mrs. Priestley. I’ll do exactly what you tell me
and if I can make a cake like yours, I shall be very proud of myself.
Hob: Well, Frieda, I hope your cake will be better than those made by Aunt
Aggie. I went to see her one day and found her nearly in tears. “What’s the
matter?” I asked. “Oh”, she said, “I’ve just made a cake and the mice have been
and eaten it!” “Well», I said, “Why worry about what happens to a few mice?”

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Why did Frieda want to know about English meals and cooking?
2. What are the names of the usual meals?
3. What, to English people, is “the Continent”?
4. What is a “continental breakfast”?
5. What, does Mrs. Priestley say, is “the usual English breakfast”?
6. What is the difference (in England) between” marmalade” and “jam?
7. Where does a businessman in London usually go for lunch?
8. What do the Priestleys have for lunch”?
9. Mrs. Priestley said that afternoon tea was hardly a meal. What phrase did
she use to describe it?
10. What did they have for their “special” dinner? Why was this a special
dinner?
11. What is a “high tea”?
12. Why are tablemats used?
13. What is cutlery?
14. What is a carving knife used for?
15. Where did Susan get the ice?
16. Can you mention three things used in making a cake?

Ex. 2. Use the following words in the sentences of your own:

1) meal; 2) ham; 3) salad); 4) important; 5) to spread; 6) to protect; 7) to


carve; 8) a jug; 9) quantity; 10) directions; 11) hardly; 12) tinned salmon; 13)
custard; 14) mice; 15) pastry; 16) pickles; 17) a tongue; 18) flour; 19) to bake; 20)
across.

Ex. 3. Put in a or an:

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1. He is ____honest man, I will give him ____day’s work.
2. That is ____usual way of working.
3. He has ____uncle who is ____teacher at ____university.
4. He had ____hot breakfast at ____hotel in Blackpool.
5. They worked for half ____hour and then began to read ____historical
novel.

Ex. 4. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons. The
following phrases may be helpful:
That’s right; Quite so; Not quite; Not exactly; You may be right
there; Not at all; True; It’s partly true; Just the contrary; I can’t agree
with you; That’s where you are wrong.

1. English breakfast is generally a bigger meal than people have on the


Continent.
2. The usual English breakfast is porridge or “Corn Flakes.”
3. The businessmen in London usually come home for lunch.
4. Afternoon tea can be hardly called a meal, but it is a social sort of thing.
5. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day.
6. The knives and the soupspoon are put on the right-hand side and the forks
on the left.
7. Englishmen have high tea between five and six o’clock.
8. A small plate for bread is put on the right and a wineglass – on the left.

Ex. 5. Match these words with the pictures. Then complete the table:

apple carrot ice-cream


potato cauliflower sweets
banana rice cakes orange
melon cabbage

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Ex. 6. In the list below cross out things an Englishman doesn’t have for
breakfast:

pancakes, vegetables salad, beefsteak, porridge, plum pudding, toasts, prawn


salad, cornflakes with milk, chicken, marmalade, baked potato, fried bacon, fried
fish, eggs, garlic bread, pasta, mushrooms, coffee, tea, lemon, cream, scrambled
eggs, cheese, tomatoes, fried eggs, butter, fruit, orange juice, ice-cream, nuts,
honey, jellied fish, cold cereals, chop

Ex. 7. What do people in other countries eat and drink? Compare your
answers with students from another group. Here are some ideas to help you!
tacos  rice  vodka  spaghetti  curry  sausages  tea
paella  wine  herring  tequila  beer  borsht  snaps

Eat Drink
China ............................... ..............................
Italy ............................... ..............................
Spain ............................... ..............................
Germany ............................... ..............................
India ............................... ..............................
Mexico ............................... ..............................
Russia ............................... ..............................
Norway ............................... ..............................

UNIT 6. FAST-FOOD AND TAKE-OUT RESTAURANTS

Read about fast-food franchises and answer the questions.

17. The ultimate in easy eating is, of course, eating out, and Americans do that
quite а bit, in fact about four times а week. American restaurants range from
inexpensive fast-food places, to exotic ethnic restaurants, to expensive, formal
places that serve elegant food in an elegant setting.
18. Since the 1950s fast-food and take-out restaurants have had a phenomenal
proliferation, first in the U.S., and more recently through- out the world. The first
fast-food chains like McDonald’s, Burger King, Arby’s and Wendy’s which offer
sandwiches, hamburgers, French-fried potatoes, hot dogs, pizzas, pancakes, chili
and fried chicken, have been joined by other chains some of which offer Mexican,
Chinese and other ethnic foods. Most fast-food restaurants are franchises-
individually owned businesses operating in accordance with guidelines from the
company’s central management. Fast-food franchises have been very successful in

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the U.S.А. because they provide quick, inexpensive, tasty meals that can be eaten
at the restaurant or taken home. The cost of the food in such restaurants is
frequently cheaper than if one were to prepare similar food in one’s kitchen.
Consequently, an entire family may frequently go to eat at fast food places for
convenience and economy. Part of the appeal is the predictability. People know
what McDonald’s big Mac or Kentucky Fried chicken is going to taste like,
wherever they buy it.
19. For many Americans, ethnic dining means the fun of the unknown. The
most familiar of the ethnic cuisines are Chinese, Italian, and Mexican. In large
cities, there may be dozens of different types of ethnic restaurants. In Chicago, for
example, the range of ethnic dining goes, if not from А to Z, at least from А to Y
(Arabian to Yugoslavian). In between, there’s Armenian, Cuban, Ethiopian, Greek,
Indian, Persian, Philippine, Peruvian, Russian, Thai, Vietnamese, and many other
national cooking styles. These places serve immigrants who want their own native
cuisine, but they also serve Americans looking for а dining adventure.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. How often do Americans go eating out?


2. What are the most famous fast-food restaurants?
3. Why have fast-food franchises been very successful?
4. What are the most familiar of the ethnic cuisines?
5. What does ethnic dining mean for Americans?

Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalent to the following words and phrases:

1) throughout the world; 2) adventure; 3) ethnic cuisine; 4) franchise; 5) an


entire family; 6) guidelines; 7) predictability; 8) a dozen 9) a phenomenal
proliferation; 10) convenience, 11) elegant setting, 12) a fast-food chain, 13)
consequently, 14) wherever, 15) frequently.

Ex. 3. Make up questions to which the following sentences might be the


answers.

1. Fast-food places provide quick, inexpensive, tasty meals.


2. Golden Arches is a trademark of McDonald’s.
3. Americans eat out quit a bit, in fact about four times a week.
4. Since the 1950s fast-food and take-out restaurants have had a phenomenal
proliferation in the U.S.
5. An entire family can often go to eat at a fast-food place for convenience
and economy.
6. The ethnic restaurants serve immigrants and Americans looking for a
dining adventure.

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7. The most familiar of the ethnic restaurants are: Chinese, Italian and
Mexican.

Ex. 4. Read the text and answer the questions, mark the best answer.

Ancient Traditions of China

Chinese traditional cuisine differs greatly from that of Europe and is well-
known throughout the world for its versatile wholesome dishes and attractive
service. Chinese cuisine is divided into regional cuisines of which 14 are
internationally recognized. They all differ not only in the ingredients of certain
dishes but also in the methods of preparing them. But everyone who has dealt with
Chinese cooks must have noticed one thing they have in common – their
qualification and skill. For centuries, many generations of Chinese cooks cultivated
and perfected dishes as well as methods of cooking, decorating, serving and
storing. No wonder the popular Chinese saying has it: “There is no such thing as
inedible food – there are only bad cooks”. There are some common features of this
cuisine which you might be interested to know.
Rice is a staple product, and in South China, it is substituted for bread. In
meat dishes, meat constitutes one third as to the garnish and vegetables. A certain
quantity of ginger as added to almost any dish. Meat, poultry and fish is cut into
pieces of the same size and shape as the vegetables accompanying it. They use
fresh, pickled and dried fruit and vegetables. Milk, butter, margarine and cheese
are not used in traditional Chinese cuisine. Pork and poultry fats, sesame, cotton
and maize oils are substituted for butter and margarine. Special attention is paid to
the choice of colors for decorating dishes and slicing in general.
Spirits and wines are served with hors d’oeuvres and hot dishes; no drinks are
served with soups. Green tea is served at the beginning or at the end of a meal.
Desserts prepared from lotus, seeds, nuts, berries and fruit are served between hot
dishes.

1. What do all Chinese cooks have in common?


a) They have great skill in decorating the dishes. b) They are highly qualified
cooks. c) They use the same ingredients in dishes.
2. What is used instead of bread in China?
a) maize; b) corn; c) rice.
3. What can you find in almost all Chinese dishes?
a) cotton oil; b) ginger; c) fruit.
4. Which of the following is not added to traditional Chinese dishes?
a) cheese; b) pork; c) maize oil.
5. When are wines served?
a) with desserts; b) with hot dishes; c) with soup.

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Ex. 5. Which adjectives from: cold, bitter, hot, rich, sour, sweet can be used
to describe the food (1-6)? Sometimes more than one adjective is possible:

1) chocolate cheesecake _____________


2) vindalo curry ______________
3) strawberry ice cream___________________
4) unsweetened lemon juice _________________
5) pear and apple tart ___________________
6) unripe apples ___________________

Ex. 6. The manager of this restaurant is not brilliant at English, and he has
made sixteen mistakes in this badly written menu. Underline and correct them:

Ex. 5. Complete the crossword. Each answer is related to food:

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Across Down
1. You can make it with lettuce and 2. It’s sweet round cake, covered
tomatoes. with sugar, with jam in the middle.
6. The meat from pig. 3. You look at it before you order
food in a restaurant.
7. Tomato ___ is popular on spaghetti.4. Vanilla is a very popular ____
of ice cream.
8. It’s made from milk and tastes a 5. it’s sweet and made by bees.
bit sour.
9. People often eat it at the cinema. 6. It’s usually on the table with the
salt.
12. ___ floss is pink, very sweet and 10. Spaghetti and ravioli are types
cotton wool. of ____ .
14. They are not good for your teeth. 11. An egg dish. It can be made with
cheese or potato, for example.
17. They are small dry fruits. They 13. ____ cola doesn’t have sugar in it.
are sometimes in chocolate,
cereal or on top of ice cream.
18. Hot ___ is a good drink for winter 15. Mineral water that has gas in it
is__
nights.
20. They eat and grow a lot of this 16. They’re very small meals.
in China, India and Japan.
22.A piece of beef. It’s often eaten 18. A lot of people have a bowl of it
with chips. with milk and sugar for breakfast.
23. ___ drinks are drinks that don’t 19. The meat from young sheep.
have alcohol in them.
25. An ice ___ is ice with a flavour, 21. Mineral water without gas is
on a stick. ___.
26. these little pink things are a kind 24. ___ oil is made in most
of seafood. Mediterranean countries.
28. The meat from cow. 27. Food that isn’t cooked is ___.

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UNIT 7. OBESITY FROM EATING TOO MUCH JUNK FOOD

Read the text about overeating and answer the questions.

20. Although there is ample opportunity to get enough food and nutritious
food in the U.S.A., many Americans eat (or drink) themselves into an early grave.
In many countries, especially those in Africa, Asia, and parts of Latin America,
people depend on plants for more than two- thirds of their food. In the U.S.A. (as
in Europe), meat, fish, poultry, and dairy products make up about 40% of the
typical diet and it is а diet overloaded with harmful fats. Americans also tend to
nibble on salty junk foods and sweet desserts, consuming far too much sugar and
salt.
21. In recent years, Americans have learned that you are what you eat, that
diet affects not only appearance, but also performance, mental state, health and
longevity. As а result, many Americas have increased their consumption of fruits,
vegetables, and the less fatty sources of protein (such as fish, grains, and poultry).
Still about 60 % of Americans аrе аt least somewhat overweight, including about
13% that аrе obese (fat).
22. Most overweight Americans have а dual problem they eat too much and
exercise too little. Automobiles, elevators, escalators, power lawn mowers, and

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many other mechanical devices rob Americans of the physical work they need to
burn up the calories they eat. “Everything enjoyable in life is either illegal,
immoral, оr fattening”, complain those who are overweight. In response, the
American food industry has produced а wide assortment of foods without sugar,
using artificial sweeteners which have no food value. In supermarkets, dieters can
find low-calorie beverages, ice cream, cookies, jelly, syrup, and canned fruit, as
well as low-calorie frozen dinners. The food industry has made available a wide
variety of low-fat dairy and meat products. Animals are now being scientifically
bred to produce lean meat. Even low fat cheeses are being produced. Vegetables,
fruit and cereal consumption are increasing. A second demand is for foods grown
and produced free of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. This has led to the
development of an “organic food” industry. Of course, the cost of organic foods is
substantially higher than for nonorganic food. The market for organic food has
nevertheless been expanding.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Why do many Americans eat or drink themselves into an early grave?


2. What is a typical diet in the USA and in Europe?
3. What is junk food?
4. Why is junk food harmful for people?
5. What makes most Americans overweight?
6. Why have Americans increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables?
7. How does the American food industry help dieters?
8. What is more recent development in the American food industry?
9. Which food items are very popular now in America?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) an early grave; 2) two-thirds; 3) poultry; 4) harmful fats; 5) junk food; 6)


mental state; 7) longevity; 8) obese; 9) a dual problem; 10) a power lawn mower;
11) artificial sweetener; 12) value; 13) an elevator; 14) protein; 15) low-calorie
beverage.

Ex. 3/1. Now read the interview with Jane Lane, the health expert. What does
she think is the best form of exercises?

Interviewer: Jane Lane, you are a famous health and fitness expert. Can you
give our listeners some advice about staying healthy?
Jane: Well, the first thing is to make sure you eat well and get a lot of sleep.
Then, of course, you shouldn’t smoke and you shouldn’t drink too much alcohol. It
is also very important that you get regular exercise.
Interviewer: Jane, are some exercises better than others?

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Jane: Yes, definitely. For example, soccer is better than jogging.
Interviewer: Really? Why is soccer better than jogging?
Jane: Well, when you play soccer, you run on the grass. When you jog, you
run on the road. It’s much better to run on the grass.
Interviewer: That’s interesting. Okay. Go on.
Jane: Well, jogging is better than walking or playing squash. And believe it or
not, dancing is better than all of these exercises.
Interviewer: Dancing? Dancing is good exercise?
Jane: Sure! If you dance a lot, you can get in shape. Especially if the music is
fast.
Interviewer: So is dancing the best exercise?
Jane: No. Dancing is good, but judo is better.
Interviewer: Judo is better?
Jane: Yes. And gymnastics is better than judo, but it’s not as good as rowing.
Interviewer: I see. So, gymnastics is better than judo, but not as good as
rowing. What about cycling? How good is that?
Jane: Very good. Cycling is better than all of those other exercises.
Interviewer: So cycling is best for you, is it?
Jane: No. The best exercise for your health is swimming.
Interviewer: Ah, swimming is the best. Well, that is interesting – but we are
out of time. Thank you very much for talking to us, Jane.
Jane: You’re welcome. Remember, get in shape and stay healthy! And ... see
you in the pool!
Ex. 3/2. Look at these ten best exercises. These are the exercises that are best
for your health, but they are not in order. Which one is best? Number them from 1
to 10: ПЛОХО ВИДНО

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Ex. 3/3. Complete the sentences. Do you agree with Jane Lane? Why or why
not?
1. __________is better than jogging.
2. Jogging is better than ___________ and playing squash.
3. __________is better than all of those exercises.
4. Dancing is good, but ___________is better.
5. __________is better than judo, but not as good as _________.
6. __________ is better than all of those other exercises.
7. The best exercise for your health is ___________.

Ex. 4. Write the numbers 1- 12 next to the correct activities of doing the
housework and shopping:

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Ex. 5. Choose the best word for each gap (1- 10):

1) instructions/ skills/ views; 6) glasses/ knives/ tins;


2) ahead/ forward/ straight; 7) heating/ boiling/ cooking;
3) baking/ putting/ roasting; 8) parts/ ingredients/ objects;
4) attend/ notice/ follow; 9) tastes/ enjoys/ pleases;
5) injure/ spoil/ damage; 10) stronger/ fitter/ healthier.

Not just about food

Cookery classes teach young people a range of useful _(1) _ , not just how to
prepare meals for friends and family. Cooks have to think _(2) _: after all it’s no
good making a cake and _(3) _ it into a cold oven. Then it’s essential to _(4) _ the

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recipe carefully. Stirring 50 grams of salt into your cake instead of five grams will
certainly (_5) _ it!
There are many dangers in the kitchen- sharp _(6) _, hot cookies and _(7)
_kettles for example. Knowing what to do if there is an accident will be very useful
in the world outside the kitchen. But the greatest pleasure comes from turning raw
_(8) _ into a dish that_ (9) _ far better than anything from the supermarket or fast
food van, and is certainly much _(10) _.

UNIT 8. DR. JAFFE’S LECTURES ABOUT HEALTHY EATING

Read the first lecture about healthy eating by Dr. Jaffe. After reading,
complete the chart.

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen, and thank you for coming. Welcome to
the next in our series of lectures on “You and Your Health”. My name is Dr. Jaffe,
and the title of my lecture tonight is “Eat to Live”. Why “Eat to Live”? because
how we live, has a lot to do with how we eat. For good health, we need a balanced
diet of the right foods, and if you want to live a long, healthy life, then you should
eat healthy. Research has shown that eating a balanced diet can help reduce the
risk of different diseases, including cancer and heart disease.
What exactly is a balanced diet? Eating a balanced diet means that each day
you should eat a variety of foods. There are, of course, many different kinds of
food, and we can put these into groups. For example, we talk about the fruit group,
the vegetable group, the grain group (that’s like bread, cereal, rice, and pasta), the
dairy group, and the meat and beans group. To make sure you have a balanced diet,
I recommend you choose from each of the various food groups when you plan
your menu.
Each day, most of what you eat should come from the grain group. You
should try to get between six and ten servings of grain each day. One serving of
grain could be, for example, a slice of bread or half a cup of rice. Also, you should
eat three to five servings of vegetables. One serving of vegetables could be half a
cup of broccoli or maybe a cup of lettuce. Be sure also to eat a lot of fruit—two to
four servings is what you should aim for. One serving of fruit could be one apple
or a small glass of fruit juice. Dairy foods are important, too, in a balanced diet, but
you should only eat small amounts of foods like milk, yogurt, or cheese—nor more
than two to three servings. Also be careful with the meat and beans group—and
that includes fish and chicken—again, no more than two to three servings each
day. Finally, and most important! Drink plenty of water. It’s a good idea to drink at
least six glasses of water each day to help you digest.
Rice, broccoli, apples—these are all examples of foods that you should eat.
Now let me tell you about some of the things you should avoid. Try not to eat too
many foods that are high in fat, like eggs and nuts. These are fine—but only in

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small quantities. Also stay away from too much sugar and salt. And don’t drink too
much alcohol, either.
Well, that’s a very general introduction to the idea of “eating to live”. In a
minute we will go on to talk about vitamins and how important they are in your
diet. But first, are there any questions?

Now read Dr. Jaffe’s talking about different vitamins. After reading, complete
the chart.

So, now let us continue with a look at vitamins. Everybody knows that we
need vitamins. A balanced diet means not just making sure that we include foods
from each of the various food groups we mentioned earlier but also making sure
that we provide ourselves with a range of vitamins.
Our body does not produce all the vitamins we need to stay healthy, so we
need to eat foods with the right vitamins. Many packets of food we buy in
supermarkets nowadays list the various vitamins the food contains, but how many
of us know why these vitamins are important? Let’s have a look at the most
important ones.
First, vitamin A. Vitamin A helps your vision and skin; helps prevent those
wrinkles that we all worry about! You can find vitamin A in things like milk, eggs,
liver, and cheese. Next, Vitamin B. There are a number of different ones here.
Vitamin В1 produces energy and can be found in foods such as whole grains and
beans. Vitamin B2 is important for growth and skin health. B2 is found in dairy
products and in meat, chicken, and fish. For your digestive system, try vitamin B3,
which is found in meat, fish, and peanut butter. Vitamin С is important too. It helps
heal wounds and promotes healthy teeth. Tomatoes and many fruits contain
Vitamin C, so there is truth in the old saying An apple a day keeps the doctor
away. Vitamin D strengthens bones; milk contains Vitamin D, which is why it is
important to make sure that growing children drink lots of-milk. Finally, Vitamin E
helps in the production of red blood cells. Vitamin E can be found in eggs, nuts,
and seeds.
Sometimes people ask if it is necessary to take vitamin supplements. Well,
the answer lies in your diet. If you eat a healthy, well- balanced diet, then the

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answer is probably that you don’t need to. A well-balanced diet will, almost by
definition, give you all the vitamins you need. But some people benefit from taking
extra vitamins, so if you think you need them, check with your doctor.
Well, that is all I want to say today about vitamins and diet. Next week we
will talk....

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Do you agree with Dr. Jaff what is exactly a balanced diet?


2. Do you eat a balanced diet?
3. What is your idea of a healthy diet?
4. Do you “eat to live” or “live to eat”?
5. What food do you think you should avoid?
6. Do you agree with Dr. Jaff that if you eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, you
don’t need to take vitamins?
7. Why are vegetables, fruit and cereal consumption increasing?
8. What do you think about taking extra vitamins?
9. Why does food industry produce a wide variety of low-fat dairy and meat
products?
10. Do you think that healthy food has the same vitamins as junk food?

Ex. 2. Here are a list of some famous vegetarians. Do you know any others?

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Ex. 3. Odd one out:

1) pasta/ lettuce/ rice/ bread; 2) apple/ broccoli/ beetroot/ carrot; 3) cheese/


pasta/ milk/ yogurt; 4) eggs/ tomatoes/ milk/ liver; 5) peanut butter/ orange/ meat/
fish; 6) blood cells/ dairy products/ skin, bones; 7) almond/ blueberry/ gooseberry/
raspberry; 8) mug/ salt/ pepper/ vinegar; 9) cream cheese/ cauliflower/ cottage
cheese/ strong cheese; 10) fresh food/ fresh napkins/ frozen food/ canned food.

Ex. 4. Write the correct name of fruit under each picture:

Ex. 5. You have £ 10 in your pocket. Can you afford this shopping list?

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Five figs £ 2.00
A bunch of asparagus ________
A marrow ________
Half a kilo of peppers ________
A kilo of leeks ________
A kilo of peaches ________
Half of kilo of grapes ________
Ten sweet corn ________

Total £________

Ex. 6. Put these words


into their correct groups. Then complete the name for each group on the right:
Asia, balloon, copper, ferry, Indian, mango, morphine, orange, quarter,
rucksack, shark, sofa, spinach, toilet, tortoise.

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Ex. 7. There is one mistake in each of these sentences. Underline it and
write the correction:

1. We had a drink but none food was available. __________no_______


2. We’re having a party for my father and we’re inviting all of old friends.
_______
3. Either of the restaurant you suggested is fine with me._____________
4. This was an awful meal we had yesterday. We won’t go to that restaurant
again._____
5. We stopped for a meal because both of us was hungry. ______________
6. Neither these jackets fits me.____________
7. I was surprised that most the people staying in the hotels were Italian.____
8. He’s tidied the garden and put away all chairs. ________________
9. I liked pairs of jeans but I chose the black one for the party._________
10. Some of airports have several restaurants. __________________

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UNIT 9. OTHER BAD HABITS

Read the text about more serious health and social problems and answer the
questions.

23. Even more serious than overeating are the health and social problems
created by consumption of alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, and illegal drugs. About
60% to 70% of Americans drink alcoholic beverages to some extent, about 40%
occasionally drink too much, and at least 10 million Americans are alcoholics.
Those who engage in heavy drinking damage their own health, cause pain tо their
families, and are dangerous behind the wheel of an automobile. In recent years,
many organizations of private citizens have campaigned to keep drunks off the
road by increasing penalties for drunk driving. In almost every state, the minimum
legal age for buying liquor, wine, or beer is 21. Nevertheless, American teenagers
often become involved in alcohol related accidents and sometimes become
alcoholics.
24. Another way that Americans consume themselves to death is bу smoking.
About 26% of American adults smoke and many of them develop serious, health
problems. The medical expenses and human tragedy caused bу smoking are
immeasurable. unfortunately, the political influence of the tobacco industry is so
great that although the government urges smokers to quit, it also pays farmers to
grow tobacco.
25. One of the greatest concerns of Americans is the large amount of illegal
drugs consumed in the U.S.A., especially bу teenagers and young adults. For all
ages, the average current marijuana usage и about 9%, and about 3% of Americans
use cocaine. But, among young adults, the figures are much higher (about 21%
using marijuana and 8% using cocaine). The U.S.А., with only 5% of the world’s
population, consumes about 50% of the world’s cocaine. This widespread cocaine
usage is of special concern since it is highly addictive. Many people who become
hooked (addicted) are then forced to become criminals in order to get money to
buy this illegal (therefore expensive) substance. The connection between drug
usage and crime was recently illustrated by а study of people arrested for various
crimes in the Chicago area. They were asked to agree to be tested for drugs. Of
those who volunteered, 75% were found to be using illegal drugs. Another recent
study indicated that cocaine use bу teenagers and young adults is finally beginning
to decline. Still, more than half of high school seniors have tried an illegal drug
other than marijuana.
26. In dealing with all of these health problems-obesity, alcoholism, smoking,
and drug addiction – Americans often turn tо support groups of fellow sufferers.
Groups such as Weight Watchers, Alcoholics Anonymous, and Narcotics
Anonymous have helped people overcome destructive behavior. With the

96
assistance of professional counselors and the support of a group, Americans work
hard to rid themselves of habits that could destroy their health and shorten their
lives.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What are more serious problems for Americans than overeating?


2. What actions can keep drunks off road?
3. What legal age is for buying liquor in most states?
4. Is smoking popular among Americans?
5. Who pays farmers to grow tobacco?
6. What is the greatest concern of American government?
7. Why do addicted people become criminals?
8. What did recent survey show?
9. What measures do Americans take to break bad habits?
10. What anonymous groups have helped people to overcome destructive
behavior?

Ex. 2. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) переедать; 2) алкогольные напитки; 3) нелегальные наркотики; 4)


вредить; 5) за рулем автомобиля; 6) штраф; 7) вождение в пьяном виде; 8)
тем не менее; 9) подросток; 10) медицинские расходы; 11) старшеклассник;
12) поведение, разрушающее личность; 13) преступление; 14) потребление;
15) преступник; 16) тучность; 17) уменьшать; 18) преодолеть; 19)
избавляться; 20) безмерный.

Ex. 3. Decide if the following sentences true or false.

1. 40% of American and European diet is overloaded with harmful fats. T F


2. Americans tend to nibble on salty junk food and sweet desserts. TF
3. Most overweight Americans eat too little and exercise too much. TF
4. Americans have learned that you are what you eat. TF
5. Different mechanical devices help Americans to do the physical work
so they burn up calories they eat. TF
6. Americans have increased their consumption of meat, fish, grains and
poultry. TF
7. It is very easy to find low-calorie beverages and foods in supermarkets. T F
8. The American food industry hasn’t produced a wide assortment of foods
without sugar. TF
9. The American food industry hasn’t produced low-calorie frozen dinners
yet. TF
10. Using artificial sweeteners instead of sugar makes foods and beverages of

97
no value. TF

Ex. 4. The adjectives in the box below are in the crossword. Read the clues
and complete the crossword with them: adventurous, ambitious, eccentric,
immature, moody, nosy, obstinate, self-confident, strict, sympathetic, talented,
timid, violent.

Across Down
1. They shouldn’t get married at 18. They 2. My uncle cycles around town in a
are far too _____ take such an important big red hat and long red boots.
decision. Everyone stares at him because
he looks so _____ .
5. Clive is having another exhibition of his 3. She enjoys not air ballooning
paintings. He’s also giving a concert next week. and parachute jumping. She’s
He is a very ______ person. very _____ .
7. Tina is so ______. If I have a problem, she 4. He wasn’t nervous about
always listens and tries to help me. starting his new job. In fact he
was very _____ and felt sure
that he would do it well and
enjoy it.
8. At the office party, she stood in a corner 6. Michael already owns three
and didn’t speak to anyone. She ‘s very quiet restaurants but he intends toown
and _____ . a chain of them by the time he’s
thirty-five. He’s very _____ .
9. We’ve given her lots of goods advice but 7. Her parents are quite _____ .
she won’t listen. She’s very _____ . She’s seventeen but she has to
be home by ten o’clock, even at
weekends.
11. Jackie is so _____ . One minute she’s 8. He’s always asking questions
laughing and the next she’s sulking. about my family and job. He’s
very ____ .
12. He’s a _____ man. He was arguing with
Tom last night and he ended up pushing him
against the wall and shaking him.

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Ex. 5/1. You want to break a bad habit. What do you have to do? Read these
ten suggestions.

1. You have to want to break the habit. 2. Make a promise to change. Choose
a date to start. Write it down and look at it every day. Tell your friends about it. 3.
Plan fun activities with your friends and family. They can help you. 4. Try to relax.
Plan some quiet time. Read, take a nap, or listen to soft music. 5. Exercise. This
will help with stress. 6. Find a new hobby. You can have fun, learn new things, and
meet new people. 7. Eat healthy foods. Eat more fruit and vegetables. 8. Get
enough sleep. Feeling tired doesn’t help. 9. Be patient. It takes thirty days to break
a habit. 10. You’re doing something good. Buy a present for yourself.

Ex. 5/2. Now cover the text. Try to fill in the blanks with missing words:

1. Make a___ to change and chose a ___to start. 2. Get enough___. It’s not a
good thing to feel tired. 3. Eat___ foods like vegetables and fruit, not hamburgers
and fries. 4. Find a new____. It helps to have fun and meet new people. 5. Plan
fun___ with your friends and family, They can ___ you. 6. Exercise will help with
____. 7. Be___ .It takes time to break a habit. 8. Plan some___ time for reading
and resting. 9. Buy a___ for yourself. 10. Remember! It’s important to___ to break
the habit.

Ex. 6/1. Read these rules for a healthy lifestyle. Which of them do you
follow?

1) Aim to eat five pieces of fruit or vegetables a day. 2) Be active in your


everyday life. 3) Eat regular, healthy meals. 4) Get fit in your leisure time. 5) Eat

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less fatty food. 5) Eat regular, sensible snacks. 6) Drink plenty of water.

Ex. 6/2. Now match the rules to the sentences below:

A ______6_____
It’s OK to eat between meals, but choose food that will fill you up, like cereal
bars, fruit and nuts, rather than chips, biscuits and chocolate.
B ___________
When you are thirsty, your brain can’t work properly. Plenty of water, juice,
low fat milk or fruit tea will help you to concentrate, but avoid too much strong
coffee and alcohol.
C ____________
Having three balanced meals each day is the best way to make sure your body
gets everything it needs. Don’t miss breakfast- it gives you a good start to the day.
D ____________
Why not use the stairs instead of lift, or walk or cycle to work, or get off the
bus a stop early and walk the rest of the way?
E _____________
Most of us don’t eat enough of them – but they are essential for good health.
Remember, a can of tomatoes or a glass of fresh fruit juice also counts as one
piece.
F _____________
Watching TV or playing computer games for too long means being inactive -
dance, or walk or cycle to the gym in the evenings and at the weekends. You’ll feel
fitter and healthier.
G _____________
Grill or bake food, rather than frying it, and don’t add too much cream and
butter to cooking. But remember you do need some healthy fats like sunflower oil
and olive oil in your diet.

Ex. 6/3. Complete the table:

Ex. 7/3. Read through the rules again and fill in the lists below:

Ex. 6/4. Which rule in exercise 6/1 do you consider the most important? Have
you got any other suggestions for a healthy lifestyle?

UNIT 10. ENGLISH PUBS

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Read the text about English drinking and eating habits. Answer the questions.

Every country has its drinking habits. Most countries also have а national
drink. In England, the national drink is beer, and the “pub”, where Englishmen go
to drink it, is а peculiarly English institution. At tables round а usually not very
large room people will be sitting and in front of each person, you will see а pint or
half-pint mug of beer, or а smaller glass of whiskey, gin and tonic or fruit juice.
This room is called. the “bar”, but the same term is used for the great counter of
polished wood which dominates one end of the room. At this bar, people will be
standing again with а drink either in their hands or on а “beer-mat”. From time to
time, they will take а sip – for Englishmen sip their drinks – and then put down the
mug to continue conversation. There is а general atmosphere of warmth and
cosiness. Comfort is essential, for here people do not drop in for а quick drink and
go; they generally want to “make an evening of it”, talking to friends or strangers,
until closing time, when with а cry of “Time, gentlemen, please!” the landlord
stops to serve drinks. This is usually at half past ten in the evening.
Pub eating all started with the Romans. They were in Britain more than 1,500
years ago. At that time Roman soldiers would go to the local “tabernae” to drink
wine, eat cold meat and chat with their mates. Customers could even bring their
own meat and pay a penny to have it cooked by tavern staff.
After the Romans left, things stayed the same until the time 19 th century.
From then onwards, pubs started selling more varied food, including baked
potatoes, pork pies, pasties and ploughman’s lunches, plus snacks that included
pork scratchings, Scotch eggs, sausage rolls, pickled eggs, and pickled onions.
These are the traditional things you can still find in pubs today.
In the 1990s things changed once again. Dishes started arriving from Europe,
the Americas and the East. Brits could now eat “exotic” dishes such as lasagna,
chilli con carne, and chicken curry, all served with generous portions of chips.
These days the pub food scene is quite healthy. There are traditional pubs
serving “British food”, and there are more sophisticated “gastro-pubs”, serving
higher-class, haute cuisine to a serious clientele. At present, the pub-food trade is
worth 5 billion British pounds a year, which represents a lot of food and drink.
There is an important peculiarity about pubs. They have strictly limited hours
of opening. Roughly speaking one may expect to find а pub open between 11:30
a.m. and 2:30 p.m. and again from about 5:30 p.m. until 10:30 p.m. But it is almost
impossible to get strong drinks in England in the early morning, in the middle of
the afternoon or at midnight or later. So what should you try if you go into a
British pub?
Perhaps the best thing to start is a pasty. A pasty is made with pastry (a type
of bread made from flour and water), and from the most famous ones are Cornish
pasties. This delicious pie usually has carrots, onions, potatoes and minced beef or
minced lamb. Four million pasties are produced every day to feed hungry Brits.

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Pies are also really popular, with chicken and mushroom pie being one of the most
widely eaten.
If you want to try a typical main course, a good one to start with is a
ploughman’s lunch. This dish was invented by an advertising company to promote
the consumption of cheese. As you might imagine, a ploughman’s lunch comes
with a piece of cheese. It’s the healthy choice.
Another good dish to try is shepherd’s pie. Curiously, this isn’t actually a pie,
and it’s basically a mixture of minced beef, carrots and onions with mashed potato
on top.
Pub soups are usually delicious, especially on a cold day. Try a thick tomato
soup, or a potato and leek one served with warm bread and butter. Of course, there
are lots more things that you can try. Just look at the menu for some more mouth-
watering traditional British dishes.
Here are some useful expressions for ordering food in the pub: 1) I’ll have the
soup, please. 2) Excuse me, what does the steak come with, please? 3) Can I have
my steak well-done, please? 4) Excuse me, what does “Lancashire hot pot” have in
it? 5) I’ll have a side order of vegetables, please. 6) Can I have some chips with
that, please? 7) Could we have the salt and pepper, please? 8) Can we have the bill,
please? 9) Can I have a doggy bag, please?
Here is an example of a typical pub menu. At first sight, it may seem difficult
to understand. However, almost all pubs serve the basic dishes described earlier,
but just change the names a bit to make them sound more fancy. So, instead of just
saying “mushrooms”, they say things like, “honey-glazed mushrooms”, which
basically means that the mushrooms have been cooked with honey. Or they put a
name such as “Guv’nor’s” or “Shirley’s” before the food to make it sound as if it’s
been especially prepared; or they add an adjective like “sizzling”, “tasty”, or
juicy”, to convince you to choose it.
Also, notice the continued use of the apostrophe (sizzlin’, guv’s). Many
companies use the apostrophe when they want to convert something boring into
something young and funky. You will also notice the use of imperial
measurements. For a quick conversion from ounces (oz) to grams, multiply by 30.
Now it’s time to order your food. Just remember to use “please”, “excuse me”, and
“thank you” a lot. Pub landlords and landladies are sensitive, proud people who
demand respect. Happy eating!

THE PUB LUNCH MENU

SIZZLIN’ OFF THE GRILL


16 oz. Juicy T-Bone 14.95
12 oz. Tasty Sirloin on sizzling’ plate 12.95
A Trio of Lamb Chops 13.95
The Cuv’s Mixed Grill Steak, Lamb Chop 13.95
Double Pork Loin Chops 9.95

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Shirley’s Liver ‘n’ Bacon with Onions 9.95

All served with potatoes and vegetables.


Try our onion and gravy 50p.

THE GUV’NOR’S CHOICE


Pork Lion Chop 11.95
Chicken Breast 11.95
SIDES

Side of coleslaw 1.50


Side of vegetables or
Honey-glazed mushrooms 1.75
Side of sautéed potatoes 1.75
Mashed potato 1.00
Child portions available.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Think of 10-12 questions on the text.


2. Speak about English pubs, their history and their peculiarities.

Ex. 2. Study pub food vocabulary and match the words from it with their
definitions:
PUB FOOD VOCABULARY

1) “Guv’nor’s” 10) pastry

11) flour
2) sizzling 12) leek

3) imperial 13) mashed potato


measurements 14) minced beef
4) funky 15) haute cuisine
5) chips 16) a filling
17) to blame smth. on someone
6) baked beans 18) clientele
7) Branston 19) moth-watering
pickle 20) breadcrumbs
8) imperial
measurements
9) fancy

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a) a type of British used to describe the owner of the restaurant or pub.
sauce that is typically h) special gourmet cooking
eaten with cheese. It is
made with pieces of i) measurements used in Britain such as pounds,
vegetables, spices and ounces, etc.
vinegar j) a long, green onion-like vegetable, used to make
b) very small pieces of the soup vichyssoise.
bread. It is typical to cook k) potato that has been made into a paste.
meat covered in them l) meat from a cow that has been cut into very small
c) to say that someone pieces.
is responsible for smth. m) a mixture of water and flour that is cooked in an
bad oven.
n) delicious.
d) the customers of a o) if food is ”sizzing”, it is frying in oil. If a plate is
restaurant “sizzing”, it is so hot that the food is still cooking on it.
e) food that we put p) sophisticated
inside pastry or a q) a white powder used for making bread.
vegetable. It can be a
cheese sauce, meat, etc. r) pieces of fried potato. “French fries” in American
f) smth. you think is English.
young and fashionable s) white beans cooked in tomato sauce. In Britain they
g) inform.abbr. the are sold in tins.
governor. This word is
Ex. 3. Give Russia equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) peculiarity; 2) a mug (of beer); 3) a beer-mat; 4) cosiness; 5) a landlord; 6)


roughly speaking; 7) to drop; 8) to take a sip (of beer); 9) to make an evening of it;
10) strictly limited hours; 11) apostrophe; 12) multiply by; 13) to convince; 14)
doggy bag; 15) honey-glazed; 16) ounce; 17) an advertising company; 18)
sophisticated; 19) lasagne; 20) pickled egg; 21) a mate; 22) mouth-watering; 23) to
covert; 24) tasty; 25) a landlady.

Ex. 4. There are different types of beer. Match the names of beer and their
definitions:

1) ale; 5) lager;

2) bitter; 6) Corona.
3) draft beer;

4) ginger beer;

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a) A soft drink c) A beer stored from six weeks before use. Lager made in the
similar to ginger best traditions of Bavarian beer brewers has sweet nutty
ale but character and rich flavor, and is standard Oktoberfest beverage.
containing more d) beer drawn, or available to be drawn from a cask as opposed
ginger flavor. to bottled beer.
b) A type of e) A brand of Mexican beer. It was fashionable in the 1980s to
dark-colored have it with a twist of lime tucked into the bottle’s long neck.
beer without f) A type of dark beer that tastes bitter.
bubbles.

Ex. 5/1 Can you imagine what the “French diet” is? Read the passage and
find out.
The French Diet

For years, doctors have told us that a high-fat diet can lead to heart disease.
Eating lots of high-fat foods can cause the arteries to clog, which can result in heart
attacks. On the advice of their doctors, many people have changed to low-fat diets
and given up different kinds of desserts and snack foods. Some have even given up
whole milk, eggs, and meat, because of possible dangers to their health. but is this
necessary? Is there a way to enjoy some high-fat foods without a risk to your
heart? Some scientists think that the French may have found an answer. The
French diet contains a lot of cheese, cream, and butter-all high in fat. Yet French
people have the lowest death rate from heart attacks among European countries.
Why? What’s the secret? Some scientists believe that red wine has something to do
with it. The French love their red wine, and there could be a connection between
red wine and a healthy heart. believe it or not, a little red wine might well help
protect against heart attacks. The chemicals in red wine help prevent blood clots
that can cause a heart attack. but don’t go running for your corkscrew yet! Doctors
recommend drinking in moderation, which means only one or two glasses of wine
a day. If you drink more than that, you might actually increase the risks of heart
disease and other health problems. Too much alcohol can also cause damage to
your liver and brain, and can cause cancer. Remember, too, that drunk driving is
illegal and alcoholism is a serious problem in some societies. So if you do drink,
do it in moderation. being smart means being safe.

Ex. 5/2. Read each statement and decide if it is true or false.

1. Doctors say that a low-fat diet can cause heart disease. TF


2. Eating too many high-fat foods can cause the arteries to clog. T F
3. The chemicals in red wine help prevent blood clots. TF
4. Doctors recommend drinking three glasses of wine each day. T F
5. Too much alcohol can damage your liver and brain. TF

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Ex. 5/3. Discuss the questions with the partner.

1. Do you agree that red wine can be good for your health?
2. Do you know any other “secrets” to a healthy life?
3. What’s the national diet of your country?

Ex. 6. Look at this vocabulary from the reading. Match the word or phrase to
its explanation:

Clot alcoholism to clog to prevent


Rate in moderation arteries corkscrew
to protect liver

1. These carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body. 2. This means
to block or become filled so that movement is difficult. 3. This is a measure of how
often something happens. 4. This means to keep safe. 5. This means to stop
something from happening. 6. This is something that stops your blood from
flowing. 7. This is used for opening bottles. 8. This means to do something without
limits. 9. This part of your body cleans your blood. 10. This condition can be
caused by drinking too much alcohol regularly.

Ex. 7. Here are three interesting expressions. Notice the food word in each
expression:
It’s not really my cup of tea. (I don’t really like it.)
They are full of beans. (They’re very lively.)
It was a piece of cake. (It was very easy.)

Can you put the correct expression into each sentence (1-3)?
1. I don’t know why I worried about the exam; it was a _____________ .
2. Heavy metal music really isn’t _______________ .
3. Even after they’d spent the afternoon playing football, the children were still
____________ .

Ex. 8. Complete the sentences by matching the two parts.

1) Basketball is the most popular a) during the lecture.


2) Raymond puts too much salt b) while we were sleeping.
3) I recommend c) whether I like her cooking.
4) The doctor asked d) sport in my school.
5) Francis took notes e) if I ate a low-fat diet.
6) The clown said that f) listening to this new jazz CD.
7) My mother asked g) he wasn’t always happy.

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8) Two feet of snow fell h) on his food.

VOCABULARY AND SPEECH EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Vocabulary Practice. Pronounce the following words after your


teacher, and discuss their meanings. Then use some of them to complete the
following sentences. You may need to use the same word twice.
addiction nutritious
artificial obesity
avoid picnic
consumption quality
cuisine quantity
diner skip
dinner slice
ethnic snack
franchise throughout
ingredients variety

1. А person who is eating in а restaurant may be called а _____________.


2. Не or she may be having breakfast, lunch, or ____________.
3. ____________ is а common problem in the U.S.A. because many
Americans eat too much and exercise too little.
4. If you______________ а meal, you don’t eat that meal.
5. А person who is overweight should ___________ eating food with а lot of
sugar and fat in it.
6. During а coffee break, many workers have а ________________.
7. In а restaurant, you may order а _____________ of cake or pie. At home,
you may nibble on а ______________ of cheese or bread.
8. ______________the U.S.A., there is great variety in the American
_______________ because of various _____________ influences.
9. The word _________________ means how much; the word __________
means how good.

Ex. 2. Look at the ingredients of a Greek salad:

3 tomatoes
1 cucumber
1 onion
2 green peppers
1 cup black olives
180 grams feta cheese
½ cup olive oil

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¼ cup vinegar
salt and pepper
Read the following recipe, and put the instructions into a logical order.

______ Cut the cheese into pieces, and add it to the salad. Add olives to the
salad.
_______ Cut the tomatoes and cucumber into slices, and cut the onion and
peppers into rings.
_________ Mix it all together.
_________ Place the vegetables in a salad bowl.
_________ Pour oil and vinegar over the salad.
_________ Sprinkle the vegetables with salt and pepper.

Rewrite the recipe below using the adverbs first, then, after that, and finally.
1_______________________________________________
2_______________________________________________
3_____________________________________________
4_____________________________________________
5_____________________________________________
6_____________________________________________

Ex. 3/1. Put the adjectives into the correct category in the table:

beige, bitter, boiling, cool, cream, furry, gigantic, humid, juicy, massive,
minute, navy, oval, rectangular, ripe, rough, smooth, triangular.

Ex. 3/2. Complete the sentences with the correct adjectives from the table
above:

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1) Don’t pick those apples. They aren’t ____ yet. 2) I always shave my legs in
the summer. I like them to be nice and ____ when I go to the beach. 3) The
temperature isn’t that high but it’s very ____ today. You start sweating as soon as
you go outside. 4) I’m not thirsty. I just ate a really ____ orange. 5) Dark blue
doesn’t suit me so I don’t look very nice in my uniform, which is ____ and grey. 6)
I can’t read the print in that dictionary. It’s ____ . 7) I gave my niece a big brown
____ teddy bear for her birthday. 8) Cats have ___ faces with the ears and the chin
as the three points. 9) It’s ___ here in the summer. We spend all day relaxing in the
pool. 10) Our dining room table isn’t exactly round. It’s more ____ .

Ex. 4. Give a word or a phrase for the following definitions:

1) scrape into small pieces (cheese, carrots); 2) cut or chop (meat, etc.) into
small pieces with revolving blades; 3) take the skin off; 4) beat or flop (eggs,
cream); 5) cook in water at 100 degree C.; 6) cook in boiling oil or fat; 7) cook in a
hot oven or over a hot fire; 8) be cooked in water or juice slowly in a closed dish.

Ex. 5. Fill in prepositions or adverbs.

1. I told the waiter that I was leaving the choice ____the him. 2. The table
d’hote is considerably cheaper and more popular ____the public. 3. The salad
consisted ____ sliced meat, sliced tomatoes and lettuce. 4. ___dessert they took
strawberry ice-cream. 5.____dinner____Saturday evening he had asparagus and
French beans. 6. In a café my boyfriend treated me ____an ice-cream. 7. There was
no fish____ the menu. 8. My sister doesn’t like fish ___ oil, she prefers it ____a
tomato sauce. 9. He helped himself ____ a large piece of apple-pie. 10. My friends
raised their glasses and said “____ your health.”

Ex. 6. Find these things in the picture. Match. Then compare with a partner.

1) …..I bacon 9) ….. a ham omelette


2) ….. a bagel with cream cheese 10) ….. hot chocolate
3) ….. blueberries and melon 11) ….. juice
4) ….. cold cereal 12) ….. pancakes
5) ….. an English muffin 13) ….. sausages
6) ….. French toast 14) ….. scrambled eggs
7) ….. fried eggs 15) ….. yogurt
8) ….. grapes and bananas

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Ex. 7. Give a definition for the following words or phrases:

1) mashed potatoes; 2) a stewing pan; 3) a tray; 4) overdone meat; 5) stuffed


pepper; 6) china; 7) a la carte; 8) tips; 9) salad; 10) a grater.

Ex. 8. What do we say when:

1. You want to praise a dish. 2. You want some more of something offered at
the table. 3. You want to propose somebody’s health. 4. You want your guests to
put some food on their plates. 5. You don’t know what to order at a restaurant. 6.
You are at the table and can’t reach a salt-cellar. 7. Don’t like the dish you are
offered.

Ex. 9. What language are the words from? Choose from the languages in the
list:
Arabic, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Spanish,
Turkish.
Example: apostrophe - Apostrophe is a Greek word.

1) banana, 2) caviar, 3) champagne, 4) crisis, 5) flamenco, 6) guru, 7)


karaoke, 8) sauna, 9) snorkel, 10) soprano, 11) sultan, 12) tycoon.

Ex. 10. In each sentence give a synonym for the words in brackets. Choose
from the following:
absurd, anxious, attractive, cheerful, coarse, confident, immature,
intentional, mad, pathetic, relaxed, reliable, revolting, starving, weird.

1) There’s only one way of describing her. She is completely (crazy) mad.
2) A good friend is someone who is kind, considerate and totally (dependable)
_______.

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3) I wish you’d grow up! You’re so (childish) _______.
4) The food at the hotel was really (disgusting) _______. No one could eat it.
5) I didn’t mean to break it – it wasn’t (deliberate) ______.
6) Her hands are very (rough) ______ because she spends most of her time
working in the garden.
7) I could eat a horse! I’m (really hungry) ______.
8) Take those trousers off – you look 9rediculous) _____ in them.
9) We lost 6-1! You played like you were half- asleep! You were (hopeless)
_____!
10) Charles has some really (strange) _____ ideas sometimes, doesn’t he?

Ex. 13. Complete the sentences on the left with the correct ending from the
right:

Ex. 11. Complete the sentences with words from the list:
liver, rate, corkscrew, alcoholism, moderation, arteries, protect, prevent.

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1) Eating lots of low-fat foods can help ______ heart disease. 2) If you must
drink alcohol, doctors recommend you drink in _____. 3) What was
unemployment _____ for March? 4) Alcoholics Anonymous is a support group for
people who suffer from _____ . 5) If you take a bottle of wine on the picnic, don’t
forget the ______ . 6) Sunscreen helps ______ your skin from sunburn. 7) Too
much alcohol can damage your ______. 8) Your _____ carry blood from your
heart to other parts of your body.

Ex. 12. Complete the sentences with few, a few, little, a little:

1) If you need to borrow some money, I have ________ that I can lend you.2)
May I have _________ ice cream? It looks delicious. 3) Alberto had ________
time before his train left, so he stopped for coffee. 4) Bobby visited his grandfather
__________ weeks ago. 5) Eva knows only ___________ words in English. 6)
Please hurry! We’ve got very __________ time before the plane leaves! 7) Tome’s
boss has _________ patience, and he can’t stand people who waste time. 8)
__________ people can speak more than ten languages. 9) The school principal
retired __________ years ago. 10) __________ people went to see the
performance because of the storm. 11) The skiing wasn’t very good last winter
because of there was _________ snow. 12) It rains very __________ days a year in
the Sahara desert.

Ex. 13/1. Look at the menu and match each heading below to the correct
section:

1. Desserts ______ 3. Main courses ________


2. Drinks_________ 4. Starters_________

MENU
A ______(ALL SERVED WITH A ROLL AND BUTTER)
FRENCH ONION SOUP
MELON WITH HAM
SEAFOOD SALAD
B________(ALL WITH SALAD OR COOKED VEGETABLES AND
YOUR CHOICE OF POTATOES)
STEAK WITH ONIONS AND PEPPER SAUCE
PAN-FRIED COD WITH PEAS
CHICKEN AND MUSHROOM PIE
ITALIAN SPAGHETTI WITH TOMATO SAUCE
JACKET POTATO FILLED WITH CHEESE, HAM OR BAKED BEANS
C _________(SERVED WITH VANILLA ICE CREAM)
CHOCOLATE CHESE CAKE

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HOT APPLE PIE WITH REAL BUTTER PASTRY
FRUIT SALAD
CHEESE AND BUISCUITS
D __________
MINERAL WATER (STILL OR FIZZY)
SOFT DRINKS (COKE, LEMONADE ETC)
ICED TEA OR COFFEE
FRUIT JUICE (ORANGE, GRAPE ETC)
POT OF TEA OR COFFEE

Ex. 13/2. Decide what each of these friends might choose to eat. How about
you? What would you choose for yourself from this menu?

1. Sarah hasn’t eaten all day and is cold and hungry. She loves red meat and
wants a full three-course meal to help her get warm again.
______________________________________________________________
2. Liz wants a snack so she’ll have a starter and something sweet to finish
with She can’t eat fish or milk products.
______________________________________________________________
3. Ross is a vegetarian and also avoids fish and pasta. He’s supposed to be on
a diet so he won’t have a starter. However he’d like a nice sweet dessert.
______________________________________________________________
4. Tim always choose something different from his friends. He’s looking
forward to a big meal that includes fish, meat, vegetables and something tasty to
finish.
______________________________________________________________

Ex. 14. Word Study.

А. Homonyms are words that sound the same but have different meanings and
spellings. In the following sentences, circle the соerect homonyms.

1. Americans like to eat (they’re; their) lunches quickly because (they’re;


their) often in а hurry. 2. Let’s (by; buy) some (meat; meet) and then (meat; meet)
(by; buy) the cashier. 3. 1 want (to; too) have (some; sum) coffee. 4. Every
(Sunday sundae) , I eat chocolate (Sunday sundae). 5. Cooking styles (vary; very)
а great deal in the U.S., sо eating American style is (vary; very) interesting. 6. It’s
(to; too) late for breakfast and (to; too) early for lunch, so let’s go (to; too) а
restaurant and have brunch.

В. Sometimes а word from another language enters the English language,


accent mark and all. Here are some examples from this chapter. Pronounce these
words, and write their meanings.

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1) entree _____, 2) a la mode _____, 3) lasagna _____,
4) gourmet ____, 5) apostrophe ______, 6) haute cuisine ______.

Ex. 15. Idiom Study.

А. Write the meanings of the following idioms. The numbers in brackets give
the paragraphs in which these idioms are used:

1) а bite [1] _______________________________________


2) а coffee break [3] ________________________________
3) brown-bag it [4] _________________________________
4) believe it or not [28] __to page 193 ЧТО ЭТО_______________________
5) and so on [28] ____to page 193______________________________
6) to become hooked [25] ___________________________

В. Discuss the meanings of three square meals а day [1] and variety is the
spice of life (see heading above paragraph 31), and into an earl grave [20].

Ex. 16. Reading Skills.

А. Most paragraphs contain а topic sentence that states the main idea.
The topic sentence is more general than the other sentences in the paragraph,
and it often suggests the writer’s attitude toward the subject. The other sentences in
the paragraph support this topic idea by offering examples, reasons, or other
evidence. Write down the first two words of the topic sentence in each of the
following paragraphs:
[20] ______________________________
[26] ______________________________

В. What is the meaning of the colon (:) used in paragraph 10?


______________________________________________________

С. Discuss the difference between а fact and an opinion. Then mark the
following statements fact (F) or opinion (О).

1. American food isn’t healthy. 2. Americans eat more beef than people from
many other countries do. 3. Illegal drugs cause an increase in crime. 4. Americans
should legalize all drugs. 5. Americans eat too many snacks. 6. Smoking cigarettes
is bad for а person’s health.

Ex. 17. Translate the following sentences into English.

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1) День англичанина начинается с завтрака и чтения утренней газеты. 2) Его
любимый завтрак обязательно включает поджаренный бекон, тосты с джемом и
чай. 3) Чай англичане пьют со сливками и сахаром. 4) Каждое утро я ем
кукурузные хлопья с молоком. 5) В 11:00 утра перерыв, когда все пьют чай или
кофе. 6) Есть еще один такой перерыв в течение дня – в пять вечера. 7) Чай пьют
с печеньем или кексом. Но чаще всего просто горячий ароматный чай. 8)
Англичане не пьют чай с лимоном. Такой чай они называют «русский чай». 9)
Англичане предпочитают простую еду: жареную рыбу с картофелем, овощи и
какое-нибудь мясное блюдо. 10) На десерт обязательно что-то сладкое, часто
знаменитый пудинг. 11) Вечером после обеда англичане любят посидеть в пабе и
выпить пива. 12) В пабе не только пьют пиво, можно вкусно перекусить,
поиграть в шахматы или на бильярде. 13) Рождественский ужин в США обычно
состоит из индейки, ветчины, яблочного пирога, орехов и фруктов. 14) Моя
подруга – вегетарианка, и поэтому она обычно ест овощи, фрукты, молочные
продукты и иногда рыбу. 15) Я сейчас на диете, поэтому съем только немного
вареного мяса и овощей. 16) Мне налили чашку крепкого горячего кофе из
серебряного кофейника и на тарелку из старинного фарфора положили кусок
торта. 17) Моя бабушка прекрасно готовит; особенно ей удается утка с тушеной
кислой капустой. 18) Мэри сказала, что не будет обедать дома в воскресенье, так
как ее пригласили на обед к друзьям. 19) Я не получил никакого удовольствия от
обеда, так как суп был водянистый, заливная рыба безвкусная, а мясо
пережаренное. 20) К сожалению, в меню не было коктейля из креветок, а ведь
это мое любимое блюдо. 21) Наша семья любит овощи, и летом и зимой мама
часто готовит нам кабачок, фаршированный рисом и мясным фаршем. 22)
Официант порекомендовал нам на первое грибной суп со сметаной, на второе –
копченого лосося с картофелем-фри, а на десерт – мороженое с малиновым
сиропом. 23) Ешьте абрикосы. Они очень вкусные. 24) Какой суп ты хочешь,
чтобы я приготовил? – Любой. Только пусть мама сварит его. Он будет тогда
гораздо вкуснее. 25) Разрешите предложить вам еще чашку кофе? – Спасибо. Не
кладите много сахару, пожалуйста. Двух кусков достаточно. – Ну что ж. О
вкусах не спорят. 26) Пора ужинать. Что сегодня на ужин? Телячьи отбивные с
жареной картошкой и чай с печеньем. 27) Чем вас угостить? Попробуйте салат. –
Спасибо, я уже его ел. Очень вкусно. – Разрешите тогда предложить вам ветчину
или сыр. – Спасибо, с удовольствием возьму ломтик ветчины с горчицей. 28)
Передайте, пожалуйста, солонку. – Простите, в ней очень мало соли. Я сейчас
принесу еще. 29) Что ты заказал на второе? – Еще ничего, но закажу котлеты с
макаронами. – А я макаронам предпочитаю картофель и другие овощи, поэтому
возьму курицу с пюре. 30) Стол уже накрыт. Тарелки, ножи и вилки разложены,
хлеб нарезан, бутылки с вином открыты. – А где же соль, перец и горчица? Ты,
как всегда, забыла о них. 31) Доктор советовал мне есть больше фруктов и
придерживаться диеты. 32) Я так хочу пить! Сегодня очень жарко. 33) Чтобы
приготовить мой любимый морковный салат, я беру три крупные моркови, тру
их на терке, мелко рублю головку чеснока, добавляю изюм, все перемешиваю и

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заправляю салат майонезом.

Ex. 18. Comprehension questions: answer the following questions on paper or


in class discussion.

1. In this chapter, what two meals were discussed besides breakfast lunch, and
dinner? Describe when they are eaten and what is eaten.
2. Why is preparing а meal easy for Americans?
3. What are some of the dangerous aspects of American food consumption?
4. How do American meals compare to those in your native country? List
some similarities and differences.

Ex. 19. Topics for Oral Compositions.

1. Describe your first visit to a restaurant. 2. Describe your weekday and


weekend menu. 3. Tell about your family’s favorite dishes. 4. Many fast food
restaurants are being opened in our country. Tell us about one of them
(McDonald’s, Pizza Hut etc). 5. Talk about dishes you (your mother) usually cook
for your birthday party. 6. Illustrate the saying “Tastes differ”. 7. What good do
fruit and vegetables do us? 8. Talk about special features of Russian cuisine. 9.
You’ve invited your English friend for dinner. Talk about dishes you are going to
cook. 10. Give your friend the recipe of you favorite dish. 11. What do you know
about traditional dishes of various countries? 12. Tell how you lay the table for a
party at home.

DIALOGUES
Read, translate and render the dialogues in the indirect speech.

1. Larry at Lunch
Mother: Larry, lunch is ready.
Larry: I don’t want to eat, Mummy.
Mother: but you must, Larry.
Larry: No.
Mother: I insist on your eating, Larry. Just a little bit, my boy.
Larry: No, Mom.
Mother: Now, Larry, be a good boy. Just sit down here and have a little bit of
fish.
Larry: That’s too much.
Mother: Will that do now, Larry? And stop trifling with the fish, will you?
Larry: I’m picking out the bones, Mummy.
Mother: O.K. and drink your coffee. It has already grown cold.
2. At Dinner
Fred: Hello, old chap. So nice of you to have come. We are about to have

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dinner. Will you dine with us?
John: With the greatest pleasure. I’m starving.
Fred: That’s fine. Well. I’m off to lay the table. Say, John, how about a drink?
John: Will a duck swim?
Fred: To you, John. Let me help you to some salad.
John: Please do. That’s quite enough, thank you.
Fred: Some soup?
John: Why? Yes. I think I could manage a plateful.
3.
Ann: How do you like the soup?
John: Awfully nice really. Don’t you think so?
Ann: Yes, it is indeed. Pass me the salt, please.
John: Here you are. Some more bread?
Ann: Yes, please.
John: What comes next, Ann?
Ann: Pork chops with roast potatoes.
John: And what follows that?
Ann: Wouldn’t you like to make a guess?
John: Stewed apricots as usual, I suppose.
Ann: There you are wrong, John. It’s apple pudding with whipped cream.
John: Apple pudding and with whipped cream! Oh, isn’t it fine!
Ann: I am happy that I’ve suited your taste.
4.
A: The table is laid. Come along and let’s start. It’s high time to have dinner.
B: I’m ready. ! Feel quite hungry. I could eat a horse.
A: So am I. I haven’t got a horse for you but your favorite dishes will be
served today.
B: What are they? I’ve got so many.
A: For the first course, we’ll have chicken soup and cutlets with mashed
potatoes for the main.
B: And for the dessert?
A: I’ve made cherry pie and stewed fruits.
B: Oh, that’s wonderful. Let’s sit at the table as soon as possible.
5.
Jim: Shall I help you dish up, Maggie?
Maggie: Well, I’m afraid lunch isn’t ready yet. You see the meat hasn’t
cooked properly. It’s been stewing for two hours but it’s still not quite tender.
Perhaps another 10 minutes...?
Jim: Of course. We are not in a hurry. We’ll have a drop of sherry while we
are waiting. Oh! It doesn’t seem to be here. Maggie! What have you done with it? I
keep it in the sideboard.
Maggie: I’ve been using it for cooking. It’s all gone.
Jim: but that happened to be a very good sherry. I’ve been keeping it for

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special occasions. by the way, there is a rather funny smell coming from the
kitchen.
Maggie: Good heavens! While I’ve been chatting with you, the meat must
have burnt. Oh! it’s burnt to a cinder. I really don’t know what to do. Perhaps I
might make an omelet.
Jim: I’ve a much better idea. I’ll come into the kitchen and make omelet. I
love cooking. And I’ll trust you to break the eggs, Maggie.
6. At the Restaurant
A: Shall we have our dinner in this restaurant? They serve very good meals
here and the prices are reasonable.
B: Well, you lead. You should know better. (In the restaurant)
A: What shall we have’? A three-course dinner, I suppose. I’m awfully
hungry
B: So am I. And I’m thirsty too.
A: Then let’s have a glass of mineral water first or some orange juice.
B: I’d prefer orange juice with ice or iced tea.
A: Waiter! Iced orange juice and a glass of mineral water, please. Now let’s
see the menu and here is the wine list too. How about some hard drinks?
B: I wouldn’t mind having a brandy.
A: So it’s one brandy. And whisky and soda for me. Would you like any
starters?
B: A salad would do, I think.
A: And I’ll have shrimps. Would you like any soup? As for me, I’ll have
mushroom soup and smoked salmon for the main course.
B: I like your choice. I’d rather have the same.
7. Lunch for Two
(June and Robert are out shopping. It’s almost 2 o’clock – high time to have
lunch)
Jane: It’s nearly two o’clock and we haven’t eaten anything since breakfast.
Let’s go and have lunch somewhere before we do any more shopping. There is no
need for us to starve.
Robert: That’s exactly how I feel. There is a small Italian place on the other
side of the road. Shall we try that?
Jane: Yes, let’s. (They enter the restaurant) Oh! It smells good in here. It’ll be
lovely to sit down after our marathon this morning.
Robert: There is a table for two in the corner. Sit down, Jane. Have a look at
the menu and tell me whether there is anything worth ordering.
Jane: There seem to be six different sauces to have with the spaghetti but
they’re all in Italian and I don’t recognize any of them. Oh, here you are, there’s a
translation as well. You can have spaghetti with mushrooms and chicken, with
minced beef, or with lobster sauce. Mmm, I’m going to try that.
Robert: Lobster sauce? That sounds horrible. It’s a constant surprise to me
what strange things people eat.

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Jane: You’ll stick to fish and chips, I suppose, and, apple pie and custard.
Robert: No. Roast beef and Yorkshire pudding and baked potatoes.
Jane: It’s incredible to think that after all the effort I’ve made you’re still so
conservative about your food.
8. At the restaurant
Mr. Smith: Hello. Do you have a table for two, please?
Head waiter: Good evening, sir. Sure. Would you like to have a drink in the
bar first and I’ll bring you the menu.
Mr. Smith: What a good idea. What would you say, John?
John: I don’t mind.
Head waiter: This way, gentlemen. Now, what would you like?
Mr. Smith: Scotch for me, I think. What about you, John?
John: I’ll have the same.
Head waiter: So, two whiskies. Very good. Here is the menu.
Mr. Smith: Now, let’s see. What shall we have to start off with? The prawn
cocktail’s very good or the melon is not bad at this time of year.
John: Yes, sir. I think I’ll have the prawn cocktail.
Mr. Smith: OK. And what shall we have to follow?
John: You know what I’d like? Something typically American.
Mr. Smith: OK, then. How about the roast beef?
John: All right. I’ll try that.
Mr. Smith: That’s settled, then. We’ll have prawn cocktail, to begin with and
roast beef to follow.
Head waiter: Very good. What vegetables would you like?
Mr. Smith: Oh, French fries and asparagus, 1 think. What about you. John?
John: Is that what one usually eats with roast beef?
Mr. Smith: Yes.
John: I see. Weil. I’ll have asparagus but I don’t think I’ll bother with the
potatoes. Got to think of my waistline, you know.
Headwaiter: Very good, sir. Your table’s ready when you are.
Mr. Smith: OK. We’ll be along in a couple of minutes, and would you send
the wine steward over?
Waiter: Any coffee, sir?
Mr. Smith: No, thanks, actually. We are in a bit of a hurry. Could we have the
bill straight away, please?
Waiter: Sure. I’ll bring it immediately.
John: Look, Mr. Smith. Let me do this.
Mr. Smith: No. no. This one is on me. Yon can pay next time. Hereyou are,
waiter.
John: Well, that’s very kind...

Ex. 2. Find the logical order of the following dialogue parts.

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1. Mother: Would you like some bread and ham, Tommy?
2. Tommy: All right, pass me the brown bread, please.
3. Mother: better, take some honey.
4. Tommy: No. thanks. Two soft-boiled eggs would do for me.
5. Mother: Another slice of bread. Tommy?
6. Mother: I’m afraid these are hard-boiled. but you can have half of the
omelette I’ve made. I am sure you’ll find it to your liking?
7. Tommy: No, thank you. No more for me.
8. Mother: Very well. Let me pour it out. Some more coffee, Tommy?
9. Tommy: Thanks, the omelette is pretty good.
10. Mother: Here you are.
11. Tommy: May I trouble you for jam?
12. Mother: A cup of coffee?
13. Tommy: Yes, please.
14. Tommy: Oil, no. I never have honey with coffee.

Ex. 3. Complete the dialogue, translating Russian sentences into English.

(В ресторане)
— Вы не проголодались?
— Oh, yes I am.
— Я очень хочу пить.
— Would you like a glass of orange juice?
— Спасибо. С удовольствием. Мне очень нравится апельсиновый сок.
— And I prefer apple juice.
— Все соки полезны для здоровья: томатный, яблочный, абрикосовый и,
конечно, ананасовый.
— I like pineapple best of all.
— Что мы возьмем?
— The three -course dinner, I suppose.
— Что же, выбирайте.
— Let’s start with salad, then chicken soup, fish and chips.
— Я думаю, я возьму зеленый горошек, фрукты и чашку чая без сахара.
— Are you slimming?
— Да.
— What does your diet allow you?
— Немного мяса или рыбы, яйца, немного сыра или молока и много
овощей: зеленый салат, капусту, помидоры, огурцы, свеклу и много фруктов.
Никаких пирожных, мороженого, шоколада и очень мало соли. Я живу не для
того, чтобы есть, а ем для того, чтобы жить.
— Да, вкусы бывают разные.

Ex. 4. Compose dialogues using the key words for the situations given below.

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1. You suggest to your wife going to a restaurant instead of cooking at home.
She disagrees with you giving her reasons, (why not go such a saving of time;
much more expensive; not as tasty as cooked at home). 2. You want to go on a diet
to reduce your weight. Ask your doctor what particular dishes he recommends
(what diet must 1 keep to; you must have vegetables, milk, boiled meat; to take in
much liquid; to take in much bread, butter, salt) 3. Lunch at the canteen. 4. Dinner
with your friends at home 5. Setting the table for a party. 6. Complain to your
friends of the bad service at the restaurant you’ve recently visited. 7. Teach your
friend how to make a cake (borsch, etc.)

Key words: keep yourself to; pass me ... please; as to me; I prefer; we’ve
made a mistake; would you like another...; you “re very kind; no more; thank you;
put napkins; table- cloth; pepper and mustard; cut the bread; too expensive; dirty
plates; overcrowded; noisy; tips; tasteless; uneatable; tough; overdone; peel; boil;
simmer; add; spices; pan; frying pan; beetroot; greens; bake; flour; dough; order; I
would recommend; waitress, the bill, please; oven.

Ex. 5. Expand the situation introduced by the opening sentences.


1.
— (To the waiter) Are there any tables for nine, please?
— There are no big tables I am afraid.
— There are a few but they are too close to the band.
2.
Mary: How about lunch, Mom?
Mother: It’s ready, you may set the table.
3.
J: Where shall I take you for lunch?
I: I’d like to go to a self-service canteen.
J: We’ll do that. I’d like it. You just pick up a tray and walk along a big
counter where all kinds of food are placed ready.
4.
E: I’d like to sit at that table.
A: I’m afraid it is reserved. Here is a nice place at the window, isn’t it?
5.
Waiter: Well, anything else, sir?
Mr. Smith: No. Thank you. The steak is a bit overdone and rather tough.
Waiter: I’m terribly sorry, sir.
Mr. Smith: And the cabbage is just uneatable and the soup was absolutely
cold.
6.
Alan: What shall we order?
Jack: I leave the choice to you, Alan.

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Alan: Good. What would you say to some salad, caviar, olives, clear soup,
lamb chop and coffee?

Ex. 13. Translate the dialogues into English.


1. Завтрак
А: Завтрак готов?
В: Да. Чайник кипит. Пора завтракать. У нас будет что-то особенное на
завтрак
А: Да, пахнет вкусно, но мне кажется, что у нас будет обычным завтрак:
яичница с ветчиной и тосты.
В: Нет, дорогой. Я испекла яблочный пирог.
А: Ну, давай садиться за стол. Я умираю от голода.
В: Что ты будешь пить, чай или кофе?
А: Чай, пожалуйста, с одним кусочком сахара.
В: Давай попробуем пирог.
А: Как вкусно. Тебе всегда удаются пироги.
В: Спасибо, дорогой. Передай мне, пожалуйста, масло.
А: Вот, пожалуйста. Можно мне еще одну порцию пирога?
В: Да, конечно. Дай мне твою тарелку, я положу пирог.
А: Боюсь, что я переел, но так вкусно, что я не могу остановиться.
В: Ничего страшного. Мы будем обедать сегодня довольно поздно. Я
вернусь домой только в 8 часов.
А: Спасибо за вкусный завтрак.
2. Разговор двух матерей
А: У моего сына очень плохой аппетит. Он ничего не ест. Я очень
волнуюсь за него.
В: А вот мой не страдает отсутствием аппетита. Возьмем, к примеру,
сегодняшний день. Утром у нас был довольно плотный завтрак – яичница из
двух яиц, тарелка каши, и все же он по- просил добавку. Конечно, я
попыталась не дать ему.
А: Ну, зачем вы так. Я бы хотела, чтобы у моего мальчика был такой же
аппетит, как у вашего.
В: Не думаю, что вам нужно завидовать мне. Знаете ли, мой сын склонен
к полноте.
3. Разговор между матерью и дочерью
А: Разве оладьи невкусные?
В: Вообще-то я не очень люблю оладьи.
А: Разве? Я думала, что это твое любимое блюдо. Попробуй клубничное
варенье с оладьями. Это очень вкусно.
В: Мам, от вчерашнего ужина остался небольшой кусок пирога Можно
мне взять его?
А: Конечно. Но боюсь, что ты останешься голодной.
В: Нет, пирога вполне достаточно, и он такой вкусный.

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4. В ресторане
А: Эта телятина очень нежная, но довольно безвкусная.
В: Я думаю, это легко исправить. Не хватает соли? Так добавь соли
(посоли), вот солонка. Мой бифштекс немного жесткий, а вот жареная
картошка очень вкусная. (Обращается к официанту) Пожалуйста, принесите
две чашки чая, крепкого и горячего.
A: Принесите чай позднее, мы не любим пить холодный чай. И
приготовьте счет, пожалуйста.
5. В ресторане
А: Есть ли столики на девять человек?
В: Боюсь, у нас нет таких больших столов. Есть несколько, но они
расположены слишком близко к оркестру.
А: Вот хороший столик. Давай займем его. Какие закуски вы можете
предложить?
В: Я могу предложить овощной салат, икру, сардины. Рекомендую
настоящий русский салат.
А: Что он собой представляет?
В: Он приготовлен из помидоров, огурцов, перца и лука.
А: Хорошо, мне салат из помидоров и немного маслин. И еще, я хочу
попробовать вашу знаменитую окрошку.
В: Она очень освежает в жаркий день. Она состоит из кваса, огурцов,
картофеля, мяса и лука.
А: Лук! Тогда мне не надо окрошки.
6. Oбед дома
Мэри: Как насчет ленча, мама?
Мама: Он готов, ты можешь накрывать на стол.
Мэри: Хорошо. А что у нас на ленч?
Мама: Холодное мясо, салат, кофе и булочки.
Мэри: Звучит неплохо. Я уже накрыла на стол. Пойду помою руки и
позову Питера. А! вот и он идет.
Питер: Ленч готов, мама? Я голоден, как волк.
Мама: Да, все готово. Ты вымыл руки?
Питер: Да, давайте садиться за стол. Мама, мне порезать мясо?
Мама: Да, дорогой, пожалуйста. Вот нож. Дети, берите салат. Я
приготовила новую заправку для салата – растительное масло, лимон и
горчица. Вам нравится?
Мэри: Очень вкусно.
Питер: Спасибо за вкусный лeнч, мамочка.
7. Oбед у друзей.
(Вилли угощает Алекса, Анн и Георга обедом, который он сам
приготовил. Алекс – иностранец, он в гостях в Англии).
Aлекc: He могли бы вы передать мне соль, пожалуйста?
Анн: Да, конечно, пожалуйста.

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Алекс: Спасибо, Анн.
Вильям: Ну а сейчас, Алекс, ты попробуешь мой йоркширский пудинг с
жареной говядиной?
Aлeкc: С удовольствием. Я никогда не пробовал его раньше.
Анн: Вильям, пудинг превосходный. Так готовит его моя мама.
Поздравляю.
Георг: Алекс, ты давно не был в Англии. Ты замечаешь какие-нибудь
перемены в поведении за столом?
Алекс: Да, вы, например, не говорите, что надеетесь, что гости получат
удовольствие от еды.
Анн: А в вашей стране так же кладут ножи и вилки, как и у нас?
Aлекc: Когда поели, вы кладете нож и вилку рядышком на тарелку.
Анн: Да, я заметила, что когда ты поел, ты положил нож и вилку рядом с
тарелкой.
Вильям: Угощайтесь сливовым пирогом и кофе.

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III. BUYING AND COOKING FOOD.

UNIT 1. TYPICALLY AMERICAN

Read the text and find out more about typical American shops.

The shops that are most characteristically American are the "drugstores" and
the "supermarkets". A "drugstore" is not, as an Englishman might think, a
"chemist's shop", i.e. a place that sells only or mainly drugs. In some of them you
can buy drugs, but their main business is to sell stationary, fountain pens, belts,
candy, milk shakes, ball-point pens, ice-creams, toasters, electric clocks or
imitation jewelry. Every drugstore has a food counter where you can sit on a high
stool and have Coca-Cola, various juices, hot dogs, coffee, cakes, sandwiches,
omelettes and other egg dishes. There are food–dispensing machines from which
on putting in a coin you can get a plate of cooked ham, cooked beef or cheese —
all to the constant sound of music from the "juke boxes" or "canned music" that is
telephoned in.
In America, just as in England, you see the same shops with the same boards
and windows in every town and village. If you want cigarettes, you are expected to
go to the grocer; if you want to have your shoes cleaned, go to the barber; if you
want a radio, go to a man’s shop. If you want a suit-case, you are expected to go
the chemist’s. On the other hand if you want to send a telegram, avoid the post
office, because telegrams are sure to be handled by private companies. Nor has the
post office anything to do with the telephone either, as telephone service is
supplied by the American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
There are "supermarkets" in England but the ones in America are much
bigger; some covering 40,000 square feet are not uncommon, and they have huge
car-parks where the cars of a thousand customers can be parked. Nearly 50% of the
groceries sold in America are sold in the supermarkets. You just help yourself as
you walk pushing a wire basket on wheels that is provided to hold the goods you
want to buy. At the exits the assistant will take the goods you have chosen from the
wheel basket, add up the cost and take your money in payment for the goods.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What shops are considered characteristically American?


2. What’s the difference between a chemist’s (shop) and a drugstore?
3. What do they sell in the drugstore?
4. What can you have for a snack in the drugstore (at the food counter, from
“automats”)?
5. Where does the music come from?
6. What is a “juke box” and how does it operate?
7. What is a supermarket?

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8. What are the wheel baskets used for?
9. Where do you pay for the goods you have chosen?
10. Why is the principle of self-service convenient? How is it used at our
shops?

Ex. 2. Find in the text equivalents to the following:

1) посетитель; 2) огромный; 3) музыкальный аппарат; 4) пломбир с


сиропом, орехами и т.д.; 5) канцелярские товары; 6) монета; 7) бижутерия;
8) лекарства; 9) шариковая ручка; 10) блюда из яиц; 11) основной бизнес; 12)
авторучка; 13) чемодан; 14) бакалейные товары; 15) постоянный; 16)
проволочная корзина; 17) обеспечиваться.

Ex. 3. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons. The
following phrases may be helpful:
That’s right; Quite so; Not quite; Not exactly; You may be right there; Not at
all; True; It’s partly true; Just the contrary; I can’t agree with you; That’s where
you are wrong.

1. A “drugstore” is the same as a “chemist’s shop as an Englishmen might


think. 2. Every drug store has a food counter. 3. There are food–dispensing
machines from which you can get a plate of cooked ham, cooked beef or cheese. 4.
Nearly 90% of the groceries sold in America are sold in the supermarkets. 5. If you
want to send a telegram, go to the post office. 6. There are no supermarkets in
Britain. 7. In drugstores you can buy only Coca Cola and sandwiches.

Ex. 4. Circle the correct answer.

1. The shops that are most characteristically America are:


a) cash and carry; b) corner stores; c) drugstores; d) Tiffany’s.
2. Every drugstore has a food counter where you can sit on:
a) a chair; b) an arm chair: c) a high stool: d) a rocking chair.
3. There are _____ from which on putting in a coin you can get a plate of
cooked ham etc.
a) food–dispensing machines; b) cashiers; c) food counters; d) microwave
ovens.
4. The American supermarket can cover _____ are not uncommon.
a) 10 000 square feet; b) 20 000 square feet; c) 30 000 square feet; d) 40 000
square feet.
5.Nearly _____ of the groceries sold in America are sold in the supermarkets.
a) 20%; b) 50%; c) 70%; d) 90%.

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Ex. 5. Find these places in the word puzzle. Then answer the questions.

Z P H K T Y W X D C H B S S R
N D O A W O J R P T O O Y R E
E F M S J D R U G S T O R E S
W S C K T F U Z V N E K T M T
S N P W O O H Y P R L S E L A
S S P P U K F N S A Q T N X U
T K O I B Y S F U Y W O M I R
A G A S S T A T I O N R V G A
N E C L F W G P C C M E A O N
D S U P E R M A R K E T K G T

bookstore
across ٧ drugstore
down . gas station
hotel
diagonal . newsstand
post office
restaurant
supermarket

a) Where can you buy aspirin? e) Where can you buy stamps?
. You can buy aspirin at a ...........................
drugstore. . ..
b) Where can you stay on your f) Where can you buy gasoline?
vacation? ...........................
.............................. ..
... g) Where can you buy a book?
c) Where can you buy a newspaper? ...........................
.............................. ..
... h) Where can you buy potatoes?
d) Where can you have dinner? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …………..
..............................
.

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences with the correct places:

a) Let’s go out for dinner. There’s a new Mexican . restaurant . next to the
office. b) I work ____ . I love books, so it’s an easy job. c) Are you going to the
____? I need some stamps. d) I have a headache. Can you buy some aspirin at the
___ ? e) Oh, no! I don’t have any food for dinner. I’m going to the ___ right now.

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f) Tomorrow we’re going to Paris for five days. We’re going to stay at a beautiful
___ . g) Excuse me, I don’t have any gas in my car. Where is a ____ ? h) Is there
a ___ near here ? I want a magazine and some chocolate.

Ex. 7. Read the following article and divide the words in bold type into two
groups, according to whether they are countable or uncountable in the text. Be
careful, as one or two of the words can be countable or uncountable according to
the context.

BUON CAFFÉ
The coffee shop Buon Cafffe opened 16 new outlets in the first quarter, and
recorded a sales increase of 5/6%. According to Armando Cherici, chief executive,
the growth in revenue has been enough to speed up the company’s expansion
programme. They will now over 20 stores by next February.
Buon Caffe started in 1992 with a small coffee shop in West London. It soon
became famous for its Italian coffee and high quality food. Part of its secret was
the use of Italian bread and quality fresh ingredients for every sandwich but their
success was also thanks to their investment in top quality equipment to produce
the coffee. Staff were trained in how to use a grinder and an espresso machine
correctly. The shop also provided customers with forms so that they could give
feedback on the Buon Caffe experience. The result was rapid growth and 14 more
Buon Caffe shops were opened in the next 10 years. It now takes just three months
for a new Buon Caffe shop to start making a profit.
There is evidence to suggest that in London the coffee shop is starting to take
over from the pub as a place where people meet for social or business purposes.
Market research carried out on a group of 18-to 24-year-olds found that 48% of
them went to the coffee shop for their lunch break and over 50% preferred it as a
place to meet clients. If so, there is probably plenty of room for Buon Caffe to
grow further.

Countable Uncountable
increase revenue
___________ ______________
___________ ______________
___________ ______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________

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UNIT 2. GRADES AND PRICES

Read the text. Supermarkets in a foreign country are always confusing. How
can you decide what to buy amid such profusion?

You can save a good deal of money if you buy according to grade instead of
"brand" (which only means company name).
For example, one can of beans may cost $1.34, another $1.79. The more
expensive one may be the brand that is most widely advertised and, therefore, best
known. Perhaps you are only paying your share of the advertising costs. It is quite
possible that if you buy the cheaper can, you will not be sacrificing quality, yet you
will save several cents on just one small item.
Look to see if both cans contain the same number of ounces; look at the list of
ingredients to see what percentage is water. By law actual ingredients must always
be listed. The important thing to know is that the listing must be in order of the
amount contained. So, if the ingredients read: "water, macaroni, cheese," put the
package back on the shelf, for you know it contains more water than macaroni.
Watch out for such words as "moisture"—which means nothing more or less
than "water"—or "salad dressing" as distinct from "mayonnaise." The law says that
mayonnaise must contain 65 percent oil. So, some-companies put out "salad
dressing," which only has to contain 30 percent oil. Some people prefer less oil,
but it is good to know what you are getting so you can judge the price accordingly.
The thing that is confusing but important to understand is that our grading
system (the words "Choice" or "Good" on meat, for example, or "Grade A" or
"Grade B" on eggs) has nothing to do with the nutritional value of the food. All
will be fresh, healthy, and nutritious. The difference in grade has to do only with
appearance—more uniform size, whole and not in pieces, better color, less water.
Let us take canned mushrooms as an example. Grades (and therefore prices) will
vary depending on whether the mushrooms are whole, sliced, or in broken pieces.
But all will be good, healthy mushrooms.
Or tomatoes: Do you need firm, uniform-sized tomatoes for a special dish,
for instance (Grade A), or are you going to serve them in a stew or sauce? If so,
broken pieces of various sizes would be perfectly all right for your purpose
(Grades В or C).
In short, when speaking of canned goods
Grade A Means whole, beautiful, free from defects;
Grade B Means large pieces, but not necessarily whole;
Grade С Means smaller and broken pieces, often lots of juice; satisfactory
for cooking, but not for appearance.
The price of Grade С may be half the price of Grade A! Much citizen pressure
is being put on the U.S. government to regulate and grade foods. As yet, the
grading system is not compulsory, so one does not find grades on everything.

129
However, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is marking more and more items. It
is a good idea to look for their stamp and use it whenever possible.
For example, one market offered three brands of orange juice. Prices were: 47
cents, 49 cents, and 53 cents. All three brands had a small shield printed on the can
with the words "U.S. Grade A"; all three contained the same number of ounces.
This meant that all three brands met the same-government standards of quality.
The difference in price therefore was a matter of packaging, advertising, or trans-
portation costs. It was not the quality of the juice. So you can save by learning to
read labels.
This same sort of price variation appears also on cigarettes, camera film, and
many other common items. If in doubt, ask your friends, neighbors, and colleagues
for their recommendations.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. How can you save a good deal of money?


2. Why does one can of beans cost more expensive than another?
3. What is the important thing to know about the amount contained in cans?
4. What does the difference in grade have to do with?
5. Is the grading system compulsory?
6. Why can you learn to read labels?
7. Where are ingredients listed by law?
8. How much oil must mayonnaise contain by law?
9. How much oil must salad dressing contain by law?
10. How many ounces does a quart (a pound) contain?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

1) brand; 2) grade; 3) advertising cost; 4) moisture; 5) salad dressing; 6)


nutritious; 7) sliced; 8) canned goods; 9) the U.S. Department of Agriculture; 10)
shield; 11) transportation; 12) short-cuts; 13) a quart; 14) an ounce; 15) a pound;
16) “a weekly specials”; 17) a guide; 18) in doubt; 19) packaging; 20) whenever.

Ex 3. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons. The


following phrases may be helpful:
That’s right; Quite so; Not quite; Not exactly; You may be right there; Not at
all; True; It’s partly true; Just the contrary; I can’t agree with you; That’s where
you are wrong.

1.You can save much money if you buy according to grade instead of
“brand”.
2. If the ingredients read “water, macaroni, cheese” buy such package, it’s a
bargain.

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3. Grades on canned mushrooms will vary depending on whether the
mushrooms are whole, sliced or broken pieces.
4. The price of Grade C. may be half the price of Grade A.
5. The difference of price is a matter of the quality.
6. Supermarkets in foreign countries are always the same.
7. U.S. grading system has to do with nutritional value of the food.
8. If you need firm, uniform-sized tomatoes buy Grade A.
9. Grade C means whole, beautiful, free from defects.
10.The important thing to know is that the listing must be in order of amount
contained.

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences with the correct verbs in the Past Simple:

Ex. 5/1. Match the verbs to the nouns:

1. boil a. a hole
2. dial b. TV program
3. dig c. a video
4. feed d. some water
5. record e. the coffee
6. rent f. the dog
7. pour g. the number
8. tear h. the plants
9. tidy i. the room
10. water j. your jeans

Ex. 5/2. Complete each sentence with the correct verb + noun from Ex. 5/1:

1) I’m going to make some pasta. First I need to boil some water. 2) Can you
_______, please? He’s looking hungry. 3) Be careful or you’ll ______ on the nail
in that fence. 4) I always forget to ______ and then they suddenly die. 5) If we’re
going to plant that tree, we need to ______ first. 6) I’m going out tonight. Can you
________ for me? It’s on channel 4 at eight o’clock. 7) Can you ______? Or
would you prefer tea? 8) There’s nothing good on TV tonight. Let’s ______? 9)
We have to call Lisa. My hands are wet. Can you _______? 10) I’m having some
friends round tonight. I must______. It’s a terrible mess.

Ex. 6. Look at this list of food:


biscuit, bread, cake, cabbage, cereal, chicken, chips, coffee, coke, fish,
fruit, honey, jam, pasta, pie, pizza, tea, toast.

Which of the items can you refer to using…?

131
1 a bowl of cereal
2 a slice of
3 a loaf of
4 a mug of
5 a spoonful
of
6 a can of
7 a packet
of
8 a piece of

Ex. 7.

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UNIT 3. EASY DOES SHOPPING!

Read the text about the bewildering assortment of products in American


supermarkets. Then answer the questions.

27. Americans have a wide assortment of food to choose from than consumers in
any other country. Meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, cereals from various parts of the
nation are available throughout the country during any season of the year. Frequently,
the problem for the consumer is not the lack of variety of brands of food, but rather the
bewildering assortment from which one must choose. Putting food on the American
table is easier now than ever before. More than enough food to feed the nation to
produced by about 4% of the population, and paying for it is not а huge burden for
most Americans, In 1986, the average household earning about $26,000 spent $60 а
week for food, about two-thirds of it for food eaten at home and the other third for
eating out.
28. Today’s family shopper can go to one store – the nearby super-market and
find nearly everything the household needs. A family can make only one trip a week to
the supermarket to purchase its food needs for an entire week. believe is or not, the
average number of items in today’s American supermarket is almost 25,000! In
addition to food, supermarkets sell paper goods, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils,
cosmetics, common medicines, tobacco products, pet products, books and magazines,
flowers and plants, alcoholic beverages, and so on. Many are open until 10 Р.M. or later
to serve the working public. before the turn of the century Americans will have access
to computer-based shopping enabling them to make their buying decisions at home and
picking up their purchases at the store or having them delivered to their homes.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

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1. What percentage of the American population can feed the whole nation?
2. Is putting food on the American table easier now than ever before?
3. What do you think if it is very expensive for most Americans to pay for
food?
4. What problem do American consumers face when buying food?
5. Where does a family shopper go for purchases?
6. How often does a family visit a supermarket to buy its food for a week?
7. What is the average number of items in today’s American supermarket?
8. What other goods do supermarkets sell in addition to food?
9. When are many supermarkets closed?
10. What will enable Americans to make their buying decision right at home?
Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following:
1) pet products; 2) bewildering assortment; 3) to feed; 4) a huge burden; 5)
working public; 6) computer-based shopping; 7) to deliver; 8) the average
household earning; 9) the nearby supermarket; 10) cleaning suppliers; 11) cooking
utensils; 12) alcoholic beverages; 13) frequently; 14) entire; 15) purchase.
Ex. 3. Find Russian equivalents to the following, paying attention to the use
of preposition:
1) to buy by mail-order; 2) at a counter; 3) the price per item; 4) different
prices for the very same item; 5) the original price; 6) to pay on delivery; 7) the
discount price; 8) to calculate the cost of purchases; 9) the sale price; 10) an
attractively dressed shop-window; 11) to lower the price by 10%; 12) to discount
the goods by 6%; 13) a low rate of discount; 14) to advertise items on sale; 15) to
order the goods from a catalogue; 16) to sell a wide variety of goods.
Ex. 4. Look at these container words. Match the containers with the items.
bottle ________ of ________ soup
box ________ of ________ jam
can ________ of ________ water
bowl ________ of ________ sugar
glass ________ of ________ coffee
cup ________ of ________ beer
tube ________ of ________ peas
jar ________ of ________ toothpaste

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Ex. 5. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

1) sponge; 2) buckwheat; 3) corned beef; 4) to stew; 5) a to carve meat; 6) a


bream; 7) a lamb; 8) sturgeon; 9) parsley; 10) turnip; 11) for the main course; 12)
to chew; 13) tip; 14) to keep to diet; 15) an eggplant; 16) crockery; 17) to chop;
18) do justice to the meal; 19) a hearty eater; 20) have a snack.

Ex. 6. Write the numbers 1 to 14 to the correct words.

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Ex. 7. Complete the following definitions using the correct forms of these
verbs: to blend, to dissolve, to distil, to evaporate, to extract.

1) If you mix two thighs together, you blend them. 2) If a solid breaks down
and becomes part of a liquid, it ______. 3) If a liquid changes into a gas, it ______.
4) If you make a liquid stronger by heating it so that it changes into a gas, and then
cooling it, you ______ it. 5) If you remove one part from a mixture of different
things, you______ it.

UNIT 4. BUYING FOOD


Read the text how E. Lloyd does her shopping at the week-ends.

At the week-ends, when she has more time to spare, Elinor Lloyd does her
shopping at the big self-service food stores in town, for she can buy a lot of goods more
cheaply there than at her local grocer's. Accompanied by her husband or her daughter
she walks round the Co-operative supermarket and other large food stores looking for
bargains. These large self-service stores are brightly-lit and usually well laid out. The
goods are tidily arranged on trays and long shelves on which the various prices are
clearly marked. There is plenty of room for the customers to walk about.
The shelves are well stocked with a very wide selection of attractively packed
goods-everything from quick-frozen food to washing powder, from shoe polish to new-
laid eggs, from tinned fish to toothpaste. Elinor walks from shelf to shelf, filling her
wire basket. She has to be careful when shopping in a self-service store, for the goods
are so attractively displayed that she is tempted to buy things she does not need or
cannot really afford. She puts two large tins of instant coffee into her basket. The same
brand costs six pence more at the corner shop, so she has 'saved' twelve pence.
She looks round for a bottle of Worcestershire sauce but she cannot see any. A
shop assistant, who is making up an order, approaches her: "Can I help you, madam?"-
I’d like a bottle of Worcestershire sauce. Do you sell it?"- " Yes, we do, but I'm afraid
we've sold out at the moment. If you'd care to call on Monday ..."-"Thank you, I won't
bother!" Elinor goes to the cash desk, where there is a short queue. When it is her turn
the cashier reckons up the bill on a cash register which automatically adds up the
various items. In the meantime another shop assistant packs the goods into Elinor's
shopping bag. Elinor pays, carefully puts the receipt and the change into her puree and

136
leaves the shop. Before getting the bus home she goes to the market in search of
bargains. The market is large, with well over a hundred different stalls; part of it is
covered, part of it open-air. A wide range of clothes, household goods, fruit and
vegetables is on sale and prices are often considerably lower than in the ordinary shops,
for the stall-holders' overheads are relatively low. Elinor buys washing powder 5p a
packet cheaper than at her local grocer's, and fresh fruit and vegetables: two pounds of
oranges, half a pound of strawberries, two medium-sized grapefruit, a large cauliflower
and two pounds of sprouts.
She arrives home exhausted but a little proud of having saved forty or fifty pence
of the housekeeping money.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions


1. Why does Elinor do part of her shopping at the big self-service stores in
town?
2. Why does she have to be careful when shopping at such stores?
3. How big is the market?
4. What sort of goods are on sale there?
5. What is Elinor proud of?

Ex. 2. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases.

1) иметь побольше свободного времени; 2) в сопровождении; 3) искать


выгодные покупки; 4) товары, аккуратно расположенные на подносах; 5)
четко проставленные цены; 6) много места для прохода покупателей; 7)
испытывать соблазн; 8) та же марка; 9) все распродано; 10) значительно
ниже; 11) сравнительно низкие накладные расходы; 12) деньги на домашнее
хозяйство; 13) тщательно рассмотреть вопрос.

Ex. 3. Make up questions to which the following sentences might be the


answers.

1) Elinor looks for bargains in the Co-operative Supermarket. 2) All the goods
are attractively packed. 3) The shop normally sells Worchestershire sauce, but
they've sold out at the moment. 4) The cashier reckons up the bill on a cash
register. 5) Washing powder is 5 p a packet cheaper than at her local grocer's. 6)
She's saved about fifty pence of the housekeeping money.

Ex. 4. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

1. tinned foods; 2. ready-packed goods; 3. ready-bottled vegetable oil; 4.


ready-to-serve foods; 5. loose milk; 6. a bunch of leeks; 7. a jar of marmalade; 8. a
tin of luncheon meat; 9. 3 rolls of toilet soap; 10. a packet of frozen peas; 11. half a

137
dozen fresh herrings; 12. self-service; 13. counter-service; 14. a box of mint
chocolates, 15. meantime.

Ex. 5. Name 5-10 products you might buy at:


1) a grocery, 2) a sweet-shop, 3) a butcher's, 4) a fruiterer's, 5) a greengrocer's,
6) a fishmonger's, 7) an off-license shop, 8) a baker's.

Ex. 6. Write the numbers 1 to 12 of the pictures next to the correct words of
containers:
barrel __ , can __ , CD case __ , carrier bag __ , dustbin __ , filing cabinet __ ,
ice box __ , mug __ , rucksack __ , shoulder bag __ , sponge bag __ , wastepaper
basket __ .

1.

Ex. 7. Match the raw materials (1-8) with each company’s products (a-h):

138
1. aluminium a. luxury items of clothing, mainly ties and shirts.
2. silk b. cans for drinks
3. cellophane c. designer bags and other smaller items such as
wallets.
4. glass d. designer knitwear.
5. cotton e. optical fibre for telecommunications.
6. leather f. clothing including socks, shirts and sportswear.
7. wool packaging for mass-produced goods, e. g. T-shirt.
8. steel g. kitchen equipment such as knives and saucepans.

UNIT 5. BUYING GOODS

Read the text. The words below have been taken out of the text . As you read, try
to replace them: counter, buy, store, windows, shopping, to suit, department,
customers, an assistant.

Our friend has offered to take us with her when she went to do her ……. We
began in the …… district where as Kitty says she and her kind do more of what they
call - “window-……” - deciding what things in the shop …… they are able to …….
We enter the …….
The first thing that strikes us is its comparative emptiness. There are, indeed two
or three people at each ……. But no queues, no people in the center of the shop. We
have been looking round. It is true that this …… has all that can be found in every
grocery. Tea, oatmeal, spices, cocoa, bacon, ham, butter, cheese and the rest.
"You needn't be surprised if I don't want to …… anything there", our friend puts
in. "This is far above folks like us" "But you could …… your tea and rice and things
like that", we suggest. "Not me", she said; "the tea, and sugar and rice are in special
blends and packs and cost a good deal more than I pay". We notice that very little
money changes hands; most of the …… in this shop pay monthly or quarterly. We pass
on into another ……. Expensive furs, beautiful evening frocks and cloaks, shoes of
every pattern but all priced high.
Furnishing ……, stationary ……, book ……, jewelry. All through the …… there
are many …….
Kitty winks at us and then goes up to an ……. "Excuse me, can you tell me where
I shall find warm woollies for my husband?"
The …… slowly looks Kitty up and down, taking in her shoes slightly down at the
heels, her neat but inexpensive tweed winter coat, her little felt hat, and answers: "I'm
afraid you'll find nothing to …… you here". Kitty merely raises her eyebrows, and
turns to us again, scarcely restraining her smile. — "There you are", says Kitty. "We'd

139
better pop in somewhere else." So we enter another large ……, but one this time which
is humming with the buying chatter of obviously lower middle class.
The fish shops of which there are always many in England, the people being great
lovers of fish, are today closed, as always on Mondays, otherwise we should see good
displays of hake, haddock, cod and herrings for the working class tables. In the big
stores materials are so well and tastefully displayed, that they look much better than
they are.
Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:
1. What kind of store did Kitty take her friends to?
2. Were there any queues in the store?
3. Could the customers be seen to pay money for their purchases?
4. How did the shop assistant react to Kitty's request and why?
5. Do the shop windows display the merchandise to their advantage?
Ex. 2. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) пойти по магазинам, 2) разглядывать витрины, 3) отчетливо видны, 4)


относительная пустота, 5) центр магазина, 6) незачем удивляться, 7) не по
средствам нашему брату, 8) пройти в другой отдел, 9) обувь всех фасонов,
10) всюду в магазине, 11) подойти к продавцу, 12) осмотреть сверху донизу,
13) гудеть от голосов покупателей, 14) заглянуть в другое место.
Ex. 3. Make up questions to which the following sentences might be the
answers:

1. This coffee costs a good deal more than I pay.


2. Yes, there is the food section over there. They usually have a good supply
of teas there.
3. They sell all kinds of over-coats on the second floor.
4. I can't drag myself away from this jewelry show-case.
5. They fed us invariably on fish in the morning, being passionate fish lovers.
Ex. 4. There are 20 words for food and drinks in the square. Can you find
them?

C O F B A G E L L T F Y U P
S A N D L L C H H O N E Y O
B U T T E R U R I N E A S R
B R E A J J U T О I B E F R
L C A V I A R R L C W В H I
A H M E N N R G F E A U А D

140
G Т U Н I С Y H E R R I N G
E Y F P I N A R C H F Т С Е
R P F R A N K F T R T Е R А
Н W I N E R K M U S T A R D
P A N C A K E A R O P L U Р
R Е В Н T U N A K S C O N E
L Е М О N С V В E С R Е А М
Т E A F J E L L Y A W R R C

Ex. 5. Odd one out:

1) beer, bread, pasta, rice; 2) shoe, sock, milk, pants; 3) green, read, blue, red;
4) dollar, pea, peso, real; 5) shirt, shoe, sugar, salt; 6) lettuce, water, beef, egg; 7)
orange, lemon, banana, cucumber; 8) stylish, dowdy, up-to-date, trendy; 9) to
purchase, to go shopping, to sell, to do one’s shopping.

Ex. 6. Write the number 1 to 15 of the picture to the correct word:

aluminium foil _11_, apron ___ , carton ___ , chopping board ___ , cling film
____ , colander ___ , draining board ___ , electric whisk ___ , food processor ____
, grater ___ , kitchen towel ___ , rolling pin ___ , sieve ___ , timer ___ , wok ___.

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UNIT 6. QUICKER AND EASIER DOES COOKING

Read the text about how fast and easy prepare food nowadays. Then answer
the questions.

29. Not only is shopping quicker and easier than ever before; cooking is, too.
Many foods are partly or wholly prepared. А great variety of soups and sauces
come in cans or in small packages. The cook just adds water, heats, and serves.
Other timesavers include mixes for making mashed potatoes, pancakes, cookies,
and cakes. То these, the cook adds just two or three ingredients - usually butter,
milk, and eggs.
There are also instant beverages - coffee, сосоа, lemonade, and many others –
which are made by adding only water. Many frozen foods are precooked and need
only to be heated or cooked in a microwave oven.
30. Food preparation is fast and easy with а food processor, which can, for
example, turn а bunch of carrots into carrot juice with the flick of а switch. The
microwave oven has revolutionized the home preparation of meals. It, along with
the supermarket, where virtually any kind of foods are available, makes the
preparation of food the most time-efficient in the world. In а microwave oven, the
American cook can bake а chocolate cake in five minutes or а good-sized turkey in
а few hours. Clean up is speedy, too, with the automatic dishwasher and the
garbage disposal at hand. Not all Americans have this equipment, but many do.
Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:
1. In what packaging do many foods come on?
2. Why do many foods need only to be heated?
3. What equipments help to prepare food faster and easier than ever before?
4. What equipments help to clean up?
5. What can be cooked in a microwave oven?
Ex. 2. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:
1) mashed potato; 2) a bunch; 3) a garbage disposal; 4) a great variety; 5) an
automatic dishwasher; 6) wholly prepared foods; 7) time- savers; 8) instant
beverages; 9) frozen foods; 10) flick; 11) good-sized; 12) package; 13) to heat; 14)
along with; 15) virtually.
Ex. 3. Match the words with their descriptions.
1. garbage (waste) a. an oven that cooks food very quickly by passing
disposal. electricity through it, rather than by heat.
2. toaster. b. a machine that keeps food and drinks cold, usually with
a part for freezing food.

142
3. coffee machine. c. a piece of electrical equipment used for cutting
into very small pieces or mixing different foods together.
4. food processor. d. a piece of electrical equipment used for making toasts.
5. refrigerator e. a machine for making coffee at home or in a café.
6. microwave oven f. a piece of electrical equipment that mixes foods or
turns soft food into liquid.
7. blender g. a piece of electrical equipment under your sink that
crashes food so it will go down a pipe.

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences with some, any, or no:

1) I don’t like that store, it doesn’t have ___interesting food in it. 2) I had___
fresh coffee this morning. It was delicious. 3) There’s___ fresh milk in the
refrigerator. We need to buy___. 4) There isn’t _____tea, either. 5) Could I have
_____sugar in my tea, please? It’s very bitter without it. 6) I bought___ very
creamy cheese in France. 7) Do you have _____work for me to do? 8) I don’t
have___ money to buy dinner. 9) There’s____ time to walk. We’ll have to take the
car. 10) I have three apples in my desk and I can’t find__ of them. 11) Can I
get___ tea for you? I’ve just made___ . 12) I didn’t do ___work for the exam. I
think I failed! 13) You have ___ beautiful clothes. Why don’t you wear ____ of
them? 14) Have you ever read ___ books in French? 15) My small daughter can
write her name now without ___ help. 16) I read ___ good interesting books during
the holidays.
Ex. 5. Complete the following sentences using much, many, a lot of, a little, a
few.
1) There are only _____ vegetarians in my school. 2) America exports ____
wheat. 3) How _____ rice do you think India grows? 4) I only have ____ sugar in
my tea. 5) I have____ vegetarian cookbooks in my kitchen-only two or three. 6)
The family only needs____ money to buy some rice. 7) There isn’t ____ beef in
Cuba, but there is ____ sugar cane. 8) There aren’t ____ vegetarians in Great
Britain 9) ____ poor people don’t have enough to eat. 10) Indians only eat ____
meat, but a lot of vegetables. 11) Poor people don’t make ____ money from selling
their crops. 12)There are ____ very rich people in the world, but a lot of poor
people.
Ex. 6. Write the numbers 1 to 19 next to the correct words connected with
the kitchen:

143
cooker _4__ , cupboard __, cups __ , dishwasher __ , drawers __ , forks __ ,
freezer __ , fridge __ , frying pan __ , glasses __ , kettle __ , knives __ ,
microwave __ , plates __, saucepan __ , shelf __ , sink __ , spoons __ , oven __ .

UNIT 7. VARIETY – THE SPICE OF LIFE

Read the text and answer the questions.

31. The ethnic influence affects not only dining out but home cooking as well
Ingredients for ethnic foods are readily available at the supermarkets and specialty
stores catering to the needs of the various ethnic communities. The U.S.A. is а
nation of immigrants, commonly called а melting pot of people from nations
throughout the world. Therefore, it is not surprising that its cooking pots may
contain cuisine from anywhere in the world.
32. Regional food specialties add further variety to the American diet. From
New England come wonderful seafood chowders (usually clams or lobsters stewed
with vegetables and milk), baked beans, brown breads, and Boston cream pie.
Southerners have created delicious recipes for fried chicken, smoked ham, grits (a
side dish made with corn meal, milk, and eggs), and fritters (small fried cakes
often containing fruit). New Orleans is famous for its spicy Creole cooking, which
combines French, Spanish, black, and American Indian cooking styles. The
western part of the country has adopted many specialties from Chinese and
Mexican cuisines.
33. because of the nation’s varied climate and geography, а great variety of
fruits and vegetables are grown in the united States. Americans enjoy fresh
tomatoes from Texas, oranges from Florida, and strawberries from California.
High-quality fruits, juices, and vegetables are available any time of the year,
thanks to modern transportation and freezing techniques.

144
Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What does ethnic influence affect?


2. Why is the U.S.A. commonly called a melting port?
3. Why are a great variety of fruit and vegetables grown in the U S.?
4. Why are high-quality fruit and vegetables available any time of the year?
5. Where are ingredients for ethnic foods available to the various ethnic
communities?

Ex. 2. Find Russian equivalents to the following:

1) catering; 2) a melting pot; 3) regional food specialties; 4) sea-food


chowders; 5) baked beans; 6) Boston cream pie; 7) grits; 8) fritters; 9) spicy Creole
cooking; 10) a cooking pot; 11) freezing techniques.

Ex. 3. Agree or disagree with the statements. Give your reasons. The
following phrases may be helpful:
That’s right; Quite so; Not quite; Not exactly; You may be right there; Not at
all; True; It’s partly true; Just the contrary; I can’t agree with you; That’s where
you are wrong.

1. Putting food on American table is more difficult now than ever before.
2. Americans spend $ 60 a week for food with the average household earning
about $ 26000 in 1986.
3. Today’s family shopper can go to the nearby supermarket and can find
nearly everything the household needs.
4. Many supermarkets are open until 8 o’clock.
5. Many frozen foods are precooked and need only to be heated.
6. The ethnic influence doesn’t affect home cooking.
7. The U.S.A. is a nation of immigrants.
8. New Orleans are famous for it’s spicy Chinese and Mexican cuisines.
9. Americans enjoy fresh tomatoes from China.
10. High-quality fruit and vegetables are available any time of the year.

Ex. 4/1. Read the conversation between two people, describing typical dishes:
bigos from Poland and houmous from Israel and answer the questions:

Interviewer: Okay, so tell me about this dish we have here. It’s from Poland,
isn’t it?
Renata: Yes, that’s right. Well, this is a dish we call bigos in Poland. To make
it we need some sweet cabbage and some sour cabbage and some pieces of a
variety of different cooked meats—lamb, beef, chicken, and so on. You shouldn’t

145
use raw meat; it won’t taste so good.
Interviewer: Okay.
Renata: Oh, and you also need some smoked bacon. That’s very important to
make the bigos taste right.
Interviewer: So, how do you make this “bigos”?
Renata: Well, first you cook the cabbage. Then you mix all the other
ingredients together. You need to add in a lot of spices and some tomatoes and
then cook everything very slowly. You can heat it up again the next day as well. In
fact, the more times you re-heat it, the better it tastes.
Interviewer: It sounds delicious! And what about this dish, Benjamin? This is
from Israel, isn’t it?
Benjamin: Yes, you can find it all over the Middle East. It’s called houmous.
Interviewer: It smells really good. How do you make it?
Benjamin: Well, the principal ingredient is chickpeas. This is a pulse and very
healthy food. Then you need a lot of garlic, which is what makes the houmous
smell so strong. And we put in some olive oil, a little lemon juice, and salt. We eat
it cold.
Interviewer: Doesn’t the lemon juice make it taste sour?
Benjamin: No, it makes it taste fresh and clean.
Interviewer: I see. What would you eat with it?
Benjamin: Normally, we eat it with bread.
Interviewer: Wonderful! Thank you both. Now, if you’re listening and you
would like these recipes....

Ex. 4/2. Which ingredients are for bigos and which are for houmous: lemon
juice, bacon, cabbage, oil, spices, garlic, tomatoes, chickpeas, cooked meat?

Bigos Houmous
_____________________ _____________________
_____________________ _____________________
_____________________ _____________________
_____________________ _____________________
_____________________ ______________________

Ex. 4/3. Answer the questions:

1. Which dish is eaten cold? 2. Which dish tastes better the next day? 3.
Which dish is vegetarian? 4. Which dish can you re-heat? 5. Which dish would you
prefer?

Ex. 5/1. Before you read, think about the food you might find in an Indian
restaurant.
Indian Delights

146
India is a vast country with many different regions and over eight hundred
different languages. Each region has its own traditional dishes.
Generally, a typical Indian dish will have both meat and some vegetables or
legumes. Indians normally have some bread or rice with their meal; they don’t eat
much pasta, as it isn’t one of their national foods.
Indians eat some dishes with yogurt and often have some salad as well.
Sometimes, when the meat dish is very oily, they don’t eat any legumes with it; but
have a kind of rice they call pullao instead. Indians don’t often eat Western
desserts like ice cream or cake with their everyday meals, but they do eat them at
special meals like those prepared for weddings and religious festivals. Normally,
they finish the meal with some fruit.
Traditionally, people in India don’t use any knives or forks. Some people eat
with just their hands and some bread called chapah or nan.
Ex. 5/2. Decide if the following sentences true or false.

1. All Indian meals are vegetarian. TF


2. Indians often have some bread or rice with their meals. TF
3. Indians seldom eat pasta. TF
4. Indians sometimes eat ice cream for dessert. TF
5. Indians always eat with their hands. TF

Ex. 6. Match the thing around the house that go together. Draw lines from
each word on the left to the correct word on the right:

147
148
UNIT 8. BUYING AND PREPARING FISH AND SEAFOOD

Read and translate the text that provides some hints for buying, handling and
storing fish and other seafood.

Fish and shellfish make terrific entrees as well as delectable appetizers, soups,
and salads. Not only are they delicious foods, but they are nutritious foods as well
since they аre high in protein and low in saturated fats. Some seafood, such as
clams, oysters, and shrimp, are good sources of iron and most seafood is high in
calcium.
As with any fresh food, there are some important things to be considered
when buying fish and shellfish. This section provides hints for buying, handling
and storing fish and other seafood that will make creating terrific meals easy.
The most important thing to look for when purchasing fish I freshness
Appearance and odor are the best clues to freshness. Fresh fish are tight, shiny
scales, skin that springs back when pressed, and а mild odor. Whole fish should
have clear eyes and the gills should be any-where in color from pink to red. If you
are unsure about the freshness of a fish, place it in а bowl or pot of cold water, if
the fish is fresh, it will float.
Fish can also be purchased frozen. Make sure that the package is solidly
frozen and that the fish contains no sign of discoloration, oiliness, or freezer burn.
If there is any doubt as to the freshness of the seafood, it is best not to buy it.
Fish is sold in а variety of forms. It may be purchased whole or dressed,
which means cleaned and scaled with the head, tail, and fins removed. Fish can be
purchased in fillets, when the sides of the fish have been cut lengthwise away from
the ribs and backbone, and they even come as steaks. Fish steaks are actually
cross-sections of large fish. Let your fish seller know what type of dish you are
planning and he or she will prepare the fish properly.
Fish differ in meat color and flavor. Some recipes in this book list а specific
fish or shellfish as an ingredient, yet others simply specify the use of whitefish
fillets. This opens а number of option and allows for the selection of а favorite
fish. Fish with white meat that would work well in recipes specifying white fish
fillets would be cod, flounder, haddock, hake, halibut, red snapper sea trout, turbot,
whiting, whitefish, catfish, and butterfish.
Prepare fresh fish for cooking by washing it thoroughly in cold running water
then patting it dry with paper towels. If it still has scales, scrape them off with а
sharp knife.
Frozen fish should be thawed in the refrigerator until the pieces can be
separated. Never thaw fish at room temperature.
It’s very important to check for freshness when buying shellfish. If fresh
clams and oysters are bought in the shells, the shells should be tightly closed.
Discard any with open or broken shells as well as the ones that float. Oysters, if
purchased already opened, should be plum and creamy in color.

149
То test mussels for freshness, try to slide the two halves of the shell across
each other; they shouldn’t budge.
Fresh shrimp and scallops should be dry and firm.
When purchasing live lobsters or crabs, be sure to select the most active of the
group.
Prepare fresh clams for cooking by scrubbing them with а stiff brush. Then
wash them in several changes of cold 30 minutes.
Mussels should also be scrubbed with а stiff brush and washed under cold
running water. Additionally, mussels have beards which are usually clipped off
before cooking.
Fresh shrimp should be deveined. This can be done before or after cooking,
depending on the recipe and personal tastes. If using canned shrimp, rinse them
briefly in cold water to remove excess salt.
Fresh or canned crabmeat should be picked over to remove any shell or
cartilage.
Shellfish can be purchased fresh, frozen, previously frozen, canned, or
pasteurized. Many varieties of shellfish come already cooked. Keep in mind,
however that shellfish tastes best when it is fresh and prepared and eaten right
away.
Fish and shellfish are perishable. They can be stored in their wrappers in the
coldest part of the refrigerator for no longer than 1 or 2 days. Live shellfish should
be stored in а shallow dish and covered with a damp towel. For longer storage,
wrap seafood tightly in moisture-proof freezer paper or in foil and freeze of.
Leftover cooked seafood should be refrigerated or frozen immediately in а
tightly closed container. When properly covered, cooked seafood can be
refrigerated for 3 or 4 days, or frozen for up to 3 months.
After handling raw fish or shellfish, be sure to wash your hands with hot,
soapy water. Never reuse a plate that held raw seafood without washing it first and
thoroughly wash any utensils or cutting boards that come in contact with raw
seafood as well.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. What helps you to look for fresh fish?


2. What forms is fish sold in?
3. Does fish meat differ in color and flavor?
4. What should you know when buying fresh clams and oysters in shells?
5. Which live lobsters or crabs should you select?
6. How can you check freshness of mussels?
7. Where and how can fish and shellfish be stored?
8. Why is it important to thaw fish in the refrigerator?
9. What should you do first of all before preparing seafood?

150
10. What other necessary things should you do after handling raw fish or
shellfish?
11. Can you advise something what to do with leftover cooked seafood?

Ex. 2. Find English equivalents to the following words and phrases in the text:

1) основное блюдо; 2) закуска; 3) железо; 4) внешний вид; 5) запах; 6)


вкус; 7) филе; 8) рецепт; 9) треска; 10) камбала; 11) палтус; 12) сиг; 13)
помнить; 14) влажное полотенце; 15) влагонепроницаемый; 16) тщательно;
17) сырой; 18) зависеть; 19) дополнительно; 20) креветка.

Ex. 3. Give Russia equvnlents to the following words and phrases:

1) delectable; 2) nutritious; 3) saturated fats; 4) a clam; 5)an oyster; 6) a


scallop; 7) shellfish; 8) shiny scales; 9) lengthwise; 10) a cross-section; 11) to
thaw; 12) lobster; 13) a mussel; 14) calcium; 15) a gill; 16) to float; 17) a rib; 18)
previously; 19) excess salt; 20) a cartilage.
Ex. 4. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Pasta Salad with Mussels


Serves 8
4 pounds fresh mussels
2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed
4 springs parsley
2 cups dry white wine
1/2 cup vegetable broth
1/2 pound fresh peas, shelled
6 tomatoes, peeled and diced
1 (6 1/2-ounce) can tuna fish, drained
2/3 pound small cooked shrimp, shelled and deveined
2 tablespoons capers
1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons olive oil
Juice of 2 lemons
1 pound cooked pasta twists
Salt and freshly ground pepper taste
1. Clean mussels well and remove beards; discard any that are open. Place
mussels, garlic, parsley, and wine in large, heavy pot and bring to а boil. Cover and
cook for 6 to 8 minutes, or until mussels open.
2. Drain mussels, discarding any that have not opened. Remove mussels from
shells; discard shells.
3. Place vegetable broth in saucepan; bring to а boil. Add peas, cover, and
simmer for 10 minutes; drain.
4. Combine mussels, peas, tomatoes, tuna fish, shrimp, capers, 1/3 cup olive

151
oil, and lemon juice in bowl. Cover and refrigerate for 30 minutes.
5. Toss pasta with remaining olive oil. Combine mussel mixture and pasta;
season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Ex. 5. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Salmon and Cucumber Salad


Serves 4
2 cucumbers
1/2 cup French dressing
1 (14 3/4-ounce) can salmon, drained, reserve liquid, and flaked
1/3 cup mayonnaise
Salt to taste
Chopped parsley or chives
1. Cut cucumbers in half lengthwise; scoop out seeds and some fresh to form
shell. Discard seeds; set aside cucumber shells.
2. Chop scooped-out cucumber into small pieces; cover with half the French
dressing and refrigerate for 30 minutes.
3. Pour remaining French dressing-over salmon; refrigerate for 30 minutes.
4. Thin mayonnaise slightly by adding approximately 1 tablespoon of the
reserved salmon liquid. Drain marinated salmon and mix with mayonnaise.
5. Salt cucumber shells lightly; fill with salmon mixture. Spread marinated
cucumber mixture, reserved and refrigerated in Step 2, on top. Sprinkle with
parsley or chives, and serve.

Ex. 6. Read and translate the recipe into Russian

Tomatoes Stuffed with Seafood Salad


Serves 4
3 cups cooked seafood (any one or combination of crab, shrimp, or
lobster), cut up
1/2 cup chopped celery
1/2 cup sliced scallions
1/2 teaspoon dill weed
2 tablespoons olive oil
2 tablespoons lemon juice
4 medium tomatoes
Caper Mayonnaise
1 egg
1/2 teaspoon mustard
1/2 teaspoon salt
Pinch of cayenne pepper
1/2 teaspoon sugar

152
1 cup olive oil
3 tablespoons lemon juice
2 tablespoon chopped capers
To Serve
Lettuce
2 hard-boiled eggs, sliced lemon, cut into wedges
1. In mixing bowl, combine seafood, celery, scallions, dill, olive oil, and
lemon juice; mix well. Refrigerate until ready to use.
2. Slice tops off tomatoes. Scoop out pulp and reserve for another purpose,
leaving а shell approximately 1/2-inch thick .Drain.
3. To make caper mayonnaise, blend egg, mustard, salt, cayenne pepper,
sugar, and 1/4 cup olive oil together in blender or food processor. With blender or
food processor running, very slowly add 1/2 cup more oil. Gradually add lemon
juice and remaining oil; blend until thick. Transfer to serving bowl and fold in
capers.
4. Arrange lettuce on individual plates. Place 1 tomato shell on each plate and
stuff with seafood mixture. Garnish with egg slices and lemon wedges. Top with
caper mayonnaise, or serve caper mayonnaise separately.

Ex .7. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Baked Whole Fish with Mushroom Stuffing


Serves 6
1 (3-pound) whole fish, cleaned
4 teaspoons salt
2 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon chopped onion
1/2 cup chopped mushrooms
2 cups fresh bread crumbs
1/2 cup light cream
2 eggs, beaten
1 teaspoon chopped parsley
Pepper to taste
3 slices bacon
1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
2. Rub fish inside with 1 tablespoon salt.
3. Melt butter in saucepan. Add onion; sauté until onion is golden. Add
mushrooms; sauté for 5 minutes. Add bread crumbs, cream, eggs, parsley, 1/2
teaspoon salt, and pepper. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly, until mixture
thickens.
4. Stuff fish with mushroom mixture: fasten closed with skewers or
toothpicks. Place fish, underside down, in greased baking dish or in baking dish
lined with aluminum foil. Rub outside of fish with remaining salt.

153
5. Lay bacon slices on top of fish. bake for 30 to 45 minutes or until fish
flakes easily when tested with a fork. Transfer to heated platter; serve at once.

Ex. 8. Read and translate the recipe into Russian.

Hungarian-style halibut
Serves 4
2 tablespoons butter
1 cup chopped onion
1 clove garlic, peeled and minced
Salt and pepper to taste
1 (1-pound) can tomatoes, drained and chopped
Dash of Tabasco sauce
2 tablespoons dry sherry
2 tablespoons finely chopped parsley
4 halibut steaks, about 6 ounces each
1/4 cup lemon juice
2 tablespoons butter, melted
1. To make sauce, melt 2 tablespoons butter in small skillet over medium
heat. Add garlic; sauté until onion is lightly browned.
2. Add salt, pepper, tomatoes, Tabasco sauce, sherry, and parsley to onion
mixture. Cover and simmer for 15 minutes.
3. Preheat broiler.
4. Rub fish with 2 tablespoons lemon juice; let stand for 10 minutes. Place on
preheated, lightly greased broiler pan; brush with remaining lemon juice and
melted butter. broil 6 inches from heat source for 5 to 6 minutes per side, basting
once.
5. To serve, transfer fish to heated platter; pour sauce on top.

Ex. 9. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Paella
Serves 6 to 8
6 rock lobster tails
6 cherrystone clams
6 fresh mussels
Cold water
1/2 pound chorizo o other garlic-flavored sausage
Water
2/3 cup olive oil
1/2 pound boneless pork, cubed
2 1/2 pounds chicken pieces
1 onion, chopped

154
1 green pepper, seeded and diced
1/4 cup tomato sauce
3 cups long-grain rice
1/8 teaspoon saffron
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1/4 teaspoon pepper
1 1/2 quarts boiling water
1 cup frozen peas
1 ripe tomato, skinned, seeded, and diced
12 large shrimps, shelled and deveined
1. With kitchen shears, break centers of ribs on underneath sides of lobster
shells. Separate meat from shells with your fingers; leave meat attached near tail
fins.
2. Clean clams and mussels well; remove beards from mussels. Discard any
clams or mussels that are open. Soak mussels in cold water to cover for 30
minutes; drain.
3. Place sausage in shallow skillet. Cover with water; bring to a boil. boil for
5 minutes; drain. Remove skin and cut sausage into 1/4-inch round.
4. Heat 1/3 cup olive oil in Dutch oven or large, deep skillet. Fry sausage
rounds until browned on each side. Remove from pan and drain.
5. Add pork cubes to same pan. Cook until browned on all sides Remove
from skillet and drain.
6. Add chicken to same pan. Cook over medium heat for 45 minutes or until
golden brown and cooked thoroughly. Remove from pan; drain.
7. Add lobster tails to same pan. Cook just until shells start to turn pink.
Remove from pan and drain.
8. Add remaining oil to pan and heat well. Add onion and sauté for 10
minutes. Add green pepper; sauté for 5 minutes more. Stir in tomato sauce; simmer
until mixture thickens.
9. Add rice, saffron, salt, garlic powder, and pepper; mix well. Add boiling
water; mix well. bring to a boil again, then reduce heat to simmer.
10. Arrange lobster, shrimp, clams, mussels, sausage, pork, and chicken on
top of rice mixture. Scatter peas and tomato on top. Cover and simmer for 30 or 45
minutes, or until rice is tender and meat is cooked thoroughly. Remove pan from
heat; discard any clams or mussels that have not opened.
11. Cover pan and let rest for 10 minutes. Serve directly from pan.

Ex.10. Read and translate the recipe into English:

Лосось отварной
500 г. лосося
2 стакана пряного отвара

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1/2 ст.ложки уксуса
Для соуса: 1/2 стакана оливкового масла
2 ст. ложки сахара
1 ст. ложки готовой горчицы
2 ст. ложки уксуса
3-4 желтка
2 ст. ложки каперсов
Соль, зелень
Лосося выпотрошить, вымыть в нескольких водах, осторожно
соскоблить чешую, залить пряным отваром или солёной водой, добавить
уксус, чтобы не изменился цвет рыбы, и варить на слабом огне 10-12 минут.
Подавать с отварным картофелем с маслом, украсить зеленью и отдельно
подать соус. Для соуса масло растереть с сахаром и горчицей, добавить
уксус, нарезанные каперсы, вмешать растертые варёные желтки и посолить.

UNIT 9. BUYING AND COOKING PASTA.

Read and translate the text about the different types and varieties of pasta and
how to make your own pasta dough and cook it easy.

For generations, families have enjoyed delicious pasta dishes ranging from
appetizers to desserts. Pasta’s versatility is perhaps is greatest quality. It can be
served with а sauce, stuffed and baked, or used as а soup or salad ingredient. Pasta
can be combined with virtually any fresh ingredient for а terrific dish or it can be
combined with leftover foods to create an entirely new dish. The possibilities are
endless.
Pasta is usually purchased dried and can be stored in а cool dry place for up to
two years. Fresh pasta can also be purchased in many food stores, but must be
refrigerated and can only be stored for а few days. Whether pasta is fresh or dried,
however, be sure that the pasta is not stored too close to foods with very strong
flavors since the pasta could pick up odors or change flavor.
Pasta is available in many varieties. Traditional pasta is made from white
flour, but it can be made with whole-wheat flour rye flour, or mixtures of both.
There are also many flavored pastas on the market today. Some pastas are flavored
with vegetables such as spinach and carrots and others are made with strawberries
and even blueberries. In addition to adding а delightful taste twist, these flavored
pastas come in different colors that make any dish more exciting. Try substituting а
flavored pasta for one that is listed in the recipes that follow for а change of pace.
Italian pasta dishes are perhaps the most widely known but pasta is found в
traditional dishes from around the world. From appetizers to desserts, explore all of
the delectable possibilities contained in this cookbook.
Pasta is available in many shapes and sizes and can be used inter-changeably

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without any trouble. Some pasta в long and thin, such as spaghetti, vermicelli, and
angel hair; some pastas like linguine and fettuccine are long and flat. Pasta shells,
wheels, spirals, butterflies, tubes, and rice make any dish fun to look at as well as
good to eat. The pasta type recommended in each recipe that follows is only а
suggestion; feel free is experiment with different pasta shapes as well as flavors.
Pasta is nutritious, wholesome, and low in fat. because it is а good source of
carbohydrates, pasta is considered to be а high-energy food; it is often eaten in
great quantities by athletes preparing for important races or games to help them
build up large reserves of energy. Pasta is also high in protein, magnesium,
phosphorous, zinc and several В vitamins.
Pasta can be fattening if prepared with ingredients that are high in calories,
such as butter and high-fat cheeses. Try serving pasta with low-calorie, high-
protein foods such as chicken, or with vegetables or low-fat cheeses. by choosing
carefully which foods to combine with pasta, you can prepare а dish that can be
easily incorporated into а low-calorie diet.
One of the beauties of pasta is that it is easy to prepare. Here are а few hints
that will make cooking pasta easy.
Use plenty of boiling water when cooking pasta; add 1 tablespoon salt for
every 4 quarts of water.
Use water rapidly over high heat.
Add а dash of cooking oil to boiling water so that the pasta doesn’t stick to
the pot.
Do not overcook pasta. Whenever possible, cook until just tender, or al dente.
Slightly undercook pasta if а recipe calls for pasta to be cooked again.
Pasta should be eaten as soon as it is cooked, unless it will be used in а
casserole, stew, or salad.
If а recipe calls for grated cheese, grate the cheese just before using
Whenever possible, use fresh herbs instead of dried herbs to get delicious
flavor.
Use only fresh eggs when making your own pasta dough.
Don’t use spices that have been stored for а long time.
In recipes that call for pepper, use freshly grated pepper for the most flavor.
Melted butter should be golden when drizzled over pasta; otherwise, the dish
might taste bitter.

Ex. 1. Comprehension questions:

1. Why dishes from pasta are so popular around the world?


2. How long can dried pasta be stored?
3. How long must fresh pasta be refrigerated?
4. What varieties of pasta do you know?
5. What shapes and types of pasta can be found in many food stores?
6. Why is pasta considered to be a high-energy food?

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7. Who often eats pasta in great quantities?
8. Why pasta can be fattening?
9. What are a few hints that will make cooking pasta easy?
10.What are useful hints for making your own pasta dough?

Ex. 2. Find English equivalents to the following words and phrases in the text:

1) поколение; 2) соус; 3) бесконечный; 4) ржаная мука; 5) морковь; 6)


шпинат; 7) колесо; 8) бабочка; 9) белок; 10) быстро; 11) переварить; 12)
магний; 13) фосфор; 14) травы; 15) горький; 16) тесто; 17) источник; 18)
ракушка; 19) заменять; 20) нежный.

Ex. 3. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:

1) versatility; 2) to stuff; 3) odor; 4) whole-wheat flour; 5) a blueberry; 6)


angel hair; 7) spiral; 8) a tube; 9) as well as; 10) carbohydrate; 11) high-fat; 12)
plenty of; 13) over high heat; 14) al dente; 15) whenever; 16) melted butter; 17) to
build up; 18) wholesome; 19) delightful; 20) inter-changeable.

Ex. 4. Write the numbers 1 to 12 next to the correct words:

beat _6__ , chop ___ , grate ___, heat ___, mix ___, peel ___, roast ___, slice
___, spread ___ , squeeze ___, stir ___ ,whip ___.

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Ex. 4. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Beef Broth with Dumplings


Serves 4
Beef Broth
2 pounds beef shank
6 cups cold water
2 teaspoons salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
2 cloves
5 medium potatoes, sliced
1 large carrot, sliced
2 onions, sliced
Chopped parsley
Dumplings
1 1/2 tablespoons butter
1/4 cup flour
1 2/3 cups milk
2 egg yolks
2 tablespoons grated Parmesan cheese
Pinch of grated cardamom or а drop of almond extract
4 to 6 cups salted water

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1. То make broth, cover meat with cold water and bring slowly to а boil; skim
as needed. Season with salt pepper, and chives; cover and simmer for 45 minutes.
Add potatoes, carrot, and onions. Continue simmering until meat and vegetables
are tender.
2. While broth is cooking, make dumplings. Melt butter in saucepan over low
heat; stir in flour. Add milk, stirring constantly until sauce thickens. Remove from
heat. In small bowl, beat egg yolks and 1 to 2 tablespoons milk together; add 2
tablespoons sauce to this mixture and blend well. Pour egg yolk mixture into
remaining sauce and cook over low heat, stirring vigorously, until sauce is hot,
thick, and well blended. Stir in cheese and cardamom or almond extract. Let cool.
3. Form dumpling dough into balls the size of а quarter. Bring water to а boll
in large pot. Reduce heat, then gently drop dumplings into hot water; simmer for 5
minutes. Remove dumplings, drain, and set aside.
4. Remove meat from broth, discard any fat, and cut meat off the bone into
bite-size pieces; return meat to broth.
5. Add dumplings to broth and simmer until heated thoroughly. Sprinkle with
chopped parsley, and serve.

Ex.5. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Rice Noodles with Beef and Broccoli


Serves 4
1/4 pound filet steak, cut into paper-thin slices while partially
frozen
1 teaspoon soy sauce
1 teaspoon dry sherry
1 teaspoon vegetable oil
1 teaspoon cornstarch
1/2 teaspoon sugar
Pinch of white pepper
1 2/3 cups fresh rice noodles
1/4 cup cooking oil
1/2 cup broccoli florets
2 scallions, thinly sliced
1 teaspoon grated fresh ginger or 1/4 teaspoon powdered ginger
Sauce
1/4 cup chicken stock
2 to 3 teaspoons Chinese oyster sauce
1 teaspoon dark soy sauce
1 teaspoon dry sherry
1/4 teaspoon sugar
2 teaspoons cornstarch
1. Place steak slices in bowl with soy sauce, sherry, oil, cornstarch, sugar, and

160
pepper. Mix well and marinate for 20 minutes.
2. Pour boiling water over noodles and stir gently to separate; drain.
3. Heat cooking oil in wok or frying pan. Stir-fry steak over high heat until
lightly browned; remove from pan. Add broccoli, scallions, and ginger to pan; stir-
fry for 2 minutes; remove from pan. Add noodles to wok and stir-fry until lightly
browned, about 4 minutes. Transfer to serving plate.
4. In small bowl, mix together all sauce ingredients except cornstarch. Mix
cornstarch with а small amount of sauce to form paste; stir into sauce.
5. Return vegetables to pan and pour in sauce. bring to а boil, stirring
constantly. Return meat to pan and reheat. Pour mixture over noodles, and serve at
once.

Ex.6. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Agnolotti with Cream Sauce


Serves 6
Pasta Dough
l cups flour
I teaspoon salt
3 eggs
2 teaspoons olive oil
1 tablespoon water
Filling
2 tablespoons olive oil
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
1/4 pound ground veal
l egg
2 cups finely chopped cooked chicken breast
1/8 pound finely chopped prosciutto
1/4 teaspoon rosemary
1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
Salt and pepper to taste
Cream Sauce
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
salt and pepper to taste
1 1/2 cups chicken broth
1 1/2 cups light cream
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
To Cook Pasta
4 quarts water
3 teaspoons salt

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1 tablespoon oil
1. То prepare pasta dough, combine flour and salt in mixing bowl. Mix eggs,
oil, and water together well in separate bowl. Add to flour, mixing to form stiff
dough. Turn out onto floured board; knead for 5 minutes. Cover with plastic wrap
and let rest for 30 minutes.
2. Prepare filling while dough rests. Heat oil in small, heavy skillet. Add
onion and sauté until tender. Add veal and cook stirring, until meal is crumbly and
lightly browned. Transfer mixture to bowl; cool slightly. Add remaining filling
ingredients; mix well.
3. Divide pasta dough into 4 equal parts. Cover any dough not being used to
prevent drying. Roll dough, one part at а time, on lightly floured surface to 1/16-
inch thick. Cut into 3-inch circles with round biscuit cutter or glass. Reroll scraps.
4. Place heaping 1/2 teaspoon filling on each round. Dampen edge of circle
with а little water. Fold into half-moon shape; seal. With folded edge toward you,
bring two ends together; pinch. Finished pasta looks like small circular hats with
cuffs. Place pasta on tray; cover with towel until ready to cook or freeze for future
use.

Ex. 7. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Cannelloni with Cheese Sauce


Serves 4 to 5
8 ounces cannelloni
Filling
1 large onion, chopped
1 clove garlic, peeled and minced
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 (10-ounce) package frozen chopped spinach, thawed
2 1/2 cups ground cooked ham
2 eggs, beaten
3/4 teaspoon oregano
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper
Sauce
1/3 cup butter
1/3 cup flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
Pinch of nutmeg
Pinch of white pepper
1 cup chicken broth
1 cup light cream
1/2 cup grated Parmesan or Romano cheese
1 cup grated white Cheddar or Swiss cheese

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1. Pre-cook cannelloni, is necessary, following package directions; drain.
2. Preheat oven to 350 degrees
3. То make filling, saute onion and garlic in olive oil until translucent. Press
thawed spinach firmly through strainer to remove all water. Combine onion
mixture, spinach, ham, eggs, and seasonings in large bowl; mix well.
4. Fill each cannelloni with 3 table-spoons filling. Place in single layer in
buttered, shallow baking dish.
5. То make sauce, melt butter in medium-size saucepan. Blend in flour and
seasonings. Cook, stirring constantly, until bubbly. Add chicken broth and cream,
stirring well. Cook over medium heat, stirring constantly, until sauce is think and
smooth. Remove from heat and add cheeses; stir until cheese melts.
6. Pour sauce evenly over cannelloni. bake for 30 minutes. Remove from
oven, and serve.

Ex.9. Read and translate the recipe into Russian

Linguine and Chicken


Serves 6
10 tablespoons butter
1/2 pound mushrooms, sliced
1/2 cup flour
4 cups chicken broth
1 1/2 cups milk
1/2 cup heavy whipping cream
Salt and pepper to taste
1 pound linguine
1 (4-pound) roasted chicken,
boned, skinned, and diced
1/2 cup bread crumbs
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1. Melt 2 tablespoons butter in small frying pan. Add mushrooms and saute
for 5 minutes.
2. Melt remaining butter in saucepan. Add flour, stirring until well blended.
Add broth and milk; cook over low heat, stirring constantly, until sauce begins to
thicken. Add cream; season with salt and pepper.
3. Preheat oven to 450 degrees.
4. Cook pasta in boiling, salted water until just tender, following package
directions; drain.
5. Place pasta in well-greased casserole dish. Cover with chicken and
mushrooms; pour sauce on top. Sprinkle with bread crumbs and cheese. bake for
30 minutes, or until bread crumbs are browned and the sauce bubbles. Remove
from oven, and serve.
Ex. 10. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

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Pasta Pizza
Serves 6
1 pound spaghetti
4 quarts boiling, salted water
2 green peppers, seeded and chopped
1/2 pound salami, thinly sliced
2 1/4 cups sliced tomatoes
8 eggs
1 1/2 cups milk
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 cup grated Parmesan cheese:
2 tablespoons mixed Italian herbs
1 teaspoon salt
1 1/4 cups grated Emmenthaler cheese
1/4 cup olive oil
2 tablespoons chopped chives
1. Cook spaghetti in boiling, salted water for 6 minutes. Add green peppers to
spaghetti and cook for 2 minutes more; drain.
2. Preheat oven to 350 degrees.
3. Butter 2 glass or ceramic, 9-inch pie plates. Line bottom of pie plates with
spaghetti mixture. Place salami slices on top. Place tomatoes on top of salami.
4. Mix eggs, milk, cornstarch, Parmesan cheese, Italian herbs, and salt
together; pour over tomatoes. Sprinkle top with grated Emmenthaler. Pour oil over
all. Bake for 30 minutes. Remove from oven, sprinkle with chives, and serve.

Ex. 11. Translate the recipe into English:

Блины с творогом
5 стаканов молока
2 стакана пшеничной муки
5 яиц
2/3 стакана сахара
3-4 ст. ложки сливочного масла
соль
1/2-2/3 тарелки творога
Для выпечки:
2 яйца
1/2 стакана сметаны
1/2 стакана сахара
соль
Сырые желтки размешать с молоком, постепенно вмешать муку, масло,
сахар, соль, добавить остальное молоко, взбитые в пену белки, хорошо

164
вымесить и выпекать тонкие блинчики. Уложить на каждый тонкий слой
творожной начинки, сложить в виде треугольника, поджарить на сковороде
на масле и поставить на 5 минут в горячую духовку. Посыпать сахаром,
отдельно подать сметану. Для начинки в протёртый творог вмешать яйца,
сметану, сахар, соль.

UNIT 10. PURCHASING AND PREPARING POULTRY

Poultry is one of the most versatile cooking ingredients and can be used to create
an endless variety of delicious dishes. In addition to being a tasty part of many meals,
poultry is a great source of protein, B vitamins, and other valuable nutrients.
Fresh chicken and game should be refrigerated at home for no more than two days
after it is purchased. Fresh turkey can be refrigerated a little longer, but should be no
longer than one week. The poultry should be tightly wrapped and stored in coldest part
of the refrigerator. If fresh poultry will not be used within two days, it is best to either
cook or freeze it.
Cooked poultry can be stored in the refrigerator a little bit longer than uncooked
poultry. Another advantage to cooking poultry before using it is than it can easily be
stored and reheated in sauce or combined into a recipe.
Uncooked poultry can be stored for a longer period of time if it is frozen instead of
refrigerated. To freeze, wrap uncooked poultry tightly in aluminium foil or moisture-
proof paper. When properly wrapped, whole chickens and turkeys can be frozen for up
to one year, while whole ducks and geese can be stored frozen for up to six months.
However, cup-up pieces and parts of poultry cannot be stored as long as whole
birds. They can only be frozen for up to six months, whereas giblets should be frozen
for no more than three months.
Keep poultry cold when thawing and never thaw at room temperature. For best
results, place poultry on a dish and thaw in the refrigerator. For quicker thawing, defrost
in a microwave oven or leave poultry in its storage bag and place in very cold water
until thawed.
However, be sure to change the cold water every thirty minutes if using this
thawing method.
All whole turkeys and chickens contain a packet of giblets carefully tucked into
the body cavity. The giblets are actually the heart, liver, and gizzards, and the packet
should be removed before proceeding with any recipe. Some recipes call for them as
ingredients, but if not, giblets may be used to make soups, stuffings, or gravies. Whole
birds, after giblets are removed, and poultry parts should always be rinsed thoroughly
before cooking.
For many people, stuffing is the best part of a poultry meal. There are a number of
ways to make stuffing, and certainly any stuffing recipe can be personalized by adding
or changing ingredients.
Bread crumbs are key ingredients in any stuffing recipe. Packaged bread crumbs

165
can be purchased quite easily and are available seasoned or unseasoned. Certain recipes
specify fresh bread crumbs as a stuffing ingredient. It’s easy to make fresh bread
crumbs, but remember, it’s best to start with slightly hardened bread rather than fresh
bread.
When a recipe calls for the stuffing to be cooked inside the bird, add the stuffing
just before the bird will be cooked. Remember; don’t stuff the poultry cavity more than
two-thirds full since the stuffing will expand as it cooks. Additionally, by leaving a little
room, the tail end of the bird will be easier to close after it has been stuffed.
The nutritional value of poultry can be increased by removing any skin before
cooking. The skin contains a lot of fat and prepared without skin, chicken and turkey
have less fat than do beef, pork, or lamb.
The flavor of poultry can easily be enhanced through seasonings. After washing
the bird, dry the flesh and rub seasonings all over outside and inside of it. Try
experimenting with favorite herbs and spices to create a new twist to a great recipe or
an exciting new dish.
Another way to enhance flavor and maintain moisture is to marinate, or soak, the
poultry in seasoned liquid. It is very important, however, that the poultry is refrigerated
while it soaks in the marinade.
Do not reuse the marinade. Be sure it is discarded after the poultry has soaked in
it.
Be sure that the poultry is cooked thoroughly, making sure that all the pink is gone
from the meat. Take care to wash all surfaces and utensils, including hands, that may
have come in contact with the uncooked meat in hot, soapy water.

Ex.1. Comprehension questions:

1. How long fresh chicken and game should be refrigerated?


2. Does the storage of fresh turkey differ from the storage of fresh chicken
and game?
3. What about cooked poultry?
4. What is important to know thawing poultry?
5. Name the key ingredients in any stuffing recipe?
6. What main rule should you remember when stuffing the poultry cavity?
7. In what dishes giblets can be used?
8. Where is the packet of giblets tucked into?
9. What does removed skin increase?
10. How can the flavor of the poultry be enhanced?
11. What is another way to enhanced the flavor of the poultry?
12. How can you be sure that the poultry is cooked thoroughly?

Ex. 2. Find English equivalents to the following words and phrases in the text:

166
1) замораживать; 2) плотно; 3) подогревать; 4) алюминиевая фольга; 5)
каждые 30 минут; 6) хлебные крошки; 7) мариновать; 8) усиливать; 9)
мыльная вода; 10) легко; 11) микроволновая печь; 12) поместить; 13)
промывать; 14) говядина; 15) мясо ягнёнка; 16) свинина; 17) соприкасаться;
18) замачивать; 19) выбрасывать; 20) создавать.
Ex. 3. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:
1) game; 2) to wrap; 3) geese; 4) giblets; 5) whereas; 6) body cavity; 7)a
gizzard; 8) to leave a little room; 9) a new twist; 10) seasoned liquid; 11) all the
pink is gone; 12) within; 13) tucked into; 14) a number of; 15) gravy; 16) to
expand; 17) nutritional value; 18) turkey; 19) though; 20) be sure.
Ex. 4. Write the correct phrase from the box under each picture:

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Ex. 5. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Chicken Giblet Soup


Serves 4 to 6
2 packages chicken giblets, thawed if frozen
1 large onion, sliced
2 carrots, sliced
2 stalks celery, sliced
Chicken carcass (if available)
5 cups water
4 sprigs parsley, 1 spring thyme, and 1 bay leaf, tied together
6 black pepper corns
Salt to taste
1 chicken bouillon cube, optional
2 tablespoons butter
1 1/2 tablespoons flour
Garnish
1 tablespoon butter
2 chicken levers
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
1. Wash chicken giblets, removing livers, set levers aside for garnish.
2. Place giblets, onion, carrots, сеlеry, and carcass it available into large
saucepan. Add water, herbs, peppercorns, and а little salt. Bring slowly to a boil,
skimming as needed. Reduce heat and simmer 1 or 1 to 1 1/2 hours, or until
vegetables are tender and giblets well cooked. Add bouillon cube if needed for

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flavoring.
3. Remove carcass from soup. Strain soup into another saucepan.
4. Melt butter in small saucepan and whisk in flour. Add a few tablespoons
hot chicken stock, whisking constantly until smooth; then whisk mixture into
remaining stock. Bring to а boll, stirring constantly. Simmer for 3 to 4 minutes.
5. Melt 1 tablespoon butter in frying pan and sautéed chicken livers 1or 5 to 8
minutes, depending on their size. Chop livers roughly and divide among soup
bowls before pouring on hot soup. Sprinkle with chopped parsley.

Ex. 6. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Thanksgiving Turkey
Serves 12
1 (9-pound) turkey
2 1/2 teaspoons salt
1 1/2 teaspoons freshly ground black pepper
1 lemon, halved
2 onions
1/2 cup butter
3 sprigs parsley, chopped
6 sliced bread, cubed
1/2 cup milk
2 eggs
2 teaspoons dried sage
1/2 bouillon cube
1 teaspoon curry powder
3 cups chicken bouillon
2 tablespoons cornstarch
2 tablespoons water
1. Rub turkey inside with 2 teaspoons salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Squeeze
lemon and rub outside of turkey with juice.
2. Chop onions with liver. Melt 1/4 cup butter in saucepan. Add onions, liver,
and parsley; sauté for 3 minutes. Combine onion and liver mixture with bread
cubes, milk, eggs, sage, remaining salt and pepper, and bouillon cube.
3. Preheat oven to 325 degrees.
4. Stuff turkey and sew up openings, then truss. Put turkey into roasting pan.
Melt remaining 1/4 cup butter in small saucepan. Stir in curry powder and brush
turkey all over with this mixture. use some melted butter to grease piece of
aluminum foil. Place foil over turkey. Roast on bottom oven rack for 3 to 3 1/2
hours.
5. At end of 1/2 hours, add gizzard, heart, and neck. Pour on just enough hot
bouillon to keep turkey moist, and baste frequently with cooking juices. Test to see
if done after 3 hours by piercing thickest part of leg with skewer. The juices will

169
run clear when turkey is cooked. Remove turkey from oven and let stand, covered
with foil.
6. Carve turkey and arrange on warm serving platter. Keep warm in switched-
off oven.
7. Pour off fat from roasting pan. Discard gizzard; finely chop heart and meat
from neck. Stir remaining bouillon into roasting pan to deglaze; transfer liquid to
small saucepan and bring to a boil. Add finely chopped giblets.
8. Mix cornstarch with water to form paste. Add to gravy, stirring until
thickened. Adjust seasonings and serve gravy separately with turkey.

Ex. 7. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Duck with Cherries


Serves 4 to 6
2 onions, 1 finely chopped
4 stalks celery
1 (4- to 5-pound) duck
3 tablespoons butter
Salt and pepper to taste
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
2 small carrots
5 mushrooms
1 1/2 tablespoons flour
2 teaspoons tomato paste
2 cups duck stock made with giblets or a chicken bouillon
3 sprigs parsley
1 bay leaf
1 cup red wine
1 orange
1 (16-ounce) can pitted cherries, drained
1/2 teaspoon sugar
1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees.
2. Put 1 onion and 2 celery stalks inside duck. Rub breast with 1 tablespoon
butter and sprinkle with salt and pepper.
3. Heat 2 tablespoons butter in roasting pan. Add duck, basting well. Roast 15
minutes per pound, basting every 15 minutes. The duck should not be completely
cooked, since it will cook longer in the sauce.
4. To prepare sauce, melt 2 tablespoons oil in saucepan. Add chopped onion,
carrots, 2 celery stalks, and mushrooms. Saute for 7 to 10 minutes, until vegetables
are lightly browned. Stir in flour and brown for 1 minute. Add tomato paste, stock,
parsley, and bay leaf. bring to a boil. then simmer for 30 minutes. Strain, add
seasoning to taste, and bring to a boil again. Skim as needed. Add 1/2 cup wine
and reheat.

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5. Carve duck and arrange pieces in covered casserole. Pour sauce on top and
cook at
400 degrees for 20 minutes.
6. Squeeze juice from orange and grate rind. Place cherries, orange juice,
grated rind, 1/2 cup red wine, and sugar in saucepan. Cook over low heat for 6 to 7
minutes.
7. Arrange duck pieces on serving platter, spoon sauce on top, and arrange
cherries around edge of dish. Serve hot.

Ex. 8. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Korean Chicken with Vegetables


Serves 4
1 cup flour
2 eggs, well beaten
About 2 tablespoons water
1 pound boneless chicken breasts, cut into 1-inch cubes
Vegetable oil for deep-frying
2 medium carrots, sliced
2 medium potatoes, peeled and cubed
1/2 small red pepper, seeded and thinly sliced
1 medium onion, chopped
1/2 small green pepper, seeded and thinly sliced
Sauce
2 tablespoons soy sauce
2 tablespoons water
1 tablespoons sugar
2 teaspoons crushed fresh ginger or 1 teaspoon powdered ginger
2 teaspoons garlic, peeled and crushed
2 tablespoons sake
1 tablespoon sesame oil
2 scallions, sliced
1/2 teaspoon salt
1. Combine flour and egg in bowl. Add water, stirring constantly until batter
is smooth. Coat each piece of chicken in batter. Heat oil in deep frying pan; fry
chicken until golden brown. Drain on pepper towels.
2. Place carrots and potatoes in boiling water to cover and cook for 3 minutes.
Drain and dry thoroughly. Add carrots and potatoes to oil and fry for 5 minutes.
Drain on paper towels.
3. Place all sauce ingredients in saucepan; bring to a boil, then remove from
heat.
4. Transfer 2 tablespoons oil to different frying pan; heat over low heat. Add
chicken, carrots, potatoes, pepper, and onions. Stir-fry 1 minute. Increase heat to

171
medium; add sauce, stirring constantly. When all ingredients are well covered with
sauce, remove from heat and serve at once.

Ex. 9. Read and translate the recipe into Russian:

Hungarian Turkey Ragout


Serves 4
1 1/4 cups thinly sliced mushrooms
1 tablespoon lemon juice
2 tablespoons vegetable oil
1 1/4 pound boneless turkey breast, thinly sliced
1 tablespoon butter
1 onion, finely chopped
1/2 cup sour cream
1 teaspoon cornstarch
1 teaspoon paprika
1/2 cup dry white wine
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon freshly ground white pepper
1. Sprinkle mushrooms with lemon juice and set aside.
2. Heat oil in large, heavy skillet. Add turkey and cook, stirring, until
browned and cooked thoroughly; remove from pan.
3. Melt butter with oil remaining in skillet. Add onion and sauté until
transparent. Add mushrooms, cover, and simmer for 10 minutes.
4. Mix sour cream with cornstarch and paprika. Return turkey to skillet. Add
cream mixture, then white wine. Simmer gently for 3 to 4 minutes.
5. Season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Ex. 10. Translate the recipe into English:

Рагу из индейки
500 г. жаренной индейки
3 стакана мясного бульона или воды
1 ст. ложка сливочного масла или жира
1-2 луковицы
3-4 ломтика лимона
1-2 ст. ложки каперсов
2-3 ломтика белого хлеба
1/2-1 ст. ложки уксуса
перец, соль, зелень
Порционные куски жаренной индейки залить горячим бульоном или
водой, добавить сок, образовавшийся при жарении, масло, нарезанный лук,
каперсы, ломтики лимона без цедры и зелень, перец, соль и тушить 20 минут.

172
Вмешать тёртый белый хлеб, уксус, и всё прогреть на слабом огне. Подавать,
украсив веточками зелени. Можно гарнировать печёными яблоками и
капустой.

VOCABULARY AND SPEECH EXERCISES.

Ex.1. Vocabulary Practice.


Pronounce the following words after your teacher, and discuss their meanings.
Then use some of them to complete the following sentences. You may need to use
the same word twice.

advertising catering high-energy nutritious


agriculture compulsory huge ounce
appearance doubt judge phosphorous
average drugs law protein
brand groceries magnesium utensil

173
1. Food and other goods for the home that you buy regularly are called
________.
2. The work, business or study of farming is called _________ .
3. ___________ is a product or group of producers that has its own name and
is made by one particular company.
4. Do you know a simple _________ of apple pie?
5. The new ________ will be passed by Parliament in spring.
6. A unit for measuring weight, equal to 28.35 grams is __________ .
7. If food provides the substances that people need in order to be healthy , this
food is ________.
8. The business of making advertisements is called __________ .
9. There is a good assortment of stainless steel cooking _______ .
10. He doesn’t look well of but you shouldn’t judge by _______ .

Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with an appropriate word from the list below.

Outside the ...Mary stops to glance at the ..., ........ full of fruit and vegetables.
Mr. Knight, ..., who is just... some onions, looks up and greets her with
friendliness. Mary enters the ... and stands patiently in the ... until it's her... "The
next one, please", says one of the ... It's Mary's ... and the ... inquires politely,
"What can 1 get for you, Mary?" — "I'd like ... of Danish butter, ... of tea, ... of
blackcurrant jam, a large ... of vinegar, ... of frozen peas, ... of sardine, a medium-
sized ... of Ото, ... of milk chocolate, and ... of lean smoked bacon, please." The
shop assistant ... the bacon, ... it in ... paper and places it on the; ... with the other ...
Mary has bought. "That'll be all", says Mary, giving her ... to the assistant who
writes down the ... of the goods and then adds them up. In the meantime Mary ...
the groceries into her ... . Mary ... her three pound notes and in return receives
sixty-five pence ....
change, weighing, shop (2), half a pound, queue, turn (2), shopkeeper, crates,
boxes, sacks, wraps, shop assistant (2), a tin, packet (2), shopping bag, counter,
hands, shopping list, a bar, a quarter, a bottle, goods, a pound, prices, packs,
weighs, grease-proof, a pound-jar.
Ex. 3. Translate the recipe into Russian.
Плов русский с раками
16-20 раков
2 стакана сухого риса
1 морковь
1 корень петрушки
1 луковица
По 2 ст. ложки рубленной петрушки и укропа
2-3 ст. ложки сливочного масла
соль, зелень
Живых раков вымыть в нескольких водах, сварить в воде с кореньями,
морковью, луком, рубленной зеленью и солью. Отвар процедить, шейки и
клешни раков очистить от скорлупы, которую вместе со скорлупой туловища
и мякотью потолочь в ступке. Добавить сливочное масло, поджарить до
тёмного цвета, развести 1 стаканом бульона, прокипятить и процедить через
марлю, выжимая остатки. Сварить рассыпчатый рис в воде с солью, вмешать
в него прокипячённый отвар (теперь уже раковое масло), мясо шеек и
клешней (можно добавить и лук), проварить и подавать горячим, украсив
зеленью. Рис при подаче должен быть сочным, жирным и рассыпчатым.
Ex. 4. What do we call:
1) a very large self-service shop which deals with foods and household goods;
2) a shop, which sells liqueurs, spirits and wine; 3) a long fiat-topped bench in a
shop over which business is conducted with customers; 4) a weighing instrument;
5) a wire-basket on wheels used in shops for transporting customers' purchases; 6)
a tin container in which food or drink is hermetically sealed; 7) set of twelve; 8)
the space in the supermarket where goods on sale are displayed; 9) a machine in
shops with, a drawer for money, recording the amount of each sale; 10) a sheltered
area surrounded with shops and other buildings closed for vehicular traffic.
Ex. 5. Decide if these words countable or uncountable. You may use these
ingredients for making tostadas:
Avocados, chilies, onions, lettuce, beans, garlic, limes, orange juice, sour
cream, cheese, lemons, oil, salt.

Ex. 6/1. Read the description below and try to guess which type of food they
describe:

1. ………It’s smooth, creamy, very sweet, and very cold. 2. ………It’s


yellow. The outside is smooth. The inside is very sour. The juice tastes good with
fish. 3. ………It can be crunchy or smooth. It’s full of protein. It tastes great on
toast or in sandwiches. 4. ………They are small, oval, or round in shape. They
taste salty and can be quite oily. You can slice them up and put them on a pizza. 5.
………They can be red, black, or green. The tiny ones are usually the hottest.

Ex. 6/2. Find the adjectives in the descriptions above and divide them into
adjectives denoting – taste and smell, texture, shape and size. Note that some may
go under more than one division.

taste and smell texture shape and size


____________ _______ ____________
____________ _______ ____________
____________ _______ ____________
____________ _______ ____________

Ex. 6/3. Add the words in the list below to your chart: round, flat, spicy,
bitter, delicious, cube-shaped, bland, powdery, crumbly, disgusting, cylindrical,
chewy, hard, crisp, rectangular, enormous, soft.

Ex. 7. Look at the shopping list and complete the questions and answers using
some, any, much, many, a lot of, a few, or a little:

Example. Did she buy any coffee?


Yes, she bought a lot of coffee.
2 lb. coffee
cheddar cheese
3 quarts of milk
1 packet of pepper
small bottle of olive oil
1 large cauliflower
3 lb. tomatoes
3 lb flour
wine
2 small packets of peanuts

1. Did she buy any cheese?


Yes, she bought ………… cheese.
2. How…..
She bought three quarts.
3. Did……..
No, she only bought one packet.
4. How…….
She bought one head of cauliflower.
5. How much beer did get?
She……
6. …………..
She bought a lot of flour.

Ex. 8. Before reading the text check the following words in the dictionary:
harvest, lavender, steam. After that put the verbs in brackets in the correct form,
either the Present Simple Active or the Present Simple Passive:

THE LAVENDER FARM


Prior Lavender is one of the largest producers of lavender-based products in
the UK. We own a farm of 50 hectares and distillery where the lavender oil
1_____(produce).
Our products
In the past, picking lavender was a hard and time-consuming job. Now, thanks
to modern technology, the lavender 2_____ (cut) by machine. Most of it 3
______(distil) with steam to produce lavender oil. This oil 4 ______ (use) to make
soaps and perfumes. A small part of the lavender crop 5 ______ (not to go) to the
distillery. Instead, the flowers 6 ______ (dry) in a current of warm air. These dried
flowers 7 ______ (use) to fill pillows and cushions.
In the early days, the farm produced mainly lavender oil. Now, however, we
have a much wider product range which 8 ______ (include) air and clothes
fresheners and a number of luxury bath and shower products. Our products
9______ (sell) in over outlets in the UK and they 10 ______ (export) to more than
15 countries.
Staffing
As a result of this expansion, there has been a large increase in the workforce.
Now we 11 ______ (employ) over 100 permanent members of staff. In addition,
approximately 50 temporary workers 12 ______ (take on) during the summer to
help with the harvest. Despite this, the company 13 ______(remain) essentially a
family business. Our general manager, Charles Prior, is the great-grandson of
Thomas Prior, the farm’s original founder and several other members of the family
14 ______ (work) on the farm.

Ex. 9. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:

1) — Does the greengrocer deal ... fruit and vegetables?


— To be more exact, he sells vegetables; and ... fruit we go ... the fruiterer
who usually has a good assortment ... different kinds ... fruit.
— Could I buy cherries there?
— I think they should be ... sale now, they are in season.

2) Oh, we've run ... ... sugar. 3) You may pay ... the cash-desk. 4) Ask ...
bottle ... milk. 5) A wide variety ... food products that save preparation time is
available, and dozens ... new convenience foods appear ... the market each year.
6) ... most of us food is partly a luxury and partly a necessity. We could survive ...
a diet ... enriched bread, margarine, nonfat dry milk, potatoes, and cooked dry
beans. 7) In order to get good value ... the money we spend ... food, we have to
make a two-step attack ... the problem. First, we will have to plan menus wisely,
including items that are good sources ... nutrients ... a reasonable cost. Second, we
will have to shop wisely ... the items we need to make ... the menus we have
planned. 8) We've run short ... salt. 9) We're well stocked ... the nearest future. 10)
Tomorrow we're going ... the supermarket. We've got to stock ... our holiday trip.
Ex. 10. Odd one out:

1. Oxford Street, Rodeo drive, Regent Street, Bond Street.


2. bargain sales, out of season goods, a dollar day, bake sales.
3. a drawing pin, a fountain pen, a ball-point pen, a felt-tip pen.
4. a polo shirt, a sweatshirt, a jumper, a turtleneck.
5. powder, lipstick, perfume, mascara.
6. an apron, a cuff, a sleeve, a collar.
7. a sales assistant, scales, salespeople, a cashier.

Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into English:

1) По дороге домой зайди в гастроном и купи: килограмм сахарного


песку, баночку вишневого варенья, бутылку томатного соуса и две банки
сардин. 2) Ассортимент продуктов в этом супермаркете очень широкий. 3) В
нашем гастрономе всегда в продаже свежее мясо. 4) Как мне пройти в
кондитерский отдел? — Это на противоположной стороне торгового зала. 5)
Цены на свежие продукты меняются на протяжении года в зависимости от
сезона. 6) Сейчас сезон яблок, и цены на них снижены. 7) Чтобы избежать
лишних походов в магазин, я всегда составляю список необходимых
продуктов. 8) У меня мало времени на приготовление пищи, поэтому я часто
покупаю мороженые полуфабрикаты и овощи. 9) На рынке некоторые
продукты можно купить по более низкой цене. 10) Этикетки дают важную
информацию об ингредиентах и весе содержимого упаковки.

Ex. 12. What do we say or do when:

1) We want to buy some cereal. 2) We see we haven't got any more bread. 3)
We don't know whether the shop deals with some food we want to buy. 4) We
don't want to buy anything else. 5) We need some meat for cooking dinner. 6) We
want to know the cost of all our purchases at the shop. 7) We plan a dinner party.
8) We plan to go on a picnic in the country.

Ex.13. Translate the recipe into Russian:

Пирожки круглые (пончики) жаренные


Для опары: 2 стакана молока
2 стакана муки
2 ст. ложки дрожжей
Для теста: 2-3 ст. ложки масла
4 желтка
1 ст. ложки сахара
2-3 стакана муки
соль, масло для жарения
Из тёплого молока, дрожжей и муки поставить опару, дать ей подняться,
вмешать тёплое сливочное масло, растёртые с сахаром желтки, оставшуюся
муку, соль, тщательно вымесить и выбить тесто, дать ему снова подняться и
разделать пончики. Для этого тесто раскатать в виде колбасок диаметром 4-5
см., нарезать на кусочки, равные диаметру, дать постоять 10 минут, раскатать
в лепёшки толщиной 1 см., на часть из них положить по 1 я. Ложке начинки
(обычно это мясо или капуста), накрыть оставшимися лепёшками, смазать
края яйцом, защипнуть, сформовать в виде шариков и дать ещё раз
подняться. Пирожки не должны перестаивать, иначе они опадут или получат
«закал». Жарить во фритюре можно по нескольку штук, помешивая жир и
поворачивая пончики шумовкой до тех пор, пока они не приобретут
равномерную тёмно-жёлтую окраску. Дать стечь жиру, подавать пончики
горячими, посыпав смешанным с корицей и ванилином сахаром.

Ex. 14/1. Make sentences according to the given patterns:

Pattern A: The tobacconist ...


The tobacconist sells cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, cigarette-cases, cigarette-
holders, pipes, cigarette-lighters, etc.
Pattern B: You buy cigarettes, tobacco pipes at the tobacconist.

Ex. 14/2. Say what the following shops and people sell:
the grocer, the greengrocer, the chemist, the poulterer, the butcher, the florist,
the fishmonger, the milk shop (or dairy), the baker, the cake shop, the confectioner,

Ex.14/3. Say at what shops you can buy the following:


sugar and tea; bread, buns and rolls; meat; fish and caviar, fruit and
vegetables; flowers and plants; chickens, ducks and geese; sweets and chocolate.
Pattern C: I’d like to buy…
I’d like to buy some flowers. Where is the florist?

Ex. 14/4. Ask at which department you can buy the following:
some sour cream and butter; some beef and mutton; half a duck; a loaf of
brown bread; a bar of chocolate; a kilo of granulated sugar; a water-melon or
pears;

Ex. 15. Make up a list of different kinds of: cereals, fish, vegetables, fruit,
berries, flowers:

Ex.16. Translate the recipe into Russian:


Вафли обыкновенные
1¼ стакана муки
½ стакана растопленного сливочного масла
4 желтка
½ стакана сахара
1 стакан молока или сливок
8 белков
соль
Охлаждённое растопленное масло растереть добела, постепенно
добавляя желтки, сахар, муку, молоко или сливки, а затем тщательно и
продолжительно вымешивать тесто. Осторожно, промешивая сверху вниз,
понемногу добавлять взбитые белки, соль (можно и тёртую цедру лимона
или ванилин) и выпекать 5 минут в горячей духовке, переворачивая в форме.
Подавать с сахаром, сливками или вареньем.

Ex. 17. Create a shopping list for each of the following people (the amount of
money to spend is shown in the brackets):

a) a teenager who walks to the store ($20), b) a coach buying for a basketball
team ($30), c) a camper preparing for a long hiking trip ($60)

Grocery store prices


Fruit Vegetables

Seedless grapes $0,99/p Tomatoes $1.29/pound

Orange juice $1.69/half gallon Lettuce $0.99/head

Apple juice $1.29/half gallon Green beans $0.69/pound


Melons $1.49/each Cucumbers $0.29/each
Bananas $0.69/pound
Raisins $1.69/pound

Meat Dairy
Chickens quarters $0.99/pound Yogurt $0.69/carton
Hamburger $1.69/pound Eggs $1.29/dozen
Fish fillets $3.99/pound Margarine $0.89/pound

Steak S3.19/pound Cheese $3.69/pound


Canned foods Frozen foods
Soup $0.89/can Ice cream $1.99/half gallon
Tuna $0.89/can Pizza-small $2.99
Baked beans $0.99/can Pizza-large $4.19
Pineapple $1.49/can Dinner $1.99
Miscellaneous Snacks
Spaghetti $0.59/pound Soda $1.09/liter bottle
Cereal $1.29/box Granola bars $2.49/pack of 10
Bread $1.29 Cookies $1.19/pound
Raisin bread $1.69 Potato chips $1.59/bag
Doughnuts $2.29/dozen Crackers $2.19/box
Hamburger rolls $0.99/pack of 8

Ex. 18. Translate the recipe into Russian:

Камбала или палтус, тушённые с вином


500 г. камбалы или палтуса
2 луковицы
1-2 ст. ложки сливочного масла
1-2 ст. ложки рубленной зелени петрушки
1 стакан сухого белого вина
2/3 стакана сливок
½ лимона
1 ст. ложки муки
8-10 горошин перца
соль, зелень
У рыбы удалить голову, подрезать брюшко, выпотрошить, снять кожу с
тёмной стороны, отрезать или вырезать плавники, очистить чешую со
светлой стороны , вымыть, обсушить салфеткой, натереть светлую сторону
соком лимона, положить на обжаренный на масле нашинкованный лук,
добавить вино, рубленную зелень, сбрызнуть соком лимона, поперчить,
посолить и тушить 20-25 минут. Камбалу выложить на блюдо, а в соус
вмешать муку, сливки, слегка уварить, полить рыбу, гарнировать и подавать.
Также приготовить и подавать палтус.

Ex. 19. Answer the following questions:

1. Where do we buy sugar? Is it always ready-packed? Do we buy it by the


pound or kilo? What kind of sugar can we buy?
2. Where do we buy meat? What sorts of meat do you know? Do you like fat
or lean meat for soup? What can you prepare with minced meat?
3. Where do you go to buy fish? Do you often go to the fishmonger's
yourself? Can you get smoked fish or herring there?
4. Where do we buy bread? Do we always buy bread by the loaf? What kind
of bread is your favorite? Can we buy buns and rolls at the baker's as well? Where
are fancy cakes and chocolate biscuits sold?
5. Do you always buy milk at the dairy? What else can you buy there? Is milk
always bottled or tinned? Do you like fresh milk? Which do you prefer, black or
white coffee?
6. Where do you go to buy fruit and vegetables? What kind of fresh fruit can
one get in August? What vegetables are the first to appear in the shops in spring?
How much are new potatoes in June? When do the first strawberries appear?
7. Where can we buy sweets and chocolates? Which kind of sweets do you
like best? Would you like to get a box of chocolates as a birthday present? Do you
buy sweets by the pound? Children like toffees, don't they?
8. We buy chickens and turkeys at the poulterer's, don't we? Where else can
we buy geese, ducks and chickens?

Ex. 20. Translate the recipe into Russian:

Курица тушённая с черносливом


1 курица
1 морковь
1 корень петрушки
1-2 ст. ложки сливочного масла
½ стакана бульона
1 ст. ложка муки
1 ст. ложка уксуса
½ тарелки чернослива
3-4 стакана воды
Соль, зелень.
Порционные куски подготовленной тушки обжарить с маслом и
нашинкованными морковью, корнем петрушки. Затем влить воду, посолить и
варить 50 минут. Поджарить растёртую с маслом муку, развести бульоном,
добавить уксус, сахар, вскипятить, добавить замоченный в течение 4-6 часов
чернослив без косточек и проварить. Подавать вместе с соусом и
черносливом, украсив зеленью.

Ex. 21.Word Study.


A. Sometimes a word from another language enters the English language,
accent mark and all. Here are some examples from this chapter. Pronounce these
words, and write their meanings.
1) recipe _______, 2) pizza________, 3) fettuccine ________,
4) chorizo ______, 5) linguine_____, 6) clientele _________.

Ex. 22. Idiom Study.


Complete the idiomatic similes the following words: a bat, a bee, brass,
clockwork, a cucumber, a daisy, ditchwater, a dodo, a feather, a fox, gold, the
grave, a hatter, the hills, life, nails, a parrot, a picture, a rock, toast.
Ex. 23. Reading Skills.
A. Most paragraphs contain a topic sentence that states the main idea. The
topic sentence is more general than the other sentences in the paragraph, and it
often suggests the writer’s attitude toward the subject. The other sentences in the
paragraph support this topic idea by offering examples, reasons, or other evidence.
Write down the first two words of the topic sentence in each of the following
paragraphs:
(27) _________________
(31) _________________

B. Discuss the difference between a fact and an opinion.

A) Here are some common ideas about food. Do you agree or disagree with
them? Think of situations where people use them. Then mark the following
statements fact (F) or opinion (O):

1) Eating carrots is good for the eyes. 2) Fish is good the brain. 3) Eating
cheese at night makes you dream. 4) Garlic stops you getting colds. 5)Drinking
coffee stops you sleeping. 6) Yoghurt makes you healthy. 7) An apple a day keeps
the doctor away. 8) A hot milky drink helps you go to bed. 9) A cup of tea revives
you. 10) Guinness is good for you. 11) Crusty bread makes your hair curl. 12)
Brown eggs taste better than white ones.

Ex. 24. Translate the recipe into English:

Московская рыбная солянка на сковороде


500 г.рыбы
1 тарелка нашинкованной капусты
1 луковица
2 ст. ложки сливочного масла
1 ст. ложка муки
1 ст. ложка сахара
2 ст. ложки томата-пюре
4-5 маринованных грибов
2/3 стакана сливок
2 ст. ложки каперсов
2 солённых огурца
16 раковых шеек
1/2 стакана молотых сухарей
1/2 лимона
перец, соль по вкусу
зелень для украшения
Капусту отжать, добавить нашинкованный обжаренный на масле лук,
сахар, муку, немного рыбного бульона, перец, соль и жарить до мягкости
капусту и приобретения ею красноватого цвета. В конце тушения вмешать
томат-пюре. Ломтики свежей рыбы припустить до готовности. Половину
капусты выложить слоем в смазанный маслом сотейник, поместить сверху
рыбу, ломтики припущенных маринованных белых грибов, кружки
корнишонов, оливки, покрыть оставшейся капустой, посыпать сухарями,
сбрызнуть растопленным маслом и поставить в горячую духовку на 15-20
минут. Подавая, украсить сверху солёными огурцами, маринованными
грибами, варёными раковыми шейками, или крабами, оливками, каперсами,
ломтиками лимона и зеленью. Лучшую солянку готовят из осетрины,
севрюги, стерляди. Можно использовать вместе и свежую и солёную рыбу,
но тогда первую – припустить, а вторую – отварить.

Ex. 25. Dramatize the situation:

1. Husband and wife in the supermarket do shopping for a week’s supply of


food. 2. At the butcher’s the customer wants to buy various kinds of meat, but
cannot afford to spend too much money. 3. Advise your new neighbor on the best
food store in the area. 4. Advise your newly-wed daughter on the clever spending
of the housekeeping money. 5. You describe the last shopping in your favorite
food shop to your classmate. 6. You describe the shopping centers in your vicinity
to your friend.

DIALOQUES.

Ex. 1. Read, translate and render the dialogues in the indirect speech:

1.
A: What can I get for you?
C: Have you got any flour?
A: Yes, how much will you want?
C: Two pounds, please.
2.
C: Can I have two loaves of rye bread, please?
A: Here you are. Anything else?
C: Yes, that packet of biscuits and a small box of chocolates, please. How
much will it come to?
A: That's 6 dollars and 8 cents.
3:
A: What can I get for you?
C: A pound of lump sugar, please.
A: And what next, please?
C: A packet of corn flakes, please. And yes, I'll want some tea and also a
dozen of eggs, please.
A: Is there anything else?
C: A packet of detergent. A small size, please.
A: Are you all right for butter and margarine?
C: No, thank you. That's all for the moment.
4:
A: Will that be all?
C: Oh, no. I'd like a pound of lean smoked bacon, please.
A: Will this do? It's all we have at the moment, I'm afraid.
C: No, it's much too fat. I'd better take some ham instead. How much is it?
A: Forty-three a pound.
C: That's rather expensive. I'd better take eight ounces, please.
5:
C: I want a tin of cocoa.
A: This brand is very popular, madam, I can recommend it.
C: I can see you've got a new kind of instant coffee.
A: It's just come in. You might have seen it advertised on television. A large
tin or a small one, madam?
C: A large one, please. 'Have you got any powdered milk?
A: We've run out of it at the moment, I'm afraid.
6:
Fiona: Well, Mum usually tells me what to write down and I write it.
Mary: How do you work out what you want?
Fiona: Well, I put some headings like the butcher's and the baker's and the
chemist's and the greengrocer's and the grocer's and then she says things and if she
said "apples" — under the greengrocer's, "cakes" — under the baker's, two tins of
soup are at the grocer's and things like this.
Mary: And she looks in the cupboard, does she?
Fiona: Yes. Or, if we're having people to stay for a week, she makes up a
menu and then, from that, she works out what we've got to buy.
7:
Mary: First of all the lettuce, please.
A: Yes, sure.
Mary: Are they all the same price?
A: There're all the same price. In fact, they're a bit cheaper at the moment,
because, you know, they're, as you can see, they're not too great.
Mary: Okay. Well, that one looks all right. Yes.
A: Not too bad, they're O.K.
Mary: I'll have that. A couple of bananas, just two not too ripe. They're all a
bit ripe. Those'll do.
A: Or those? What about those? They're better.
Mary: O.K. I'll have those. How many's that? Three?
A: Do you want three or two?
Mary: Two's enough, actually. Well, what was the other thing we wanted?
Apples.
A: What would you like? Cox's are probably the safest.
Mary: I'll have about four of those.
A: Four. That's just under the pound.

Ex. 2. Working in pairs make up dialogues using the following variations.

1.
A: What can I get for you?
What will you have?
What would you like?
How much will you have?
C: A pound/packet/tin/jar/ of flour, spaghetti, peaches, pickled gherkins,
please.
I'd like a bottle of vinegar, a packet of mushroom soup...
Have you got any cold meats?
Give me half a pound of lard, please.
2.
A: Are you going shopping? I'd like you to do some shopping for me.
Would you drop in the grocery on the way home?
B: Yes, why? Want me to get something for you?
A: Yes, sure.
B: What do you want me to buy? O.K. But don't tell me what you want, just
write everything down or I'll forget something.
A: Yes, please. I've run out of coffee and bread. We are expecting your
mother to tea, I want to bake some muffins. Well, a pound of flour and a tin of
whipped cream. I have no time. You'll have to memorize. It's just a pound of beef,
half a pound of cheese, two bottles of milk, a jar of marmalade and a large tin of
cocoa, and two tins of sardine in oil.
B: Yes, all right. I know, a usual small tin of instant coffee and a loaf of white
bread. I'll buy a pound jar of honey, she likes it. And a couple of cans of beer for
myself, O.K.?
Well, if I don't forget half the things, I'll be very much surprised.
3.
C: Can I have a medium-sized turkey, please?
Do you sell fresh pineapples?
What have you got in stock in the line of tinned fruits?
A: Will this one do?
Yes, we've just had them in.
We've got ten sorts here in half pound tins, all at the same price.
Which one would you like?
C: No, it seems too small, give me that one at the back, please.
Nice. I'll have two.
Give me two tins, one of pears and one of plums.

Ex. 3. Supply the missing parts of the following dialogues:

1.
C: How much are these apples per pound?
A: ........
C: ........
A: Would you mind if it's a bit more?
2.
C: ........
A: Here you are. That's 3.50. Anything else?
C: ........
A: We've sold out at the moment. Perhaps you'll take another brand. I can
recommend this one.
C: ........
3.
C: ........?
A: Those are fifty pence a pound and these are 20 pence.
C: ........?
A: I'll recommend these. They look quite ripe.

4.
С: I'd tike some carrots, please.
A: ........?
C: About a quarter of a pound, please. ........?
A: I'm afraid, they're all that big.

Ex. 4. Compose dialogues using the key words for the situations given below.

a) A customer and a shop assistant at the butcher's (I'd like, lean meat for
lunch, joint, nice, juicy, pork, how much, I'll have)
b) A customer and a shop assistant at the grocery store (Have in stock, two
pounds of, Ceylon tea, condensed milk, one tin of mustard, anything else, a bottle
of orange juice, all in all).
c) Two girls at a dairy shop (let's; don't like, prefer, yogurt, loose milk, bottled
milk, a carton of milk, cheese, need, dozen, butter, cake)

Ex. 5. Expand the situation introduced by the opening sentences.

1.
A: We need a lot of things to buy if you want me to bake something on
Saturday.
C: Do you mean we've run out of everything?
A: Yes, you see....
2.
A: Would there be anything to get from the shops? I'll be passing the
supermarket on the way.
B: Oh, that's just wonderful. We've run out of...
3.
A: What can I get for you?
C: Have you got any tinned fish?
4.
C: How much are your melons?
A: 50 pence a pound.
5.
C: I'd like some tomatoes but not very ripe.
A: These are quite what you need, very firm.

Ex. 6. Translate the dialogues into English:


1.
А: Дайте мне, пожалуйста, пачку печенья и 2 пачки чая.
Б: Какой чай вы хотите?
А: Какой-нибудь индийский.
Б: Вот этот лучший из тех, что у нас есть.
А: Пачка очень большая. А есть у вас такой же, но в меньшей пачке?
Б: Да, пожалуйста.
2.
А: Есть у нас хлеб? Я могу зайти в булочную по дороге.
Б: Белый есть, а черный кончился. И купи чего-нибудь к чаю.
А: Хорошо. В нашей кондитерской обычно хорошее печенье.
Б: Мне хочется пирожных сегодня.
3.
А: Вот этот кусок говядины, пожалуйста.
Б: Это будет 2 килограмма.
А: Мне надо поменьше. Выберите, пожалуйста, такой же нежирный, но
меньше.
Б: Вот этот около килограмма.
А: Прекрасно. Сколько это стоит?
4.
А: У нас нет ни фруктов, ни овощей.
Б: Вон овощной, давай зайдем.
А: Ты покупай овощи, а я посмотрю фрукты.
Б: Какие овощи нам нужны?
А: Килограмм моркови, 2 кочана капусты, полкилограмма лука,
несколько головок чеснока, и картошки, конечно, тоже, пять килограммов.
Б: Посмотри, какая очередь за картошкой. Я лучше схожу завтра на
рынок.
5.
А: Ты можешь купить все в одном месте?
Б: Да, но я предпочитаю не покупать в супермаркете.
А: Почему?
Б: Я люблю маленькие магазины. Булочная, кондитерский, мясной,
овощной, молочный. Они все имеют свою индивидуальность, а
супермаркеты какие-то безликие. К тому же, таким образом я избегаю
лишних затрат, необдуманных покупок.
А: Да, действительно. Зайдя в супермаркет за пачкой чая и парой банок
консервов, можно выйти с полной сумкой товаров от колготок до корма для
животных, так и не купив чай.
КРАТКИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ
ПО ГРАММАТИКЕ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЫКА
(с упражнениями)

ВИДО-ВРЕМЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

1. Simple Forms
Времена группы Simple употребляются для сообщения о действии,
которое произошло, происходит или будет происходить, когда ничего не
говорится о том, является ли действие длительным или нет, закончено оно
или нет.
Present Simple
Утвердительная форма
I Форма Present Simple I go/walk
We совпадает с инфинитивом смысло- We go/walk
You вого глагола без частицы to, You go/walk
They кроме формы 3-го лица единст- They go/walk
She венного числа, к которой при- She goes/walks
He бавляется окончание -s (-es). He goes/walks
Отрицательная форма
I 1 do not (don't) go/walk
We do not She does not (doesn't) go/walk
You (don't) Инфинитив He does not (doesn't) go/walk
смыслового
They We do not (don't) go/walk
глагола без to.
She does not You do not (don't) go/walk
He (doesn't They do not (don't) go/walk
)

Вопросительная форма
Do I Инфинитив Do I go/walk? Do we
we you смыслового go/walk. Do you
they глагола без to. go/walk? Do they
Does she he go/walk? Does she
go/walk? Does he go

Past Simple

Утвердительная форма
I Правильные глаголы I went/walked
She Past Simple с помощью She went/walked
He суффикса -ed, неправильные Не went/walked
We имеют особые формы, кото- We went/walked
You рые следует заучивать. You went/walked
They They went/walked
Отрицательная форма
I did not Инфинитив смыслового глагола I did not (didn't) go/walk.
She (didn’t) без to. She did not (didn't) go/walk.
He He did not (didn't) go/walk.
They We did not (didn't) go/walk.
You did not (didn't) go/walk.
They did not (didn't) go/walk.

Вопросительная форма
I Инфинитив смыслового глагола без Did 1 go/walk?
she to. Did she go/walk?
he Did he go/walk?
Did we Did we go/walk?
you Did you go/walk?
they Did they go/walk?

Future Simple
Утвердительная форма
I shall/ Инфинитив I shall go/walk.
We will (‘ll) смыслового We shall go/walk
глагола без to.
She He will (‘ll) She will go/walk.
You They He will go/walk.
You will go/walk.
They will go/walk.

Отрицательная форма
I shall Инфинитив I shall not (shan't) go/walk. She will
We not смыслового not (won't) go/walk. He will not
(shan't глагола без to. (won't) go/walk. We shall not
) (shan't) go/walk. You will not
She They will
not
Вопросительная форма
Shall I Инфинитив Shall/win I go/walk? Shall/will we
(will) we смыслового go/walk?
Will she he глагола без to. Will she go/walk? Will he go/walk?
you Will you go/walk? Will they
they go/walk?

Употребление видовременных форм Simple

Present Simple употребляется:


а) Для выражения обычного The shop closes at 5 p.m.
или периодически Магазин закрывается в 5 часов вечера.
повторяющегося действия Не plays chess very well.
или состояния Он очень хорошо играет в шахматы.
б) Для выражения действия, Don't you sec that I am watching the TV-set?
которое совершается в Разве ты не видишь, что я смотрю телевизор?
момент речи вместо Present 1 know what 1 am doing. Я знаю, что делаю.
Continuous с глаголами,
которые не употребляются
во временах Continuous
в) Вместо Future Simple с I leave at 11.30 tomorrow Я уезжаю завтра в 11.30 вечера.
глаголами, выражающими The boys start school next Monday У мальчиков начинаются
заранее запланированное занятия в следующий понедельник.
действие. Большей частью
это глаголы, обозначающие
движение, например: to go
идти, to come приходить, to
leave покидать, to start начи-
нать и т.д.
г) Для выражения будущего If London airport is clear of fog we will land there.
действия в придаточных Если в Лондонском аэропорту не будет
обстоятельственных времени тумана, мы приземлимся там.
и условия.Эти придаточные Ill stay here till Tom comes back.
предложения вводятся Я побуду здесь, пока не вернется Том.
союзами: when, if, unless,
till, until, before, as soon as.
while
Past Simple употребляется:
а) Для обозначения действия, She sold her car two days ago (yesterday, last week, last
совершившегося в прошлом. month).
Время совершения действия Она продала машину два дня назад (вчера, на прошлой
часто определяется неделе, в прошлом месяце).
наречиями времени,
обозначающими прошедшее
время: yesterday, three days
ago, last week, last month, in
1992 и т.д.
б) Для выражения That morning he got up early, had his breakfast and went to the
нескольких действий, Institute where he spent half of the day. В то утро он встал
непосредственно рано, позавтракал и пошел в институт, где провел половину
следовавших одно за другим дня.
в) В вопросе, который When did you meet her? Когда вы с ней встречались?
начинается с
вопросительного when
Future Simple употребляется:
а) Для выражения действия, I will/shall answer all the letters this evening.
которое относится к Я отвечу на все письма сегодня вечером.
будущему времени
б) Для выражения будущего Spring will come again and birds will build nests.
действия, которое всегда Снова придет весна, и птицы будут вить гнезда.
повторяется, или для
выражения общеизвестных
истин

Примечания: 1. Эквивалентом будущего времени со значением


намерения является to be going + инфинитив глагола:
I am not going to discuss this.
Я не собираюсь (не буду) это обсуждать.
2. Вспомогательный глагол shall используется с 1-м лицом
единственного и множественного числа в британском варианте английского
языка.

Exercises

1. ВИДО-ВРЕМЕННЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

А. Simple Forms

Времена группы Simple употребляются для сообщения о действии,


которое произошло, происходит или будет происходить, когда ничего не
говориться о том, является ли действие длительным или нет, закончено оно
или нет.
Exercises
Ex. 1. Make affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences in the Present
Simple Tense from these notes:

Example: Chili /con /carne /is/ today/ more /American / than /Mexican?
Is chili con carne today more American than Mexican?

1. Comprises / the / both / America / and / Mall / entertainment / facilities /


shopping / of.
2. Grind / not / a / daily / seems / kitchen / the / increasingly / to / place / a /
pursue / as / hobby / as / cooking.
3. That / serves / not / lunch / both / as / breakfast / meal / a / and / dinner.
4. Cereal / the / American / dry / still / two / the / dominate / companies /
market?
5. Baby / company / Gerber / the / trademark / popular / is / the / most /
United / the / States / the.
6. Stocks / Foodini’s / Market / entrees / Fresh / desserts / snacks / pizza /
haute / breads / Meal.
7. Computer / orders / telephone / home / television / combines / shopping /
or?
8. And / jambalaya / onion / rosemary / includes / celery / various / such /or /
meats / as / seafood / cayenne / tomatoes / ingredients / rice / pepper / thyme /
popular / garlic.
9. Rice / Christmas / always / with / dessert / a / made / Scandinavians /
dinner / whipped / Eve / for / cream / serve / of.
10. Metaphor / not / British / describes / popular / a / pot / a / society / melting
/ the.

Ex. 2. Open the brackets using the appropriate (Present or Past Simple) verb
form:

1. The Coca-Cola company (to establish) in 1892. 2. She always (to use) a
dinner napkin when eating at the table. 3. Dutch settlers (to add) quite a few
colorful and long-lasting patches, such as cookies, crullers, cherry bounce and
waffles. 4. Jews and settlers from eastern and northern Europe (to bring) with them
the deli tradition, salt beef, pastrami, lox, bagels and blitzes. 5. Traditionally
Americans (to drink) apple cider for Christmas. 6. Maple syrup (to retain) the
principal sweetener with the first European settlers for many years. 7. In April
1955, onetime jazz pianist Ray A. Krock (to open) a fast-food franchise (in
partnership with the McDonald brothers) in Chicago suburb of Des Plaines. 8. In
America, muffins usually (come) in dozens of varieties – blueberry, poppy seed,
raisin, pecan etc. 9. Thomas Jefferson (to bring) the recipe of ice cream from
France and then it (to enter) America via Philadelphia. 10. Native American
Indians (to introduce) the first American settlers to corn, the white and sweet
potatoes, the peanut, the pumpkin and other squashes, the maple syrup, the
cranberry and blueberry, and the pecan nuts, to name but a few.

Ex. 3. Add tag-questions to these sentences according to the patterns:

Patterns: The second meal of the day is lunch, isn’t it ?


Let’s ask the teacher to repeat the task, shall we?
There was no house around, was there ?

1) In England tea is more popular than coffee, ____ ? 2) The English don’t
eat soup for breakfast, ___ ? 3) Most of the school children eat their lunch at
school, ___ ? 4) Usually there are eggs on the breakfast table of an English family,
____ ? 5) The movie that we saw last Sunday was quite interesting, ____ ? 6) You
won’t be angry with me if I suggest something, ____ ? 7) There isn’t any fish for
an English breakfast, ____ ? 8) Let’s read the novel that the teacher mentioned,
____ ? 9) Rice isn’t part of an English breakfast, ____ ? 10) He’ll offer her to take
her luggage to the station in his car, ____ ?

Ex. 4. Fill in the blanks with one of the Simple Tenses:


1. We _____ Stratford-upon-Avon during our stay in Britain last year (visit).
2. He _____ not ____to take part in the coming competitions (want).In six years
she _____ a fully qualified physician (become).3. They _____ their plan only two
years ago (carry out). 4. When _____ you _____ your job (finish)? 5. She _____
her work as an interpreter (like). 6. She _____ the first road on the right and it
____ the shortest way to the village (take, be). 7. I _____busy on Saturday and
____ not ____ to go with him to the country (be, be able). 8. We _____ to a dance
last night, but we ____ not ____ ourselves much (go, enjoy). 9. Perhaps she
______ your brother on this photo (recognize).

Ex. 5. Read the statements. Ask two questions based on the statement
according to the pattern:
Pattern: Mr. and Mrs. Davis and their children live in Green Street.
Where do Mr. and Mrs. And their children live?
In what street do Mr. and Mrs. Davis and their children live?

1. They are going to buy a new house because the old one is too small for
them. (What ….?, Why…?)
2. Mr. Davis works at the marketing department. (Where …?, At what kind of
department ….?)
3. The two eldest children leave home at 8.15 in the morning because they
have to go to school. (At what time …?, Why …?)
4. The youngest girl stays at home with her mother because she’s too young to
go to school. (Where …?, Why …?)
5. Molly Davis goes to the elementary school. (Who …? Where …?)
6. Tom Davis sometimes goes to school by Metro because his school is rather
far from his house. (How …?, Why …?)
7. Little Kitty Davis plays with the neighbors’ children in the park for an hour
or two each morning. (Who …?, When…?, Where …?)
8. Mrs. Davis takes Kitty with her when she goes shopping. (Who(m) …?,
When …?)
9. She buys meat at the supermarket every Saturday. (What …?, Where …?,
On what day of the week…?)
10. Kitty ran away from her mother in the grocery last Saturday. (When …?,
Who …?, Where …?)

Ex. 6. Turn the following into the Past or Future Simple Tenses. Make all the
necessary changes:

1. We like our holidays in Scotland. 2. He walks all day without being tired.
3. My sister lives in a quit little place in Norway. 4. They play foot ball every day
during their holidays. 5. Lucy buys her dresses in this shop. 6. These girls play
tennis very well. 7. John thinks a lot about his work. 8. Bill pays one hundred
twenty-six pounds and gets a good suit. 9. The students sing such songs at the
concert. 10. Mother cooks breakfast early in the morning.

Ex. 7. Put question about italicized words of the following sentences:

1. My father didn’t like my bridegroom at first sight. 2. Chaucer, the greatest


English poet of the 14th century, died in 1400. 3. I’ll meet you at the news-stand
near the platform. 4.Ten minutes later Margaret was on her way out to a telephone
Mrs. Welsh. 5. In a while we went out to have our eleven-o’clock coffee break. 6. I
usually had dinner at the university club. 7.On the very first night of my arrival he
went to Gatsby’s house. 8. Joe is no more a bachelor, last week he got married. 9.
He will take our son to a mountain camp. 10. He speaks French very fluently.

Ex. 8. Complete the sentences with used to + Infinitive and translate them
into Russian.

Example: Mr. Davis doesn’t smoke any more but he used to smoke 20
cigarettes a day.
Мистер Дэвис больше не курит, но раньше он обычно (бывало)
выкуривал 20 сигарет в день.

1) When I was a child I ______ coca-cola, but I don’t like it now. 2) We live
in London now but we _______ in Manchester. 3) Ann _____ slim and now she
looks just like a ball. 4) Now we have got a house. We _____ in a flat. 5) I know
she doesn’t dance these days but she _____ ten years ago. 6) They aren’t very rich
now but they _____ in the past. 7) Look! This is Mina in her dad’s sports car but I
remember she _____ to school like all the other children in those days. 8) Joanna
_____ a vegetarian but she had a sausage for breakfast. 9) They ______ in the city
centre but their new house is in the country. 10) Bobby _____ a bike but he drives
a car now.

Ex. 9. Translate into English using used to:

1. Обычно я пила по утрам кофе, но сейчас я пью только зелёный чай. 2.


Моя подруга и я имели обыкновение проводить каникулы вместе. 3. Мы
бывало описывали впечатления в нашем дневнике. 4. Я обычно отвечала на
твои письма в тот же день. 5. Когда я работал на этой фирме, я обычно ездил
на метро. 6. Я, бывало, встречал своих коллег по работе либо в поезде, либо
на станции. 7. Мы обычно ездили вместе. 8.Я, случалось брал с собой видео-
камеру. 9. Когда я учился в школе, я много ездил на велосипеде. 10. Ты
обычно писал мне каждую неделю.
Ex. 10. Translate into English using Simple Tenses:
1) Грамматика любого языка состоит из правил, которые помогают
научиться говорить правильно. 2) Когда я пришёл туда, её там не было. 3)
Она не сказала ни слова, только бросилась на кровать и заплакала. 4) Я
позвоню тебе через несколько дней. 5) Несколько минут спустя Джон вышел
из дома с небольшим чемоданом. 6) Мне кажется, что моему отцу не
нравиться твоё поведение. 7) Чарльз любил повторять: “Вода и мыло стоят
дёшево. Чтобы быть чистым не надо быть богатым.“ 8) Вы будете смотреть
телевизор сегодня вечером. 9) Где Луиза? Она пойдёт с нами на концерт? 10)
Итак. Я передал его слова моим друзьям, и они очень рассердились на него.

2. Perfect Forms
Времена группы Perfect употребляются: 1) для сообщения о действии,
которое закончилось до какого-то определенного момента в настоящем,
прошедшем или будущем времени, но результат этого действия тесно связан
с последующим периодом времени; 2) для обозначения действия, которое
длилось в течение какого-то времени и все еще продолжается в
определенный момент в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем.

Present Perfect
Утвердительная форма

I Пр 1 have/'ve
ича gone/walk
сти ed
е
про
We have шегW have/'ve
You ('ve) лов Y have/'ve
They tici T have/'ve
ple h gone/walk
II) e ed
She has S has/'s
He Cs) H has/'s
e gone/walk
ed

Отрицательная форма
I Причаст I have not gone/walked
We ha шего We have not gone/walked
You (h лового You have not gone/walked
They ticiple They have not
11) gone/walked
She ha She has not gone/walked

no
He (h He ;*as not gone/walked
as
n' Вопросительная форма
Причаст H gone/walked?
шего H gone/walked?
Have you лового H gone/walked?
глагола
ticiple II) av
H gone/walked?
she H gone/walked?
HAS H gone/walked?
as
he

Past Perfect

Утвердительная форма
I Причаст 1 had/'d
She шего She had/'d
He h лового He had/'d
We ( ticiple We had/'d
You You had/'d
They They had/'d
gone/walked
Отрицательная форма
I Причаст I had
She шего She had
He h лового He had
We ( ticiple II) We had
You You had
They They had
not/hadn't
Вопросительная форма
I Причаст H gone/wa
s шего H gone/wa
h лового H gone/wa
Паи w ticiple II) H gone/wa
y H gone/wa
t H gone/wa
h a lked?
e d
Future Perfect
I w Причас I will/Tl
We Утвердительная форма тие (stall) have
ill/'11 (shall) have проше gone/walke
дшего d He will/'ll
времен have
и смыс- gone/walke
лового d She
глагола will/'ll have
(Par- gone/walke
ticiple d We
II) will/'ll
(shall) have
She He will/'11 have
They

Отрицательная форма
I wi Прича I will (shall) not have gone/walked
We ll стие We will (shall) not have not
no проше gone/walked
t/ дшего
w време
on ни
't смыс
(s ловог
ha о
ll глагол
no а (Par-
t/ ticiple
sh II)
She He an'
wi She will not have gone/walked He
You ll will not have gone/walked You will not
They no have gone/walked They will not have
t/ gone/walked
w
on
't

Вопросительная форма
Will/shall I Причастие Will/shall I have
we прошедшего gone/walked? Will/shall
времени we have gone/walked?
смыслового
глагола
(Participle
II)
Will she Will she have
he gone/walked? Will he
you have gone/walked? Will
they you have gone/walked?
Will they have
gone/walked?

Употребление видо-временных форм Perfect

Present Perfect употребляется:


а) Для выражения 1 have washed the
законченного дейст- car.
вия, которое имеет (It looks lovely now.)
тесную связь с Я помыл машину.
настоящим (Теперь она чудесно
временем по своим выглядит.)
результатам, при
этом
обстоятельство
времени может
быть не указано.
б) Для выражения I have just read the
действия, имею- instructions, but 1
щего связь с don't understand
настоящим и them. Я ознакомился
употребляющегося с инструкциями, но
с наречиями я их не понимаю.
неопределенного Have you ever
времени: ever ridden a camel? Ты
когда-либо; never когда-нибудь
никогда; already катался на
уже; not yet еще не, верблюде? I have
recently недавно; not finished my letter
just только что и yet. Я ещё не
т.п. и с об- закончил письмо.
стоятельственными Не has just gone out.
словами, выража- Он только что
ющими нeистекший вышел. 1 haven't
период времени seen him today. Я не
(today сегодня, this видел его сегодня.
week на этой неделе
и т.п.)

Примечания: 1. Present Perfect никогда не употребляется с наречиями


времени, обозначающими истекший отрезок времени — yesterday, last
week, last month, in 1962 и т.д.
They arrested smugglers last week.
Они арестовали контрабандистов на прошлой неделе.
2. Present Perfect переводится на русский язык чаще всего прошедшим
временем, однако иногда его можно перевести и настоящим временем.
Это следует делать тогда, когда Present Perfect употребляется для
выражения действия, которое началось раньше и продолжается в момент
речи. В этом случае обычно в предложении 1) указано начало действия
(since — с тех пор как); 2) или указан весь период времени, в течение
которого происходило действие (for ten minutes — в течение 10 \1инут,
for two days — в течение двух дней) и т.д.
We have waited for you all day.
Мы ждем тебя весь день.
I have worked in the Customs since 1995. Я работаю в таможне с 1995
года.
She has lived here for seven years. Она живет здесь семь лет.

Past Perfect употребляется:


Для обозначения She had finished the
действия, которое report by two о
было закончено до 'clock yesterday.
определенного мо- Она закончила
мента в прошлом. доклад вчера к двум
Этот момент может часам.
определяться Before he settled in
выражениями: London he had lived
1) by 6 o'clock; for three years in
by that time; by the Edinburgh. Прежде
second чем поселиться в
of November; by Лондоне, он жил
the end of the week три года в
и т. п.; Эдинбурге.
2) другим
прошедшим
действием,
которое произошло
позднее и которое
выражается
глаголом в Past
Indefinite

Примечания: 1. Если два или несколько действий происходили в про-


шлом и следовали непосредственно одно за другим, глаголы, их
выражающие, должны стоять в Past Indefinite.
Paul came into the room, went to the window and looked out. Пол вошел в
комнату, подошел к окну и выглянул наружу.

2. Past Perfect употребляется тогда, когда эти действия разделены


некоторым промежутком времени.
When she came to the station, the last train had already left. Когда она
пришла на станцию, последний поезд уже ушел.

Future Perfect употребляется:


Для обозначения By the end of
действия, которое December I'll have
будет закончено до worked
определенного мо- here for 10 years.
мента в будущем, В конце декабря
который может исполнится 10 лет,
быть обозначен как я работаю здесь.
обстоятельствами
или другим
действием,
выраженным
глаголом в Present
Indefinite

Exercises

Ex. 1. Make these sentences negative and interrogative:

1) Since the beginning of the century, Macy’s has sponsored a Thanksgiving


Day parade. 2) Coke has long become a symbol of American culture in a way that
competitor Pepsi has never managed. 3) By 1891, Atlanta pharmacist, Asa Griggs
Candler, had secured complete ownership by the Coca-Cola Company. 4)
German potato salad has become an American classic as much as pizza or pasta. 5)
Henry Heinz’s design of bottle and the recipe have changed since 1876. 6) Coca-
Cola has made an indelible mark on American culture and deserved a museum of
its own. 7) Since the 1850s , convenience food has arrived at America. 8) By the
year 400,the Romans had built towns, roads and bridges across Britain. 9) In the
eighteenth century the Roman baths became as famous as they had been in Roman
times.

Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks using for or since. Translate the sentences into
Russian:

1) Things have changed ___ I was a boy. 2) He has been under water ___
thirty minutes. 3) They haven’t eaten anything ____two days. 4) We haven’t
spoken with each other ____ the last committee meeting. 5) Nobody has come to
see us ____ we bought a new dog. 6) She has been awake ____ a long time. 7) He
has been Managing Director ____ 1999. 8) We’ve known each other ____ twenty
years. 9) It has been very cloudy ____ early morning. 10) We’ve been awake ____
five o’clock.

Ex. 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or Past Simple
Tenses:
1. This is my house. – How long you (live) here? – I (live) here since 1998.
2. He (to lose) his job two months ago and since then he (to be) out of work.
– Why he (lose) his job? – He (to be) very rude to Mr. Williams.
3. My daughter (not to start) to work yet. She’s still at High School. – How
long she (to be) at school? – She (to be) at High School for three years; before that
she (to spend) five years at Primary School in Blue Street.
4. I. (to begin) to study English at Secondary School and (to do) it for five
years. Then I (to drop) it for a couple of years and (to forget) most of it. Then I (to
spend) three years at Secretarial College, where I study Business English, and for
the last six months I (to study) English in London.
5. Hell, Nick! I (not see) you for ages! Where you (to be) – I (to be) to
Sweden. I (to mean) to spend you a postcard but I (not to have) your address with
me. – Never mind. You (to have) a good time in Sweden? How long you (to be)
there ? – I (to be) there for two weeks. I only just (to get) back.

Ex. 4. Open the brackets. Explain the use of the tense forms:

1. He (to buy) a new house last , but he (not sell) his old house yet, so at the
moment he is having two houses. 2. I (to leave) home at 7.00 and (get) here at
eleven. 3. Shakespeare (to write) Romeo and Juliet. 4.By next August I (to pat) $
1,000 as income tax. 5. She (to return) me the book, (thank) me for lending it to
her and (to say) that she (to enjoy) it very much; but I (to know) that she (not read)
it because most of the pages (to be) still uncut. 6. He (to keep) looking at them,
wondering where he (to see) them before. 7. I’ll still be here next week but Mary
(to leave). 8. You (to lock) the door before you (to leave) the office? 9. The
newspaper (to come) ? – Yes, Michael is reading it. 10. I never (to drink) martini. –
Well, try it now.

Ex. 5. Translate into English using Present Perfect where required.

1) Я только что посмотрел фильм «Война и мир».Ты видел его? – Нет.


Он такой же интересный, как и книга? – К сожалению, я не читал книгу. – А
я читал, когда учился в школе. – Когда Толстой написал её? – Он написал её
в 1868 году. 2) Как долго ты знаком со своим новым помощником? – Я знаю
его около двух лет. Чем он занимался до этого? – Он работал в
государственном секторе. 3) Джон, где ты был? – Я был у врача – Он удалил
твой больной зуб (to take out a bad tooth) ? –О да… - Тебе больно? – Ужасно.
4) Ты уже завтракал? – Да, я позавтракал полчаса назад Почему ты не
подождал меня? – Потому что ты копуша (a dawdler), а я тороплюсь. 5) У
тебя были длинные волосы (to wear one’s hair long), когда ты училась в
школе? – Да, моя мама настаивала на этом. Но с тех пор, как я закончила
школу, я ношу короткую стрижку (a short cut).
Ex. 6. Ask five types of questions to each of the statements:

1) He has posted the letter. 2) I have asked him to dinner several times. 3) I
shall have finished this job by 2 o'clock. 4) We have been to Berlin this year. 5) By
the time we get to the party everything will have been eaten. 6) The phone has
stopped ringing. 7) We had passed our English exam by the 3rd of January. 8) He
has lived here for ten years. 9.1 have made a mistake. 10. By the end of his
university course he will have attended 1,300 lectures.

Ex. 7. Put questions about the italicized words:

1) By this time next year I'll have saved SI,000. We have just heard the most
extraordinary news. 2) Tom has never eaten caviar before. 3) We have never left a
restaurant without paying a bill. 4) In a fortnight's time we'll take an English
exam. 5) She will have finished this book by tomorrow morning. 6) He had left his
previous job by the end of December last year. 7) They met in a coffee bar. 8) The
strike lasted for five months. 9) We've had terrible weather since last week.

Ex. 8. Translate into English using the required tense forms:

1. Молли чувствовала себя усталой, так как усердно трудилась весь день.
2. Вы были сегодня в институте? 3. Я закончу эту работу к концу недели. 4. Я
изменил свое мнение об этом государственном деятеле (а statesman), после
того как прочитал несколько его публикаций. 5. Он никогда не вызывал у
меня особых симпатий (to appeal). 6. Ты знаешь эту старую даму, которая
только что вошла в магазин? 7. Ты за кого голосовал на последних выборах?
8. Поначалу мне нравилась моя работа, но однажды я поссорился со своим
начальником и он меня уволил (to dismiss). 9. Если я буду продолжать диету,
я похудею (to lose) на 10 килограммов к концу месяца. 10. Когда началась
первая мировая война?

Ex. 9. Complete the letter, opening the brackets:

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL


Our ref: TB/0092
R. Davis, 15 th May 1997
Smallcrown Limited, Liverpool.

Dear Mr. Davis,


Thank you for your letter of 7th May, 1997.
Mr. Lynch (to come) to us last September on a year's contract. During his
time here he (to show) considerable ability in his work and (to become) a
useful member of our team. He (to take) a degree in electronic engineering at
London University seven years ago and (to join) the Ministry of Defense after he
(to leave) the university. His experience in negotiating contracts for the Ministry
(to be) very valuable during his work with us.
I (to know) Mr. Lynch for six years and my experience of him leads me to
believe that the work he (to do) at the Ministry after leaving the university and the
excellent work he now (to do) for us during this year make him the first class
candidate for a post such as Product Executive.
Yours sincerely,
Peter Falk,
Personnel Manager.

3. Continuous Forms
Времена группы Continuous употребляются для сообщения о действии (в
настоящем, прошедшем или будущем), которое имеет, имело или будет
иметь длительный характер; о таком действии, которое продолжалось,
продолжается или будет продолжаться в тот период времени, о котором
идет речь.

Present Continuous

Утвердительная форма
1 am Причаст 1 am
She is She is
Не ('s) going/walki
We are We are
You ('re) going/walki
The ng You are
y going/walki
ng They are
going/walki
ng

Отрицательная форма
I am При 1 am not
She is not She is not
He (isn't) going/walking
He is not
going/walking
We are We are not
You not going/walking
The (aren' You are not
y t) going/walking
They are not
going/walking

Вопросительная форма
Am I Причаст Am I
Is s ие Is she
h настоя- going/walking?
Are t Are we
h щего going/walking?
e времени Are you
y смыс- going/walking?
лового Are they
глагола going/walking?
(Par-
ticiple
Г)

Past Continuous

Утвердительная форма
I w Причаст 1 was
She a ие going/walking She
We w We were
You e going/walking You
Отрицательная форма
I w Причаст I was not
She a ие going/walking She
We w We were not
Yo e going/walking You
Вопросительная форма
Wa I Причаст Was I
s s ие going/walking? Was
We t Were we
re h going/walking? Were
Future Continuous

Утвердительная форма
I will (‘ll) Пр I will/shall be
We shall be ича going/walking
сти We will/shall
е be going/walking
She He will She will be
You ('II) be going/walking
They He will be
going/walking
You will be
going/walking
They will be
going/walking
Отрицательная форма
1 shall II ри 1
We not части will/'ll/shall not
be е нас be
(sha то going/walking
n't -яще We
be) го will/'ll/shall not
врем be
She will ени going/walking
She will not
He not be
Yo be going/walking
u (wo He will not
The n't be
y be) going/walking
You will not
be
Вопросительная форма
Shall 1 Прич Shall I be
w астие going/walking?
e наст Shall we be
Will sh Will she be
e going/walking?
h Will he be
e going/walking?
y Will you be
o going/walking?
u Will they be
th going/walking?
e
y
Употребление видо-временных форм Continuous

Present Continuous употребляется:


а) Для выражения Someone is knocking
действия, происхо- at the door. Кто-то
дящего в момент стучит в дверь.
речи
б) Для выражения Не is writing a new
действия, происхо- novel.
дящего в более Сейчас он работает
длительный период над новым романом
времени в (букв, пишет новый
настоящем, роман).
включая момент
речи. Действие в
течение этого
времени может
протекать с
перерывами
в) Для выражения They are
заранее намечен- leaving/flying tor
ного будущего Germany tomorrow
действия, в особен- Завтра они
ности с глаголами уезжают/улетают в
to leave, to Пу, и Германию.
др., а также с We are having a
глаголами come, go, party tonight.
stay, do, have Сегодня вечером у
нас будет вечеринка.

г) Для выражения She is always ringing


действия, постоян- and asking me silly
но повторяемого questions.
(обычно с always) Она постоянно
звонит и задает мне i
лу-пые вопросы.

Past Continuous употребляется:


а) Для выражения She was standing at
длительного неза- the bus stop. 1 asked
конченного her what bus she was
действия, имевшего waiting for. Она
место в стояла на
определенный автобусной
момет в прошлом остановке Я
Указание времени спросил ее, какой
может отсутство- автобус она ждала.
вать, однако
подразумевается из
контекста

б) Время Who were you


действия talking to on the
можетбытьвыра- telephone when I
жено came in?
обстоятельствами С кем ты
времени типа: разговаривал по
all day long, all the телефону, когда я
time, from Ave to вошел?
six Yesterday in the
o'clock и т.п.или evening my father
другим действием, and I were playing
которое обычно chess while my sister
бывает выражено and my mother were
глаголом в Past watching TV. Вчера
Indefinite вечером мы с отцом
в) Два играли в шахматы, в
длительных то время как сестра
действия, совер- и мать смотрели
шавшихся телевизор.
одновременно,
могут быть
выражены формами
Past Continuous. В
этом случае они
соединены союзом
while.

Future Continuous употребляется:


Для выражения 1 shall be calling you
действия, которое tomorrow at five
будет происходить в 0'clock.
определенный мо- Я буду звонить тебе
мент в будущем. завтра в 5 часов.
Действие это будет 1shall call tor her at
иметь eight.
незаконченный — No, don't, she
характер. Период will still be having
времени, в течение breakfast then.
которого действие Я зайду за ней в 8.
будет совершаться, — Нет, не
может быть выра- нужно; в это время
жен она еще будет
обстоятельствами завтракать.
времени (at six The children will be
o'clock, at that sleeping when you
moment, then и т.п.) come home.
или другим Дети будут спать,
действием, которое когда ты придешь
выражено глаголом домой.
в Present Indefinite

Exercises

Ex. 1. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:

1) He is teaching his son to ride. 2) They are telling the truth. 3) Dick
was sitting in the corner with a book. 4) I shall be doing economics next term.
5) We were having breakfast at 9 o'clock yesterday. 6) He will be using the
car this afternoon. 7) You are always grumbling. 8) A lot of people were
rushing to the seaside last weekend.

Ex. 2. Put questions about the words in italics:

1) I'm looking for a telephone book. 2) He was ringing up the police.


3) We are all going to watch a football march. 4) She will be
dancing with Billy at the next competition. 5) He is always
complaining to his manager. 6) Please fasten your belts. We shall
be taking off in a few minutes.

Ex. 3. Fill each blank with the appropriate form of the verb to listen to:
1)________Did you ____the President's speech over the radio last Sunday? 2)
Were you _____ his speech when Polly telephoned? 3) A young man can
learn a lot if he ______older men. 4) People never ______ his jokes. 5)
Would you _______my pronunciation of that word? 6) Let's not ___this awful
song any more. 7) A wise man always _____people more than he talks to
them.

Ex. 4. Use the contracted forms of verbs instead of full forms according to
the pattern:
Pattern: Lyonsville is a very small town. Lyonsville's a very small town.

1. This town has never been famous for anything.


2. There is one long street in Lyonsville, with several red houses on both
sides of it.
3. There is a new school building in the middle of Lyonsville now.
4. The children who live in the countryside will not walk to the new
school; they will ride to school in buses.
5. There will probably be a new man in the post office because Mr. Pitt
is going to stop working.
6. He has worked for the past forty years in the post and now he is
almost seventy years old.
7. If you have never visited a small town in Great Britain, you will
probably enjoy visiting Lyonsville some day.
8. Unfortunately, I shall not be able to visit Lyonsville this year.

Ex. 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present, Past or Future Continuous
tense:
1. Can I borrow your dictionary or you {use) it at the moment? 2.What
Bob {do) now? He {clean) his shoes. 3. We were frightened because it {get)
dark. 4. This time next week I {sit) on the beach. 5. The park {look) its best in
a month. 6.The written test had just begun and the students {write) their
names at the top of their papers. 7. She usually wears shoes with high heels
but when I last saw her she (wear) sandals. 8. Somebody (knock) at the door.
Shall I answer it? 9. She always (do) things like that. 10. When I get home my
cat (sit) at the door waiting for me.

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences choosing between the Future Simple Tense.
The Present Continuous Tense or to be going to be:

Williams: Have you seen this letter from the Ministry?


Davis: Yes. I see they’ve made arrangements for the visit.
Williams: Yes. The minister (to come) here next Monday, He (to arrive) on
the 8.30 train.
Davis: Have you got any plans for visit? What he (to do) when he gets here?
Williams: Well, we (to show) him round the new factory first.
Davis: Right. I 9 to see) that all that staff left by the builders is cleared up.
Williams: Yes, and make sure that those electric wires are properly fixed.
Davis: Don’t worry about that I (have) a word with the chief electrician
immediately.
Williams: Then he (to talk) to the workers on the production line. It’s a bit
difficult to say how long this (to take). Then we (to have) lunch with the
members of the Board at 2 o’clock. At for o’clock we (to meet) to discuss the
Government plans for promoting exports. They say they (to help) the
companies that want to expend their export markets. If we manage to
convince them that our development projects are sound, they (to support) us
financially.
Davis: Look. Murphy says he (to conduct) tests on the BSM-3 prototype next
week. I’d like the minister to see them.
Williams: I promise you we (to show) them to him.
Davis: When is he due to leave?
Williams: He (to leave) for London on the 6.30 train.

Ex. 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present
Continuous Tenses. Explain the use of the tenses forms:

1. She always (to buy) lottery tickets but she never (to win) anything. 2. You (to
like) this ring? I (to present) it to my daughter for her birthday on Friday. 3.
You (to believe) all that newspapers say? – No, I (not believe) any of them. –
Then why you (to read) this one? 4. What Emma (to think) of the Budget? –
She (to think) it is most unrealistic. – I agree with her. 5. They (to save up)
because they (to go) to England this summer. 6. This film (to come) to the
cinema at the end of the week. You (to want) to see it? 7. As a rule my father
(not do) any work in the garden; he always (to work) on his car. 8. Can’t she
see the notice? – She can see it but she can’t read it because she (not wear) her
glasses. 9. You (to hear)me well? 10. I (to know) what you (to mean).

Ex. 8. Put verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Continuous
Tense. Explain the use of the tense form:

1. He (to be) polite. Whenever a woman entered the room he (to stand up). 2.
When we (to arrive at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking and
the audience (to applaud). 3. The children (to make) so much noise that I couldn’t
hear what their mother (to say). 4. I didn’t want to meet him, so When he entered
the room I (to leave) it. 5. This (to annoy) the dog, who immediately (to begin) to
chase Mr. Holms. 6. She always (to complain) about everything. 7. We 9 not
understand) Spanish well. 8. While Nick and I (to walk) along the street yesterday
evening, one of us (to mention) Mr. and Mrs. Smith. 9. I (to share) a room with
him when we were students. He always (to quarrel) with me. 10. Where he (to live)
when you (to see) him last?

Ex. 9. Translate into English using Continuous forms where required:

1) Когда я прибыл на станцию, я увидел Мэри, которая ждала меня. Она


была одета в голубое платье и выглядела чудесно. Как только она заметила
меня, она замахала мне и что-то крикнула, но я не слышал (couldn’t hear), что
она говорила мне, так как все вокруг очень шумели. 2) Она всегда занимает
деньги у меня и всегда забывает отдавать их. 3) Ты не возражаешь, если я
задам тебе вопрос? — Это зависит от вопроса. — Он касается твоего брата.
— Я не хочу отвечать на вопросы, касающиеся моего брата. 4) Что ты
делаешь в следующие выходные? — Как обычно, буду работать. Я всегда
работаю по выходным. 5) Я просматриваю свой старый альбом с
фотографиями. Он полон фотографий людей, чьи имена я совершенно
забыла. Интересно, что стало со всеми ними! 6) Они строили этот мост, когда
я был здесь в прошлом году. Они все еще строят его.

4. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)


Действительный залог (Active Voice) показывает, что предмет или лицо,
являющееся подлежащим, производит действие: Columbus discovered
America in 1492. Колумб открыл Америку в 1492 году.
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) показывает, что предмет или лицо,
являющееся подлежащим, подвергается воздействию со стороны кого-либо:
America was discovered by Columbus in 1492. Америка была открыта
Колумбом в 1492 году.
Действующее лицо или предмет в предложениях с Passive Voice часто не
указывается. Если необходимо его указать, обычно используется предлог by:
Somebody has stolen my car. Кто-то украл мою машину.
My car has been stolen by somebody. Моя машина украдена кем-то.
Формы страдательного залога
Страдательный залог образуется с помощью глагола to be в
соответствующем времени + причастие прошедшего времени смыслового
глагола (Participle II).

Present Past Future


Indefinite is/are was/were will be
Continuo is/are was/were -
us being being
written written
Perfect have/has had been will
been written have
written been
writte
n

Exercises

Ex. 1. Change the statements to the Passive Voice according to the pattern:
Pattern: Shakespeare wrote a number of plays between 1589 and 1613.
A number of plays were written by Shakespeare between 1589 and 1613.

1) Many people send greeting cards on holidays. 2) The United States bought
Alaska about a century ago. 3) When I was a child my grandmother usually
woke me up early in the morning. 4) Most people receive presents on their
birthdays. 5) Soon the children will hang colored balls and flags on the
Christmas tree. 6) Americans have eaten turkey on Thanksgiving Day since
the nation was young. 7) It is the day before Christmas now, and parents are
buying gifts for their children.
1.
Ex. 2. Change the questions to the Passive Voice according to the pattern:
Pattern: What words do people usually use to express gratitude? What words
are usually used to express gratitude?

1) Are people making any changes in your city now? 2) Do people speak
different languages in different regions of your country? 3) When do people
receive gifts in your country? 4) Should a person write a "thank-you" letter
nowadays? 5) What holidays do people celebrate in your country? 6) What
songs did people sing when you were a child?

Ex. 3. Put the following into the Passive Voice, mentioning the agent where
necessary:

1) My child couldn’t have done all this damage. 2) Who did it? 3) Lighting struck
this old tree. 4) We use these tea-spoons only on special occasions. 5) She
expected us to offer her a new job. 6) He has written a special book for abuts. 6)
They showed him the easiest way to do it. 7) We are doing a lot of work. 8)
Somebody had cleaned our shoes and brushed our suits. 9) People should not leave
bicycles outside.

Ex. 4. Put the following into the Active Voice, supplying the agent if one was
not mentioned:
1. In some regions of the United States, such as Texas, people use the word
“dinner” instead of “lunch” (and “supper” instead of “dinner”). 2. This was
opposed by most people. 3. Americans serve brunches either at home for some
special occasions or on Sundays and Saturday at the restaurants. 4. People of the
United States popularized sub sandwiches in the 1920s and associated with the
country clubs. 5. She was said to have lived on vinegar and potatoes for a long
time. 6. The damaged vessel was being towed into the harbor when the towline
broke. 7. Whenever there is a holiday here, most of the shops in this city are
closed. 8. Soon a lot of men will be dismissed by the owners of the workshops. 9.
It is being said that too little money is being spent by the government on
constructing. 10. This message has been altered. 11. Have a lamp switched on, then
you won’t have to climb up in darkness.

Ex. 5. Complete the second sentence so it means the same as the first, using
no more than three words:

1. This lunch will be enjoyed by all our guests. All our guests will enjoy this
lunch. 2. This shop is owned by my uncle. My uncle _________ this shop. 3. That
birthday card was made by my little sister. My little sister _______ that birthday
card. 4. Charles Dickens wrote this letter. This letter ________ by Charles
Dickens. 5. Teenagers don’t visit the museum. The museum _________ by
teenagers. 6. Those emails were read by my boss! My boss _________ those
emails! 7. That text wasn’t received by my mother. My mother _______ that text.
8. This match will be watched by five million football fans. Five million fans
________ this match. 9. Bono wore these old jeans. These jeans _______ by Bono.
10. This music won’t be played by disc jockeys. Disc jockeys _____this music.

Ex. 6. Translate into English using passive forms:

1) Эта лекция была прочитана преподавателем вчера. 2) Много


упражнений выполняется студентами дома. 3) Дверь открыл незнакомый
человек. 4) В прошлом году эта книга продавалась в каждом киоске. 5)
Говорят, что этот фильм будет демонстрироваться на следующей неделе. 6)
Этим автором было написано много интересных книг. 7) Школа была
построена до того, как мы переехали в этот город. 8) Я хочу, чтобы мою
сестру послали на стажировку за границу. 8) Они хотят, чтобы эта проблема
была наконец разрешена. 9) Если нужно убраться в доме, я помогу.

REVISION EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Use the correct form of the verb in brackets:

1. I (to keep) a pet-dog when I (to be a boy). 2. How much you (to pay) for
this food? 3. Before you (to leave) our city, you must visit the museum. 4.
Can you look after the children while I (to be) out? 5.You (to recognize) her
when you (to see). She (to wear) a yellow hat. 6. At ten o’clock tomorrow
morning we (clean) the flat. 7. Why you (not to phone) me on Tuesday? 8.
Yesterday evening Tom (to have) a bath when the phone (to ring). 9. George
(to pass) his driving test. 10. The car just (to stop) because there isn’t any
petrol in the tank. 11. We (not to have any problems so far. 12. It (to rain) a
lot last week, but it (not to rain) so far this week. 13. Why are your clothes so
dirty? What you (do). 14. She (to play) tennis since she was eight. 15. How
long you (to read) this book? 16. I was very nervous because I (not to fly)
before. 17. The house was very quit when I got home. Everybody (to go) to
bed. 18. When Mary came back from the beach, she looked very tired. She (to
lie) in the sun too long. 19. We (to walk) along the road for about 20 minutes
when a car stopped and the driver offered us a lift. 20. Jane is tired. She (to
play) the piano.

Ex. 2. Open the brackets using the verb in the active or in the passive voices:

A: Unfortunately most of our stocks (to destroy) two weeks ago when a fire
(to break out) in our factory.
B: Yes, I (to hear) about it. A number of European countries (to buy)
regularly from your company and your products (to value) highly in
Germany. The fire (to report) in German newspapers.
A: Some of the reports in the newspapers (to exaggerate) the extent of the
damage. They (not to mention) that the production (to increase) in the near
future. Of course, deliveries (to delay) to a certain extent.
B: Actually, at the moment I am more worried about our last order from your
company. The consignment (to expect) about two weeks ago but it (to fail) to
arrive up to now.
A: That’s very strange. It (to deliver) according to the schedule. I (to speak) to
our agent about it immediately and I hope the matter (to settle) to your
satisfaction..

Ex. 3. Translate into English:

1) Я хотел догнать Тома, но он бежал слишком быстро. 2) Сколько


времени он курил, прежде чем бросил? 2) Когда я выглянул из окна,
дождь все еще продолжался. 3) На самой середине шоссе стояла
машина, в которой что-то сломалось, и шофер старался починить ее. 4)
Когда я пришла домой, я сразу же поняла, что кто-то был в моей
квартире, потому что исчезла моя шуба. 5) Сколько сигарет ты выкурил
сегодня? 6) Последнее время погода была очень хорошей. 7) Я не знаю
ее мужа, я никогда не видела его. 8) Я отправился в постель только
после того, как принял ванну. 9) Мой брат учится в университете уже два
года. 10) Джим играет в теннис с двух часов. 11) Аня ищет работу уже в
течение шести месяцев. 1.3. Вчера, когда я играл в футбол, я сломал
ногу. 12) Пока Том готовил завтрак, я разговаривал по телефону со
своим другом. 13) Почему ты не пришел вчера на нашу вечеринку?
14) Завтра в это время я уже буду лежать на берегу моря. 15)
Когда приедешь в Лондон, не забудь навестить моего друга.

§ 3. НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА


1. Инфинитив (The Infinitive)
Инфинитив — это неличная форма глагола. Инфинитив выражает
действие без указания лица, числа и наклонения и соответствует в
русском языке неопределенной форме глагола. Инфинитив отвечает на
вопросы: что делать? что сделать?

Формы инфинитива

Действительный Страдательный
Indefinite Infinitive
Не wants to go on a Не wants to be sent
management training on a management
course. training course.
Он хочет поехать на Он хочет, чтобы его
стажировку по кур- послали на ста-
су менеджмента. жировку по курсу
менеджмента.

INFINITIVE

Continuous Infinitive
I was happy to be talking Формы
to her again. Я был страдательного
счастлив снова залога нет
говоритьс ней.
Perfect Infinitive
Не was glad to have Не was glad to have been
met her. Он был рад, met by her. Он был рад,
что встретил ее. что она его встретила.

Примечание: Инфинитив группы Perfect выражает


действие, предшествующее действию глагола-
сказуемого
Функции инфинитива в предложении
1. Подлежащее То go there will be a
mistake. Пойти туда
будет ошибкой,
(обычно: It will be a
mistake to go there.)
2. Часть составного
сказуемого
а) с глаголом связкой To live is to act.
Жить — значит
Ь) с модальным I cannot swim.
глаголом Я не умею плавать.
с) с глаголами, It began to rain.
означающими начало, Начался дождь.
продолжение или конец
действия
3. Дополнение Tom asked her to
marry him.
Том попросил ее
выйти за него замуж.

4. Определение The captain was the


last man to leave the
ship.
Капитан был
последним, кто
покинул корабль.
5. Обстоятельство I need money to buy a
цели flat.
6. Обстоятельство It is too late to talk
результата или след- about it.
ствия Уже слишком
поздно, чтобы
говорить
об этом.
Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется
1. После модальных She cannot dance.
глаголов сап (could), Она не умеет
must, may (might) танцевать.
May I ask a question?
Могу я задать
вопрос?
2. В обороте Complex We heard her
Object после глаголов, play the piano.
выражающих восприятие Мы слышали,
посредством органов как она
чувств играла на пиа-
нино.

3.После глагола to make в She made me


значении drink a cup of
«заставлять» water. Она
заставила
меня выпить
стакан воды.

4. После глагола to let Let them say


what they
want. Пусть,
они скажут,
чего хотят.

5. После выражения why Why take him


(not)? seriously?
Зачем
принимать
его всерьез?
Why not
discuss this
question in
private?
Почему бы не
обсудить этот
вопрос
наедине?
6. После выражений had You had better
better, would rather/sooner forget about it.
Тебе лучше
забыть об
этом.
I would rather
discuss this
question in
private.
Я бы (скорее)
предпочел
обсудить этот
вопрос
наедине.

Объектный инфинитивный оборот


(Complex Object или Objective with the Infinitive Construction)

Этот оборот имеет следующую структуру:


Су ществител Сказу Существ Инфинитив
ьное в общем емое в ительное
падеже или актив в обшем
местоимение ном падеже
в залоге или
именительно местоиме
м падеже ние в
объектно
м падеже

The mother saw her son smoke,


(She) Мать видел (him) ее курил
(она) а, как сын (он) (курит).

Объектный инфинитивный оборот переводится на русский язык


дополнительным придаточным предложением. Употребляется после
глаголов, выражающих:
1. Восприятие посредством органов 1 heard the cock crow in a
neighboring чувств: to feel — чувствовать, to hear — village.
слышать, to see — видеть, to watch — Я слышал, как петух пел в
соседней
наблюдать и т.д. деревне.
We saw her cross the road. Мы видели, как она переходила дорогу.
Примечание: После этих глаголов инфинитив употребляется без
частицы to.

2.Умственную деятельность: to believe — верить, We believe him to


полагать, to consider — считать, to expect — be right. Мы
ожидать, to know знать, to think — думать, полагаем, что он
считать, to understand — понимать прав
They expected us to
arrive this week.
Они ожидали, что
мы приедем на этой
неделе.

3. Желание: to want — хотеть, to wish — желать I wanted her to


learn English. Я
хотел, чтобы она
выучила английс-
кий язык.
4. Разрешение, просьбу, приказ, требование: to Не requested the
allow — позволять, to request — попросить, to letter to be sent at
command — приказывать, to demand — требовать, once. Он попросил,
to order — приказывать чтобы письмо было
Примечание: После этих глаголов иж отправлено сразу
страдательного залога. же.
The customs officer
ordered the
containers to be
checked.
Таможенник
распорядился,
чтобы проверили
контейнеры.
зинитив часто
употребляется в
форме
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот
(Complex Subject или Nominative with the Infinitive Construction)
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот имеет следующую структуру:

Сушествител Глагол- Инфини


ьное в сказуемое в тив
общем страдательно
падеже или м залоге
местоимение
в
именительно
м падеже

Tom (he) was heard to shout


Было слышно, что Том (он) что-то кричит

Субъектный инфинитивный оборот переводится на русский язык


неопределенно-личным или безличным предложением с придаточным
дополнительным. Употребляется:

С глаголами в страдательном залоге, She is expected to


обозначающими: arrive in a few
а) умственную деятельность: to believe — days Ожидается,
полагать, to consider — считать, to expect — что она приедет
ожидать, to know — знать, to think — думать, через несколько
считать и т.д. дней.
They are believed
to know much
about this incident.
Полагают, что они
знают много об
этом инциденте.
б) восприятие посредством органов The children were
чувств: to feel — чувствовать, to hear — seen to be playing
слышать, to see — видеть, to watch — in the
наблюдать yard.
в) с глаголами to say — говорить, to Видели, как дети
report — сообщать и т.д. играли во дворе.
Не is said to be the
best surgeon in the
country.
Говорят, что он
лучший хирург в
стране.
2. Со следующими глаголами в дейст- They seem to be
вительном залоге: to appear — казаться, to pleasant people.
chance — случаться, to happen — случаться, Кажется, они
to prove — оказаться, to seem — казаться, to приятные люди.
turn out — оказаться Your advice
proved to be very
useful. Оказалось,
что твой совет
был очень
полезным.

Exercises

Ex. 1. Complete The second sentence so that it means the same as the first.
Use a verb from the box and any other words you need:
advised, agreed, asked, expected, intended, invited ,ordered, warned ,refused,
promised.

a. Don’t touch the wire Claire.” said the teacher. The teacher warned Claire
not to touch the wire. 2) “You should eat more fruit, Jane.” Said the nurse. The
nurse _____________more fruit. 3) “OK, I’ll help you, Ann.” said Nat. Nat
___________ Amina. 4) “I won’t tell you anything, Sally.” said Lorna. Lorna
___________ anything. 5) “Don’t use this computer, Euan.” said Grant. Grant
_________ the computer. 6) “Can you open the box for me, Zena.” asked Paul.
Paul _________ the box for him. 7) “I won’t forget the tickets.” said Mel Mel
__________ the tickets. 8) “I’m going to read ten books in one week.” said Brian.
Brian ________ in one week. 9) “Would you like to stay at my house, Aziza.” said
Helen. Helen _________ at her house. 10) “I’ll probably see my sister at the
weekend.” said Michael. Michael _______ his sister at the weekend.
Ex. 2. Translate into Russian. Find the Complex Object and the Complex
Subject.
1) Ms. Popova is known to be a good translator. 2) The teacher has made us
rewrite the exercise. 3) He is said to have spent a number of years studying the
history of English literature. 4) She wants her children to get a good education. 5)
She is considered to be one of the best specialists in her field. 6) The teacher is
expected to help the students with the translation of the difficult places of the text.
7) She is. aid to be a good interpreter. 8) They are believed to be good friends. 9)
I'm supposed to speak English with my customers. 10) The teacher wants us to
discuss the new book he spoke about in his lecture.

Ex. 3. Match the beginnings and endings of these sentences.

1. The officials demanded __e__ a. people to forget my birthday.


2. My maths teacher made _____ b. me to check my email.
3. I’d hate _____ c. the children watch a video.
4. My music teacher pretended _____ d. M\me take the exam.
5. I let ______ e. to see my papers.
6. My boss reminded _____ f. not to see me at the disco.

Ex. 4. Fill each blank, choosing between infinitives with or without to:

1.Lenny's father let him_the family car (drive). 2. Do you want me that
shop's address for you (copy)? 3. Let's tell the taxi driver for us here (wait).
4. The teacher has just asked me this story aloud (read). 5. Will this nasty
weather make you_____your plans (change)? 6. We'd better _____ about it
(forget). 7. Perhaps we should request the professor ____a bit louder (speak).
8. The policeman finally forced the man _____ (stop). 9. I heard the door
and saw a shadow across the floor (open, move). 10. It is easy ____ wise
after the event (be).

Ex. 5. Point out the Complex Object or the Complex Subject with the
Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1._________The pills my doctor has given me make me feel rather odd.


2._________I had seen my father leave the house that very morning.
3._________My mother was sure that fresh air and exercise would make us
sleep well.
4._________Just as he was falling into unconsciousness he heard his door
open and quickly shut.
5._________ We didn’t expect him to come back so soon and were wondering
what had happened.
6._________Professor Lee was expected to join the expedition in North
Africa, but he had fallen ill.
7._________He was heard to say that it would rain and ordered the door to the
balcony to be shut.
8._________I looked at the house with suspicious curiosity and it seemed to
be looking back at me.
9._________I thought it to be the signal to start.
10.________She felt somebody touch her by the hand.
11.________The boy was made to repeat his story twice.
12.________He is said to have been a sailor in his youth.
13.________The number to which I had been directed turned out to be a house
standing a little by itself, with its back to the river.
14.________I’d like it to be done as quietly as possible, without attracting
anybody’s attention.
15.________She didn’t seem to notice his unfriendly tone.

Ex. 6. Replace the group of words in italics by an infinitive or an infinitive


construction:
Patterns: a) He was the first man who arrived.
He was the first man to arrive.
b) // is said that she has a terrible temper. She is said to have a
terrible temper.
c) It is important that he should believe us. It is important for him to
believe us.
Примечание: Инфинитивная конструкция, представленная в пункте
«с», называется "the For-to-Infinitive Construction" (конструкция с
предлогом for).

1. She can't go to the party; she has nothing that she can wear. 2. It is
expected that he will make a statement tonight. 3. Is it likely that she will
finish her work before five? 4. They believe that he is wise. 5. It is better that
everyone should know the truth. 6. If she had a child after whom she could
look she would be more serious. 7. It is necessary that he should hear it from
you. 8. It was said that the killer was hiding in our district.

Ex. 7. Translate into Russian:

1) Говорят, что вы заканчиваете работу в шесть часов вечера. 2) Мы


хотим, чтобы новый учитель по английскому языку помог нам. 3)
Необходимо, чтобы он понял всю важность этого решения. 4) Его
заставили подписать бумаги, признающие его вину (admitting his guilt).
5) Что ты хочешь, чтобы я ему сказал. 6) Известно, что сейчас они живут
в Санкт-Петербурге. 7) Пожалуйста, сообщите нам о дне вашего
приезда. 8) Ожидали, что он приедет через несколько дней. 9) Я слышал,
как инженер объяснял рабочим, как пользоваться новым оборудованием.
10) Говорят, что этот дворец строился три года. 11) Он считается
одним из наиболее способных студентов на курсе.

2. Герундий (The Gerund)


Герундий также является неличной формой глагола. Он образуется от
основы инфинитива при помощи суффикса -ing и близок по значению к
отглагольному имени существительному. Аналогичной формы в
русском языке нет.

Формы герундия
Действительный Страдательный
Indefinite Gerund
Teaching dogs to They insisted on
seekfor drugs requires being taught customs
patience. regulations.
Обучение собак Они настаивали на
поискам наркотиков том, чтобы их
требует терпения. обучили
таможенным
правилам.

Perfect Gerund

I remember her I remember her


having taught having been taught
Business English. Я Business English.
помню, что она Я помню, что ее
преподавала обучали деловому
деловой английский. английскому.
Двойственный характер герундия
Герундий совмещает в себе свойства глагола и
существительного.

Свойства Свойства
существительного глагола
Герундий может Герундий может:
быть: а) иметь
1. Подлежащим прямое
Advertising has its дополнение:
advantages and disad- Не enjoys teasing
vantages. you.
Рекламное дело имеет Ему нравится
свои недостатки и дразнить вас.
преимущества. б)
2. Именной определяться
частью сказуемого наречием
Seeing is believing. Walking quickly is
Видеть значит верить. rather difficult.
3. Дополнением Ходить быстро
1 don't enjoy going to довольно трудно.
the dentist. Я не люблю в) выражать
ходить к дантисту. формы времени
и залога
I heard of his
having been
appointed Mana-
ging Director of the
company. Я
слышал о том, что
его назначили
директором-
распорядителем
компании.
Nobody likes being
mocked at.
Никто не любит,
когда над ним
насмехаются.

Перед герундием может стоять:


1. Предлог
After reading this article you will give up smoking. Прочитав эту статью,
ты бросишь курить.
2. Притяжательное местоимение
Would you mind my opening window? Вы не возражаете, если я открою
окно?
3. Существительное в притяжательном падеже
She objected to her husband's smoking at home.
Она возражала против того, чтобы муж курил дома.

Функции герундия в предложении

1. Подлежащее Going there will be a mistake. Идти туда будет ошибкой.


Часто употребляется после it is (of) no use, it is useless, it is no good, it is
worth while.
2. Часть составного глагольного Stop arguing and start working,
сказуемого Перестань спорить и начни
работать.
Употребляется после глаголов: to begin, to continue, to finish, to go on, to
start, to stop, etc.
3. Дополнение с предлогом Tom insisted on reading the letter.
Том настаивал на том, чтобы прочесть письмо.
Употребляется после глаголов с предлогами: to insist on, to object to, to
succeed in, to think of, а также после выражений: to be accused of, to be
fond of, to be proud of, to get used to, to look forward to, etc
4. Дополнение без предлога I hate borrowing money,
(прямое дополнение) Ненавижу занимать деньги.
Употребляется после глаголов: to dislike, to enjoy, to expect, to hate, to
like, to love, to mean, to mind, to want, to suggest, а также после
словосочетаний: can't bear, can't stand, would like, would mind, would
prefer, etc
5. Обстоятельство By reading English books you will improve
your knowledge of the language.Читая книги на английском языке, вы
улучшите свое знание языка.
Употребляется после предлогов: after, before, by, for, in, on (upon),
without

Exercises

Ex. 1. Use the Gerund instead of the verbs in brackets and fill in the
prepositions where necessary:

1. Would you mind ___ (to wait) for a moment. 2. We couldn’t prevent them
___ (to turn to) another bank. 3. I look forward ___ (to hear) from you soon.
4. We are interested ___ (to buy) from you a lot of goods. 5. She insists ___
(to see) you personally, sir. 6. ”Would you object ___ (to bring) that report,
Mrs. Adams?”

Ex. 2. Insert the correct form of the Gerund:


1. He hired a room without (to mention) his own name. 2. I felt guilty of (to
come) to the party without (to invite). 3. She caught sight of David (to walk)
along the footpath. 4. I hate (to call) by my surname. 5. Once again he
experienced the sensation of (to deceive). 6. He informed me about (to
recognize) the handwriting in the note. 7. We were not aware of his always (to
break) his promise.

Ex.3. Make each pair of sentences into one sentence, using the word given +
-ing.

1. Use the kitchen. Clear the table. (after). Clear the table after using the table.
2. Read the instruction. Post the parcel. (before) ___________ . 3. Ask the
price, Book seats for the concert. (Before)._____________. 4. Pass your
exam. Take a holiday. (after). ________________ .

Ex. 4. Fill in the gaps in this mobile phone conversation. Use before, after,
when, while or since.

Tom: Hello?
Kai: Tom, I know it’s late, but I need to tell you something.
Tom: It’s OK. I’m not home yet. I’m back at the taxi office.
Kai: But I thought you got a taxi immediately _____ leaving the club.
Tom: I did. But _____ getting into the taxi, I haven’t been able to find my
wallet. I can’t pay the taxi driver.
Kai: I know where your wallet is. But it’s empty.
Tom: What?
Kai: Well, I left the club soon after you, and _____ waiting for my bus, I
noticed a wallet on the pavement. I looked round _____ picking it up, but
there wasn’t anyone near. _____ looking in for a name or address, I thought
about taking it to the police station. But then I noticed the initials on it and
guessed it might be yours. Someone probably dropped the wallet _____
taking the money.
Tom: Oh no. I guess I was robbed _____ leaving the club. Can you come to
the taxi office and explain?
Kai: Yeah, I suppose someone’s got to rescue you. But next time, check your
wallet _____ taking a taxi, OK?

Ex. 5. Complete this email with words or phrases from the box:
After eating, before going, being, by emailing, for texting, shopping, since
starting, studying, swimming, without dieting.

Dear Parissa
How are you? I’m fine now the school holiday has started.
__Being__ at home is great because _______ is horrible when the weather is
hot. Could me meet some time soon? We can go ________ and have lunch
together. And then, _______ we can see a film or something. Perhaps you’d
like to come ________ with me at the new pool. I go there almost every
day._______ to that pool, I didn’t really like swimming, but it’s really great,
with slides and waves and so on. And the really good news is I’ve lost two
kilos _____ to swim regularly. And I’ve done it _______!
Let me know which day is best for you _______ me. Or you can text me. I’ve
got a new mobile and I can use it _____.
I look forward to getting your email. Love Abby.

Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps in this conversation with the correct form (Gerund or
Infinitive) in the brackets. Translate into Russian:

Mum: Hi Ben, you’re home early. I didn’t expect __ to see__ (to see) you
before midnight, Are you hungry?
Ben: No, you carry on ___eating__ (to eat) . I don’t feel hungry.
Mum: What’s the matter?
Ben: Oh, I planned ____ (to go) in the city centre with Maria, but she didn’t
manage _____ (to get) to the station in time. I didn’t feel like _____ (to go)
alone, so I decided ____ (to come) home. I’m going to give up ____ (to see)
her.
Mum: I suggest ____ (to talk) to her. She seems ____ (to be) a nice girl.
Ben: I don’t mind ____(to wait) for a good reason, but she never even phones.
Mum: You’ll miss ____ (to spend) time with her if you break up.
Ben: Perhaps. But I don’t like ___ (to waste) my evenings.

Ex. 7. Translate into English using the Gerund:

1. Я не буду возражать против того, что его послали в Москву. 2. Он с


нетерпением ждал приезда в наш город этого знаменитого певца. 3. Она
была удивлена, что он рассказал всем об этом. 4. Он понимал, что вёл
себя неправильно. 5. Когда ты собираешься бросить курить? 6. Он
гордиться тем, что его сын получает только отличные отметки. 7. Он
помнил, что выключил свет, когда уходил из дома.

Ex. 8. Put the verbs in the brackets into the correct form (gerund or
infinitive). Translate into Russian.

1. By (to offer) enormous wages Aderson is persuading men (to leave) their
present jobs (to work) for him. 2. I am against (to make) any complaints.
3. After (to discuss) the mater for an hour the Board adjourned without (to
reach) any decision. 4. If you put your money into that business you risk (to
lose) every ruble. 5. I didn’t feel like (work). What about (to go) to a concert
instead? 6. After (to leave) the conditions he decided (not to enter) for the
competition. 7. He was accused of (to leak) secret information to the press. 8.
After (to talk) for ten minutes he succeeded in (convince) the management
that there was no danger in his project. 9. He insisted on (to blackmail). 10.
It’s no use (to try) (to interrupt) him. You’ll have (to wait) till he stops (to
talk).

Ex. 9. Translate into English using gerunds or infinitives:

1) Предлагаю провести следующее собрание через месяц. 2) Работая


днями и ночами, он сумел закончить статью вовремя. 3) Лежать на
пляже в такую погоду гораздо приятнее, чем сидеть в офисе. 4)
Бесполезно пытаться убедить его согласиться с вашем предложением. 5)
Она подумывает о том, чтобы сменить работу. 6) Ник ненавидит
говорить по телефону и очень часто просто не берет трубку. 7) Мы все с
нетерпением ждем вашей новой книги. 8) Не могли бы вы расписаться
на этом чеке? 9) Вам лучше проконсультироваться у своего адвоката,
прежде чем вы решите приобрести эту недвижимость. 10) Полиция
обвинила его в том, что он устроил пожар (to set a fire) на территории
таможенного склада, однако обвиняемый настаивал, что его не было там
в ночь пожара.

3. Причастие (The Participle)

Причастие — это неличная форма глагола, которая соответствует в


русском языке причастию и деепричастию. По форме причастие
(Participle I) совпадает с герундием (см.§ 3.2). Причастие II (Participle II)
имеет окончание -ed у правильных глаголов и является особой формой у
неправильных глаголов.
Participle I
1 see a falling star. Я вижу падающую звезду.
I saw him reading a paper. Я видел, что он читает газету.

Participle II
Letters written by my sister are difficult to read.
Письма, Написанные моей сестрой, трудно читать.

Participle I Perfect
(Participle I Perfect образуется с помощью глагола have + + Participle 11
основного глагола)
Having read the paper, he threw it away. Прочитав газету, он выбросил ее.

Функции причастия в предложении


1. Определение The smiling child
а) перед looked pretty.
определяемым Улыбающийся
словом ребенок выглядел
б) после чудесно.
определяемого A new car costs more
слова (с зави- than a used car.
симыми словами) Новая машина стоит
больше, чем по-
держанная.
Accused more than
10 years is not worth
buying.
Машину, которую
использовали более
десяти лет, не стоит
покупать.
2. Обстоятельство She sat in the
а) образа annchair studying the
действия и map. Она сидела в
сопутствущих кресле, изучая карту
обстоятельств (и изучала карту).
б) причины Not having
в) времени understood the
instruction, the
passenger asked the
customs officer to
explain it to him
He поняв
инструкции,
пассажир попросил
таможенника
разъяснить ее.
Having arrived at the
airport, he went to the
registration desk.
Прибыв в аэропорт,
он прошел к
регистрационной
стойке.

Объектный причастный оборот


(The Objective with the Participle Construction)

Объектным причастным оборотом называется конструкция:

Существит Глаг Существ


в общем сказ в общем Partic
или в или Partic
в ном в iple
Объектный причастный оборот употребляется:

1 .Спричастием I heard her playing


настоящего времени the guitar.
(Participle 1) в Я слышал, как она
основном после гла-
2.Спричастием играет
I heard на
myгитаре.
name
прошедшего pronounced by
времени (Participle somebody. Я
II) услышал, как кто-то
а) после произносит мое имя.
глаголов, 1 want ttte' work
выражающих done before 1 leave.
восприятие Я хочу, чтобы
посредством работа была сделана
органов чувств до
б) после того, как я уйду.
глаголов со She had her hair cut
значением желания and waved. Ей
в) после постригли и завили
глагола "to have" волосы.
конструкция
обозначает, что
действие
производится
не подлежащим
предложения, а
другим лицом

Примечание. В этом обороте вопросительная и отрицательная формы


глагола to have в Present u Past Simple образуются при помощи
вспомогательного глагола to do: Do you have your shoes mended in that
shop? Don’t have my shoes mended in that shop. Did he have his hair cut
yesterday? He didn’t have his hair cut yesterday.
Независимый причастный оборот
(The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction)

Независимым причастным оборотом называется конструкция:

Сущес Действие, По Сказу- Второсте-


в причастием и жа емое пенные
или к стоящему члены hпред-
в существител ложения
падеже местоимени
ю (а не к
под-
лежащему
предложения
)

Соответствует русскому деепричастному обороту или придаточному


предложению.
Если оборот стоит в начале предложения, то он переводится на русский
язык придаточным предложением условия, причины, времени и
вводится союзами так как; поскольку; когда; после того как.

The job being done we went home.


После была мы пошли домой
того закончена. .
как
работа
Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, то он
обычно выражает сопутствующие обстоятельства и переводится на
русский язык самостоятельным предложением, вводимым словами:
причем, при этом, в то время как.

Wc had three lectures yesterday, the last being on literat


У было вчера три лекции, причем последняя была по
нас литературе.
Exercises

Ex.1. Complete the sentences using the Participle I or the Participle II:

1.______________________________(to drown) That brave man once saved


a ___ girl.
2.________________(to interest) She is ____ in stories about great people.
3._______________________(to fly) Have you ever seen a ___dog?
4._________________(to wash) The boy __ the car around the corner is
my
brother-in-law.
5. (to travel) Anyone ____ to a foreign country needs special
papers.
6.___________________________(to please) I am sure your teacher is
____with your English.
7.__(to cry) We couldn't sleep the whole night because there was a baby
in ___ the next room.
8.____________________(to spill) Don't cry over ____ milk.

Ex. 2. State the form and the function of the Participial. Translate into
Russian.

1.____________________The article on agriculture published in this


magazine was written by Mr. Fair.
2.____________________While examining the cases discharged from the
ship, he noticed that some of them were broken.
3.____________________Signing the letter the manager gave it to the
secretary asking her to send it off at once.
4.____________________Seeing her he raised his hat.
5.____________________The boy playing in the garden is my sister’s son.
6.____________________You cab get the book recommended by our teacher
in the library.
7.____________________He asked her to go on with her story, promising
not to interrupt her again.
8.____________________He left the office at three o’clock, saying he would
be back at five.
9.____________________The textile goods produced by the factory are in
great demand.
10.___________________Not receiving any letters from her father, she sent
him a telegram.

Ex. 3. Change each sentence using the Participle:


1.____________________While we crossing the bridge, we saw Mr. Davis,
who was talking with an old man.
2.____________________As we were very tired, we refused to go for a walk.
3.____________________A large branch, which had been broken by the
wind, lay across the road.
4.____________________I’ll show you the article which the has been written
by my brother.
5.____________________As he thought that it would rain, he put on a
raincoat.
6.____________________When he saw me, he came up and shook my hand.
7.____________________Yesterday the secretary sent off all the letters which
had been signed by the director.
8.____________________While I was going to the Institute, I met one of my
old friends.
9.____________________As he was very absent-minded, he made some
mistakes in the dictation.
10.___________________The ship which was chartered for the transportation
of wheat will arrive tomorrow.

Ex. 4. Insert the Participle I or II:

1.____________________There was one bright star ______ in the sky. (to


shine).
2.____________________With _______ eyes he leaned back on the bench.(to
close)
3.____________________We walked down the hall and down the wide
thickly _____ stairs.(to carpet)
4.____________________ She remained silent but her silence was like a
question ______ in the dark between them. (to hang)
5.____________________He took a ______ strip paper from his vest and
gave it to the reporter. (to fold)
6.____________________They came to the quiet little station _____ by a
single bulb, almost______ in a mass of different trees.(to light, to hide)
7.____________________A tall, thin man with a sharp pointed face sat at a
table _______ for dinner. (to lay)
8.____________________The voice had something ______ in it. (to appeal)
9.____________________On the next afternoon she went out to her sister
again in a ______ car. (to hire)
10.___________________There was a balcony along the second floor ______
by the columns. (to hold up)

Ex. 5. Point out the Complex Object with the Second Participle. Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1.____________________He had his luggage sent to the station.
2.____________________How often do you have your carpets cleaned?
3.____________________Have you got your watch repaired?
4.____________________I want it done as soon as possible.
5.____________________We decided to have our photos taken after the final
exam.
6.____________________Get the rooms dusted and aired by the time they
arrive.
7.____________________ I haven’t had my nails polished yet.
8.____________________I’m having a new dress made.
9.____________________He thought it necessary to have the ceiling of the
room whitewashed.
10.___________________They found the door locked.
11.___________________Mrs. Derek watched the table cleared and the
broken bread collected.
12.___________________He heard his name called from behind.

Ex. 6. Translate into English, using the verb to have or to get followed by the
Objective Participial Construction.

1.____________________Я переделала своё зимнее пальто.


2.____________________Когда вы, наконец, настроите свой рояль? Он
совсем расстроен (to be out of tune).
3.____________________Я не починил вчера часы, так как мастерские
были закрыты.
4.____________________Когда вы оклеили комнату?
5.____________________Вам уже побелили потолок?
6.____________________Где вы снимались?
7.____________________Вам следует переплести свои книги.
8.____________________Где вы делали себе это платье?
9.____________________Я выкрасила своё платье, и теперь оно совсем
как новое (выглядит совсем новым).
10.___________________Где вы починили велосипед?

Ex. 7. Translate into Russian. Find sentences with the Nominative Absolute
Participial Construction:

1) Having returned from his business trip, Mr. Davis began preparing a report
to be submitted to the Board of Directors. 2) Mr. Davis having returned to
London, some of his colleagues came to see him on the same day. 3) They
spent the whole evening together, Mr. Davis telling them about the results of
his business trip. 4) He was asked a great many questions, some of them
requiring a long explanation. 5) Having been away from London for a long
time, Mr. Davis wanted, in his turn, to know about the progress in the work
being carried on in the R&D Department. 6) One of his colleagues being at
the head of the Department, Mr. Davis wanted him to describe the results
obtained while he was away. 7) The first part of the work having been
completed, the results were published in the form of an article. 8) Having
been shown the article, Mr. Davis asked the author to
let him have it for a couple of days. 9) The article being well written, Mr.
Davis read it with pleasure.
10. The magazine contained a number of interesting publications,
one of them being on the subject of Mr. Davis's research.

REVISION EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Use the appropriate form of the Gerund and insert prepositions where
necessary:

1. Newton, the famous scientist, was sometimes engages (to work) difficult
problems. 2. Of course, I should insist (to pay) for my work. 3. I wonder if
there’s any use (to try) to improve him. 4. She insists (to go) there at once.
5. We all suspect him (to learn) it before and (to try) to conceal it from us.
6. But (to make) this request Mr. Dennett avoided (to look) in his face. 7. He
hesitated a little (to open) the door. 8. (to hear) the news she ran over to the
telephone to inform Gerald at once. 9. Excuse me (to come) late. 10. (to see)
three little children dancing in the street to their own music he came up nearer
to see them better.

Ex. 2. Use the appropriate form of the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in
brackets. Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition:

1.Yalta is a nice town (to live). 2. He was so young, so gay he laughed so


merrily at other people’s jokes that no one couldn’t help (like) him. 3. The
British Museum is much too big (to see) in an hour or so. 4. He was on the
point (to quarrel) with her. 5. Would you mind (to wait) a moment in the hall?
6. He was accused (to enter the country illegally. 7. It made our mouths water
(to hear) him talk about such tasty things. 8. He left without (to pay) the bill.
9. It’s silly of me, but I can’t help (to feel) anxious. 10. He’s a talented
engineer, and he ‘s supposed (to work) at a new invention.

Ex. 3. Use the Infinitive or the First Participle of the verbs in brackets to for a
Complex Object:

1. A moment later they heard her bedroom door (to shut) with a bang. 2. I’ve
never heard your canary (to sing). Is there anything the matter with the bird?
3. During that moment Miss Proud told a lie, and made Rick (to believe) it
was the truth. 4. Together they watched the old oak (to drop) its leaves. 5.
Would you like me (to make) you lunch, or have you had some? 6. He felt the
water (to reach) his knees. 7. We saw him (to open 0 the envelope and (to
read) something hastily. 8. They had their own pattern of life and expect me
(to fit) in. 9. He found them (to sit) together and (to talk) peacefully.
10. The captain said something which made them (to laugh), he did not hear
what it was.

Ex. 4. Translate into English, using the Infinitive, the Gerund or the
Participle:

1) Дети были счастливы, что их взяли в цирк. 2) Ты предпочитаешь


готовить сама или обедать в ресторане? 3) Всем понравилась мысль
отпраздновать день рождения Джона за городом. 4) Не может быть,
чтобы он всё ещё сидел в читальном зале. 5) Мы видели, что по дорожке
сада идёт сын нашего соседа. 6) Я видел, как вы садились на пароход (to
come on board). 7) Она продолжала развлекать гостей, как будто ничего
не случилось. 8) После этой неприятной сцены она избегала, чтобы её
видели в обществе. 9) Мне хотелось бы, чтобы вы перечитали этот текст.
10) Я думаю принять участие в первенстве института по шахматам.

МОДАЛЬНЫЕ ГЛАГОЛЫ (Modal Verbs)


Модальные глаголы — это глаголы, обозначающие не действие, а
отношение говорящего к нему (способность, возможность или
необходимость совершения действия). Модальные глаголы сап, may,
must употребляются только в сочетании с инфинитивом без частицы to.

1. Глагол can (could) и его эквивалент to be able to («мочь», «быть в


состоянии»)

Физи can When he was five years


ческа (could old he could read quite
я или )+ well.
умств Infinit В пятилетнем возрасте
енная ive он мог довольно
спо- to be хорошо читать.
собно able to Will you be able to see
сть, + me tomorrow?
уме- Infinit Ты сможешь
ние ive встретиться со мной
завтра?
Прось can + Can 1 take this book?
ба, Infinit — Yes, you can. Могу
разре- ive я взять эту книгу? —
шени
Пред could
can Да, можете.
It can rain today. Don't
поло (could forget to take the
же- )+ umbrella.
ние, Infinit Вполне вероятно, что
основ ive сегодня будет дождь.
анное Не забудь взять зонт.
на
Пред can + Can this be true?
поло Infinit Неужели это правда?
жение ive
2. Глагол may (might) и его эквивалент to be allowed to («иметь
разрешение»)

Прос may + — May I take this


ьба, Infinit book?
разр ive — Yes, you may.
е- to be — Можно взять
шени allowe эту книгу?
е d+ — Да, можно.
Infinit I am allowed to take
ive this book.
Я могу (мне
разрешают) взять эту
книгу.

Пред may It may rain today. Don't


поло (might forget to take the
жени )+ umbrella.
е с Infinit Возможно (может
сомн ive быть), сегодня будет
ение дождь. Не забудь
м, взять зонт.
неуве
ренн
ость

3. Глагол must и его эквиваленты to have to, to be to («быть должным,


вынужденным»)
Должест mu I must do it
вование: st immediately.
а) в to Я должен сделать это
силу hav немедленно
опреде- e to 1 have to do it
ленных to immediately.
обстоя- be Мне придется сделать
тельств to это немедленно.
б)
Приказа mu You
You are to pay
mustn't the
smoke
ние, st here. Вы не должны
запре- курить здесь.
щение
Предпол mu Не must have
ожение st understood nothing
Примечание. Модальный глагол have to
образует отрицательную и вопросительную
формы с помощью глагола do: Does he have to
get up early? Ему приходится вставать рано?
На вопрос: При отрицательном
— May I read — No, you
it? mustn't.
Можно мне Нет, нельзя.
- Need 1 read it При утвердительном
now? Должен ли — Yes, you must. Да,
я прочитать это должны
сейчас?

Exercises

Ex. 1. Make the sentences negative and interrogative. Give short answers:

1. She can speak English. 2. The students may smoke here. 3.They must be
here today. 4. He must come to work in time. 5. Farmers have to get up early.
6. He could dance all night two years ago. 7. She will be able to type it
tomorrow. 8. We had to leave home at eight every morning last year. 9. I am
allowed to use my chief’s office today. 10. You are to be at the meeting at ten
o’clock.

Ex.2. Make sentences from the words given below. Think about the tense of
the verb to have to:

1. Next / buy / a / year / I / computer / new.


2. Because / to use / the / club / I’m / not / pay a / member / I / health.
3. He / at / home / stay / can. Not / with / come / us / he.
4. You / mine / because / boots / borrow / any / bring / football/ you / not.
5. Long / wait / you / how / for / last / the / night / bus?
6. Not / this / because / room / we / it’s / clean / dirty/ not.
7. Simon / when / Saturday / he / every / was / train / in / team / the / school.
8. Now / up / we / wash?
9. Week / the / mother / away/ meals / our / cook / because / last / was.
10. She / go / yet / misses / bus / the / home / because.

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences by inserting must or the present, future, or past
form of the verb to have to:

1) I fell ill and _____ leave early. 2) When she changed her job she _____
move to another city. 3) A mother to a small son: “You _____ do what Daddy
says. 4) I _____ get a taxi because all buses were overcrowded. 5) You _____
see the performance. It’s really excellent. 6) My cousin _____ cook his meals
himself. His wife is away. 7) If you go to a doctor with a private practice you
_____ pay him quite a lot. 8) A park notice: All dogs _____ be kept on leads.
9) We _____ be late because we don’t want to miss the beginning of the film.
10) The students ______ eat in the library.

Ex. 4. Choose between can / can’t, could / couldn’t or to be able to in the


appropriate tense form:

1) At the end of the week the Post Office will send her an enormous telephone
bill which she______ pay. 2) We didn’t speak the language so we _______
understand what the woman said. 3) ______ I speak to Mr. Smith, please? –
I’m afraid he’s not available at the moment. ______ you phone back later?
4) When I was a teenager I walked everywhere because I ______ drive. 5)
She knew the city well so she ______ advise him where to go. 6) My sister
likes to sit close to the stage so she ______ see the actors’ faces clearly. 7)
You ______ sing much better than that when you were younger. 8) When the
rain stops we _____ look for your doll. 9) ______ you open this window? I’ve
tried, but it’s too heavy. 10) She looked everywhere for the ring but she
______ find it.

Ex.5. Choose between may or might:

1) I’ll wait a little so that she _____ have time to think it over. 2) It _____
rain, you’d better stay at home. 3) _____ I see your luggage, please? 4) She
said that we ______ use her car whenever we like. 5) If we came earlier we
_____ get good tickets. 6) You _____ have answered my letter. I’m
disappointed that you didn’t. 7) _____ I sit down? –Please do. 8) I _____
never see you again. 9) You at least answered his letter. I consider you
should. 10) He said that they _____ get very angry.

Ex. 6. Choose between must not or need not:

1) You ______ drive faster, we have plenty of time. 2) A mother to her child:
You ______ open the door when I am out. 3) You ______ ask a lady her age,
it isn’t polite. 4) A church notice: Visitors ______ talk during a service. 5)
We ______ send for a doctor . The baby is much better. 6) “Have you got
some cash? –No, I ______ take cash because I’ve got my credit card” 7) You
_____ buy milk, we have a lot in the fridge. 8) We _____ take plenty of food
as there are many restaurants. 9) You _____ bring a hair-dryer because you
can use mine. 10) “In the mountains the sun is very strong, take some
sunscream. – Yes, you’re right but at least I ______ carry my raincoat.

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences with have to or should. Use the one you think
is best. Remember! We use have to say something is necessary. We use
should to say something is a good idea.

1) You’re driving too fast. A police officer wants you to stop. You _______
stop. 2) It’s your grandmother’s birthday. She lives in the same city as you.
You _______ visit her. 3) You _______ pay your bills on time. 4) You
_______ eat healthy foods, not fast food. 5) Your best friend has a serious
problem. You _______ try to help. 6) Your neighbor’s house is on fire. You
_______ call the fire department. 7) You _______ be kind to animals. 8) You
_______ try to do a good job. 9) You _______ be polite to your boss. 10) You
_______ try to sleep for at least six hours every night. 11) Children _______
listen to their parents. 12) Parents _______ listen to their children. 13) People
_______ take care of the environment. 14) Your brother lent you some money
last month. You _______ pay him back. 15) Your friend made a special
birthday cake for you. You _______ say thank you.

Ex. 7. Translate into English:

1) Не нужно звонить в дверь, у меня есть ключи. 2) Он очень плохо


видит, и ему приходится всё время носить очки. – Должно быть, это
неудобно. 3) Когда я впервые поехал в Англию, я умел читать по-
английски, но не умел разговаривать. 4) Ты бы смог прожить неделю без
пищи, если бы тебе пришлось? 5) Когда я приехал домой, все уже спали.
К счастью, я сумел разбудить сестру, и она открыла мне дверь. 6) Вчера
в библиотеке я видел Анну. – Ты не мог её видеть. Она всё ещё за
границей. 7) Неужели этот прибор всё ещё можно использовать? 8) Я не
смогла до него дозвониться. – Ты бы могла, по крайней мере, послать ей
телеграмму. 9) Возможно, я сегодня задержусь на работе.
№ 5. ПРЯМАЯ И КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ
(Direct and Indirect Speech)

Косвенная речь представляет собой дополнительное придаточное


предложение, содержанием которого являются слова прямой речи.
Основными глаголами, вводящими косвенную речь, являются
следующие:
to add - добавлять; to remark - замечать;
to announce - объявлять; to remind - напоминать;
to answer - отвечать; to reply - отвечать;
to ask - спрашивать, просить; to think - думать, считать;
to inform - сообщать; to say - сказать, говорить;
to inquire - запрашивать; to state - утверждать;
to know - знать; to tell - сказать, говорить;
to order - приказывать, сообщать

При переводе из прямой речи в косвенную в предложении происходит


ряд изменений.

1. Повествовательное предложение
а) Перед косвенной речью, образованной из повествовательного
предложения прямой речи, ставится союз that (который часто опускается
после глаголов say и tell). После таких глаголов, как to answer, to
remark, to remind, to state и т. п. союз that обязателен.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь


She says, “Nick will come at 5 o’clock.”
Она говорит: «Ник придёт в пять часов» She says 9 that) Nick
will come at 5 o’clock.
Она говорит, что Ник
придёт в пять часов.
б) Личные и притяжательные местоимения заменяются по смыслу.
My friend says, “ I will return your book to you.” My friend says (that) he
will return my book to me.
Мой друг говорит: «Я верну твою книгу тебе.» Мой друг говорит, что он
вернёт мне мою книгу.

в) Если прямая речь вводится глаголом to say и лицо, к которому


обращена прямая речь, не указано, глагол to say остаётся без изменений
при переводе прямой речи в косвенную.

He says, “I am a teacher.” He says (that) he is a teacher.


Он говорит: «Я работаю учителем.» Он говорит, что работает учителем.

г) Если после глагола to say стоит дополнение, обозначающее лицо, к


которому обращена речь прямая речь, в косвенной речи глагол to say
заменяется глаголом to tell.

She says to her mother,” I am hungry.” She tells her mother (that) she is
hungry.
Она говорит своей матери: «Я голодна.» Она говорит своей матери,
что она голодна.

2. Вопросительное предложение

а) Специальный вопрос

Если вопрос в прямой речи является специальным, то есть содержит


вопросительное слово, то в косвенной речи сохраняется то же
вопросительное слово, которое вводит специальный вопрос в прямой
речи. При этом в косвенной речи соблюдается прямой порядок слов, т.
Е. порядок слов утвердительного предложения.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь

He asks me, “Where are you going?” He asks me where I am going.


Он спрашивает меня: «Куда вы идёте?» Он спрашивает меня, куда я иду.

She asks him, “What language do you study?” She asks him what
language he studies.
Она спрашивает его: «Какой язык ты изучаешь?» Она спрашивает его,
какой язык он изучает.

They ask her, “Why have you done it?” They ask her why she has
done it.
Они спрашивают её: «Почему ты это сделала?» Они спрашивают её,
почему она это сделала.

We ask them, “When will you come to see us?” We ask them when they
will come to see us.
Мы спрашиваем их: «Когда вы придёте к нам?» Мы спрашиваем их,
когда они придут к нам.

б) Общий вопрос
Если вопрос в прямой речи является общим (т. е. требует ответа «да»
или «нет», то для присоединения косвенного вопроса к главному
предложению вводятся союзы if или whether, которые переводятся на
русский язык частицей ли.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь

She asks him, “Do you play the piano?” She asks him if (whether)
he plays the piano.
Она спрашивает его: «Вы играете на пианино?» Она спрашивает его,
играет ли он на пианино.

She asks him, “Can you play the piano?” She asks him if (whether)
he can play the piano.
Она спрашивает его: «Вы умеете играть на пианино?» Она спрашивает
его, умеет ли он играть на пианино.

She asks him, “Have you finished your test?” She asks him if (whether) he
has finished his test.
Она спрашивает его: «Вы закончили свой тест?» Она спрашивает его,
закончил ли он свой тест.

3. Повелительное предложение

В косвенной речи вместо глагола в повелительном наклонении


используется инфинитив этого глагола. Глагол to say заменяется
глаголами to ask, to order, to tell и т. д.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь

She said, “Close the window.” She asks to close the window.
Она сказала: «Закройте окно.» Она попросила закрыть окно.

She said to me, “Close the window.” She told me to close the window.
Она сказала мне: «Закрой окно.» Она попросила меня закрыть окно.

Отрицательная форма повелительного наклонения заменяется


инфинитивом, перед которым ставится отрицание not.

Прямая речь Косвенная речь

She said to them, “Don’t smoke.” She told them not to smoke.
Она сказала им: «Не курите.» Она сказала им, чтобы они не курили.
№. СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЁН
(The Sequence of Tenses)

При переводе прямой речи в косвенную необходимо соблюдать правила


согласования времён, если глагол главного предложения стоит в
прошедшем времени.
При наличии глагола в прошедшем времени в главном предложении, в
косвенной речи формы глагола изменяются следующим образом:

Прямая речь Косвенная речь


Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Past
Present Continuous Continuous She said
She said: "I like this (that) she liked that
picture". Она picture". Она сказала,
сказала: "Мне что ей нравится эта
нравится эта картина"
картина"
Present Perfect Past Не
Pastsaid (that) his
Perfect
Indefinite John said (that) he
John said: "I've just had just returned
returned from Mos- from Moscow".
cow". Джон сказал, что он
Джон сказал: "Я только что вернулся
только что вернулся из Москвы.
из Москвы". She said she had sent
She said: "1 sent him him a telegram the
a telegram yester- day before.
day". Она сказала, что
Она сказала: "Я отправила ему
отправила ему телеграмму
телеграмму вчера". накануне.
Future Indefinite l'uture-in-the Past
She said, "Nick will She said (that) Nick
come at 5 o'clock." would come at 5
Она сказала: «Ник o'clock.
придет в пять ча- Она сказала, что Ник
сов». придет в пять часов.
Примечание. Некоторые слова прямой речи изменяются в косвенной
речи, а именно: yesterday — the day before, tomorrow — the day after, here
— there, this — that, ago — before.

Правило согласования времен касается всех случаев, когда сказуемое


главного предложения стоит в одном из прошедших времен. При этом в
придаточном дополнительном предложении происходит сдвиг времен, в
соответствии с которым сказуемое придаточного предложения также
употребляется в одном из прошедших времен:

Present заменяется Past


Indefinite на Indefinite
Present Past
Continuou Continuous
s Present Past Perfect
Perfect
Past заменяется Past Perfect
Indefinite на
Past остается без изменений
Future заменяется Future
Indefinite на Indefinite in
the Past
(should/would
open)

Exercises
Ex. 1. Change the direct statements into indirect ones according to the
patterns:
Pattern 1: He said, "We have recently moved to a new flat".
He said that they had recently moved to a new flat.
Pattern 2: Tom said to his mother, "The steak is overdone again".
Tom told his mother that the steak was overdone again.

1) Mrs. Williams said to Mr. Davis, "I haven't bought a hat since the time we
went to the theatre on our tenth wedding anniversary". 2) Yesterday afternoon
Nick said, "I have a headache". 3) The policeman said, "There's been an
accident, and the road is blocked." 4) Fred said to me, "I've left some books
on your table. I think you'll find them useful." 5) The secretary said to Mr.
Williams, "I booked a double room on the first floor." 6) She said, "I'm
having a bath. I'll be ready in twenty minutes." 7) Dad said to me, "You must
leave a note for your mother, otherwise she'll be terribly worried when you're
not in at your usual time." 8) My brother said, "I know this raincoat belongs
to you, but I thought it would be all right if I borrowed it."

Ex. 2. Make up sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern: Have you ever been to the Canary Islands? (He wondered...) •
He wondered if I had ever been to the Canary Islands.
1. I don't know why the Bank is withdrawing the loan. (He didn't
understand...) 2. Is there any chance of reviving the BSM-3? (He wondered...)
3. Does the meeting begin at three or half past three? (He wasn't sure...) 4. Do
you know what time the meeting begins? (He wanted to know …) 5. Please
explain to me how the BSM-3 works. (James Healey asked to explain to him
…) 6. Have you seen Coleman recently? (he asked …) 7. Will the report be
ready soon? (He inquired …) 8. Did they decide to sell the BSm-3? (He
couldn’t remember …)

Ex. 3. Change the questions into indirect speech. Begin each your sentences
with / wonder / as in the pattern:
Pattern: Where is my book? I wonder where my book is?

1) When will the director be in his office? 2) What time is it now? 3) Where is
the airport? 4) How far is it from here? 5) Is there a good hotel here? 6) How
much did your new dress cost? 7) What do his words mean? 8) Who are these
people?

Ex. 4. Change these commands and requests into indirect speech according to
the patterns. If direct form include the word Please, use the verb to ask in the
indirect form. If there is no Please in the direct command, use the verb to tell:

Pattern 1: Mr. Davis said to his secretary, Please answer the telephone.”
Mr. Davis asked his secretary to answer the telephone.
Pattern 2: Mrs. Davis said to her little daughter, :Don’t cry.”
Mrs. Davis told her little daughter not to cry.

1) The secretary said to the client, “Could you please ring back in half an
hour?” 2) The dentist said to me, “Open your mouth.” 3) I said to the dentist,
“ Please don’t drill any more.” 5) Mrs. Farrell said to her cat, “Don’t make so
much noise.” 6) The policeman has just said to that young girl, “ Don’t drive
too fast.” 7) Nick said to his brother,» Wait for me.” 8) The teacher of English
said to the students, “Study as hard as you can.” 9) The students said to the
teacher, “Please explain the task again.” 10) Mrs. Down said to the clerk at
the office, “Please show me a little less expensive hat,” 11) Mr. Williams said
to the waiter, “Please don’t bring me my tea too soon.”

Ex. 5. Put the following into indirect speech according to the patterns:
Pattern 1: He said, “We must celebrate it.”
He said that they must celebrate it.
Pattern 2: She said, “You have to learn it by heart.”
She said that I had to learn it by heart.
1) She said to me, “You mustn’t come in without knocking.” 2) The customs
officer said, “This photo in your passport isn’t like you at all. You must have
another one taken.” 3) The teacher said, “After the lecture I have to rush
home.” 4) He said, “There must be someone in the house.” 5) She said, “If
what you say is true I must warn the police.” 6) The mother said to her little
son, “You mustn’t play with knives.” 7) He said, “I must be at the Academy
at seven a.m. tomorrow.” 8) The teacher said, “If you want to get results
you’ll have to work harder.”

Ex. 6. Put the following into direct speech with the appropriate changes. Mind
the punctuation:
I) I asked her if she enjoyed housekeeping and she said that she didn’t.2) My
employer hoped that I shouldn’t be offended if he told me that I would do
better in some other kind of job. 3) I asked if I could speak to Ann. 4) The
police officer told me to avoid Marble Arch because there was going to be a
big demonstration there. 5) She asked me to wait in the lounge till my flight
number was called. 6) The clerk in the booking office inquire if I wanted a
single or return ticket. 7) My friend asked what the weather had been like
during my holiday and I said that it had been beautiful. 8) He said that if I
didn’t like meat I could order a fish dish.

СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ (The Subjunctive Mood)


Сослагательное наклонение служит для выражения сомнения,
нереальности действия или события, а также желания, требования,
предложения или предположения.
Should (would) + Infinitive употребляется, когда речь идет о действии
или состоянии воображаемом, предполагаемом, реально не
существующем, однако возможном при определенных условиях. Данные
формы употребляются:

В простых То do this would be a


предложениях: mistake. Сделать это
В главной части было
If my бы ошибкой.
children spoke
условных to me that way, I
предложений: would be angry.
В придаточных It is important that
предложениях: you should
Should (would) + Perfect Infinitive
употребляется, когда речь идет о действии,
которое могло бы произойти в прошлом, но не
произошло:
В простых То do this would
предложениях: have been a mistake.
В главной части If you had sent him a
условных telegram he would
предложений: have met you.
В придаточных Если бы выthat
It is strange послали
he
предложениях: should have
behaved
like this.
Странно, что он вел
себя таким образом.

Особые формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются в условных


придаточных предложениях, в которых говорится о действиях
нереальных — проблематичных, воображаемых, предполагаемых. У
всех глаголов (кроме to be) эти формы совпадают с Past Indefinite, когда
предполагаемое действие относится к настоящему или будущему
времени, и с Past Perfect, когда предполагаемое действие относится к
прошедшему времени.
Глагол to be имеет единую для всех лиц единственного и
множественного числа форму were, когда высказывание относится к
настоящему или будущему времени, и форму had been — когда
высказывание относится к прошедшему времени:
If he were at home 1 would not worry.
Если бы он был дома (сейчас), я бы не волновалась.
If I had been wiser this would not have happened.
Если бы я была разумнее (тогда), этого не случилось бы.

1. Употребление сослагательного наклонения в сложноподчиненных


предложениях с придаточным нереального условия (Conditional
Sentences)
Придаточное Главное
1. Действие относится к настоящему или
If Mr. Kuznetsov we could begin.
were here мы могли бы начать
Если бы г-н (собрание, сове-
Кузнецов был здесь, щание и т.п.).
2. Действие относится к прошедшему
If she had sent him a he would have met
telegram yesterday, her.
2. Употребление сослагательного
наклонения в других типах придаточных
предложений
1. Придаточное Не speaks about it as
сравнения (после as if he had been there.
if...,
2. as though — как
Придаточное 1Он говорит
wish обspring
it were этом
дополнительное now.
(после глагола to Жаль, что сейчас не
wish... — я желал весна. (Как бы я
бы, я хотел бы)' хотел, чтобы сейчас
была весна).
Примечание:
1) Если в утвердительном предложении выражается сожаление о том,
чего нет, не происходит или не произошло, то употребляется Past
Perfect.
I wish I had gone to the theatre with you. Жаль, что я не пошел с вами в
театр.
2) Если в отрицательном — сожаление о том, что есть, происходит или
произошло, то употребляется Past Perfect.
I wish I hadn't gone to the theatre with you.
Жиль, что я пошел с вами в театр.
3) В придаточном предложении после глагола wish может употребляться
форма would + Infinitive.
I wish you would read this book.
Я хотел бы, чтобы ты прочел эту книгу.

3. Форма сослагательного наклонения should + Infinitive в


придаточных предложениях и риторических вопросах
Для выражения предположения, сомнения, опасения, высказывания
мнения, совета употребляется форма should + Infinitive в придаточном
предложении. Форма should + Perfect Infinitive употребляется, если
действие относится к сфере про шедшего времени.
Данное сочетание употребляется:
1.Если в главном It is essential
предложении имеются that this matter
выражения типа: it is should be
important that... — kept out of the
важно, чтобы; it is newspapers.
necessary that... — Важно, чтобы
необходимо, чтобы; it is это дело не
required that... — попало в
требуется, чтобы; it is газеты.
strange that... — It is strange that
странно, что he should think
so.
Странно, что он
так думает.
2. Если сказуемое Не ordered that
главного предложения Sam should
выражено глаголами leave the
типа: I demand that... — house at once.
я требую, чтобы; I insist Он потребовал,
that... — я настаиваю, чтобы Сэм
чтобы; I recommend немедленно
that... — я рекомендую, покинул дом.
чтобы She insisted that
her children
should go to the
best schools of
the city. Она
настаивала на
том, чтобы ее
дети учились в
лучших школах
города.

З.В простом Why should I go


вопросительном there? Зачем мне
предложении после why туда идти?
Why should I
have gone there?
И зачем я туда
ходил?

Exercises
Ex. 1. Open the brackets:
1. If I lend you $1,000 when you (repay) me? 2. She will be absolutely furious if
she (know) about it. 3. If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 4. If you wash my
car I (give) you $10. 5. If she (arrive) five minutes earlier she would have got a
ticket. 6. I (keep) a dog if I could afford it. 7. If he (come) late I won't open him. 8.
If you (speak) more slowly she might have understood you. 9. You could get a job
easily if you (have) a degree. 10. Unless you put on the kettle I (not be able) to
make the tea.

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences, using the correct forms of the verb:

1) If you leave the door open...2) If I had a car... 3) If she has any sense... 4) I
would have sent for the doctor if... 5) Try on the green dress if... 6) Unless the
weather improves... 7) If your mother saw you... 8) She might have passed the
exam if... 9) Your hair would look better if... 10) If they hadn't turned the
radio...

Ex. 3. Put questions to the following sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern: If it is sunny on Sunday we'll go to the country. But what'll we do if


it is rainy?

1) If they get a lift they won't be late. 2) If Moscow airport is clear of fog we'll
land there. 3) If I pass all my exams successfully I'll try to enter the university
this year. 4) Tell your parents the truth. I'm sure they'll believe you. 5) Your
parachute will open in five seconds. 6) If the baby is a boy we'll call him
Alexander.

Ex. 4. Change the sentences, using //-clauses according to the pattern:

Pattern: She is very shy, that's why she doesn't enjoy going out. If she were
not so shy she would enjoy going out.

1) Italian people speak very quickly. Perhaps that’s why I can’t understand
them. 2) I haven’t a map so I can’t direct you. 3) She doesn’t work overtime
so she doesn’t earn as much as I do. 4) You are very thin, perhaps that’s why
you feel the cold so much. 5) She smokes too much, perhaps that’s why she
can’t get rid of her cough. 6) I don’t know his telephone number so I can’t
ring him up.

Ex. 5. Choose between should or would in the spaces in the following


sentences:
1. I wish you ____ tell me what she said in her letter. 2. ___ you like some
more biscuits? – Yes, please, though I ____ (negative) eat them really as I’m
on the diet. 3. I suggested that they _____ have a shower and a hot breakfast.
4. The car ____(negative) move so we had to ring for a taxi. 5. If I were you I
____ tell them the truth. 6. It is essential that you ____ be able to see the
stage. 7. He proposed that ladies ____ be allowed to join the club. 8. I hope
he___ be pleased when he saw the lost dog. 9. Little children ___ (negative)
be left alone in a house. 10.____ you mind opening the door?

Ex. 6. Translate into English:

1) Мы бы были очень рады, если бы вы смогли прийти к нам завтра. 2) Я


бы остался дома, если бы я знал, что кто-нибудь принесёт мне все
необходимые книги. 3) Если ты успешно сдашь свой экзамен, мы
устроим праздник. 4) Я предложил, чтобы мы поехали отдыхать вместе.
5) Он сказал, что хотел бы, чтобы я не уходил из дома так часто. 6) На
твоём месте я бы не стал спорить с начальником. 7) Если бы я знал, что
вы в Москве (а я не знал), я зашёл бы к вам. 8) Они бы сами прочли эту
книгу, если бы знали английский язык достаточно хорошо. 9) Не могли
бы вы перестать курить; мне нехорошо. 10) Важно, чтобы он поверил
вам.
IV. TOPICAL VOCABULARY
1. retail organization организация (предприятие);
(enterprise) розничной торговли
2. shop магазин;
3. shopping area торговый центр;
4. shopping mall крытый торговый центр, рынок;
5. department store универсальный магазин;
6. chain store один из филиалов, принадлежащих
одной торгующей организации;
7. mail-order firm фирма "товары почтой", торгующая
по заказам, сделанным по каталогу;
8. booth ларек;
9. stall (kiosk) киоск;
10. rag fair "толкучка";
11. shop-window (window display) витрина;
12. to dress the shop window оформлять витрину;
13. show-case, case витрина-прилавок;
14. counter прилавок;
15. check-out point контрольный пункт;
16. cash-desk касса;
17. salesman (shop assistant) продавец;
18. saleswoman продавщица;
19. customer (shopper) покупатель;
consumer потребитель;
consumer goods потребительские товары;
20. shopping queue, line очередь;
21. to do one's shopping делать покупки;
22. to go shopping идти по магазинам;
23. shopping spree "прогулка" по магазинам с совер-
шением многочисленных покупок и затратой больших сумм денег;
24. impulse buying незапланированная покупка;
25. bargain выгодная покупка (с точки зрения
цены для покупателя);
26. to buy (to purchase, to shop for) покупать (ч.-л.);
27. to sell продавать;
28. to supply снабжать, поставлять;
29. to deliver (goods) доставлять (товары);
30. to display (goods) выставлять (товары);
31. to be in (full) stock быть в продаже;
32. to be out of stock не иметься в продаже;
33. cheap дешевый;
34. expensive (dear) дорогой;
35. to cost стоить;
36. price, at a price цена, по цене;
37. discount, at a discount скидка, со скидкой;
38. sale распродажа;
39. sales tax налог на продажу;
40. mark-down уценка;
41. boutique маленький магазин модной одежды и
аксессуаров.
Some shops and the goods they sell (Некоторые магазины и их
товары)

Stationer's (AmE: stationery) Магазин канцелярских товаров


1. note paper писчая бумага;
2. writing paper писчая бумага;
3. writing pad блокнот;
4. wrapping paper оберточная бумага;
5. carbon paper копировальная бумага;
6. notebook записная книжка;
7. file папка для бумаг (документов);
8. pocket (desk) diary карманный (настольный) деловой
календарь;
9. paper clip скрепка;
10. drawing pin кнопка;
11. ruler линейка;
12. rubber резинка;
13. fountain pen авторучка;
14. ink чернила;
15. ball-point pen шариковая ручка;
16. refill стержень для шариковой ручки;
17. fibre / felt-tip pen фломастер.
China shop Магазин "Фарфор, фаянс, стекло"
1. china (porcelain) фарфор;
2. glassware изделия из стекла;
3. pottery (ceramics) изделия из керамики;
4. crockery (ware) глиняные, фаянсовые изделия.

Hosiery Чулочно-носочных изделий

1. sheet простыня;
2. pillow-case наволочка;
3. bed-cover покрывало;
4. table cloth скатерть;
5. napkin салфетка.

Household goods Хозяйственных товаров


1. tableware столовые приборы и посуда;
2. dinnerware столовая посуда;
3. kitchen utensils кухонная утварь;

Some Useful Information and Helpful Words and Phrases


1. to change разменять;
2. (small) change мелочь;
3. change сдача;
4. to

Supermarket
1. wire basket проволочная корзина;
2. shopping trolley, (Am.E: shopping cart) корзина на колесиках;
3. shopping bag хозяйственная сумка;
4. entrance to the sales area вход в торговый зал;
5. patisserie/confectionery/bakery (Am.E) хлебо-булочные и
кондитерские;
(bread and cakes: coun
Some Food Shops (Stores)
1. baker's / bakery булочная;
2. butcher's мясной;
3. confectioner's / confectionery кондитерский;
4. dairy молочный;
5. greengrocer's овощной;
6. fishmonger's рыбный;
7. fruiterer's фруктовый;
8. sweet-shop сласти;
9. off-license shop (wine and spirit винный;
merchant's)
10. tobacconist's табачный.
Quantities and Package (Количество и упаковка)
1. bunch of flowers букет цветов;
of grapes гроздь винограда;
of parsley пучок петрушки;
of keys связка ключей;
2. bar of (chocolate) плитка (шоколада);
3. cake / tablet (A.E: bar) of (soap) кусок (мыла);
4. joint of (beef) кусок (говядины);
5. loaf of (bread) батон (хлеба);
6. lump of (sugar) кусочек (сахара);
7. slice of (bread, cake) кусок;
8. dozen of (eggs) дюжина;
9. half a dozen (1/2 doz.) (rolls) полдюжины;
10. ball of (wool) клубок;
11. reel (AmE: spool) of (thread) катушка;
12. bottle of (milk) бутылка;
13. box of (clips) коробка;
14. carton / packet of (milk, cigarettes) пачка/пакет;
15. roll of (paper) рулон;
16. tube of (toothpaste) тюбик;
17. jar of (cream) банка;
18. can / tin of (sardine, peaches) консервная банка.
2. Food
1. food пища, съестные припасы;
2. bread хлеб;
3. cereals зерновые хлеба,
(Am.E. изделия из дробленого
зерна);
4. meat мясо;
5. sausages колбасы;
6. poultry птица (домашняя);
7. game дичь;
8. dairy products молочные продукты;
9. fish рыба;
10. sea-food "дары" моря;
11. vegetables овощи;
12. fruits фрукты;
13. berries ягоды;
14. nuts орехи;
15. spices приправы (специи);
16. wines вина;
17. beverages (drinks) напитки;
18. sweets сласти;
19. fresh food свежие продукты;
20. frozen food замороженные продукты
21. canned food консервы;
22. pet food корм для животных;
23. brands of food типы продуктов;
24. cooked food готовые к употреблению;
25. uncooked food полуфабрикаты.
General
1. nutrition питание, пища;
2. malnutrition недоедание (плохое питание);
3. diet диета;
3. keep to a diet придерживаться диеты;
4. be on a diet быть на диете;
5. strict diet строгая диета;
6. put on a diet посадить на диету;
7. feed кормить.
Bread
1. flour мука;
2. dough тесто;
rich dough сдобное тесто;
unleavened dough пресное тесто;
3. doughnut пышка, пончик;
4. dumpling клецка;
5. bread хлеб;
bake bread печь хлеб;
live on bread питаться хлебом;
white bread белый хлеб;
brown bread черный хлеб;
rye bread ржаной хлеб;
bread crumbs хлебные крошки;
chunk of bread толстый ломоть хлеба;
slice of bread тонкий кусок хлеба;
loaf (pi. loaves) of bread батон (буханка) хлеба;
new bread свежий хлеб;
stale bread черствый хлеб;
6. bun (roll) сдобная булочка;
7. ring roll бублик;
8. puff сдобная булочка;
9. cake торт, пирог, пирожное;
10. cheese cake ватрушка;
11. pancake блин;
12. pie пирог, пирожок;
13. toast подрумяненный хлеб, гренок.
Cereals (Злаки)
1. grain зерно, хлебные злаки;
2. groats крупа;
3. wheat пшеница;
4. barley ячмень;
5. pearl barley перловая крупа;
6. buckwheat гречневая крупа;
7. rice рис;
8. semolina манная крупа;
9. corn кукуруза;
corn-cob кукурузный початок;
cornflakes кукурузные хлопья;
10. maize кукуруза, маис;
11. millet просо, пшено;
12. oats овес.
Meat (fresh)
1. joint часть, разрубленный кусок
2. beef говядина;
tender beef мягкая, нежная говядина;
tough beef жесткая говядина;
beefsteak бифштекс;
corned beef солонина;
roast beef ростбиф;
3. rumpsteak ромштекс;
4. pork свинина;
5. mutton (lamb) баранина;
6. veal телятина;
7. kidney почка;
8. liver печень;
9. stomach желудок;
10. tongue язык;
11. chop отбивная котлета;
12. cutlet рубленая котлета.
Sausages
1. sausage колбаса (вареная), сосиска;
2. salami копченая колбаса;
3. bacon бекон;
fat bacon жирный бекон;
lean bacon постный бекон;
4. ham ветчина;
5. cold pork буженина;
6. smoked ribs грудинка.
Poultry and Game
1. poultry птица;
2. game дичь;
3. chicken цыпленок, курица;
4. duck утка;
5. goose гусь;
6. turkey индейка;
7. hazel grouse рябчик;
8. partridge куропатка;
9. pheasant фазан;
10. rabbit кролик.
Fish and Sea-food
1. bream лещ;
2. carp карп;
3. cod треска;
cod liver печень трески;
4. eel угорь;
5. herring селедка;
6. mackerel макрель, скумбрия;
7. perch окунь;
8. pike щука;
9. plaice камбала;
10. salmon лосось, семга (амер. горбуша);
11. siberian salmon кета;
12. sardine сардина;
13. sprat килька, салака;
14. sturgeon осетр;
15. trout форель;
16. turbot (halibut) палтус;
17. jellied fish заливная рыба;
18. crab краб;
19. lobster омар;
20. oyster устрица;
21. shrimp (prawn) креветка;
22. clam морской моллюск.
Dairy Products (молочные продукты)
1. milk молоко;
new milk парное молоко;
sour milk простокваша;
2. cream сливки;
3. sour cream сметана;
4. butter масло (сливочное);
boiled butter топленое масло;
5. margarin маргарин;
6. cheese сыр;
7. cream cheese сырковая масса;
8. strong cheese острый сыр;
9. processed cheese плавленый сыр;
10. cottage cheese творог;
11. egg яйцо;
12. egg shell яичная скорлупа;
13. white of an egg яичный белок;
14. yolk of an egg яичный желток;
15. hard-boiled eggs крутое яйцо;
soft-boiled eggs яйцо всмятку;
fried eggs яичница глазунья;
scrambled eggs яичница болтунья;
16. whip (beat) an egg взбить яйцо;
17. shell (v.) an egg почистить яйцо.
Vegetables
1. tomato помидор;
2. cucumber огурец;
salted cucumber соленый огурец;
pickled cucumber маринованный огурец;
3. carrot морковь;
4. beet свекла;
5. potatoes картофель;
6. egg plant баклажан;
7. marrow (squash) кабачок;
8. turnip репа;
9. cabbage капуста;
sauer-craut квашеная капуста;
10. Brussels sprouts брюссельская капуста;
11. cauliflower цветная капуста;
green cabbage белая капуста;
red cabbage красная капуста;
savoy cabbage савойская капуста;
12. lettuce салат-латук;
lettuce leaf лист кочанного салата-латука;
13. kohlrabi кольраби;
14. green peas зеленый горох;
15. beans бобы, фасоль;
16. asparagus спаржа;
17. spinach шпинат;
18. radish редис;
19. white radish редька;
20. pumpkin тыква;
21. onion лук репчатый;
22. garlic чеснок;
23. leeks лук-порей;
24. chicory цикорий;
25. globe artichoke артишок;
26. pepper перец;
27. sweet pepper перец сладкий;
28. dills укроп;
29. parsley петрушка;
30. celery сельдерей;
31. mushrooms грибы.
Fruits, Berries and Nuts
1. grapes виноград;
2. raisin(s) изюм;
3. seedless raisin изюм без косточек;
4. apple яблоко;
5. pear груша;
6. plum слива;
7. prune чернослив;
8. cherry вишня, черешня;
9. apricot абрикос;
10. peach персик;
11. stone косточка;
12. pomegranate гранат;
13. lemon лимон;
14. lime круглый мягкий лимон;
15. orange апельсин;
orange peel апельсиновая корка;
16. pine-apple ананас;
17. tangerine мандарин;
18. banana банан;
19. melon дыня;
20. water melon арбуз;
21. strawberry земляника, клубника;
22. raspberry малина;
23. currant (black, red, white) смородина (черная, красная, белая);
24. gooseberry крыжовник;
25. blueberry черника;
26. blackberry ежевика;
27. cranberry клюква;
28. mul-berry шелковица;
29. nut орех;
30. walnut грецкий орех;
31. peanut земляной орех;
32. hazel nut лесной орех (фундук);
33. almond миндаль;
34. nutmeg мускатный орех;
35. seeds семечки.
Spices (Специи)
1. cinnamon корица;
2. ginger имбирь;
3. horse radish хрен;
4. mustard горчица;
5. pepper перец;
6. salt соль;
7. sugar сахар;
8. soda сода;
9. pinch of soda щепотка соды;
10. vanilla ваниль;
11. vinegar уксус;
12. yeast дрожжи;
.13. dress (v) заправлять (салат);
14. oil растительное масло;
15. sunflower oil подсолнечное масло;
16. powdered sugar сахарная пудра;
17. sauce соус;
18. ketchup кетчуп.
Beverage (Напитки)
1. soft drinks безалкогольные напитки;
2. mineral water минеральная вода;
3. (fruit) juice фруктовый сок;
4. spring water родниковая вода;
5. lemonade лимонад;
6. beer пиво;
dark beer темное пиво;
light beer светлое пиво;
mug of beer кружка пива;
7. strong drinks крепкие напитки;
8. brandy (cognac) коньяк, бренди;
9. cherry brandy вишневая наливка;
10. sherry херес;
11. whisky виски;
12. wine вино;
13. dry wine сухое вино;
14. portwine портвейн;
15. sweet wine сладкое вино;
16. table wine столовое вино;
17. champagne шампанское;
18. porter портер;
19. tea чай;
blend of tea сорт чая;
stir (v) tea мешать чай ложечкой;
20. coffee кофе;
black coffee черный кофе;
strong coffee крепкий кофе;
white coffee кофе с молоком;
grind coffee молоть кофе;
make coffee варить кофе;
21. cocoa какао.
Sweets
1. chocolate шоколад;
milk chocolate молочный шоколад;
nut chocolate шоколад с орехами;
bar of chocolate плитка шоколада;
2. chocolates шоколадные конфеты;
box of chocolates
3. ice-cream мороженое;
4. jam варенье;
jar of jam банка варенья;
5. marmalade повидло (из цитрусовых);
6. honey мед;
7. pudding пудинг;
plum pudding пудинг с изюмом.
Meals
1. breakfast завтрак;
2. have breakfast завтракать;
at breakfast за завтраком;
for breakfast на завтрак;
3. lunch второй завтрак;
4. dinner обед;
have dinner обедать;
5. dine out обедать вне дома;
6. tea чай (обычно в 4-5 часов);
have tea пить чай;
7. supper ужин;
light supper легкий ужин;
8. have a snack (bite) закусить (перекусить);
I feel like having a snack. Я бы чего-нибудь перекусил.
9. hungry голодный;
10. thirsty испытывающий жажду;
be thirsty хотеть пить;
11. drink (v.) пить;
drink (to) пить за здоровье;
12. eat есть;
eat well есть с аппетитом;
eater едок;
hearty eater человек, любящий поесть;
(un)eatable (не)съедобное;
13. chew жевать;
14. swallow глотать;
15. taste food пробовать пищу;
tasty (food) вкусная еда;
tasteless безвкусный;
16. delicious food очень вкусная пища;
17. help oneself to положить на тарелку;
help yourselves угощайтесь;
18. helping порция;
19. treat smb. to smth. угощать (кого-либо чем-либо);
20. serve подавать на стол;
21. lay (set) the table накрыть на стол;
22. spread the table cloth постелить скатерть;
23. sit down to table сесть за стол.
Some dishes
1. soup суп;
broth бульон;
vegetable soup овощной суп;
chicken soup куриный суп;
meat soup мясной суп;
2. chicken цыпленок;
3. chop отбивная котлета;
4. macaroni (pasta) макароны;
5. porridge овсяная каша;
6. stewed fruit компот;
7. milk shake молочный коктейль;
8. mashed potatoes картофельное пюре.
Eating Out
1. bar бар, буфет, закусочная;
2. coffee-shop кофейня;
3. snack bar закусочная, буфет;
4. cafe кафе;
5. self-service cafe кафе самообслуживания;
6. canteen столовая (в учреждении);
7. menu card (bill of fares; menu) меню;
8.wine list карта вин;
9. table d'hote табльдот, общий стол;
10. dining room столовая (в доме);
11. refreshment-room, syn. buffet буфет (на вокзале, в театре);
12. restaurant ресторан;
13. waiter (waitress) официант (-ка);
14. order заказ;
15. vacant seat свободное место;
16. take a table занять столик;
17. a table for two столик на двоих;
18. can I have могу я заказать?
19. appetizer (starter) закуска;
20. a three-course dinner обед из трех блюд;
21. a la carte порционные блюда;
22. for a first course на первое;
23. for a main course на второе;
24. for dessert на десерт;
25. bill счет;
heavy bill большой счет;
pay the bill оплатить счет;
tip чаевые;
26. pass (hand over) передать;
27. hearty (substantial; square) (meal) плотная (еда);
28. big eater хороший едок;
29. do justice to the meal отдать должное еде;
30. it smells good пахнет вкусно;
31. it tastes good вкусно;
32. sweet сладкий;
33. bitter горький;
34. acid кислый;
35. sour прокисший, кислый;
36. salty соленый;
37. unsalted недосоленный;
38. stale черствый;
39. excellent отличный;
40. well-cooked хорошо приготовленный.
Cooking
1. cook (food) готовить;
2. cook повар;
3. to peel (potatoes, onion) чистить;
4. to pare (fruit) очистить;
5. to grate натереть на терке;
6. grater терка;
7. clear meat from bones отделить мясо от костей;
8. chop мелко нарубить;
9. carve (v) the meat рубить мясо (на столе);
10. mince the meat сделать фарш;
11. dredge smth with flour обсыпать ч.-л. мукой;
12. roll smth in fine breadcrumbs обвалять ч.-л. в сухарях;
13. beat (v) up отбить (мясо);
14. drain дать стечь, процедить;
15. turn (v) over перевернуть;
16. boil potatoes in jackets сварить картофель в мундире;
17. prick проколоть;
18. simmer жарить на медленном огне;
19. probe пробовать (вилкой);
20. whip взбивать;
21. fry жарить на сковороде;
22. stew тушить;
stewing pan жаровня;
23. boil варить;
24. roast жарить (на огне);
25. overdone (underdone, rare, пережаренное (недожаренное, с кро-
well done) meat вью, хорошо приготовленное мясо);
26. spread намазывать;
27. sprinkle посыпать;
28..stuff фарш (начинка);
29. stuffed pepper фаршированный перец;
30. taste пробовать на вкус;
31. pour out наливать;
32. make a scratch dinner приготовить обед на скорую руку;
33. grow cold остыть;
34. spill over пролить.
Tableware and Cutlery
(Столовая посуда и приборы)
1. napkin салфетка;
napkin ring кольцо для салфеток;
2. сuр чашка;
3. saucer блюдце;
4. pour into a glass налить в стакан;
5. raise one's glass (to) поднять тост за;
6. tea set чайный сервиз;
7. water jug кувшин для воды;
8. bread plate хлебница;
9. butter dish масленка;
10. sugar basin сахарница;
11. mustard pot горчичница;
12. pepper box перечница;
13. salt cellar солонка;
14. tea kettle чайник;
15. tea pot заварочный чайник;
16. coffee pot кофейник;
17. decanter графин;
18. cutlery ножи и вилки;
19. china фарфоровая посуда;
20. crockery фаянсовая посуда;
21. sauce (gravy) boat соусник;
22. tray поднос;
23. tablecloth скатерть;
24. place setting / cover сервировка;
25. bottom plate подстановочная тарелка;
26. dinner plate средняя тарелка;
27. deep plate (soup plate) глубокая (суповая) тарелка;
28. dessert plate (dessert bowl) десертная тарелка;
29. soup ladle половник;
30. soup tureen ложка для соуса;
31. sauce ladle (gravy ladle) супница;
32. bread basket хлебница;
33. salad bowl салатница;
34. salad servers ложка и вилка для салата;
35. vegetable dish блюдо с овощами;
36. dish блюдо;
37. bowl мисочка;
38. serving trolley сервировочный столик-каталка;
39. plate (platter) блюдо;
40. cheeseboard дощечка для сыра;
41. electric hotplate электроподогреватель;
42. corkscrew штопор;
43. nutcracker щипцы для орехов;
44. knife нож;
45. handle черенок;
46. blade лезвие;
47. edge (cutting edge) режущая часть;
48. knife rest подставка для ножа;
49. fork вилка;
50. handle черенок вилки;
51. prong (tang, tine) зубцы (вилки);
52. spoon ложка ;
53. handle черенок ложки;
54. bowl углубление;
55. dessert spoon (fruit spoon) десертная ложка;
56. salad spoon / fork ложка / вилка для салата;
57. carving set (serving cutlery) приборы для нарезания мяса;
58. vegetable spoon / a serving spoon сервировочная ложка для овощей;
59. cocktail fork коктейльная вилка;
60. wine glasses рюмки для вина;
61. champagne glasses бокалы для шампанского;
62. tapered glass конический бокал;
63. crystal glass хрустальный бокал;
64. liqueur glass рюмка для ликера;
65. spirit glass рюмка для крепких напитков;
66. beer glass стакан для пива;
67. table decoration украшения для стола;
68. candelabrum подсвечник;
69. place card карточка с именем и фамилией
приглашенного.
Kitchen Utensils and Appliances
(Кухонная утварь и бытовая техника)
1. roll holder with kitchen roll держатель с рулоном;
(paper towel) (бумажных полотенец);
2. set of wooden spoons набор деревянных ложек;
3. mixing spoon мешалка;
4. filing pan сковородка;
5. thermos-jug кувшин-термос;
6. set of bowls набор мисок;
7. three-compartment dish трех-секционное блюдо;
8. lemon squeezer соковыжималка для лимона;
9. whistling kettle чайник со свистком;
10. pan set набор кастрюль;
11. pot (cooking pot) кастрюля;
12. lid крышка;
13. casserole dish кастрюля из жаропрочного стекла;
14. milk pot кувшин для молока;
15. saucepan сотейник;
16. immersion heater электрокипятильник;
17. juice extractor соковыжималка;
18. pressure cooker скороварка;
19. fruit preserver прибор для консервирования
фруктов;
20. preserving jar банка для консервирования;
21. cake tin форма для выпечки;
22. toaster тостер;
23. rotisserie духовка-гриль;
24. spit вертел;
25. food slicer ломтерезка;
26. mincer (AmE: chopper) мясорубка;
27. blades ножи для мясорубки;
28. chip pan фритюрница;
29. basket сетка-дуршлаг;
30. potato chipper картофелерезка;
31. mixer электромиксер;
32. blender электросмеситель.
Some Useful Information and Helpful Words and Phrases
1. to change разменять;
2. (small) change мелочь;
3. change сдача;
4. to pay платить;
5. How much is it?
What does it cost?
What’s the price of...?
What price is this...? сколько стоит?
6. open from 9 am to 6 pm открыто с 9 до 18 часов;
7. Monday to Saturday с понедельника по субботу;
8. closing (opening) time время закрытия (открытия магазина);
9. to attend (to), to serve обслуживать;
10. to be attended to, to be served обслуживаться;
11. to wrap заворачивать (покупку);

Some Useful Expressions


1. to run out of smth кончиться (о запасах)
to run short of smth кончиться
I’ve run out of flour. У меня кончилась мука.
2. to stock up запасаться (продуктами)
I usually stock up for the Я обычно запасаюсь продуктами
week on Saturdays. на неделю по субботам.
3. to be well stocked a) иметь полный запас
(о домашнем хозяйстве)
b) иметь широкий ассортимент продаваемых в магазине продуктов

4. that will do этого достаточно; это годится, устраевает

will this do? это/эта/этот устраивает?


— I’d like a couple of big apples.
— Will these do?
5. we’ve just got/had.....in только что поступили в продажу,
нам только что привезли
6. to be out of stock кончиться, распродать
to have sold out кончиться, распродать
— Have you got vinegar?
— We’ve sold out/we’re out of stock
at the moment
7. To buy/sell....loose покупать/продавать .... в развес
Не buys fresh fruit and
vegetables loose, not wrapped
in plastic.
8. To sell smth by weight/by продавать на вес, поштучно
the head

a la mode
Topped with ice cream, as in apple pie a la mode.
active buyer
A customer who is buying consumer goods under the influence of advertisement.
ale
A type of dark-colored beer without bubbles.
alphabet soup
A thick soup of many ingredients, From a Cambell’s Soup Company product
containing pieces of pasta shaped like letters as well as various vegetables.
American cuisine
The first settlers subsisted only on salted pork, salted beef, salted fish and hard tack
brought from the Old World, although the woods of the New World abounded in
game and berries, rivers and coastal waters teemed with fish, lobsters, oysters and
scallops. Native American Indians introduced them to corn, the white and sweet
potatoes, the peanut, the pumpkin and other squashes, the maple syrup, the
cranberry and blueberry, and the pecan nuts, to name but a few. From these
humble beginnings a great cosmopolitan food culture has grown, for North
America is a melting pot of world foods and world cooking styles. Later settlers
introduced their foods and assimilated them with American cooking styles.
American culinary patchwork began with native Indian dishes, such as succotash,
sweet potatoes, roast turkey, and pumpkin, which later became traditional
Thanksgiving treats. Dutch settlers added quite a few colorful and long-lasting
patches, such as cookies, crullers, pound cake, cherry bounce, and waffles, and
Pennsylvania Dutch added dumplings and noodles, fine hams and sausages, sweet
pickles, and slow cooked meats. German settlers were later responsible for such
American specialties as the frankfurter, the hamburger, and the doughnut. One-pot
cookery was prevalent, related to the British tradition, and the New England boiled
dinner, a mixture of beef, chicken, and vegetables is still popular. For many years
immigrants from all over the world were coming to America via New York, which
became a bubbling melting pot of food traditions. Jews and settlers from eastern
and northern Europe brought with them the deli tradition, salt beef, pastrami, lox
and bagels, kugele and blintzes. Italians enriched American cuisine with pastas and
pizzas, and pizza now is more American than Neapolitan. The influence of Italian
cuisine on American cooking has been increasingly apparent in the 1980s and
1990s. Such foods as tiramisu, ossobuco, zabaglione have become available, as
well as ingredients essential for Italian cooking, such as balsamic vinegar, sun-
dried tomatoes, pesto, and other. Many farming and ranching regions, Nevada in
particular, have a surprising number of Basque restaurants; New England is
abound with Portuguese restaurants dating back to whaling days; Chinese
restaurants are found everywhere; Japanese are the recent, rather costly but popu-
lar, innovation; French food is available in big cities throughout the country, but it
is always expensive; Thai, Korean, Indonesian, Mediterranean restaurants are
plentiful in bigger cities. Restaurants serving Indian food are not many, and until
recently could be found only in New York City, but the situation is gradually
changing, with a sprinkling of moderately priced Southern Indian food outlets. See
also Midwestern cuisine, Western cuisine, Southern cuisine, Creole cuisine, Cajun
cuisine, Southwestern cuisine, West Coast cuisine.
anchovy
A type of small fish that taste of salt and is often preserved in oil.
angel (food) cake
A light, delicate white cake made with stiffly beaten whites and no shortening or
egg yolks. It is usually served with fresh strawberries.
angel hair
Pasta in long, very fine strands.
angel on horseback
An appetizer of oysters wrapped in bacon.

animal cracker
For Christmas 1902, Nabisco (National Biscuit Company) prepared a new and
edible toy for American kids: small crackers in the shape of animals packed in a
box resembling a circus cage. There were seventeen different creatures in a box,
and it could be used as a decorative Christmas tree gift. Animals crackers are still
popular.
antipasto
An appetizing course in an Italian meal often consisting of an assortment of foods,
such as olives, anchovies, salami, and peppers.
Appalachian tea
The leaves of several plants of the holly family of eastern North America,
sometimes used as tea.
appetizer
A small portion of food served before or at the beginning of a meal. In some
restaurants menus, the French “hors d’oeuvre” is used instead of “appetizer”.
apple butter
A creamy paste from stewed, sweetened and spiced apples. Apple butter is served
as a spread or condiment.
apple cider
The juice of apples used for drinks, either before fermentation (sweet cider) in
America, or after fermentation (hard cider) in Britain. or for making applejack.
Originally cider was not restricted to apples and merely meant a strong drink
including fermented juices of other fruit. This beverage used to be common in the
fall and winter, after the apples were harvested. Now it is available all year round,
and is one of the traditional Christmas drinks.
applejack
An apple brandy distilled from hard (fermented) apple cider.
apple pandowdy
A baked deep-dish dessert of sliced apples topped with a biscuit crust.
apple pie
A traditional baked pie dating back to 16th – century England. Embodying
traditional American values, it is a symbol of American life. Motherhood is usually
mentioned along with the American flag and apple pie as being “sacred” to
Americans. Though apple pie had been known in America since the 17th century,
the expression as American as mom and apple pie came into use only in the 1960s.
applesauce
Apples stewed to a pulp and sometimes spiced with cinnamon. Eaten either
straight or as a topping on cereal.
Aunt Jemina pancake mix
Premixed, self-rising flour was first marketed in 1893, at Chicago World Fair. The
prototype for Aunt Jemima was a black female cook Nancy Green. She was hired
to serve pancakes during the Fair, and later toured America as Aunt Jemima until
her death in 1923. In black parlance, Aunt Jemima often means a complacement
black woman, a female equivalent to Uncle Tom.
Automat
An inexpensive, self-service cafeteria where patrons may get food from small
compartments with doors opened by hutting coins into slots. The first one was
opened in Philadelphia in 1902. New York City used to have many of these
restaurants until the rise of fast food in the 1960s.
avocado or avacado pear
A fruit with green or black skin, very large seed in the middle, and pale green flesh that does not
taste sweet. It is usually eaten raw in salads. Jorge-Luis Avocado, an explorer born in Buenos
Aires, named the tropical fruit after himself, and introduced it to Europeans in the 1800s.
Avocado visited every continent in the world, always searching for unfamiliar fruits and
vegetables. He almost called the kiwi an avocado, until someone reminded him that he had
already used his name for another fruit
B

bad check
A bank check that is returned because it was drawn against funds insufficient to
cover it. Also rubber check.
bake sale
A sale of homemade baked goods, such as cakes and cookies. Many organizations,
such as churches and schools, hold bake sales to raise money for special causes.
baker’s doze
Thirteen of something. Bakers used to give 13 when asked for a dozen of
something to encourage customers to buy from them again.
balsamic vinegar
An expensive type of sweet dark vinegar.
B-girl
A promiscuous girl or woman, especially one employed by a bar to entertain
customers and induce them to buy drinks.
bacon and eggs
A standard American breakfast of fried bacon strips and fried or scrambled eggs.
bagel
A leavened, doughnut-shaped, hard roll of Polish-Jewish origin. Bagels are first
cooked in boiling water and then baked. This makes them soft inside. Bagels come
in many varieties such as onion, cheddar, poppy, seed, sesame seed, cinnamon,
raisin, blueberry, and plain or pumpernickel. Bagel and lox with cream cheese is as
popular as a breakfast delicacy in America’s Jewish community as doughnuts and
coffee in the nation as a whole.
bag lunch
A lunch eaten at an office or some other institution when people bring lunch foods
(mostly sandwiches, fruit, salads) in a bag to save time (and money). This lunch is
often called “brown (paper) bag,” for the colour of a paper bag. The brown lunch
bags are sold in packets in grocery stores.
Baked Alaska
A dessert of ice-cream on a slice of cake, coved with meringue and browned
quickly in a hot oven. Though this classic dessert dates back to the days following
the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867, it became one of the defining dishes
of the Gilded Age, a rather overdone dish that smacked of exotism, railroad barons
and meals concluded with snifters of cognac. It is a very difficult dessert to make
and there are reasons that baked Alaska today lives more as a memory than a dish
worth struggling through.
baked beans
Navy or white beans baked slowly with salt pork, molasses, brown sugar, onion,
and seasonings. In Vermont, maple syrup is used instead of molasses. New
Englanders consider yellow-eye, Jacob’s cattle, or soldier beans best for baking. In
New England, baked beans serve as a sort of national cuisine.

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baklava
A Greek and Middle Eastern pastry made of flaky layers of paper-thin dough with
a filling of ground nuts, baked and drenched in honey or sugar syrup. It is one of
the many popular ethnic foods available in the United States.
bain marie (French)
A pan for cooking thing gently usually by cooking then in another pan of water.
banana bread
A tasty and vary simple to make cake of mashed bananas, yogurt, buttermilk, nuts,
flour and spices. It is good with afternoon tea or morning coffee. The fad struck
America in the 1960s, when everybody started baking banana bread because it was
easy-no yeast, no kneading or rising.
banana split
A dessert consisting of ice-cream scoops placed on a banana sliced lengthwise and
topped with syrup, whipped cream, and chopped nuts.
bannock
A flat cake made of oatmeal, barley meal, etc., usually baked on griddle. Though
belonging to Scottish and British cuisine, bannocks are traditionally popular in
New England.
barbecue
(also BBQ, bar-b-q). An outdoor grill for roasting meat; pieces of beef, fowl, or the
like, roasted over hot coals, especially when basted in a barbecue sauce; a dressed
steer, lamb or other animal, roasted whole.
barbecue sauce (BBQ sauce)
A piquant sauce often make of vinegar, tomato sauce, spices and sugar, used
especially for basting barbecuing meat.
barrelhouse
A cheap saloon, where liquor was served directly from barrels. Later the word
came to mean also a second-rate brothel.
basil
A plant whose sweet leaves are used in salads and cooking, especially in dishes
containing tomato. Basil is a herb.
basmati rice
Aromatic rice, newly popular in American cooking along with jasmati rice.
bathtub gin
Homemade gin, especially made illegally during Prohibition.
batter
A liquid mixture of milk, flour, and eggs, used in cooking, making cakes.
bear claw
(chiefly on the Pacific Coast) A pastry made from chopped nuts and raisins.
Several cuts are made with a sharp knife on one side of a piece of dough, and when
baked the pastry remains of the claws.
beat

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to mix foods such as eggs, cream, or butter well using a fork or a special tool or
machine. This tool or machine can be called a beater.
bed and breakfast (B&B)
An inn, hotel, or home (normally up to ten rooms) that provides overnight lodging
and breakfast for travellers. Over the last decade or so B&Bs have become a
popular option. They are usually small, offer various types of accommodations,
from modest to luxurious, and have a friendly atmosphere.
beefalo
Low-fat, low-cholesterol meat of an animal that results from a cross between
Hereford or Charolais cattle and buffalo. Today there are restaurants in America
which serve beefalo steaks.
beef Stroganoff
One of the most famous beef dishes named for Count Paul Stroganoff, a 19th-
century Russian diplomat. It is made with sliced beef fillets and served with sour
cream and mushrooms. It continues on the menus of some of America’s finest
restaurants.
beef
America are big on beef, despite nation’s persisting weight and heart problems.
Nine out of ten say that steak and baked potato is their meal of choice. To satisfy
demand, the United States produces 12,734,000 tons of beef annually. Beef is
especially prominent in the Midwest and Texas, America’s primary cattle-raising
regions.
beef burger
See hamburger
beef Wellington
A beef fillet with pate de foie gras, bacon brandy, and condiments, coved with
pastry. It is served only at expensive restaurants.
beignet
A square French donut without a hole sprinkled with powdered sugar. Beignets are
a New Orleans, Louisiana, tradition with strong coffee.
beer
The United Sates is the world's biggest producer of beer. During colonial times,
until the 1890s, most American beers were of the heavy English style. The large-
scale German immigration made Milwaukee (Schlitz and Pabst breweries), St.
Louis (Anheuser-Busch breweries), and Cincinnati famous beer-producing centers.
Prohibition almost ruined all of them. In the 1950s, consumption of beer increased,
but 20 percent of the population, by and large, young men, drank 80 percent of the
beer. In the early 1970s, the industry was transformed by the coming of low-
calorie—lite— beer, such as Miller Lite. At the same time a new national brand
appeared—Coors. By the 1990s, the leading brewers had applied cigarette
manufacturers marketing techniques to beer and came up with several variations—
regular, lite, draft, dry, ice, and more. Foreign brands made a splash in the
American market, such as Pilsner, Heineken, Corona, Molson, etc. In a reaction

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against mass marketing, specialty beers became popular, such as Samuel Adams.
These days a picnic, barbecue, frat party, Fourth of July, Super Bowl game and the
like are impossible to imagine without beer.
Big Mac
A hamburger, product of the McDonald’s restaurant chain.
biscotti
The Italian cookies which recently became highly popular because of the espresso
coffee boom.
bisque
A thick soup of pured shellfish, game, or vegetables, usually in cream: lobster
bisque. It is usually served at expensive restaurants.
bitter
A type of dark beer that tastes bitter.
B.K.
See Burger King.
blacken
To cook meat or fish over high, direct heat. Such preparation is typical of Southern
cooking, Cajun in particular.
blanch
To put fruit, nuts, or vegetables into boiling water for a short time, often in order to
make it easier to remove the skin.
blend
To mix different foods or other substances together: Blend the butter and the sugar
together.
blender
A piece of electrical equipment that mixes foods or turns soft food into a liquid.
blood sausage
In southern United States, very dark sausage made with pig’s blood, diced pork fat,
and chopped onions, usually stuffed in a casing. In other regions it is called “blood
pudding.”
Bloomingdale’s
A famous, trendy, and expensive department store in Manhattan, New York City,
also affectionately called the “Bloomies.”
blueberries
Americans consume a lot of blueberries, which both grown wild and cultivated.
Maine is the largest producer of wild blueberries. About 15 million pounds/6,800
tons of wild blueberries are harvested in Maine’s Washington County alone.
Americans bake them in pies, muffins, cakes, breads, pancakes; made jams and
preserves; and add to green salads and ice-cream. → picture 9.
blue cheese
Any of various, usually rich, strong-flavoured cheeses streaked with blue or
greenish veins of mold. Crumbled blue cheese may be used as salad dressing.
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A restaurant main course at a special low price.
boiled dinner
A meal of meat and vegetables, such as corned beef, chicken, cabbage, and
potatoes, boiled together. It is the New England dish, brought to America by the
British.
bologna
A large seasoned sausage made of finely ground meat, usually beef and pork, that
has been cooked and smoked. Named for the city of origin, Bologna, a
gastronomic centre in northern Italy.
Boston baked beans
Boston is known for baked beans, hence the nicknames of Bostonians-Baked
Beans and Bean-eaters - and the city itself - Beantown U.S.A.
Boston brown bread
A dark-brown steamed bread made usually with cornmeal, rye flour, wheat flour,
and molasses.
Boston cream pie
A two-layer cake with a cream of custard filling and often chocolate icing.
bouillabaisse
A stew of variety of fish and shellfish in seasoned vegetable broth.
boutique
A small specialty store, especially, one featuring women’s dresses, jewelry and
accessories. The prices at boutiques are usually higher than at big retail stores.
boutique winery
A winery producing a small quantity of a single, excellent wine. They appeared in
the 1980s and became trendesetters of the wine-making and wine consumption.
bowl
1. A round container used for eating, serving, or preparing food: a bowl of
fruit/soup. 2. A large container without a lid, used for holding liquids: a waisting
up bowl → picture 1.
box lunch
A prepared lunch packaged in a box.
box social
A fund-raiser auction with box lunches.
bratwurst
Sausage of German origin, made of pork, spices and herbs sometimes without a
casing.
bread
A common food made from flour, water, and usually yeast (a substance that makes
the bread grow larger). Bread is usually sold in a large piece called a loaf or made
into smaller pieces called rolles. You usually cut bread into slices to eat it:
white/olive bread.
bread bin
A container that you use for storing bread.

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breakfast
An American breakfast can consist of anything from a cup of coffee (tea is not
popular) to bagels, oatmeal, Danish pastry, Pop Tarts, breakfast cereals, omelet,
eggs and bacon, pancakes, waffles, link sausage, cheese, yogurt, etc. Old-fashioned
breakfast may include fried potatoes, steak, and eggs, but it is rare today. Bacon
and ham feature large in southern breakfasts, served with grits and hash browns.
breakfast cereals
High-fiber breakfast foods made of various grains— Cheerios, cornflakes, Cream
of Wheat, Frosted Flakes, granola, Grape-Nuts, Raisin Bran, Rice Krispies, rolled
oats, Shredded Wheat, etc. Cereals were first developed in Battle Creek, Michigan,
at the turn of the century. Since the 1860s, the town had been home to a sanitarium
belonging to Seventh-Day Adventists; its director, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, first
promoted granola, and in 1907, Kellogg's Corn Flakes. His rival C.W. Post
developed Grape-Nuts (containing neither grapes nor nuts) in 1898 and Post
Toasties in 1908. The two companies still dominate the American dry cereal
market. However, breakfast in a bowl has become a soggy concept in America.
Cereal is still the most popular morning meal, but it is slowly losing ground to a
"cereal killer" called convenience.
• Ready-to-eat cereals sales fell 1.3% in 1998 from 1997.
• During the last three years, sales fell more than $800 million, to about $7 billion
in 1998.
• New cereal introductions were down about 30% in 1998.
Instead, consumers increasingly are eating toaster pastries, breakfast bars, bagels—
low-maintenance and portable, designed for lifestyles built in mobility. You can
eat them in the car, at your desk, while shaving or making up the face.
• Eating breakfast at home is becoming passe.
• Nearly two-thirds of consumers do not eat breakfast at home, according to
National Restaurant estimation.
• Car-seat dining has become a reality. Many moms now have to feed their kids in
the car.
• About 26% of consumers eat breakfast at their desks. A new phenomenon has
been born—deskfast.
breakfast nook
A small area (just a built-in table and seating) in a kitchen or adjacent to a kitchen,
specifically designed to have quick meals, such as breakfast. Nooks came into use
in America in the 20th century.
Brennan’s
A famous New Orlean’s restaurant serving Cajun and Creole food.
Brie (cheese)
A kind of salted, white, soft cheese ripened with bacterial action, originating in
Brie, France. In America, Brie became associated with upscale eating in 1970s.
Today it is common to serve Brie and other cheeses either as an appetizer with
crackers and cocktails before dinner or as a dessert with fruit and coffee.

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brioche
A type of sweet French bread.
Brooks Brothers
A rather conservative and traditional store specializing in men’s clothes, much
favoured by yuppies. The expression grey flannel suit alludes to the conformist
clothing style characteristic of Brooks Brothers.
brown (paper) bag
A lunch carried in a brown paper sack, especially to the office. Brown paper bag is
also used as a verb meaning “to take a lunch to work from home”. Brown bags are
also used to take one’s liquor to a club, restaurant, or camouflage a bottle when
drinking from it in the street or any public place (drinking of alcohol is forbidden
in public places in the United States).
Brown Betty
A baked dessert made of apples or other fruit, breadcrumbs, sugar, butter, and
spices.
brownies (also chocolate brownies)
Dense and fudgy oven-baked dessert made of melted chocolate, butter, eggs,
vanilla, flour and nuts. Brownies are an American phenomenon. Every cook across
the country has his or her own recipe. Some contain chocolate, some are classically
fudge, some are marble cakes, and some have butterscotch flavour.
brown rice
A kind of rice from which the bran layers and rice germ have not been removed by
polishing. Brown rice is considered healthier than white by health-conscious
people.
brown sugar
Sugar that retains some molasses or to which molasses has been added. It is
considered to be less hazardous for health than white refined sugar.
brunch
(for breakfast + lunch) A meal that serves as both breakfast and lunch. Brunches
are served either at home for some special occasion or on Sunday and Saturday at
the restaurants, and last well into the afternoon. The food is displayed on the
counters and one can eat as much as wants for a fixed price. At posh restaurants
champagne and cocktail are included.
Brunswick stew
A stew originally of squirrel and onions and now usually of rabbit or chicken with
lima beans, corn, tomatoes, onions, etc. So called after Brunswick County,
Virginia, where it originated.
bubble and squeak
A British dish of potatoes and cabbage mixed together and cooked in fat.
Bud (or Budweiser)
Budweiser is one of the most popular beers in the United States, and was a big hit
in the 1980s. Spuds MacKenzie, a smallish but macho dog, put in its beer
commercial by Budweiser Brewing Company, promoted the popularity of Bud.

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Originally an abbreviation for Budweiser beer, today “Bud” is used generically for
any beer. In the 1960s, a toast was born “Another Bud older, another Bud wiser,”
punning on a popular proverb and Budweiser beer.
buffalo wings
Extremely spicy fried chicken wings, usually served with hot sauce. The dish was
invented at Anchor Bar, Buffalo (hence the name), New York, in 1964. It went on
to become one of the definitive snack foods of the 1970s.
bun
1. A small round loaf of bread for one person, as a hamburger bun. 2. When in
plural, the word means “buttocks.”
Burger King (B.K.)
A chain eatery serving fast foods, such as hamburgers, French fries, salads, and
soft drinks. Burger King is one of the biggest fast-food chain after McDonald’s.
burrito
A Mexican dish consisting of a flour tortilla folded over a filling, such as beef,
rice, cheese, or refried beans. It is a typical staple of the people who are always on
the run.
bus-boy (girl)
A waiter’s helper in a restaurant or other public dining room, who pours ice water
and cleans the table.
buttermilk
The acidulous liquid remaining after butter has been separated from milk or cream.
Also a similar liquid made by adding a bacterial culture to whole or skim milk.
C
Caesar salad
An all-American classic; a salad of romaine leaves tossed with olive oil, lemon
juice, garlic, grated Parmesan cheese, a raw or coddled egg, croutons, and often
anchovies. Allegedly after a restaurant named Caesar’s in Tijuana, Mexico.
Café au lait
New Orleans’ speciality; strong chicory coffee, poured together with hot milk. It is
usually served with beignets at small cafes in the French Quarter.
cake
A sweet food made by baking a mixture that usually contains sugar, eggs, flour,
and butter or oil: a chocolate cake. → picture 5.
California cuisine
California cuisine is geared towards health and aesthetics. It is based on fresh
locally available ingredients and unusual combinations (grilled tuna with raspberry
sauce, for example). California is also known for Chinese cooking (and second
largest Chinese population outside China. Chinese laborers settled down in San
Francisco area after the Great Continental Railway had been completed).
Cajun Andouille
Home-made, smoked sausage. The Andouille sausages of Cajun country in
southern U.S. states are believed to have originated from those of France, brought

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over settlers from Normandy and Brittany, who formed a major proportion of the
original inhabitants of Acadia.
Cajun cuisine
Cajun cooking is a unique blend of old French recipes, southern spices, and
American ingredients. The present-day Cajuns have a distinct culture and
language, as well as cuisine, and although the ingredients are similar to those of
Creole, the spicing and heat are very much more robust. Shellfish, abundant in the
Mississippi delta, is the prime ingredient of Cajun cooking. as well as blackened
fish (especially catfish) with hot spices, jambalaya, gumbo, crayfish, Cajun
Andouille, etc. Cajun cuisine is usually informal; it specializes in one-pot dishes
and finger foods.
Camembert
A type of soft round French cheese with a white skin.
Campbell’s soup
A product of a company from Camden, New Jersey, Cambell canned soup was
first served in American homes in 1897. The rosy-cheeked, trademark Cambell
Kids, the work of Philadelphia illustrator Grace Wiedersein, First appeared in
1904. Its red-and-white label, inspired by the colours of the Cornell College
football team, became a national icon in the 1960s, when it was reproduced in a
silk screen by pop artist Andy Warhol. In 1996, Cambell Soup Company came up
with a new advertising slogan for its century old canned fare: “Soup that eats like a
meal.”
Canadian bacon
Bacon taken from a boned strip of pork loin. It is not as fatty as regular bacon, and
is recommended to people who try to abstain from heavy food, but cannot forego
the pleasure of having a nice American breakfast of bacon and eggs.
canapé
A small biscuit or piece of bread with food such as cheese or meat on top, served at
a party.
cannelloni
Large tubular pieces of pasta filled with chopped meat and baked in tomato sauce
and cheese. It is a simple and filling fare, very much liked by Americans, as well
as other Italian pasta dishes.
Cape Cod turkey
A New England name for baked codfish.
cappuccino
A hot beverage consisting of espresso coffee and steamed milk, served with
powdered cinnamon and topped with whipped cream. Cappuccino is a relatively
new coffee drink for Americans, but it enjoys wide popularity, and a cold coffee
drink, frappuccino, concocted of cappuccino has been introduced recently by
Starbucks, a Seattle - based coffee company.
caramel
Burnt sugar used for colouring and flavouring food.

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caramel apple
Caramel apple is a traditional fall treat and a Halloween must. County fairs, which
are usually held in the fall, are not complete without it, too.
caraway
The seeds of a plant used for flavouring food such as bread and cakes.
carhop
A waiter or waitress at a drive-fast-food restaurant.
Carnegie Deli
A democratic restaurant just a block away from Carnegie Hall. It has been in
business since 1937 and overcrowded every night after 11 p.m., when theatre
performances are over. The customers sit at long rows of tables, each supplied with
deli-style pickles. Carnegie Deli is known for humongous sandwiches, a three-
pound turkey entrée, potato pancakes, brisket, corned beef, etc.
carpetbag steak
A sirloin steak stuffed with oysters. The dish originated in San Francisco and was
later exported as far as Australia.
carrot cake
The cake is made of carrots, sugar, honey, spices, eggs, flour, and covered with a
very rich frosting. It became very popular in the 1970s, and believed to be healthy
and low in calories (with all those ingredients!).
carryout
An establishment that sells food to be eaten away from premises. Such foods are
called “carryout or takeout foods,” or “foods to go.”
Cash-and-carry
A store opening on cash-and-carry basis, which means that no checks or credit card
are accepted.
cash bar
A bar at a special, often private function, that sells drinks to those in attendance.
For example, at wedding celebrations, not only wine be served for free, and strong
alcohol and cocktails must be purchased from a bar.
casserole
1. A large covered baking dish of glass, pottery. etc. 2. Any food, especially a
mixture, baked in such a dish.
catering
Food and service supplied by restaurants or catering companies at banquets and
parties.
cayenne pepper
A red powder made from a type of pepper that has a strong flavor. It is added to a
food to make it taste spicy.
Celestial Seasonings Tea
Rich, aromic herbal teas, most of them grown and processed in the United States
by the Celestial Seasonings Company, founded in 1970 in Colorado by two
enthusiasts. Until then, Americans did not try or hear about herbal teas. The timing

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was just right, because America became very health-conscious. In 1955, the
company sold more than a billion bags of tea, and sales topped $70
Cheddar cheese
Very popular in the United States, hard, smooth-textured cheese that varies in color
from white to yellow or orange, and in flavor from mild to sharp as it ages. Named
so after Cheddar, a village in Somersetshire, England, where it was made. In
America, production of Cheddar started after the American Revolution. The
biggest Cheddar cheese ever (1,4000lb/653 kg) was given to President Jackson.
After maturing for two years in the White House, it was given to the people of
Washington, D. C., on George Washington’s birthday.
cheese cake
A cake with a firm custard-like texture made with sweetened cream cheese, cottage
cheese, or the like. Cheese originated in the Old World and was taken to the New
by settlers from Germany, Hungary, and England. These were baked cheesecakes;
the use of gelatin in cheesecakes has been developed in the United States. Sara
Lee’s cheesecakes are quite popular (and addictive) because they require no
preparation, just defrosting.
cheese steak
Thinly sliced beef topped with melted cheese and fried onions, served on a long
roll.
chef
A chef cook who plans menus and supervises often in preparation of food. A chef
also develops recipes and makes food purchases. In high-class restaurants, a chef
shows up in a dining room, greets the guests, and asks for their opinion about food
and wines. The most valued customers can be invited by the chef for a special free
dinner in the kitchen of the restaurant, where one can watch cooks work and
sample all the foods on the menu, wines, and desserts.
Chelsea bun
A small round cake with dried fruit in it and sugar on the top.
cherry bounce
A traditional New Year’s Eve drink of Dutch settlers in America along with
cookies, a pound cake (it weighs a pound), and wine. Cherry bounce consists of
cider, whiskey, and cherries.
chewing gum
A sweetened and flavored preparation for chewing, usually made of chicle, a gumlike
substance obtained from the latex of certain tropical American trees. Chewing gum
was invented in 1860, thanks to exiled Mexican general Antonio Lopez de Santa
Anna (responsible for the massacre at the Alamo), who brought with Mm to Staten
Island a large chunk of chicle. Tasteless chicle was first flavored in 1871 by a druggist
from Louisville, Kentucky, John Colgan. The new brand was called Taffy-Tolu. In
1880, another brand hit the market, Black Jack, with essence of licorice concocted by
Thomas Adams. This brand is still in existence. Then came peppermint gum, Thomas
Wrigley's Spearmint and Juicy Fruit, which became top-selling chewing gums at the

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end of the 19th century. Today, Americans chew gum at the rate of 10 million
pounds/4.5 million kg a year.
chick-pea
A large brown pea which is cooked and eaten: Garbanzo.
chili (or chile)
A dish similar to chili con carne but containing no meat.
chiliburger
A hamburger topped with chili con carne.
chili con carne
A highly seasoned Tex-Mex dish made with ground or diced beef, chilies or chili
powder, and often tomatoes and beans. Despite the Spanish name, it is today more
American than Mexican. It is said to have been first made by missionaries in what
was then part of Mexico, and now is Arizona or New Mexico - a good way of
using up the local stringy beef. Сhili is served everywhere - from a roadside dinner
to a classy restaurant. The best chili is made in the American Southwest, especially
in Texas, where it is considered the national cuisine. Chili cooking has become a
major competitive spot.
chili dog
A hot dog topped with chili con carne.
chilies rellenos
A Mexican dish of green jalapeno peppers stuffed with cheese or meat, dipped in
batter, and fried. It is a common staple of the American Southwest.
chili powder
A powdered mixture of dried chilies, cumin, oregano, garlic, etc., used as a
seasoning.
chili sauce
A sauce of tomatoes cooked with chili peppers and spices.
china
1. thin hard clay used for making plates, cups etc. a. (usually before nouns) made
from china: porcelain: a china milk jug. 2. plates, cups etc. made from china: hand-
painted china.
chip pan
A large deep pan used for cooking chips in hot oil.
chipped beef
Thin slices of shavings of dried, smoked beef, often served in a cream sauce.
chitterlings (or chitlings or chitlins)
The small intestine of swine, especially when prepared as food. It is considered to
be an important component of soul food. Popular chiefly in the southeastern part of
the country, chitterlings are also known as far west as Missouri and Arkansas and
may be bought in the markets in the African-American sections of northern cities.
chocolate-chip cookies
One of America’s favorite cookies. According to legend, it was first baked around
1930s at the Toll House Inn, Whitman, Massachusetts, as a signature dessert of a

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new hotel (hence its other name, Toll House cookies). They became so popular
that by 1939 the Nestlé Company introduced a line of semi-sweet chocolate chips
Chocolate Morsels to keep up with the demand.
chop house
A restaurant specializing in chops and steaks.
chopstick
One of a pair of thin sticks held in one hand and used in East Asian cultures for
eating food.
chop suey
A Chinese-American dish of small pieces of meat, chicken, etc, cooked with
onions, mushrooms, bean sprouts, and other vegetables, usually served with rice
and soy sauce. It was invented by Chinese cooks working on the western railroads
in the 19th century.
chow-chow
A relish of chopped mixed pickled cucumbers, onions, tomatoes, green beans,
cauliflower, celery and red pepper in mustard sauce.
chowder (clam chowder, seafood chowder)
A thick of clams, fish, or vegetables, usually with potatoes, milk, and various
seasonings. New England or Boston chowders are divided into three group
according to the liquid used in their cooking: milk or milk and cream chowders;
stock chowders; stock and cream chowder. Manhattan chowder includes some
tomatoes and broken cream crackers stirred in before eating. A vegetarian version
is called “corn chowder.” The name of this American soup derives from French
chaudieїre for “cooking pot.”
chow mein
A Chinese-American dish of stir-fried vegetables, topped with shredded chicken,
shrimp, etc., and served with fried noodles.
Christmas cake
The Christmas cake seems to be almost a necessary ingredient of British
Christmas, Americans eat traditionally more pies than cakes at Christmas, But
fairly recently there appeared a new custom of serving a special birthday cake at
Christmas to honor the birth of Christ. This custom is observed mostly in Christian
families, as Better Homes and Gardens (December, 1985) states. A popular kind of
Christmas cake in a shape of a log is called Yule log.
Christmas cookies
In America, a Christmas cookie is a special small flat and crisp biscuit made from
sweet dough and eaten at Christmas. Christmas cookies are often made in the
shapes of Christmas symbols (angel, a star, a ball, a fir tree, a candy cane, a bell, a
candle, a stocking, Santa, a reindeer, etc.), and most creatively decorated with
multicolored icing. In many homes, making Christmas cookies becomes a family
event, and the whole day is given to it. It is considered a good way to keep the kids
busy in a creative way as they cut out the cookies from the dough prepared by
mother, and decorate them as well, though sometimes it results in a mess and

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overeating. Cookies could be given to friends, and neighbors, poor and elderly
people in the neighborhood, etc., and even sent through the mail. Cookies giving is
thought to be a good means of teaching children to share. There is a custom in the
United States to leave some cookies and milk as treats for Santa, as children expect
his coming at Christmas Eve.
Christmas dinner
This is a meal eaten on or before Christmas Day with family and friends. In the
United States, the Christmas meal is similar to the Thanksgiving meal. Turkey is
considered to be America's favorite, while goose as a main course is thought to be
more typical of British culture. Other components of the meal in the United States
are usually potatoes, sweet potatoes, green vegetables, dressing and gravy,
cranberry sauce, nuts and fruits. As a final treat, the family may enjoy fruitcake,
plum pudding, and pumpkin or mince pie. However, Christmas dinner today is a
rather liberally treated tradition, and ham accompanied by stewed red cabbage,
pork, roast beef, goose or chicken may also be served as the main course,
substituting turkey. Each family usually has its own Christmas favorites, and the
same meal is traditionally served year after year. Christmas dinner is a very
important part of Christmas celebrations in American culture. People travel from
all parts of the country to gather around the festive table as a family. In the United
States, at Christmas people eat more than at any other time of the year and the
holiday season is described by many as the "time when you eat, and eat, and eat."
Many housewives nowadays are concerned about how to make traditional
Christmas goodies less rich in calories. Planning the menu and preparation of
holiday treats begins weeks ahead of Christmas dinner. It is quite common in the
United States to give homemade food as Christmas gifts.
Christmas Eve
This is the day, and especially the evening, before Christmas. On Christmas Eve,
the final preparations having already been made, some people go to church or
spend the evening at home as a family. Some may have a drink with their friends
or go with a group of friends to do some caroling in the neighborhood. Sometimes
presents are opened (at least one), but it is more common to wait for Santa's
coming at night, so there is anticipation and excitement in the air. The Christmas
story from the Bible can be read at Christmas Eve. The general mood seems to be
"the calm after the storm," as The Home Book of Christmas asserts. On Christmas
Eve, Santa Claus hitches his eight reindeer to a sleigh, and loads it with presents to
bring them to children all over the world, if they had been good all year.
chuck wagon
A provision and cooking wagon used in American Old West to serve men working
outdoors, as on a ranch or lumber camp. Chuck was an old British term for “food.”
chutney
A piquant relish or sauce from India, typically combining sweet and sour
ingredients, such as fruit and vinegar with sugar and spices. Chutney is used as
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cider
See apple cider.
cinnabun
Gooey breakfast buns with lots of sugar , and cinnamon; ultimate junk food.
cinnamon
A sweet - smelling substance used for giving a special taste to cakes etc.
cioppino
An Italian (Genoese) stew of fish, shellfish, tomatoes, wine, and seasonings.
According to legend, the stew was created in the thirties on the docks of San
Francisco by Italian fishermen, who used to chip in their fresh catch for a
communal after-work supper.
clam
A small shellfish (a sea animal with a hard shell around it) that can be eaten.
clambake
A picnic at the seashore at which the baking of clams, usually on hot stones under
seaweed in a main feature. The term can be also used in reference to any social
gathering, especially a noisy one.
clam chowder
See chowder.
Classic American breakfast pancake
Sift into a large mixing bowl 0.5 lb./225 g. of plain flour, a pinch of salt, 2
tablespoons of caster sugar, and 2 teaspoons of baking powder. Make a well in the
center. Mix 1 cup/275 ml milk or buttermilk with 2 beaten eggs, and 2 tablespoons
melted butter. Pour into the well in the flour. Stir together thoroughly and set aside
to rest. Melt a teaspoon of butter in a griddle or heavy frying pan. Add 2 oz/60 ml
ladlefuls of the batter, and cook until the top bubbles. Flip over and brown the
other side. Keep the pancakes warm.
club sandwich
A sandwich typically consisting of three slices of toast or bread interlaid with
chicken or turkey and bacon or ham, together with lettuce, tomato, and
mayonnaise. Such sandwiches were popularized in the 1920s and associated with
country clubs (hence the name).
cobbler
1. A deep-dish fruit with a thick biscuit crust, usually only on top. 2. An iced drink
of wine or liquor with fruit, sugar, and shaved ice.
Cobb salad
A salad of chopped greens and tomatoes, topped with diced chicken, bacon,
avocado, and hard-boiled egg.
Coca-Cola
A carbonated soft drink containing an extract from kola nuts, together with
sweeteners and other flavorings. Coca-Cola is produced by the Coca-Cola
Company, established in 1892. The drink was originated in Atlanta in 1886 by a
pharmacist, John S. Pemberton, at his Pemberton Chemical Company. The logo

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was penned by Ms bookkeeper, Frank Robinson. By 1891, another Atlanta
pharmacist, Asa Griggs Candler, had secured complete ownership of the company.
In 1899, the Coca-Cola Company signed its first agreement with an independent
bottling company, which was allowed to buy the syrup and produce, bottle, and
distribute Coca-Cola. Such licensing agreements formed the basis of a unique
distribution system that now characterizes most of the American soft drink
industry. In the 1960s, Coca-Cola bought Minute Maid Corporation, thus entering
the citrus beverage market, and introduced the lemon-lime drink Sprite and a
sugar-free cola Tab. hi 1982, Coca-Cola purchased Columbia Pictures, a motion
picture and entertainment company. Coke has long become a symbol of American
culture in a way that competitor Pepsi has never managed. As long ago as in 1950,
it inspired a word for the American cultural takeover of the planet: Coca-
Colonization. Today, Coke is sold in 195 countries and is claimed to be the second
most universally understood term in English, exceeded only by O.K. Coca-Cola
has made an indelible mark on American culture and deserved a museum of its
own—the World of Coca-Cola in Atlanta. It is the largest and best soft drink
museum in the United States.
corkscrew
A tool used pulling the corks out of wine bottles.
cocktail
A drink, usually with a lot of alcohol in it, made by mixing different drinks
together.
cocktail hour
An early evening hour, after 5 p. m., considered ideal for the first alcoholic drink
of the day.
Cocktail lounge
A public room, as in a hotel or restaurant, where alcoholic drinks are served,
People under 21 are not allowed in cocktail lounges.
cocktail napkin
A small square paper napkin served with a drink. It is smaller than a dinner napkin.
cocktail party
A social informal gathering, usually held in the early evening, at which cocktails
and light refreshments are served but not a complete meal.
cocktail shaker
A container for mixing different drinks to make cocktails.
cocoa
1. A brown powder made from cocoa beans that is used for making chocolate or
chocolate-flavored foods and drinks. 2. A hot chocolate-flavored drink made from
milk, cocoa, and sugar, or a cup of this drink.
cocoa butter
A type of fat made from cocoa beans and used in making chocolate, cosmetics, and
soap.
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A large nut that has white flesh and a hard brown shell covered with fibers like
rough hair. a. The white flesh of a coconut.
coconut milk
The sweet thin liquid contained in a coconut, used in drinks and in Asian and
Caribbean cooking.
coed (or co-ed)
Serving both men and women alike; coeducational.
coffee
The custom of drinking coffee reached the American colonies in 1689, and coffee
houses flourished in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. Today, Americans drink
great quantities of coffee (8 lb/4.02 kg, which makes 603 cups per capita a year),
although, compared to Norwegians, it is not much (19 lb/9.04 kg, which makes
1,356 cups per capita a year). Most restaurants charge for a cup of coffee and offer
as many refills as one likes. Gourmet coffees, such as Irish coffee, are served at
fancier restaurants. There is a significant difference in coffee culture of the West
and East Coasts. The West Coast coffee culture was bom in hip, cerebral Seattle
and fathered by Starbucks. On the East Coast, the epicenter of a brewing coffee
counterculture is the prosaic town of Randolph, Massachusetts, home of the 48-
year-old Dunkin' Donuts chain. Newsweek quoted a customer of Dunkin' Donuts:
"Starbuck's whole experience is too designed and too much of a show. I just want a
cup of coffee." In the United States, coffee is more popular than tea and Americans
are not familiar with exquisite British tea drinking culture. If you ask for a cup of
tea at an American restaurant, expect to get a teapot of lukewarm water and a tea
bag, which will make a cup of brownish liquid that does not resemble tea at all.
coffee break
A break, usually 10-15 minutes, from work for coffee, a snack, etc. Usually, an
employee is allowed two coffee breaks, one in the mid-morning between 10 and 11
a.m., and one in the afternoon, between 3 and 4 p.m.
coffee cake
A cake or sweetened bread often made or topped with nuts, raisins, and cinnamon
and glazed with melted sugar.
coffee machine
A machine for brewing coffee. Many offices have coffee machines that brew free
coffee for the employees during working hours.
coffee table
A long, low table usually set before a couch.
coffee-table book
A large attractive book, with a lot of pictures, placed on a coffee table, and meant
not to be read, but looked at.
Coke
First the word “coke” was used as a slang expressions for cocaine. In the 1940s,
the Coca-Cola Company had it trademarked for Coca-Cola. Now it came to mean
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cola
A carbonated soft drink. Shortening of Coca-Cola and Pepsi- Cola.
cold cuts
Thinly sliced ham, salami, etc., usually served as finger food at recetions. It is less
common in the United States than in Europe to serve cold cuts.
coleslaw
A Dutch-American salad of finely sliced or chopped raw cabbage, usually dressed
with a seasoned mayonnaise.
complimentary bar
A bar at a special, often private function, that offers free drinks to those in
attendance. Sometimes, in addition to a complimentary bar, there is also a cash (or
no-host) bar selling strong alcohol and cocktails.
confectioner’s sugar
An extra-fine variety of powdered sugar, used in icing, confections, etc.
consommé
A clear soup made from rich meat or fish stock.
Consumer Price Indez (CPI)
An economic gauge of inflation that measures the average change in prices of
basic goods and services over a particular period of time.
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
A government agency that evaluates and enforces safety standards for consumer
products. To keep the consumers aware about available products Consumers
Digest magazine, among others, publishes product reviews, reports, best buys,
discount prices, and buying guides.
continental breakfast
A breakfast of breads, pastry and coffee or tea. It is usually offered by hotels
among other breakfast options.
convenience foods
Convenience foods arrived at American culinary scene in the 1850s. Borden’s
condensed milk (1857) was followed by the 1920s commercially sliced bread and
the 1950s pre-sliced cheese. Then came different mixes. A home feezer bought
frozen foods (frozen dinner supplies a complete meal, for example). Boil-in-a-bag
items arrived in the 1960s. Everything from Salisbury steak to broccoli in cheese
sauce could be ready to eat in minutes. In the 1970s and 1980s, the microwave
provide new ways to make life easier for the cook. The 1990s brought fresh salad
mixes in a bag. In the United States, taste was sacrificed to convenience, and time
saving became a priority.
Convenience store
A small local store (also called “mini-mart”), often at a gas station, that is open late
and sells food (sandwiches, deep-fried stuff, etc), cigarettes, drinks, and other basic
items.
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“Cookie” is a Dutch word for a little cake. Cookies were brought by Dutch settlers
of New Amsterdam and became a traditional New Year’s treat along with a pound
cake, wine, and cherry bounce. The British term for cookie is “biscuit.”
cookie jar
a container with a lid, often in the shape of some animal - a pig, a cow, etc. - used
for storing cookies.
coon cheese
A sharp, deep-colored, crumbly cheddar.
corking fee
Until recently, restaurants in the United States did not allow their customers to
bring alcoholic beverages with them for drinking at their premises. Now, at some
establishments, customers are allowed to bring their own wine but are asked to pay
a special fee for opening the bottle, that is for “crking” - $10-15 depending on the
level of the restaurant.
corn
Called maize by American Indians, corn became known in Europe in the 15th
century. Corn was economically crucial for many Indian tribes and vitally
important for white settlers in New England. American dishes based on corn are
numerous: corn on a cob, hush puppies, corn dogs, corn dodgers, cornmeal mush,
succotash, hominy grits, cornbread, corncake, corn chips, corn pone, cornflakes,
etc. Corn is also used as feed for live-stock. The United States grows 44 % of the
world’s corn.
cornbread
A bread, especially a quick bread baked on a griddle, typical of North America.
corncake
In Midland and southern United States, a flat corn bread baked on griddle.
corn chip
A thin, crisp piece of snack food made from cornmeal. Often eaten with dips.
corn dodger
A small cornmeal cake either baked or fried or boiled as a dumpling.
corn dog
A frankfurter impaled on a stick, dipped in cornmeal batter and baked or deep-
fried.
corned beef
Beef cured in a seasoned brine and cooked. Corned beef is of Irish origion and is
traditionally cooked with cabbage on St. Patrick’s Day.
corned beef hash
A mixture of diced corned or salted beef, potatoes, white sauce, and seasonings,
sometimes served for breakfast.
Corner store
A small store, often on a street corner, that sells food and household goods and is
used especially by the people who live nearby.
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Small toasted flakes made from corn and eaten usually with milk as a breakfast
cereal. Allegedly, invented accidentally at Kellogg’s Institute when experimenting
with cereals.
Cornish game hen
A market chicken that is 4 to 5 weeks old and weighs less than 2 pounds / 900 g.
Corned hen is easy to cook and is often served at Christmas dinner as a substitute
for a co traditional turkey or ham.
cornmeal
Ground corn used as flour.
corn pone
In southern United States, corn bread, especially of a plain or simple kind.
Corona
A brand of Mexican beer. It was fashionable in the 1980s to have it with a twist of
lime tucked into the bottle’s long neck.
cottage cheese
A soft, loose, mild-flavored unripened cheese made from skim-milk curds.
cottage fries
The term is used chiefly in northern and North Midland United States for home
fried potatoes.
cotton candy
A fluffy, sweet confection whipped from spun sugar and wound around a stick or
paper cone. It was first served in 1904 at the World’s Fair in St. Louis, Missouri.
Cotton candy remains one of the treats associated with fairs, amusement parks, and
circuses.
coupon
A coupon system allows to shop or receive services at discount. Shopping coupons
enable low-income people to buy items, mostly food, at lower prices, or get two
for the price of one. Medical coupons in the United States are available both for
residents and foreigners who meet certain requirements when undergoing
treatment at a hospital.
couscous
A North African dish of steamed, crackerd wheat, usually served with lamb or
chicken and sauce with vegetables. Though exotic, couscous became popular in the
United States, especially among those Americans who have weight problems.
crab cakes
Pan-fried cakes, made of crab meat mixed with spices. This dish came from the
East Coast and originally was made only of famous Maryland blue crab.
crab Louis
Cold crab in spicy mayonnaise dressing, served as an appetizer.
Cracker Jack
A confection of caramel-coated popcorn and peanuts fist sold in 1893, at the
Chicago World’s Fair. The popularity of Cracker Jacks is reflected in a popular
song Take Me to the Ball Game, which became an unofficial baseball anthem:

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Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack,
I don’t care if I never get back…
cranberry
Small, red sour tasting berries that were entirely unknown to the herbalists of the
16th - 17th centuries. Cranberries grow wild in cranberry bogs and are also culti-
vated in Wisconsin, Washington, Oregon, and Massachusetts (where they are
sometimes called "bounceberries" since they bounce when ripe). The world's
largest producer is a farmers' cooperative, Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. of
Plymouth, Massachusetts. Cape Codders host a Cranberry Harvest Festival every
year in September in Harwich, Massachusetts. Cranberry was imported to England
as early as 1686. In the 18th century, the name began to be applied to the British
species. This berry is very closely associated with Thanksgiving and Christmas,
because without cranberry sauce served with roasted turkey the festive dinner is
not complete. Its red berries can also be served at Christmas table with other fruits,
as well as added to salads and pies. Sometimes strands of cranberries are used as
Christmas tree decorations.
cranberry sauce
This is a sweet thick sauce made of cranberry served in the United States with
turkey at Christmas and Thanksgiving dinners. According to Karen Hess, an expert
in American culinary history, it was Mary Randolf, a relative of both Martha
Washington and Thomas Jefferson, who was the first to suggest serving cranberry
sauce with turkey, reviving a medieval custom of serving barberries with meat.
cream cheese
A soft, white, spreadable unripened cheese made of sweet milk and sometimes
cream. Philadelphia cream cheese which can be light, nonfat, and regular is the
most popular.
creamer
1. A white liquid or powder used instead of milk or cream: non-dairy creamers. 2.
A small container with a handle used for pouring cream.
creamery
A place where butter and cheese are made.
creampuff
A small light cake that is empty inside and be filled with whipped cream.
crème frainche
A type of thick cream with a slightly sour flavor.
Creole cuisine
Southern states along the Atlantic coast are known for distinctive Creole cooking,
characterized by the use of subtle French flavorings and butter-and-flour-based
sauces, the stronger Spanish seasonings, the presence of herbs such as file, the
culinary ingenuity of the African cooks, and elements of Native American cultures.
Jambalaya and gumbo thickened with okra are the most representative of Creole
cookery, Creole cooking is formal and apt to be served in courses.
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A thin dessert pancake heated in the sauce of butter and orange-flavored liqueur
and served flambê. At the restaurants crêpes Suzette are usually cooked on a small
burner right at the table and served hot.
cress
A small plant with round green leaves that have a strong flavor and are eaten raw
in salads or used for decorating food.
crockery
Plates, cups, and bowls etc. used for serving food.
croissant
A roll of leavened of dough or puff pastry shaped into a crescent and baked.
Croissants were introduced to America from Austria during the Roaring Twenties.
(Austrian bakers started making them in 1863, when their troops successfully
besienged the forces of Ottoman Empire (a crescent is the Turkish symbol)).
Americans love croissants for breakfast in every form-plain, chocolate, or filled
with raspberries or blueberries. Burger King fast-food chain has come up lately
with a new kind of burger served on a croissant-crossandwich.
croquette
A food made from a mixture of pieces of fish, meat, or vegetables pressed into a
circular or tube shape, covered with breadcrumbs, and cooked in oil.
crouton
A small piece of hard bread served on soup and in salads (usually plural).
cruller
A Dutch pastry familiar throught the Northeast, the upper Midwest, and California.
It is basically a doughnut, but twisted.
Cuisibart
A brand of food processor. Nearly every American kitchen has one (even a verb to
cuisinart, “to mix together” was coined). The brand name also came to mean
anything that obliterates distinctions and creates homogeneity.
cuisine
1. A particular style of cooking food, especially the style of a particular country or
region: Thai/Italian cuisine. 2. The food you can eat in a particular place,
especially a restaurant or hotel: a chance to try the local cuisine.
culinary
Relating to food and how to cook it: culinary delights = (very good food).
cup
1. A small round container for a drink, usually with a handle: cups and saucers. 2.
A unit of measure.
curry
A pungent Indian or Thai dish of meat, fish, or vegetables cooked in a sauce with a
curry powder, a mixture of turmeric, coriander, cumin, pepper, etc.
cut prices
All gas companies have prices for gas ending in 9 cents. At the grocery stores
canned goods are priced “four for 97 cents,” so that you have to pay 25 cents for a

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single can. Allegedly, J. C. Penney, the founder of the J. C. Penney chain of
department stores, started the practice not to lure customers seeking cut-rate
bargains, but to force his salespeople to ring up the sale on the sale the cash
register to return change to the customer. Thus, he ended the practice of dishonest
clerks simply pocketing the dollar.

Dagwood (sandwich)
A thick sandwich filled with a variety of meats, cheese, and condiments. Named
after Dagwood Burnstead, a character in the comic strip Blondie, who makes and
eats such sandwiches. A properly made Dagwood sandwich measures eight inches
20 cm. high and contains at least five different meats and ten different vegetables
and cheeses (leftovers are perfect for this, America’s most profound culinary
innovations).
dairy products
American dairy products include milk (1-2% fat), or skim (non-fat) milk,
homogenized milk, buttermilk (1-5% fat), soy milk, yoplait, cream (called Half-
and-Half), whipping cream, sour cream (1,5% fat low fat, or non-fat), yogurt (1-
1,5% fat or non-fat), butter (salted, unsalted, whipped), cottage cheese, various
kinds of margarine, cheeses.
Dairy Queene
A trade name for a fast-food franchise specializing in frozen desserts.
Danish pastry
A rich, flaky, yeast-leavened pastry, often filled with cheese, nuts, almond paste, or
fruit.
decaf
A short form of decaffeinated coffee, tea, or soft drinks. Caffeine has been a
subject of many scientific studies in the United States. Most of them conclude that
caffeine is harmful to the human body. Today, health-conscious Americans switch
to decaf drinks.
decant
To pour wine out of one container and into another so that the sediment is left
behind.
decanter
A special glass bottle that you pour an alcoholic drink into before serving it to
people.
deep freezer
An appliance used for freezing (as opposed to simply chilling in a refrigerator) and
storing food. People with large families often have deep freezers.
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Fried in a quality of fat sufficient to cover the food being cooked. Deep fried food
(French fries, doughnuts, corn pones, etc) are tasty, high in fat, unhealthy, and very
much loved by all Americans.
deli
Short for delicatessen, a store which serves ready-to-eat food such as meats, soups,
salads, and cheeses, which also came to be identified by the same word, as in deli
food.
Delmonico’s
A New York City restaurant on 44th and Fifth Avenue founded by Swiss
Delmonico brothers in 1837. It was one of the most fashionable restaurants of the
Gilded Age, It is famous for its steaks, lobsters, Newburg chicken a la king, and
pies a la mode.
Denver sandwich
Known as the Western sandwich in most parts of the country, it is an omelet with
onions, green pepper and chopped ham, between slices of bread or toast.
Department store
A large retail store organized into various departments of merchandise. The most
famous U.S. department stores are Macy’s, Bloomingdale’s, J.C. Penney,
Marshall’s Sears, etc.
deskfast
A relatively new phenomenon in American eating habits, deskfast is breakfast
eaten at the desk in the office.
deviled eggs
Fancy hard-boiled eggs stuffed with a mixture of egg yolk, mayonnaise, paprika,
and garlic. Deviled eggs became a nationwide craze around the turn of the century
and were mentioned-along with fried chicken-in numerous novels as the
quintessential picnic food.
devil’s food cake
A rich, dark chocolate cake. On the model of angel food cake.
diet
It is a well-known fact that dieting has become an obsession in the United States:
diet plans, diet pills, diet foods, all sort of miracle remedies offering almost instant
results. However, according to an official estimate, there are more than 40 million
overweight people in the United States, who effectively support a 90-billion-dollar
diet industry. Americans are preoccupied with weight problems, yet they prefer the
classic American diet-meat, dairy and egg-based foods. Though the reference is
humorous, such a diet may have grave consequences. It is proved scientifically,
that the majority of patients suffering from cancer and other chronic diseases have
diets high in red meat, cream and cheeses.
dill pickle
A cucumber pickle flavored with dill. Sweet and sour pickles are of German
origin, as well as sauerkraut, American use for pickling special small and firm

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pickling cucumbers, which are never used in salads. Long English cucumbers are
considered a suitable salad ingredient.
dim sum
Chinese-style steamed dumplings and other savory dishes, served in small
portions.
diner
An inexpensive restaurant serving simple American fare-hamburgers, ham and
eggs, etc. They are open for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Can be found in any town
or along highways.
dinner
The main meal of the day, eaten in the evening, between 6 p.m. and 9 p.m. A
dinner party is a social gathering featuring an evening meal usually consisting of
an appetizer (salad, soup), a main course or entrée, and dessert. A dinner party is
normally precede by cocktail and finger foods, and followed by cognac, port, etc.
In Texas, dinner is called “supper”, and lunch, “dinner.”
dinner napkin
A big napkin, paper or fabric, used when eating at the table. It is bigger than
cocktail napkin, which is always paper.
dip
One of several foods that can be served before dinner or at a party. Cheese, sour
cream, yogurt, vegetables, crab meat, and eggs are all used to make dips. Crackers,
potato or corn chips, and raw vegetables are usually served with dips. Two popular
American dips - guacamole (made from avocados) and salsa (made from tomatoes)
- are of Mexican origin. The easiest dip to prepare is onion dip. It is made of dried
onion soup and sour cream, and often served with potato chips.
dirty rice
Rice with Cajun spices, beans, and usually sausage.
dissolve
If a solid substance dissolves in a liquid, it is mixed into the liquid so that it
becomes included in it: Dissolve the sugar in one tablespoon of water.
Dixie Cup
A brand of disposal waxed paper cup, as for beverages introduced in 1908 by
International Paper Company. Even then it was considered sanitary to use disposal
cups. The cup was so cheap that it could be disposed of after drinking.
doggie bag
A small bag or other container provided by a restaurant for a customer to take
home leftovers, which are usually not for dogs but for dog owners.
dollar day
A sale day on which some merchandise is reduced to one dollar or another low
price.
dolma

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A traditional Greek dish of grape leaves stuffed with finely chopped onions,
parsley, dill, rice and ground lamb. It is one of the many ethnic foods available in
the United States.
doughnut (or donut)
A small, usually ring-shaped cake or sweetened dough fried in deep fat, or a raised
ball of deep-fried dough, filled with jelly, custard, etc. For over 250 years,
doughnuts, which originated in Holland, did not have holes in the center. The hole
was an American modification. Hanson Gregory, a sea captain from Maine, is
credited to have poked holes in his mother’s doughnuts in 1847 for more uniform
frying. Today Hanson Gregory’s contribution of the hole is commemorated in his
hometown of Rockport, Maine, by a bronze plaque.
draft beer
Beer drawn, or available to be drawn from a cask (as opposed to bottled beer).
drain
To let liquid flow away from something: When the pasta is cooked, drain it and
serve immediately.
Drive-in (or drive-thru- or drive-up)
These terms are interchangeable and refer to the services offered by fast-food
restaurants.
For the driver to order food without leaving the car, or at the bank to make a quick
transaction. Before the 1940s, the term “drive-in” referred to gas stations, outdoor
drive-in movie theaters, and later to describe takeout windows of restaurants or
theaters, and in the 1990s, drive-in banks. The first drive-in windows was tested by
McDonald’s in 1956 in Columbus, Ohio. However, today the tendency is to use
“drive-thru” when referring to fast-food restaurants, and to bank tellers.
Dr. Pepper
The world’s oldest bottled soft drink, first served in Waco, Texas, in 1885. Despite
the name, it has nothing to do with medicine, it is simply a refreshing soda. Dr.
Pepper is more an institution in Texas than anywhere else in the country. The
nation’s oldest Dr. Pepper bottling plant is in Dallas, and every year the city hosts
a wild Lone-Star-State-style celebration on the anniversary of its founding.
drugstore
The place of business of a druggist, usually also selling toiletries, cosmetics,
stationary, etc., and sometimes soft drinks and light meals
Such stores were essential in rural towns but have been largely replaced by
supermarkets and shopping malls.
Dry-goods store
An old-fashioned term for a store where textile, fabric, sewing thread, buttons, and
other related merchandise are sold. Today such stores are called “fabric stores.”
dumpling
A wrapping of dough enclosing fruit or a savory filling, such as of meat or cheese,
and steamed, baked, or fried.
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E
ealy-bird restaurant
An establishment serving breakfast from 6 a.m. and offering special rates for food
served before 9 a.m.
early-bird special
A reduced-price meal at a restaurants for those seated early.
Easter Bunny
The custom of the Easter rabbit came to America with German immigrants to
Pennsylvania in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Easter Bunny represents new life
(rabbits are known for their fertility), and is believed to come during the night and
leave Easter baskets of chocolate Easter eggs (the egg is symbol of recurrection)
and jellybeans for children to find on Easter Sunday. Parents also hide colored
hard-boiled eggs or chocolate Easter eggs in the house and backyards for children
to hunt (Easter-Egg hunt). It is also became an annual event which takes place on
the lawn of the White House in Washington, D.C. Another Easter tradition, eating
an Easter ham, was made a custom by the English to spite the Jewish custom of not
eating pork. White lily is considered a traditional Easter flower. It is proper to
decorate a house with white lilies in that day or give it as a gift. Due to austere
religious denominations, such as Quakers, Presbyterians, and Puritans, the Easter
Bunny did not gain acceptance in America until after the Civil War, when Easter
began to be observed all over the country.
eating out
Americans quite often prefer eating out rather than cook dinner at home. Eating out
is relatively affordable because restaurants widely range in prices. However,
families with kids would rather eat at home on weekdays (it’s cheaper), and
probably eat out once in a while on weekends.
eating spinach
Spinach is universally hated by kids, though, supposedly, it makes them strong and
healthy and helps grow. The idea was popularized in a series of animated cartoons.
Popeye, the Sailor, where Popeye was always eating spinach to fight his rival
Pluto.
éclair
A type of cake shaped like a tube with chocolate on top and cream inside.
egg cream
A cold beverage made with milk, chocolate syrup, and soda water.
egg foo yong
A Chinese – American dish consisting of a pancake-shaped omelette containing a
mixture of chopped meat and onions.
Egg McMuffin

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A McDonald’s sandwich filled with a fried egg, cheese, and meat (sausage, ham,
or bacon). Egg McMuffin first hit the market in 1971, as a result of McDonald’s
efforts to make their breakfast food portable. It has since become a multimillion-
dollar business: one-third of its revenue now comes from is breakfast business.
eggnog
A thick drink made of beaten eggs, milk or cream, sugar, and usually rum, brandy,
or whiskey. It used to be a traditional Christmas and New Year’s Eve beverage of
Americans of German ancestry, but now it seems to be another all-American
favorite.
egg roll
A Chinese-American snack of a thin casing of egg dough rolled around a mixture
of minced meat or shrimp, bamboo shoots, bean sprouts, etc., and deep fried.
egg Benedict
Toasted halves of the English muffin, each covered with a slice of ham and a
poached egg and topped with hollandaise sauce. This dish, as well as Waldorf
salad, was created by the Waldorf Astoria Hotel chefs. After a Samuel Benedict,
for whom it was reportedly designed as a hangover cure (!!!).
enchilada
A Mexican dish made of a tortilla, rolled, filled, and baked in sauce.
English muffin
A rather flat muffin made from yeast dough, typically baked on a griddle, and then
split and toasted before eating. Muffins are traditional breakfast food.
entrée
The main course of a meal. An entrée is served after appetizer.
escargots
A French dish of edibable snails with butter and garlic served in the United States
at expensive restaurants.
ethnic-food restaurants
A restaurant serving food of a specific non-Anglo culture, such as Mexican, Greek,
Russian, Chinese, Mediterranean, Japanese, etc.
F
fajitas
This dish of Mexican origin became very popular in the 1980s. It is usually made
of strips of marinated beef, onions, green peppers, spices and herbs, and served on
tortillas, with guacamole, refried beans, or rice on the side. Fajitas is quick to
prepare and easy to eat, and is increasingly familiar in fast-food restaurants.
falafel, felafel
One of many ethnic food in America from the Middle East, which is made from
crushed chick peas, fava beans, green peppers, onions, parsley and radishes,
formed into balls, and fried.
fast-food restaurants
A network of restaurants popular in the United States for 25 years. These
restaurants got that name because food is ordered and served very quickly to the

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people “on the go.” Speed is the value of fast food, not quality. Billions of
hamburgers, fries, and colas have been served in these restaurants. McDonald’s is
a prototypical hamburger-and-milkshake restaurant.
fettuccine
Italian-style egg noodles in the form of fat, narrow strips. Fettuccini served with a
rich cream and cheese sauce is called “fettuccini Alfredo.” It is a common staple
served by any Italian restaurant.
file
A powder made from the leaves of the sassafras tree, used as a thickener and
flavoring, especially in Creole soups and gumbos.
filet mignon
A small tender round of steak cut from the thick end of the beef tenderloin. It is the
choicest and most expensive meat. Depending on the restaurant, the filet mignon
price may vary from $12 to $40.
finger food
Snack food, such as cold cuts, cheese and crackers, boiled and chilled shrimps, raw
vegetables and dips, served at the receptions and parties (not-sit-down dinners).
Fingos
Fingos is basically “eat-from-the-box” cereal finger-food produced by General
Mills company, and targeted at consumers who are too busy to have breakfast
before leaving for work.
fish and chips
A relatively inexpensive simple dish of fried, batter-coated fish with French-fried
potatoes, served not only in cheap dinners but at rather fancy restaurants as well.
five-and-dime
A store offering a wide assortment of inexpensive items, often at reduced prices,
for personal and household use. The first five-and-dime store was the Woolworth’s
(opened in 1879), where the goods were priced at a nickel and dime (hence the
name). Smaller, family-owned shops usually cannot compete with large discount
stores. Also called five-and-ten-cent store, five-and-ten store, five-and-dime, dime
store, discount store.
flapjack
Same as a pancake or a griddlecake.
flatware
1. Utensils, such as knives, forks, and spoons, used at the table for serving and
eating food. Also, silverware. 2. Dishes for the table that are more or less flat, as
plates and saucers.
foi gra
The liver of specially fattened geese, or ducks, used as a table delicacy at European
food restaurants in the United States.
fondue
A dish of Swiss origin consisting of melted cheese, white wine, seasonings, and
often kirsch, served hot with pieces of bread for dipping.

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foodaholic
A person having an excessive, often uncontrollable craving for food (on the model
of alcoholic).
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
A government agency within the Department of Health and Human Services that
monitors the purity and safety of food, cosmetics, and drugs, and the radiation
hazards of TV sets and microwave ovens, truth in packaging and labeling
information; and sanitary practices in restaurants and other food-handling
establishments.
fortune cookie
A folded edible wafer containing a slip of paper with a printed maxim or
prediction. They are usually served at Chinese restaurants after meal. Fortune
cookies were invented in Los Angeles in the second decade of the 20th century.
frankfurter
A cooked and smoked sausage usually of beef and pork that is skinless or in a
casing.
French bread
A yeast-raised white bread with a thick, crisp crust, typically made in long, slender
loaves. French bread is baked daily and delivered to the supermarkets (European-
style small-scale bakeries are not common in the United States). It does not contain
any preservatives as pre-sliced breads, and is good when fresh.
French dressing
1. Salad dressing prepared chiefly from oil, vinegar, and seasonings; vinaigrette. 2.
A creamy, usually, orange in color, and often sweet salad dressing, that does not
have anything to do with French cuisine.
French fries (or French-fried potatoes or fries)
Strips of potatoes that have been deep-fried. French fries were popularized in
America by Thomas Jefferson, once an ambassador in France, in the 1700s. It was
first served to guests in his home in Monticello and immediately became a popular
dinner fare.
French onion soup
Onion soup topped with a toast and cheese and then baked.
French toast
Bread dipped in egg-and-milk batter, then fried. Americans prefer toasts heated up
in a toaster (they are not so fattening).
fricassee
Chicken or other meat cut in pieces, lightly sautéed, stewed, and served usually in
a white sauce made with its own stock.
fried rice
An Oriental dish of rice fried with meat or seafood and vegetables.
fried green tomatoes
Thickly cut green tomatoes fried in a protective coating of flour or bread crumbs.
Typical southern staple of French origin.

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fries
See French fries.
frost
To put icing on a cake.
frozen
Preserved by being made extremely cold and stored at a very low temperature:
frozen food/meal. The father of frozen foods is Clarence Birdseye, 1886-1956.
fruit cake
A rich cake of British origin containing dried or candied fruit, nuts, spices, etc. In
the United States, it is a common Christmas treat. Usually it is done well before
Christmas. In the United States, fruitcake has come to be regarded as a rather
unwelcome Christmas gift since “there are too many fruitcakes around at
Christmas time. Everyone gives it, no one eats it. It’s almost like giving your father
a tie”. It has become somewhat of a joke to receive fruitcakes through the mail at
Christmas. Mention fruitcake in a polite company these days and you may be met
with a few stickers. Fruitcake has sadly become, for many, a culinary anachronism.
It may be also thought of as something ancient and rock-hard due to the fact it’s
been prepared a long time before Christmas. Fruitcake is also ascribed a symbolic
meaning by some Christians, the fruit representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit, the
bread being Jesus (the bread of life).
fruit cup
An assortment of fruit cut into pieces and served in a cup or glass as an appetizer
or dessert.
fudge
A soft candy made with sugar, butter, milk, and chocolate or other flavoring.

G
garbage bag
A plastic bag for storing trash. In the United States, it is common to pack trash
before disposal.
garbage disposal
A device fitted to the drain of a kitchen sink that breaks up waste food so that it
can go down the drain with water.
garlic bread
Cooked French bread spread with garlic and butter, wrapped in foil and heated up
in the oven before serving. Garlic bread is usually served with Italian meals.
garnish
1.To add something to a dish of food to make it look more attractive: Garnish the
fish with lemon slices. 2. Something that you add to a dish of food to make it look
more attractive: Use some of parsley as a garnish.
gazpacho

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A cold soup of Spanish origin made with oil and vinegar, and chopped tomatoes,
cucumbers, onions, and garlic.
Gerneral store
A small store, usually one large room, that sells a variety of goods. It is usually
located in a rural area, and may comprise a gas station. The general store is often
the only commercial outlet in the community, and so it will stock not only
groceries, but dry goods, hardware, clothing, and notions (buttons, threads,
ribbons, etc.) as well. Many general stores also house the local post office. A
gerneral store is usually a meeting place for the entire community, where sooner or
later one is bound to see almost everyone living in the area. Now general stores are
largely replaced by general merchandise stores which are department and variety
stores, or shopping centers.
Gerber baby
Trademark of the Gerber baby food company. The face was sketched in 1928 by
artist Dorothy Hope Smith. This brand of baby food is the most popular in the
United States.
German potato salad
A hot salad of potato chunks, bacon, and a vinegar dressing. It is sold at every deli,
and is a typical lunch fare. German potato salad has become an American classic
as much as pizza or pasta.
gherkin
The small immature fruit of a variety of cucumber, used in pickling. Gherkins are
served at receptions along with other finger food.
giblet gravy
A sauce made with poultry innards, most commonly turkey. Served with roast
turkey on Thanksgiving.
ginger
1. A thick light brown root with a strong flavor that is used as a spice in cooking.
2. Containing or tasting of ginger: ginger biscuits.
ginger ale
A carbonated soft drink flavored with ginger extract.
ginger beer
A soft drink similar to ginger ale but containing more ginger flavor.
gingerbread
A type of cake fancifully shaped cookie flavored with ginger and molasses. These
cookies are used to make gingerbread houses at Christmas not only as food but
decorations, too. They can be highly elaborate, with a lot of details. Making
gingerbread houses is time-consuming but this is a good chance to spend time
together with children though generally grandmothers are believed to make them
for their grandchildren. Gingerbread houses are displayed at homes and public
places. There are contests held by such magazines as Good Housekeeping where
people send their creations (and these are really fairy-tale gingerbread castles!).

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Since 1969 the executive chef at the White House has built elaborate gingerbread
houses for display in the State Dining Room.
ginger sna
A small, crisp cookie flavored with ginger and molasses.
glass
1. A hard clear substance used for making objects such as windows, or bottles. 2.
A small container made of glass used for a drink: a wine/brandy/beer glass.
Golden Arches
An alternative informal name for a McDonald’s restaurant. The gold- colored “M”,
which looks like a pair of arches, is a trademark of McDonald’s.
Gorgonzola or gorgonzola
A type of soft white and blue Italian cheese with a strong taste.
goulash
A Hungarian stew (thick soup) made from meat and vegetables and hot red pepper:
beef goulash.
gourmand
1. Someone who enjoys good food and wine. 2. Someone who eats too much.
gourmet
1. Someone who knows a lot about good food and wine. 2. Gourmet food is of a
very high quality: a gourmet meal, a gourmet cook is someone who can make very
good food.
gourmet coffee
(also specialty coffee) Coffee made with spices, liqueur, rum, whiskey, such as
Irish coffee.
Graham cracker
A cracker made from coarsely ground, whole unified wheat flour and slightly
sweetened. After Sylvester Graham (1794-1815), aminister who preached healthy
eating, including coarse wheat flour, fresh fruit and vegetables, and water. First
marketed after Graham’s death, the crackers still appeal to American taste.
granola
A breakfast food of rolled oats, nuts, dried fruit, brown sugar, etc, usually served
with milk. Originally it was called “granola” and promoted by followers of
Sylvester Graham. The product was recommended by John Kellogg to his patients
at the Battle Greek Sanitarium. In the 1970s, granola-eating was enthusiastically
embraced by health-conscious people.
gravlax
A Scandinavian-style boned salmon cured in sugar, salt, pepper, and dill.
Originally, it was cured by burying it (hence it’s name).
grease
1. Fat that comes out of meat when you cook it. 2. To rub a small amount of oil or
fat on the inside of a container before cooking food in it in the oven.
greaseproof paper

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A special type of paper that does not allow oil or grease to pass through it, used in
cooking and for wrapping food.
greasy spoon
A cheap dinner or coffee shop. The term arose in the 1920s, along with hash house,
snack bar, lunch counter, Sloppy Joe’s.
green vegetables
Vegetables that are of green color, such as lettuce, head lettuce, spinach, celery,
green peas, etc., as opposed to yellow vegetables.
griddlecake
Same as a pancake or flapjack.
grinder
A regional variety of sandwich similar to hero, po-boy, hoagie, and submarine. It is
known under this name in Boston and other areas of New England.
grits
A dish of ground Indian corn boiled in milk or water. Today, grits is an English
adaptation of Algonquin dish to European taste. It is still a common staple in the
South where it is called either “hominy grits” or simply “hominy. Grits may be
served as a side dish at breakfast (good with ham), lunch or dinner. Southerners
also like grits pressed into a sort of cake, sliced, fried, and served on bread as a
sandwich.
Grocery store
A shop that sells food and household suppliers, where customers serve themselves
and pay at the exit.
ground
Crushed, especially for use in cooking: fresh ground black pepper; the smell of
ground coffee.
grub
A slang term for food, usually simple and basic.
Gruyere
A type of hard Swiss cheese with holes in it.
guacamole
A dip made of mashed avocado, chopped onion, garlic, lime juice, chili powder.
Guacamole is a perfect party treat with tortilla chips.
guilt-free food
Low-cal (orie) or non-fat food which can be consumed without feeling guilty.
Those who are dieting (and Americans seem to be dieting all the time without
much effect) are too well familiar with the feeling of guilt accompanying every
bite.
gumbo
A traditional Creole soup thickened with okra, usually containing shrimps, crab,
oysters, and often chicken sausage. Gumbo is the Bantu word for “okra”, and the
dish is very closely related to the okra soups and stews of Nigeria.
g-w-p

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Gift with purchase. A promotional technique to sell cosmetics and other items in
department stores. Also called a ”gift-with-purchase-offer.”

H
half-and-half
A mixture of half cream and half milk which contains fewer calories than double
(or whipping) cream.
hamburger
This most American of foods takes its name from the German city of Hamburg. In
America charcoal-grilled hamburgers are served on fresh buns with slices of
tomato, onion, and pickles, and mustard and ketchup. The National Restaurants
Association reported that ninety percent of all table service restaurants offer
hamburgers and that the hamburger is America’s number one choice for eating
away from home. Accoding to statistics, people in America eat about five billion
fast-food hamburgers each year.
Hangtown Fry
An omelet with bacon, fried oysters, and sometimes onions.
happy hour
An early evening, at the end of a workday, when bars reduce the price of drinks or
offer free fruit, snacks and other foods.
Hardware store
A store selling metalwork (locks, hinges, tools, etc) appliances, paint, wallpaper,
carpeting.
hash brownies
A kind of cookies made of chocolate, sugar, pecans, milk, flour, and eggs. In the 1960a, the
name was sometimes applied to hashish.
hash browns
Diced or chopped boiled potatoes, often mixed with minced onion, and fried until
crisp. Served for breakfast with eggs or omelet, bacon, and sausages.
hasty pudding
An old New England’s traditional staple made of cornmeal mush. In certain
contexts, as hasty pudding Yankee Doodle, the expression came to mean
“thickness (stupidity)”. It was also adopted as a name for the Harvard University
drama group-Hasty Pudding club.
headcheese
Luncheon meat made of the edible parts of the head of a pig or calf and molded in
its own aspic. It is mostly southern and northeastern fare, which is not much
appreciated on the West Coast.
health food
A term applied to products that are meant to promote health. Health foods include
unprocessed and whole grains, organically grown fruit and vegetables, with high
nutritive value and low sodium or fat content, and dietary supplements.
hero

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A sandwich with an 8-in/20 cm piece of Italian bread, several kinds of meats and
cheeses, lettuce, tomatoes, mustard, and mayonnaise. The hero sandwich is known
mostly in New York City. There are at least five regional names for this kind of
sandwich, and none is recognized nationwide: hoagie, submarine, grinder, and
po’boy (poor boy).
hoagie
A close relative of a hero sandwich, hoagie is known as such in Philadelphia and
southern New Jersey.
hoecake
In Midland and southern United States, an unleavened cake made with flour or
cornmeal. The name allegedly derives from the fact that hoecakes, the earliest
American pancakes, were baked on a garden-hoe blade.
home-meal replacement (HMR)
HMR is not exactly a novel idea. For over a century, convenience has been
replacing cuisine in Americans home (Heinz ketchup, TV dinners, canned soups,
Kraft’s macaroni and cheese, etc.). The kitchen seems increasingly a place to
pursue cooking as a hobby, not a daily grind. In 1987, 43 percent of all meals
included at least one item made from scratch, in 1997, that dropped to 38 percent.
Americans want to eat at home; they just want someone else to do the cooking.
That is now the job of the home-meal replacement. According to the marketing
firm NPD Group in Chicago, of the $691 billion that Americans spent for food in
1996, 46 percent was for food bought outside the home, half of it went to takeout.
The traditional grocery store is morphing into a catering and delivery service. A&P
(Advanced placement) announce that hungry Web surfers can view full menus and
in-store specials, and order prepared meals online from one of company’s 700
stores. And new businesses are also springing up: Boston Market, a purely HMR
company, specializes in roasted chicken and homey side dishes; Ukrop’s, a new-
style supermarket, focuses on preparated foods as well as groceries; Foodini’s
Fresh Meal Market, owed by oil baron Chevron, stocks entrees, haute pizza,
snacks, breads, desserts; Eatzi’s, an upscale meal market with on-premises chefs,
and many others. HMR business is the future, because for harried Americans, time
is money, and so long as Mom is out bringing home the bacon, somebody else is
going to have come up with supper.
home shopping
A way of buying things by ordering them by telephone or computer after seeing
them in the infomercials on cable TV channels such as Home Shopping Channel or
QVC (Quality, Value and Convenience), or on a computer link. Home shopping,
which combined television and telephone, became one of several multimedia
applications known as interactive services. Home shopping draws stay-at-home
credit card shoppers by the million.
hominy
See grits.
hopping John

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In the South, a traditional New Year’s dish made of bacon, rice and cowpeas. It is
believed to bring good luck.
hors d’oevres
An appetizer served before a meal. Both words can be found in the menus of U.S.
restaurants.
horseradish
1. A plant with a long white root that has a strong taste. 2. Sause made from
horseradish that is eaten cold with meat.
hot cross buns
Some Americans follow the custom of eating hot cross buns – which are believed
to cure from diseases – for breakfast on Good Friday. The commemoration of
Jesus Christ’s crucifixion on the Friday before Easter. The tradition was brought to
America by British, as well as the song of British street vendors selling buns:
One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns.
If you have no daughters, give them to your sons;
But if you have none of these merry little elves,
then you may keep them all for yourselves.
hot dog
Both a frankfurter and a sandwich of a frankfurter on a split roll with mustard and
ketchup. Frankfurters, originally German, were known under several names in
America at the beginning of the 20th century: frank, wieners, red hots, and
dachshund sausages (dachshund is a breed of a dog). The latter allegedly gave the
name hot dog to an American specialty with German roots. Franks became a
common snack at the baseball games, where vendors worked the spectators,
yelling, “Get your red-hot dachshund sausages!” It 1905, a cartoon by Tad Dorgan
appeared: a real dachshund, sandwiched in a bun, smeared with mustard. Dorgan
failed to spell dachshund and captioned the picture “Get your hot dog!” The name
stuck and obsoleted other names for America’s favorite sausage.
hot dogs and beans
Baked beans cooked with sliced frankfurters.
hostess
A woman employed in a restaurant or place of amusement to receive, seat, or assist
patrons.
hot dogs and beans
Baked beans cooked with sliced frankfurters.
house wine
At a restaurant, a brand of wine is usually sold by the glass. It is not necessarily
cheap or inferior to other wines.
Howard Johnson’s (Ho-Jo)
The nation’s first roadside restaurant chain started in the 1920s and named after its
founder. Ho-Jo were a common sight on the Pennsylvania Turnpike in the 1940s.
hummus or houmous

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A Middle Eastern dish of mashed chickpeas with olive oil, garlic lemon juice, and
tahini, a Middle Eastern sauce of sesame seeds paste. Hummus has become
popular recently served with pita bread.
hush puppy
In southen United States, a small deep-fried ball of cornmeal dough, often served
as accompaniment to fried fish. Allegedly, so called because such cakes were fed
to dogs to keep them from begging for scraps while other dishes were cooked
(Hush, puppie, hush!).
I
ice cream
Ice cream entered America via Philadelphia, where it was popularized by Thomas
Jefferson who brought the recipe from France. In the early 1800s, Philadelphia
was called the country’s “ice cream capital”, both because of the quantity of ice
cream produced and consumed there at public ice cream houses (later parlors).
Thin wafer cones were first used to serve ice cream in 1904, at the St.Lous
World’s Fair commemorating Louisiana Purchase. According to the popular
legend, when an ice cream vendor ran out of paper ice cream dishes, he used thin
wafers sold by another vendor, thus creating a new sensation. Today, in any
neighborhood on a summer day, you can hear a jolly jingle announcing the arrival
of an ice cream truck, selling ice cream for kids. It is almost impossible to choose
ice cream from the variety offered by any supermarket: Ben & Jerry’s, Haagen-
Dazs, Blue Bell Creameries, Breyer’s Grand Turkey Hill Dairy, Marigold Foods,
etc., each producing 10-15 brands.
iced tea
A cold flavored beverage made of real tea and sweetened. The varieties include
lemon, raspberry, peach, passion fruit, etc., iced teas.
Indian bread
See tuckahoe.
Indian corn
1. Any primitive corn with variegated kernels. This kind of corn is still used to
decorate houses in autumn. 2. Corn with high water content used for making
popcorn.
Indian meal
See cornmeal.
Indian pudding
A baked pudding of cornmeal, molasses, and milk.
invitations
Formal events (weddings, balls, formal dinner parties, dances, receptions, teas,
commencements, etc.) require formal invitations printed on special invitation
cards. They must be sent between four and six weeks ahead. The invitation must be
worded in the third person.
Irish coffee

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A gourmet coffee consisting of Irish whiskey, hot coffee, sugar and whipped
cream. The recipe was brought to San Francisco by travel writer Stanton
Delaphlane from Ireland in 1953 and spread across the country.
Italianate
Done or made in a style typical of Italy.

Jack-in-the Box
A chain of fast-food restaurants serving usual staple-hamburgers, fries, salads, soft
drinks.
jambalaya
The name of this Creole dish evolved in Louisiana derives from French jambon
(ham) + a la African ya (rice). Though the preparation of jambalaya is rather time
consuming, it is a staple of everyday cooking in the South. Popular ingredients are
rice, various meats or seafood, tomatoes, celery, onion, green peppers, cayenne
pepper, garlic, thyme, and rosemary. However, if you have other ingredients in the
kitchen, you can put them in the pot, too. The dish gave the name to a 1952 song
celebrating the jovial Creole life.
jasmati rice
Long-grain aromatic rice with jasmine flavor, newly popular in the United States.
Jell-O
A dessert made from a mixture of gelatin, sugar, and fruit flavoring. Patented in
1845, and dubbed “Jell-O” in 1897, it became an all-American classic.
jellybean
A small, bean-shaped chewy candy. The tradition of giving jellybeans in Easter
baskets arose in the 1930s during the recovery from the Great Depression of 1929.
Of seasonal candies, jellybeans at Easter rank with candy canes at Christmas and
candy corn at Halloween, President Reagan was particularly fond of jellybeans and
kept a jar of them at his desk in the Oval Office.
jelly doughut (donut)
A raised doughnut filled with jelly and sprinkled with powdered sugar.
johnnycake
In northern United States, a flat cake or bread made with cornmeal, usually cooked
on a griddle.
jug
A large container from which you pour liquids, with a very narrow top that can be
closed by a cork.
juicy
Juicy food tastes good because it contains a lot of liquid: a sweet juicy apple.
juke joint (juke house)

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An establishment (especially in the rural South) where one could eat, drink, and
usually dance to music provided by a jukebox. Sometimes juke joint was a juke
brothel, sometimes a dance hall, sometimes a tavern.
jumbo
Larger than other things of the same type: jumbo sausages.
junk food
Food, such as potato chips, popcorn, sugar-coated cereals, candy, and the like, high
in sugar, fat, salt, cholesterol, but of little nutritional value. Junk food is especially
popular with children who eventually grow up to become overweight adults.
K

Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)


A chain of fast-food restaurants introduced in 1955 and serving mainly fried
chicken.
ketchup
A condiment (also catchup, catsup) consisting usually of pureed tomatoes, onions,
vinegar, sugar, and spices. Tomatoes become an ingredient of ketchup only in
1790, in New England. But acceptance was slow, because Americans believe that
tomatoes were poisonous, and home preparation was time consuming. Henry
Heinz’s bottled ketchup - “Blessed relif for Mother and the other women in the
household” - produced in 1876 was a big success. The bottle design and the recipe
have not changed since then. Heinz food company’s advertising slogan 57
Varieties (of condiments) has been known since 1896.
Key lime pie
A pie first made in Florida of Florida Key lime, which are very flavorful, smaller,
rounder, and yellower than other limes.
kielbasa
A smoked sausage of coasely chopped beef and pork, flavored with garlic and
spices. In the U.S. supermarkets, it is usually sold as Polish kielbasa.
kippered herring
Fish cured by splitting, salting, drying, and smoking.
knead
To prepare dough or clay by pressing it continuously: Knead the dough until
smooth.
knife
An object with a sharp blade for cutting food: a kitchen/bread/carving knife.
kohlabi
A hard round vegetable, eaten raw in salads or cooked.
Kool-Aid
A noncarbonated soft drink made from a fruit flavored powder mixed with water.
It has been sold by General Food since 1953. This drink was reportedly used to
dilute the poison given to the People’s Temple cult members who committed a
mass suicide at Jobestown in 1978.

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kosher food
Food prepared in accordance with the Jewish religion.
Lady Baltimare cake
A white layer cake, using only the beaten whites of eggs and spread with a fruit-
nut filling consisting of raisins, figs, walnuts or pecans, and sometimes candied
cherries.
lady fingers
A small finger-shaped sponge cake. Lady fingers are usually served with fruit (the
dessert is then called trifle).
lager
A beer stored from six weeks before use. Lager made in the best traditions of
Bavarian beer brewers has sweet nutty character and rich flavor, and is standard
Oktoberfest beverage.
lamb
The meat of a young sheep. The word “mutton” is not used in the United States.
lard
White fat from pigs that is used in cooking.
lasagna
An Italian baked dish consisting of layers of large, rectangular strips of pasta,
cheese, tomato sauce, and usually ground meat. Zucchini is optional.
latte
(in full café latte) Strong coffee with a lot of of steamed milk and flavoring.
Americans are absolutely crazy about this rather bland drink, and in order to
minimize the negative effect of high latte consumption take it with nonfat milk.
Seattle was even nicknamed Latteland in reference to the popularity of latte there.
Lazy Susan
A revolving tray for food, condiments, etc., placed usually at the center of the
table.
leek
A long thin vegetable that tastes similar to an onion and is white at one end with
green leaves at the other.
lefse
One of a very few Scandinavian foods known mostly in the Northwest. Lefse is
basically a pancake made either from potatoes or wheat flour sometimes with
sweet creamy filling.
lemon curd
A sweet food containing lemon juice that you spread on bread.
lemon sole
A fish that lives in the sea, especially in Northern Europe. This fish is eaten as
food.
lemon squeezer
A low dish that rises to a point in the center, used for squeezing the juice out of
lemons and oranges.

317
lentil
A round flat seed that you boil before you eat it. You normally buy it in dried
form.
light bread
In Midland and southern United States, a white bread leavened with yeast.
lingonberry sauce
The sauce made of cowberries. It is a Scandinavian tradition, now embraced by
Americans of other backgrounds, too, to serve lingonberry sauce with meat,
especially lamb and turkey.
linguine
See pasta.
liverwurst
A German-style cooked sausage containing a large percentage of liver, especially
made with pork liver and pork meat.
lobster
A shellfish (a sea animal with a hard shell), that has a long body, eight legs, and
two large parts like arms called claws. A lobster is cooked and eaten as food.
lobster Newburg
A dish of lobster meat cooked in cream sauce with sherry, egg yolks and cayenne
pepper.
lobster thermidor
A dish of lobster meat in cream sauce that is stuffed into lobster shell and browned.
lollipop (or lollypop)
A piece of hard candy attached to the end of a small stick that is held in the hand
while the candy is licked. It is customary for employees to whom a new baby is
born to bring lollipops, saying “This is a boy” or This is a girl,” to the office and
give to coworkers as an announcement of a happy event.
London broil
A flank steak or similar cut of beef, usually marinated, broiled and served in thin,
crosscut slices.
Long Island iced tea
A very strong, insidious drink made of tequila, light rum, vodka, gin, Triple Sec,
Coca Cola, and sour mix. Allegedly, first concocted in 1976 by bartender Robert
Butt of the Oak Beach Inn on Long Island.

long neck
A beer bottle with a neck. There is a certain bravado associated with carrying one
around a bar, especially a Lone Star (a brand of beer) long neck in Texas.
long sweetening
In Midland and southern United States, liquid sweetening, such as maple syrup,
molasses, or sorghum.
Lord Baltimore cake

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A yellow layer cake, using only the yolks of eggs and having a fruit-nut filling
consisting of pecans, almonds, maraschino cherries, and macaroon crumbs.
Lousiana coffee
Strong coffee with roasted and ground chicory, found mostly in southern United
States.
low-cal
Low-calorie products, diet food, etc.
lox
A kind of smoked and thinly sliced salmon, often eaten with cream cheese on a
bagel (Jewish tradition).
lunch
A light meal, normally between 12 and 3 p.m., consisting of a cup of soup, or
salad, or sandwich. In some regions of the United States, such as Texas, the word
“dinner” is used instead of “lunch” (and “supper” instead of “dinner”).
lunch-bucket (or lunch pail)
Working-class, blue-collar, proletarian and ordinary. The metaphor derives from
manual workers’ tendency to consume packed lunches brought from home (it’s
cheaper).
luncheon
A lunch especially a formal one, held in connection with a club meeting,
convention, or other special occasion.
luncheon meat
Any of various sausages or molded loaf meats, usually sliced and served cold, as
sandwiches or as garnishes for salads.
lutfisk
One of a few Scandinavian foods, which, due to its unusual flavor, is still known
only in Scandinavian communities throughout the Northwest. Lutfisk is a dish
made of specially fermented and cooked cod.
M
macaroni ‘n’ cheese
In 1937, the Kraft Food Company released its macaroni and cheese package,
known to the world as Kraft Dinner. After the Great Depression this nourishing
one-pot meal was very much favored by housewives, and kids loved it too.
macaroon
A cookie made of beaten egg whites, sugar, and almond paste or ground coconut.
Macy’s
The largest in the world department store founded in 1858 by Macy & Co.Ltd.
Since the beginning of the century, the store has sponsored a Thanksgiving Day
parade, now known for its huge balloons, such as a six-storey high Cat-in-the-Hat
balloon.
maitre d or maitre d’hotel
A headwaiter, a steward or butler, the manager or owner of a hotel. Derived from
French maitre d’hotel.

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Mall of America, the
The largest U.S. indoor shopping center (78 ares/31.6 hectares) located in
Bloomington, Minnesota. The Mall of America comprises both shopping and
entertainment facilities.
Mammoth cheese
When President Jefferson moved into the President’s House (later the White
House), he commented on the size of an unfinished room that it was big enough to
hold a mammoth. Later, during the celebration of the Louisiana Purchase, A
Mammoth, 1,200-lb/544-kg Cheshire cheese, made from the milk of 900 cows by
the farmers from Cheshire, Massachusetts, was served in his room in honor of the
new president.
M&M
If America had an official snack food, it certainly might be M&M - milk chocolate
covered with hard sugar shell. They were the brainchild of master confectioners
Forrest Mars and Bruce Murries who marketed them in 1941 as an alternative to
chocolate bars which would melt in hot summer weather. Approximately 50
billions M&M are produced annually, mostly for U.S. consumption. M&M are
used as a substitute for chocolate bits in cookies and muffins, for decorating cakes,
etc. Originally, M&M were brown. Other colors were added in the 1960s.
maple sugar
A yellowish-brown sugar produced by boiling down maple syrup.
maple syrup
Syrup produced by partially boiling down the sap of the sugar maple or other
maple tree. It is a distinctively American cultural feature, and the oldest North
American delicacy. The white settlers of New England learned the process from
the Indians for whom it was a regular part of the diet. Maple syrup remained the
principal sweetener with the first European settlers for many years. In 1800, U.S.
production of maple syrup was four times as great as it is today: the population
grew, the forests dwindled in size, maple syrup became less of a staple and more of
a delicacy. It takes 35 gallons/133 liters of sap to produce a gallon/3.7 liters of
syrup. Because of this, natural maple syrup is expensive. Vermont produces most
of the nation’s natural maple syrup. The first brand of blended table syrup (a
mixture of cane and maple syrup) was produced by Towle’s Log Cabin syrup that
was packaged in small tins made in a shape of a log cabin. It was very popular with
Americans. For most part now, it is packaged in glass bottles. Maple syrup is
traditionally served with pancakes and waffles, and a spoonful of hot maple syrup
poured over snow makes delicious ice candy.
maraschino cherry
A bright red cherry stored in maraschino and used as a decoration for drinks or
cakes.
marinade
A liquid that you put food into to give it a special flavor before cooking it.
marjoram

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A plant whose leaves are used in cooking. Marjoram is a herb.
marmalade
A sweet food made cooked fruit such as oranges or lemons that is usually spread
onto bread and eaten at breakfast.
Marmite
Trademark. A food made from yeast and cooked vegetables that is spread onto
bread or used for flavoring other foods.
marinara sauce
A sauce of tomatoes, onions, garlic, and spices, served with pasta and seafood. The
name derives from Italian marinara meaning “in sailor’s style.”
marshmallow
A spongy confection made of gelatin, sugar, corn syrup, and flavoring. Standard
picnic fare, marshmallows are skewered and heated over fire before eating.
marzipan
A sweet food made from sugar and almonds that is used for decorating cakes and
making sweets.
marzipan pie
A traditional Christmas confection of Americans of Scandinavian ancestry. For
Christmas Eve dinner Scandinavians always serve a dessert made of rice with
whipped cream. A child who finds an almond in his or her dessert receives also a
marzipan pig, which is supposed to ensure good luck until next Christmas.
Mason jar
A glass jar with a sure-top used inhome canning and decidedly a household
necessity since its invention by John L. Masom in 1858. Today the term “mason
jar” is used generically.
McDonald's Corporation
In April 1955, onetime jazz pianist Ray A. Krock opened a fast-food franchise (in
partnership with the McDonald brothers) in the Chicago suburb of Des Plaines. No
one could have guessed it at the time, but a revolution in American eating habits
and a worldwide empire were about to be born. By 1961, when Krock bought out
the McDonald brothers, the chain had more than 200 branches in the United States.
A self-described "superpatriot" who ordered franchise operators to fly the U.S.
flag, Krock built his success on an almost military uniformity of product and pre-
sentation. By 1996, with 18,000-plus units, the McDonald's Corporation was the
world's largest food-service company serving 30 million customers a day
worldwide, the biggest owner of commercial real estate in the United States, and
one of the nation's major employers. Stamped across the physical and cultural
landscape from Paris to Beijing, the restaurant's trademark, golden arches, became
a supreme symbol of consumerism, American style, as well as a peppy clown
called Ronald McDonald, the posting of national sales figures at every store ("Over
2 Billion Sold"), and the advertising jingle You Deserve a Break Today. In 1994,
McDonald's spent $1.4 billion on advertising worldwide. It segments its markets
demographically by key age groupings—children, teens, young adults, and seniors.

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Any parent of a young child can tell you of McDonald's knacks for promotional
tie-ins involving drinking tumblers, trinkets, or posters with images that appeal to
kids. Krock's policy was: "If you are going to take money out of a community, give
something back. It's only good business." Many special social programs have been
devised and introduced within the chain, for example, 153 Ronald McDonald
Houses offer families of seriously ill children to stay at a very low price (from $5
to $15 a night); job-training for American youth of every ethnic hue. McDonald's
hires physically and mentally handicapped. Encouraging young people to study,
they pay them for staying in school, etc. The impact of McDonald's on American
culture is great. It plays the role the Army used to play: it teaches values,
discipline, respect for authority, punctuality. It turned into "the new entry-level
job-training institution in America."
meat loaf
A popular American dish of seasoned ground meat baked in the shape of a loaf.
medium
Meat cooked until only little redness is left inside.
medium-rare
Meat cooked until it is still very red and juicy inside.
melting pot
A popular metaphor used to describe the American society as a great “melting pot”
in which people from many nations and cultures have blended into what are called
“Americans.” Tha term was apparently first used by Rabbi Samuel Schulman, who
spoke of Americans as “the melting pot of nationalities” in 1907, and owes its
popularity to a Jewish playwright, Izrael Zangwill, whose drama “The Melting
Pot” opened in Washington, D.C. in October 1908.
meringue
A sweet food made from a mixture of sugar and egg whites.
Midwestern cuisine
The Midwest of America is America’s breadbasket. These immense tracts of land
are peopled by a hospitable farming population whose simple, homecooked food
epitomizes the Middle American mentality. Corn cakes and puddings are typical of
Midwestern fare, but so are many other dishes which are considered to be
quintessesentially American-fried chicken, hot biscuits, steaks with hash browns,
spare ribs, potato salad, shortcakes, apple pies, cherry cobbler, chocolate brownies,
pancakes with eggs and bacon, scalloped potatoes.
milkshake
A beverage of cold milk, flavoring, and ice cream blended in a mixer. Milkshakes
are a standard fare at fast-food restaurants.
mince
This is an American word that stands for mincemeat, the filling for pies, especially
Christmas pies. In Great Britain, mince is a mixture of apples, raisins, suet, spices,
etc., and there is no meat among its ingredients. In the United States, however, as
The American Heritage Dictionary and Americans themselves affirm, mince may

322
contain finely chopped meat. American mince(meat) pies are larger than British.
They are both served at Christmas in both countries.
minestrone
An Italian thick vegetable soup, containing beans, herbs, and bits of pasta.
Campell’s canned minestroni, alone, with other canned soups, is a real savior of
bachelors and fast-lane unmarried professionals.
mint jelly
A condiment of gelatin and mint flavoring, traditionally served with rack of lamb.
Miss
A conventional title of respect for an unmarried woman.
Mom-and-pop
A small retail business owned and operated by the members of the family, as in
mom-and-pop store.
Monterey Jack
Also called jack cheese, it is soft, mild cheddar, first made in Monterey County,
California.
mould
1. A green, blue, or white bacteria that grows on food that is not kept fresh or other
things that are not kept clean and dry. 2. A shaped container into which you pour a
liquid that then becomes solid in the shape of the container.
mountain oysters
Also called Rocky mountains oysters. The testicles of a sheep, pig, or bull, breaded
and fried; they are considered delicacy in some western regions.
moussaka
A traditional Greek dish of eggplant, meat, and cheese, one of the many ethnic
foods available in the United States.
mousse
A cold sweet food made with cream, eggs, and fruit or chocolate.
mouth-watering
Mouth-watering food smells or looks very good.
Moxie
A carbonated soft drink popular in New England states since 1884. Somewhat
similar to root beer and cola drinks, it has a characteristic tartness which accounts
for its popularity. Moxie was first introduced by Nerve Food Company as a
medicine good for people’s nerves, and was merely a concoction of herbs, roots
and bark. It was the favorite drink of President Calvin Coolidge.
Mozzarella
Mild, white, semi-soft Italian cheese. Mozzarella and tomato slices sprinked with
olive oil, basil and balsamic vinegar makes a nice appetizer served at any
respectable Italian restaurant in America.
Mr.
Mister. A title used to address a man, regardless of his marital status.

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MRE
(pronounced as separate letters) An acronym for Meals Ready to Eat. It is used
mainly in reference to military-style ready-to-eat meals.
Mrs.
Abbreviation of Mistress. A title used to address a married woman.
Ms.
An abbreviation for both “mistress” and “miss,” a title first used in 192 to address
a woman, regardless of her marital status. “Ms” is considered by feminists to be
the equivalent of “Mr.” since it does not indicate whether the person is married or
single. It often connotes a belief in women’s rights. The new designation and its
association with feminism were furthered by the founding of the femnist Ms.
magazine in 1971 by journalists Gloria Steinem and Letty Cottin Pogrebin. The
first issues of Ms. offered articles on Marilyn Monroe, vaginal self-examination,
and articles on how television, film and theater misrepresent women.
muffaletta
A fusion of Caujun and Italian tastes resulted in a very large, round sandwich
containing a combibation of thinly sliced meats, melted cheese and Italian olive
salad (allegedly named after the New Orleans grocery store where first served).
This is a sandwich that can’t possibly be eaten with anything even vaguely
resembling finesse. One bite, and it’s all over you.
muffin
A small quick bread made with flour or cornmeal, eggs, milk, etc., and baked in a
pan containing a series of cuplike molds. In America, muffins come in dozens of
varieties-blueberry, poppy seed, raisin, soda, pecan, etc.
mug
A sturdy, cylindrical drinking cup with a handle, much preferred by Americans to
other drinking cups. Any respectable company or bank has mugs with the company
logo. Personalized mugs are often distributed during conventions or other events,
joining T-shirts on a list of promotional give-away merchandise.
munchies
An informal term for food suitable for snacking.
mush
Porridge made of rice or oatmeal. The Americans settlers improved on this English
food by making it with Indian corn. In much of the country, mush is still made of
cornmeal, but in the states along the Pacific Coast, mush can be any hot cereal.
mustard
A yellow substance with a hot taste made from the seeds of a plant Mustard is
eaten, especially with meat, in small amount.
N
nachos

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A very simple Tex-Mex dish of tortilla chips, refried beans, cooked chicken or
beef, sprinkled with shredded cheese and broiled. Nachos have been popular in
American Southwest since the 1940s.
New York steak
A choice, rather expensive, boneless fillet of beef.
New England clam chowder
Chowder made of clams, potatoes, onions, and milk or cream.
night cap
See roadie.
no-host bar (or cash bar)
A bar at which party guests must pay for drinks.
nutcracker
A tool for breaking open the shells of nuts.
nutmeg
A brown powder used as a spice to give flavor to food. It comes from the hard seed
of a tropical tree.
nutrient
A substance in food that plants, animals, and people need to live and grow.
nutrition
1.Food considered as something that keep you healthy. 2. The science of food and
its effect on health and growth.
nutritionist
Someone who is an expert on nutrition.

O
O. J.
(pronounced as separate letters) An acronym for orange juice. It is also applied to
O. J. Simpson who had been in advertisement for orange juice. After the O. J.
Simpson murder trial (the “O.J. trial,” as it was referred to in the press) the
acronym acquired a negative connotation. O. J. was later found guilty of
wrongfully causing death in a civil trial through a lawsuit by the father of Ron
Goldman slain together with O. J.’s ex-wife.
okra
The pods of shrub, said to be of West African origin, used in soups, stews, etc., or
eaten as a vegetable. Okra is an essential ingredient of Cajun and Creole food. Also
called gumbo, hence the name of thick soup.
Oktoberfest
A fall beer-drinking festival, brought to America by German immigrants.
olive
A small black or green fruit that grows in Mediterranean countries and is eaten as
food or its oil. It grows on an olive tree. A place where there are a lot of olive trees
is called an olive grove.
onion-garlic sandwich

325
This is a sandwich with that became popular once again as a home remedy. More
and more Americans turn to alternative medical treatment abandoning
conventional medicine based on drugs. Garlic is considered a sort of panacea these
days, and is used as a dietary supplement, mostly in a form of odorless pills.
on tap (or draft)
Designating beer stored in a keg or barrel and drawn off through a tap.
on the house
Designating a drink purchased for a customer at the bar’s expense.
on the rocks
Describing a drink with ice cubes.
open sandwich
A sandwich served on only one slice of bread, without a covering slice.
Oreo
An all-American classic; a chocolate cookies with white cream filling produced by
Nabisco (the National Biscuit Company) since 1912. It is the largest selling cookie
in the world. More than six billion are produced each year; and ten cents of every
dollar spent on cookies in America reportedly goes for Oreos.
organic food
Foodstuffs grown and prepared without chemical additives, pesticides or
fertilizers. The latest fad is to sell fresh organic produce at special departments in
U.S. supermarkets. Sales of organic foods have doubled in the last five years, and
sales of milk from organically-fed cows are also rising.
ossobuco
An Italian dish of veal shanks stewed in white wine and tomatoes.
Outlet store
A store selling only the products of factory or manufacturer at discount prices.
over easy
Describing fried eggs that are flipped over and cooked briefly before serving.
oyster
A type of shellfish that has a rough shell and is eaten as food, often raw. Some type
of oyster contain pearls (small white jewel).
oyster bars
Small outdoor restaurants on the streets of New Orleans famous for delicious
seafood, such as Gulf shrimps and oysters. Seafood is important ingredient in
Cajun cooking.
oysters Rockfeller
Oysters baked on half shells on a bed of rock salt with bacon, spinach, Parmesan
cheese, herbs and lemon juice. One of the most famous American dishes of the
20th century, it was invented in 1899 at New Orleans’ oldest and most famous
restaurant Antoine’s. The dish was named after John D. Rockefeller, a regular
customer.
P
paella

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A Spanish dish of saffron-seasoned rice baked in stock with meat, seafood, and
vegetables.
pain patale
Creole sweet potato pudding from New Orleans.
pancake
(also flapjack, griddlecake) Classic American breakfast pancakes are more like a
crumpet or drop scone rather than like English pancakes. They may be made plain
or with blueberries. Pancakes are fried on both sides in a frying pan or a griddle
(hence its another name, “griddlecake”). Traditional American breakfast of
pancakes may be accompanied by hashbrown potatoes, bacon or sausages, maple
syrup, or fruit.
paprika
A red powder used in cooking for adding a slightly hot flavor to food. Paprika is a
spice.
pare
To remove the skin from a fruit or vegetable using a knife.
parfait
A sweet food consisting of layers of fruit and ice cream, served in a tall glass.
Parker House Rolls
Legendary rolls first baked in the 1850s at the Parker House in Boston. They
remain a mainstay in elegant restaurants throughout New England.
Parmesan cheese
A hard, dry Italian cheese made from skin milk and usually grated. Parmesan is
used as condiment with pasta, or in baking. Foods baked with Parmesan are called
“parmigiano.”
pasta
An Italian food preparation of thin, unleavened dough, processed into a variety of
forms: spaghetti, ravioli, penne, linguini, fettuccini, cannelloni, etc. At any
supermarket today you can buy pasta made from fresh dough and processed
packaged pasta. Along with pizza, pasta is America’s favorite staple.
pastrami
A brisket of beef cured in a mixture of seasonings and smoked before cooking.
Derives from Yiddish pastrami, Romanian pastramas for “pressed, cured meat.”
paszkis
Large, buttery Polish pastries eaten the day before Lent begins.
pate
A soft food made from meat, fish, or vegetables that you spread on bread.
patty
A small pie filled with meat, fish, etc.; standard deli food.
P.B.J.
(pronounced as separate letters) Peanut butter and jelly (sandwich). PBJs are
favorite among kids; they prefer them as a lunch snack to take school from home.
peanut butter

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A paste made from ground roasted peanuts, used as a spread or in cooking.
Invention of George Washington Carver, a.k.a. (also known as) the Wizard of
Tuskegee, who spent his life working at Tuskegee Institute on numerous
agricultural problems, peanut butter was first marked in 1906. Today it is a favorite
staple of Americans of all ages, and kids in particular, especially in a combination
with jelly-PBJ sandwich.
peanuts
It is impossible to imagine America without peanuts and peanut by-products today.
Salted peanuts, peanut butter, and jelly sandwich, peanut butter cookies, and
peanut ice cream. Also extracted from peanuts are: ingredients for mayonnaise,
cheese, chilli sauce, shampoo, bleach, axle gease, linoleum, metal polish, wood
stain, adhesives, plastics, ink, soap. However, the peanut was cultivated mostly as
pig and chicken feed in America for a long time. In the 1800s, in the south, only
poor white families and slaves ate peanuts, which were commonly known as
“goobers” (from the Buntu word nguba). The state of Virginia was known as
Goober State because of its large crop of peanuts. Backwoodsmen from Alabama,
Virginia, and Georgia were called, derisively, “goobers.” Hungry Union soldiers
first tried peanuts during the Civil War. In the 1960s, peanuts were popularized as
a snack during circus performances, which were quite a craze at the time.
pecan
A sweet nut with a thin smooth shell. It grows on a pecan tree.
pecan pie
A classic American recipe coming from the South where pecan trees, native to
America, grow both wild and cultivated. Annual U.S. production of pecans is
about 250 million pounds/113,000 tons, with one-third of it grown in Texas.
peel
To remove the skin from a fruit or vegetable.
Peking duck
A Chinese dish of the crisp skin and meat of roasted duck combined with scallions
and hoisin sauce and folded in thin pancakes. This dish, served at decent Chinese
restaurants, requires time to prepare and must be ordered 24 hours ahead.
pemmican
An Indian food of dried meat, melted animal fat, and cranberries. In early colonial
years, the Indians taught the settlers how to make this nutritious food with a long
shelf life.
peppercorn
A small dried fruit, especially one that is black, that is crushed to make pepper.
pepper pot
A container that you shake to add pepper to food.
pepperoni
Highly seasoned, hard Italian sausage of beef and pork; a common addition to
pizza.
peppercorn steak

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A large chunk of beef, usually a New York strip, studded with cracked
peppercorns, broiled, then dipped in peppercorns a second time so covered with
peppercorns. Beef is considered America’s national specialty.
peppermint
1. A strong fresh flavor that is obtained from a mint plant and is used in medicine
or drinks: peppermint tea. 1a. A type of mint plant whose leaves are used for
producing peppermint. 2. A sweet with a peppermint flavor.
Pepsi-Cola
A carbonated soft drink similar to Coca-Cola, though second in sales to it. Pepsi
was first concocted in 1898 by pharmacist Caleb Bradham and called Brad’s
Drink. Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola have been competing since the 1930s, when
Pepsi started to produce 12-oz/340-g bottles instead of 6-oz/170-g like Coca-Cola.
Perrier
Sparkling mineral water from France; the favorite yuppie drink.
petit four
A type of small sweet cake or biscuit.
petticoat tails
A kind of cookies found in Louisiana Creole cuisine. Petticoat tails recipe was
brought to the southern states by Scotsmen
Philadelphia scrapple
Breakfast staple of the upper-class Philadelphians (at least in the past). It consists
of pork shoulder and neck meat boiled with cornmeal, onions, herbs, and spices,
chilled into a loaf, then fried in slices.
picnic
An outdoor meal, often carried in a special picnic basket.
pig-in-a-blanket
A hot dog or sausage wrapped in dough and cooked.
Piggly-Wiggly Stores
A chain of stores opened during World War 1, first in Memphis. Customers
entered through a turnstile, picked up a basket, made their selections, and
eventually arrived at the “settlement and checking” desk, where the selections were
checked up and wrapped. This was a revolutionary concept, though introduced not
so much to provide a convenience for the customers as to deal with a shortage of
clerks occasioned by the war. By 1929, America had 3,000 Piggly-Wigglys.
pilaf or pilaff
A middle Eastern or Indian food consisting mainly of rice mixed with meat or
vegetables.
pilau rice
Flavored and often colored rice eaten with Indian food.
Pillsbury Doughboy
The trademark character of Pillsbury bakery products since 1965. The Doughboy,
whose real name is Poppin’ Fresh, is plump and jovial, and wears a baker’s hat.
Pina colada

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A frappeed drink of rum, coconut cream, and pineapple juice.
pistachio nut
A small green nut from a Mediterranean or Asian tree.
pita
A round, flat Middle Eastern bred; when hollow inside - pocket pita - it is used for
making sandwiches by stuffing the ingredients into it.
pizza
1. A baked, open-faced pie consisting of a thin layer of dough topped with tomato
sauce and cheese, and often peppers, sausage, mushrooms, diced chicken,
pepperoni, etc. Americans first tried pizza in 1905, at a restaurant in Little Italy,
New York City, owned by Italian restaurateur Gennaro Lombardi. Said to be a
specialty of Naples, the pizza has long been a favorite there, although it is
apparently not much known in the other sections of Italy. Today, it can be safely
called America's favorite food. It can be ordered by phone to be delivered to your
home; it can be bought at a supermarket's frozen-food section; it is served at fast-
food restaurants, Pizza Huts, fancy and not very fancy Italian restaurants, pizzerias,
etc. 2. Another metaphor for American society along with the melting pot or the
Salad Bowl, based on the name of the single most popular food in America. The
name alludes to the fact that ingredients, though apparent and distinguishable, give
the whole its particular taste and flavor, yet being fused together into something
larger.
Pizza Hut
A chain of affordable restaurants serving pizzas.
pizzeria
A restaurants or bakery where pizzas are made and sold.
Planet Hollywood
A chain of trendy restaurants all over America started and owned by Sylvester
Stallone, a movie star and multi-millionaire.
plum pudding
A heavy sweet pudding containing a lot of dried fruit and often covered with
burning brandy, served hot at the end of the Christmas dinner. Plum pudding is
not as popular in America as it is in Britain.
po-boy (po’ boy, poor boy)
A sandwich served on long loaves of French bread. Originally very inexpensive
and filling fare, which explains the name. The term is used mostly in New Orleans,
which is also the birthplace of a unique kind of sandwich called “maffaletta.”
poi
A Hawaiian dish of taro root that is baked, pounded, moistened, and fermented.
polenta
A soft Italian food from maize, eaten with meat and vegetables.
popcorn
(short for popped-corn) A snack made from a special kind of corn (with at least 14
percent water content), which bursts open and puffs out when subjected to dry heat

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(the kernels which do not burst open are called “duds”). The art of popping corn
was invented by American Indians. They used a special kind of corn kernels,
Indian corn, which high water content. According to legend, the Pilgrims had
popcorn for their Thanksgiving feast in 1621. It was brought as a present by the
Indians invited for celebration. Today, popcorn is a standard snack fare at sporting
events, and in movie theaters. An average American is said to consume about 2
lb/900g. of popcorn a year.
popsickle
A brand of fruit-flavored ice on a stick, a favorite treat for children and adults. The
name is probably the combination of pop + icicle. Popsickles are most popular in
the summertime when street vendors across the country offer them for sale from
pushcarts to people of all ages who are trying to cool off.
potato
The United States is one of the world's leading producers of potatoes. Idaho
produces about a third of the 35 billion lbs/16 million tons of potatoes consumed
by Americans each year. Hence its nickname, the Spud State. When you cross the
border of Idaho from Montana or Washington, the "Welcome to Idaho" signs also
say "Famous Potatoes" (as well as Idaho license plates). In production of potatoes
Idaho is followed by Washington, Maine, Oregon, North Dakota, California,
Wisconsin, and Colorado. The most popular varieties are Russet Burbank, which is
good for baking, for French fries, and everything else; Norchip; Kennebec; and
Katahdin. These account for two thirds of all the potatoes grown in the United
States. It is interesting that the colonists did not borrow the tradition of potato
growing directly from the Indians, hi fact, it was reintroduced to America by
European immigrants from Western Europe. And acceptance was slow: in colonial
times, according to legend, New Englanders fed potatoes only to pigs, because
they believed that it contained an aphrodisiac which could shorten people's lives.
Potatoes are an important and much loved ingredient of American cuisine. An
average American consumes more than 120 lb/54.5 kg a year.
potato chips
America's favorite snack food, though listed in the junk category. Originated in
1853, in Saratoga Springs, New York, as a variation of French-fried potatoes. As
with many other foods, potato chips were not a result of culinary invention, but
rather the revenge of the chef at Moon Lake Lodge, a Saratoga restaurant, on a
picky customer, who was not satisfied with the French fries served to him. The
exasperated chef produced French fries too thin and crisp to skewer with a fork.
The guest was ecstatic, so were other guests, and the chips became a specialty on
the menu as "Saratoga chips." Soon they were packaged and sold all over New En-
gland, and in the 1920s were popularized in southern.
pot cheese
A usually dry-textured form of cottage cheese.
poter
A type of dark bitter beer.

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potluck
A meal, especially for a large group, to which participants bring food to be shared.
potpie
A pie of meat or chicken and vegetables cooked in a deep dish and topped with a
crust. One-pot meals were brought to the United States by the British, and they are
also common among Cajuns.
pot roast
A cut of beef stewed in one piece in a covered pot and served in its own gravy.
pot stickers
Chinese savory fried and steamed dumplings served as an appetizer.
pound cake
See New Year’s Eve.
power breakfast (lunch)
A breakfast or lunch meeting for a high-level business discussion. The
phenomenon originated in America in the 1980s. To be a power luncher was a
symbol of political and commercial success. In the 1990s, the term is used
somewhat ironically, suggesting that power lunch is rather a demonstration of
individual status than with any real achievement through discussion.
praline
1.A sweet made by boiling nuts in sugar. 1a. A chocolate sweet filled with a soft
substance made from sugar and crushed nuts.
pretzel
A usually crisp, dry biscuit, typically in the form of a knot or stick, salted on the
outside. America’s popular snack food, almost as much liked as potato chips.
According to legend, these firm and crisp pretzels are of Italian origin, created in
the Middle Ages by a monk to award children for memorizing prayers. The
crisscross shaped pretzel symbolized small arms folded in prayer. Big, soft, and
chewy pretzels are the 13th-century. German modification of Italian pretzels.
Private-label store
A usually expensive store dealing in one kind of product, mostly men’s and
women’s clothing. There is also one designer behind the line of clothing in a
private label store.
profiterole
A small round pastry with a sweet filling and chocolate on the top.
pudding
A soft sweet food that you eat at the end of a meal.
pudding basin
A deep round bowl for cooking puddings in.
pumpkin pie
A traditional American pie baked in a shell with pumpkin, sugar, eggs, and
allspice. It was one of the first native New England dishes. The Thanksgiving
dinner without a pumpkin pie is not complete. Sometimes it is served for
Christmas, too.

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punch
A beverage concocted of strong liquor, fruit juices, wine and spices. Punch is
served in a large bowl. It was introduced in the 17th century from India. The name
supposedly comes from the fact that the drink originally comprised five
ingredients. Presently, punch is a party beverage at any time of the year and one of
the traditional Christmas drinks in both Great Britain and United States.
puree
Food that is boiled or crushed until it is a soft mass that is almost liquid.
Pyrex
Kitchen utensils made of strong heat resistant glass.

Q
Quaker Oatmeal
A brand of instant oatmeal. The Quaker man who appears on Quaker Oats cereal
packages dates back to 1877, when he was the trademark of an Ohio milling
company. One of the firm’s founders saw in the figure the embodiment of qualities
he wanted in his product-“the purity of the lives of the people, their sterling
honesty, their strength and manliness.”
quiche
An open egg-custard dish in an unsweetened pastry shell with various kinds of
cheese, cream, spices, vegetables and herbs.

quince
A hard round fruit that looks like a yellow apple and can be eaten only when it is
cooked. It is usually used for making jelly.

QVC
(pronounced as separate letters) Quality, Value and Convenience. A cable TV
channel for at-home shoppers.

R
ragout
A meal consisting of meat and vegetables cooked in a sauce. Ragout is a type of
stew.
Ranch dressing
One of the most popular American dressings since the 1980s, when it was first
prepared in California, at Hidden Valley Ranch. It can be served with practically
all kinds og vegetables. The dressing consists of mayonnaise, buttermilk, dried
parsley flakes, scallions, onion powder, garlic, and cayenne pepper.
ravioli
An Italian meal, consisting of small, square pockets of pasta, filled with cheese,
ground meat, etc., and served in a sauce.
red meat

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Any meat, such as beef or lamb, that is red before cooking.
refried beans
Mexican-style cooked beans that have been mashed and fried, often with onions
and seasonings.
reheasal dinner
A dinner on the eve of a wedding ceremony when the principal figures and
wedding guests gather to practice their parts.
relish
A sweet or pungent pickle made of various chopped vegetables. It is used as a
condiment for hot dogs.
Reuben sandwich
A grilled sandwich of corned beef, Swiss cheese, and sauerkraut on rye bread. So
called perhaps after Reuben Kulakofsky (d.1960), an Omaha grocer, who allegedly
invented the sandwich in 1922. Some say the sandwich got its name from Arnold
Reuben, who worked in the legendary Reuben’s Deli in New York City.
rhubarb
A plant with long red or pink sterns that people cook and eat as a fruit.
risotto
A food made from rice mixed with meat, fish, or vegetables.
rissole
A food made from meat or fish cut into very small pieces, covered with pastry and
cooked in oil.
rolled oats
Oats that are flattened by rollers after hulling and steaming; high-fiber breakfast
cereal.
root beer
A carbonated beverage flavored with syrup made from the extracted juices of
roots, barks, and herbs. It was popularized by Philadelphia Pharmacist Charles
Hires and called “Hires Herb Tea.” In 1876, during the celebration of Philadelphia
Centennial, it was promoted as “root beer.”
rotisserie
A cooking unit equipped with a motor-driven split, for barbecuing poultry, beef,
etc.
rubber chicken
Alluding to the mediocre food stereotypically served at functions such as dinners
and luncheons which public figures, especially political candidates, often must
attend.
runny eggs
Eggs lightly fried on one side.
Russian Dressing
A salad dressing made of mayonnaise, chili sauce, ketchup, pickle relish, and
scallions. The recipe does not have anything to do with Russia, and the origin of
the name is unknown.

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S
saffron
An orange- yellow substance used for adding flavor and color to food.
salad bar
A self-served assortment of salads, salad ingredients, and dressings, as in
restaurants or takeout establishments, such as delis or supermarkets.
Salisbury steak
Ground beef, often mixed with breadcrumbs, onions, seasonings, etc., shaped into
a large patty and broiled or fried. After J. H. Salisbury (1823-1905), a U.S.
dietitian, who promoted eating of such steaks as healthy.
salami
A type of sausage containing strong spices, cut thin and served cold.
salsa
Mexican-style hot sauce, jalapeno peppers, onion, and tomatoes. Salsa is a good
party food with tortilla chips.
salt horse
Corned or salted beef.
saltwater taffy
A taffy made with molasses or brown sugar, butter, and salted fresh water or,
sometimes, with seawater. It has been associated with the Atlantic City Boardwalk
since the 1880s and, to put it mildly, has yet to conquer the West Coast market.
Samuel Adams
A premier American beer available throughout the United States, but most often
served in New England. First produced by Samuel Adams (1743), who turned
politician from a brewer and was one of the partisans of American Independence.
The recipe was forgotten for two centuries, and revived by his great-great grandson
Jim Koch in 1985.
sandwich
A light meal that you make by putting a layer of food such as meat, cheese, or egg
between two pieces of bread: A ham/tuna/cheese sandwich. The simple sandwich
was invented by the 4th Earl of Sandwich in the 18th century as a snack to eat while
playing cards. It is still the number-one fast-food in Great Britain, 41 percent of the
market. The burger is a long way behind, with only 18 percent of the market.
Santa Fe-style food
This style of cooking is an off-shot from California cuisine. It is also emphasizes
ultra-fresh and unusual ingredients, and is spiced with chilli to reflect the Spanish
and Mexican heritage of the Southwest desert region.
Saran Wrap
A tough thermoplastic resin used in thin sheets for packaging. Saran Wrap is ideal
for household use, and it is impossible to imagine an American kitchen without it.
sauerkraut
German-style cabbage cut fine, salted, and allowed to ferment until sour.
scallop

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1. A shellfish (a sea animal with a hard shell around it) with two shells that fit
together. 1a. A scallop is eaten as food.
scallopine.
An Italian dish of scallops of meat, especially veal, floured and sautéed in herbs
and wine.
scampi
A dish of large shrimp broiled in garlic flavored sauce.
scone
A light biscuit-like quick bread, of Scottish origin, often baked on a griddle.
Scotch egg
A snack consisting of a hard-boiled egg encased in sausage meat, breaded, and
deep-fried.
scrambled eggs
A dish consisting of eggs, milk, and butter, beaten and then sterred over heat until
they are solid. Often served on a piece of toast. Americans of Scandinavian origin
eat scrambled eggs with smoked salmon (lox).
scrapple
Cornmeal mush made with the meat and broth of pork, seasoned with onion,
spices, herbs, etc., and shaped into loaves and sliced for frying.
seven-eleven
A chain of stores which are usually found at gas stations. They carry packaged and
deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, etc.
sesame
A plant that produces seeds and oil used in cooking.
Seven-Eleven
A chain of stores which are usually found at gas stations. They carry packaged and
deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, etc.
7UP
A soft drink, which evolved from Lithiated Lemon drink, introduced in 1929. So
called because it came in 7-oz/200-g bottles.
shoe string potatoes
Long, thin, stick-like of raw potato deep-fried until crisp.
shoofly pie
A Pennsylvania Dutch dessert made with brown sugar and molasses. The name
derives from the fact that when they were put on windowsills to cool, flies had to
be shooed from them
shopping center
A group of retail stores and service establishments, especially in a suburban area,
usually with associated parking facilities.
shopping list
A list of household items provided by a store, so that nothing should be forgotten
when shopping. A pad usually has a magnet attached and is kept on a refrigerator
door.

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(shopping) mall
A shopping center enclosed within a large structure, containing a complex of shops
and restaurants with attached passageways and parking space; a public promenade
lined with trees and closed off to motor vehicles; a paved or planted divider in the
roadway; a pedestrian passageways providing access to rows of stores. The first
shopping center in the United States was opened in National City, California, in
1953. Today, the largest shopping mall (opened in 1992) is Minnesota’s 78-acre /
71.6-hectare Mall of America, which also includes the largest indoor amusement
park. Suburban shoppng malls quickened the decay of urban downtown. All over
America where downtown department stores survived, it was a matter of pride or
of tax breaks, and seldom one of commercial logic. By 1992, 4 billion sq. ft /
37,174 ha of America landscape was shopping malls, about 40,000 of them. Mall
shopping has become America’s biggest leisure activity. By the early 1990s,
Americans were spending on average twelve hours a month in shopping malls,
more than they devoted to almost any activity other than sleeping, eating, working,
and watching television.
shortcake
A short (made with large proportion of butter or other fat), sometimes sweetened
biscuit, filled or topped with fruit (usually strawberries) and whipped cream.
shredded wheat
Breakfast cereal made by shredding cooked, dried whole wheat and by baking or
toasting it as biscuit.
shrimp cocktail
An appetizer of chilled boiled shrimps served with special cocktail sauce.
silver tea
Plain hot water without any tea in it.
silverware
Eating and serving utensils, such as forks, knives, spoons, plates, etc., made of
silver, silver-plated metal, or stainless steel. The other term Americans used for the
above articles is flatware.
singles bar
A bar frequented chiefly by unmarried people, especially those seeking a lover or
spouse.
sinkie
A person who occasionally dines over the kitchen sink. November 24 is
commemorated as Sinkie Day, and practically everyone may celebrate it because
we have to admit: We all once in a while indudge a bite over the sink. Interested in
purchasing this habit can join The International Association of People who Dine
Over the Kitchen Sink and receive a certificate of membership.
sit-down dinner
As opposed to a reception, a dinner party where after drinks and some socializing,
a full dinner is served, and guests sit at designated seats.
Sloppy Joe

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America’s favorite way of eating ground beef. This relatively inexpensive dish is
made of ground beef, shopped onion, chopped green pepper, condensed tomato
soup, and ketchup, sauteed, and served on hamburger buns.
Smash
A drink of liquor, sugar, springs of mint, and water and ice.
Smithfield ham
This ham from Smithfield, Virginia, made only from the rigion’s peanut-fed hogs,
cured in hickory, oak, apple, and peanut-shell smoke, then aged for about a year.
smorgasbord (Swedish cold buffet)
A self-served buffet meal offering a wide variety of hot and cold foods, such as
buttered bread, relishes, meats, smoked and pickled fish, eggs, salads, and cheeses.
Also called “Swedish cold buffet.” The term is of a Scandinavian origin. Swedish-
style buffets first gained popularity among American diners in the early decades of
the 20th century. In the 1930s, some restaurants were advertising “all you can eat”
smorgasbord for fifty cents.
soda fountain
Today soda fountains exist only at "nostalgia" type cafes. It was basically a
counter, as in a restaurant or drugstore, at which sodas, ice cream, light meals, etc.,
were served. The soda fountain was fitted with high stools where customers sat
while eating or drinking. A slang term for a person who works behind the counter
is "soda jerk." As an American institution, the soda fountain has a history going
back to the 19th century. The first one was produced in Lowell, Massachusetts, in
1858. Soda water—water with carbonation—was produced originally for medical
purposes. The combination of soda water with ice cream and flavorings in 1874 led
to the popularization of the soda fountain.
soda (pop)
to the popularization of the soda fountain.
Any carbonated, flavored, and sweetened soft drink. So called because of the
sound it makes due to its carbonation when opened. The first carbonated drink was
patented in Philadelphia in 1809, and was followed by Dr. Pepper (1886); Coca-
Cola (1886); Hires Root Beer (1886); Pepsi-Cola (1898); Canada Dry Ginger Ale
(1904); 7UP (1933); Diet-Rite (1962); Tab (1963); and Diet Pepsi (1965). Until
1960, when aluminum cans were introduced, soda was bottled in glass bottles.
Tab-top can, which did not need a can opener, was introduced three years later.
sommelier
A wine steward at a restaurant or at a wine wholesale establishment.
sorbet
A fruit-flavored frozen dessert. Sorbet has been popular with upscale consumers in
the 1970s and 1980s. Some restaurants also serve it between courses of a meal to
freshen the plate.
soul food

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African-American southern home cooking, such as black-eyed beans, chitterlings,
yams, pigs feet in vinegar (trotters), hog jowls, corn oysters (fried fritters made of
corn kernels), okra, jambalaya, etc.
soup du jour
At a restaurant, a featured soup of the day.
soup kitchen
A place where food, usually soup, is served to the needy and homless at little or no
charge.
sourdough
Fermented dough, used as a leavening agent from one baking to the next.
Southern cuisine
Food is taken rather more seriously in the South than anywhere else in America. It
is called (probably for good reason) soul food. Pork is preferred to any other meat,
and there are many pork dishes such as spare ribs, crackling, fatback, chitterlings,
and Virginia ham. Bacon and ham are standard breakfast staple, as well as grits
and hash browns. Corn is as popular in the South as anywhere else in America, and
it is made into biscuits, bread and cakes, and grits. Chicken is popular fried,
barbecued, and baked. When served with a cream sauce, chicken is always
accompanied by fried green tomatoes. Shellfish is abundant in the South, and it is
used in many dishes. Southern desserts include, among others, a much-loved
American classic pecan pie, ambrosia (layers of fruit sprinkled with coconut),
native blueberries, and Key Lime Pie.
Southwestern cuisine
The Southwest is yet another culinary hotchpotch in the United States. On the Gulf
of Mexico, it can show French, Spanish, and black influences. Many sothern
accents were brought in by those who fled West after the Civil War. Texan cattle
ranches have given rise to a strong tradition of barbecue cooking. But the strongest
influence is that of Mexico. The mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Mexican
ingredients is known as Tex-Mex or Mexamerican.
spaghetti
Pasta in the form of long strings, boiled, and usually served with a sauce. Spaghetti
was introduced to America by Italians in the 1880s. This cheap and filling fare was
served at “spaghetti parlors.” And when parlors became restaurants in the 1960s,
the prices went up and spaghetti was promoted to elegant meals.
Spam
A brand of canned luncheon meat manufactured by Hormel Company (spicy +
ham). A cooking contest called Spamorama show cases its versatility.
Spanish rice
Rice cooked with tomatoes, green peppers, and onions.
spareribs
A cut of meat from the ribs, especially pork or beef, with some meat adhering to
the bones, often barbecued with a pungent sauce.
speakeasy

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A clandestine saloon of the Prohibition era, where one was supposed to speak in a
low voice asking for an illegal drink. Regular customers had either membership
cards or keys; occasional guests used a simple “Joe sent me” as a password.
spiked potato
Potato cooked with a spike inserted through the middle of the spud.
sports bar
In the united States, a bar where non-stop televised sport is shown. Such bars
developed in the 1970s and have become increasingly popular with the advent of
Cable TV sports programs, such as ESPN, televising spor on the 24-hour basis.
spoon
An object used for eating soup and other liquid foods and for mixing and preparing
food.
sprinkle
To shake small amount of liquid or a substance such as sugar over the surface of
something: Sprinkle the chicken with soy sauce.
spring roll
A Chinese-American appetizer of vegetables wrapped in pastry.
steak
As traditional as a farmed apple pie, steak may be served for any occasion,
accompanied by baked potato with sour cream, crisp fried bacon flakes, and green
onions or chives. There are several kinds of steaks: tenderloin steak, the choicest
and most expensive cut; New York steak, a boneless fillet; T-bone steak, the most
popular until after World War II; and sirloin steak, a cut of beef from a section of
the hid-quarter in front of the round.
steak tartar
(the noun precedes the adjective, from French, steak tartare) Scraped beefsteak
served uncooked, often mixed with a raw egg, onions, and seasonings and
garnished with capers.
Stilton
A type of white cheese, often with blue lines through it.
stollen
Sweet, rich German bread usually served at Christmas time. Stollen is a very
ancient recipe, dating from the 14th century. The bread was symbolic of the Christ
child, thus its alternative name Christstollen and its traditional appearance at
Christmas. Stollen contains marzipan, candid orange and lemon peel, almonds,
sultanas, and rum.
submarine
The name of a sandwich similar to hero, hoagie, grinder, and po’boy sandwiches.
So called because of its shape, submarine is one of several regional names for
sandwiches, used mostly in parts of New Jersey.
succotash
The name of this dish derives from the Narragansett Indian word meaning
“something broken in pieces.” Succotash is a traditional American cooked dish of

340
beans, especially lima butter) beans, and sweet corn kernels. The original
American Indian recipe also included fish. According to legend, succotash was
included in the first Thanksgiving feast in celebration of the harvest.
sugar
In the United States, sugar is made from sugar beets grown mainly in Louisiana,
California, and Minnesota, and from sugar cane grown in Florida and Hawaii.
sugar-cured ham
Ham cured in brown sugar and smoked over green hickory.
sundae
Ice cream with chocolate, fruit or other syrup poured over it and often topped with
whipped cream, chopped nuts, or other additions. The name of this popular dessert
derives from Sunday (originally ice cream was served with the above condiments
only on Sunday).
sunny side up eggs
Eggs fried only on one side.
surf’n’turf (or ranch ’n’ reef)
The name of a popular American combination where the meat and seafood are
usually cooked by boiling and served together on the same plate in steak and
lobster houses-restaurants specializing in beef steaks and lobster.
Supermarket
A large, one-story, self-service retail store, with adjacent parking lots, that sells
food and other household goods. The word was first registered in 1933, as part of
the name of Albers Super Markets, Inc. of Cincinnati. Supermarkets were
relatively slow to penetrate the marketplace. As late as 1959, 95 percent of
America’s 360,000 grocery stores were mom-and-pop corner businesses or
medium-sizes stores known as “superettes”. But, although supermarkets accounted
for just 5 percent of grocery outlets, they already had half of America’s food sales,
offering dry groceries, convenience foods, fresh meats, fish and seafood, dairy
products, beverages, fruit and vegetables, bread, kitchen utensils, detergents, paper
products, etc. Such recent innovations as salad bars and deli departments, made
supermarkets even more popular and indispensable. Supermarkets changed not
only the way America shopped but the way America ate. As women increasingly
took jobs, convenience food took on an ever more important role (heat-and-eat TV
dinners, pizza, desserts, etc.)
With the supermarkets as our temple and the singing commercials as our litany, are
we likely to fire the world with an irresistible vision of America