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China’s Foreign Affairs and International Relations


China consistently upholds the banner of peace, development and

cooperation, pursues, as always, an independent foreign policy of peace, and
persists with the development of friendly relations with other countries on the
basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence––mutual respect for
sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference
in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful

It is the fundamental mission and basic goal of China’s diplomacy at

present as well as in the years to come to safeguard the important period of
strategic opportunities for China’s development, to strive for a peaceful and
stable international environment, an environment of neighborliness, an equal
and mutually beneficial climate for cooperation and objective and positive
recognition from the international community, and to facilitate the program of
building a well-off society in an all-round way.

China will continue to promote world multi-polarization, democracy in

international relations and diversification of the modes of development. It will
steer the global economy toward the direction that is conducive to the
common prosperity of all nations. Dedicated to multilateralism and a new
security concept, it rejects hegemony, power politics and terrorism of all
forms, thereby stepping up the establishment of a just, reasonable
international order. China is set to deepen its mutually beneficial cooperation
with other developing countries and safeguard their shared interests. Adhering
to the principle of treating neighbors as friends and partners, it will strengthen
friendly and cooperative ties with neighboring countries to deepen regional
cooperation. It will further boost its relations with developed countries in the
spirit of seeking broader common ground and resolving disputes in a proper
manner. China will take an active part in multilateral international diplomatic
activities, maintain and strengthen the authoritative and leading role of the
United Nations (UN) and its Security Council and make constructive efforts in
regional organizations. It is also poised to beef up across-the-board economic
linkages and cultural exchanges with other countries, while readily protecting
the lives and legitimate rights and interests of overseas Chinese citizens.

The Chinese Government and people are willing to commit unremitting

efforts to the common cause of sustaining and promoting peace, development
and progress together with all the other nations in the international

China and the UN

China is an original member of the UN and is one of the five permanent

members of the Security Council. China acknowledges the irreplaceable role of
the UN in international affairs. China supports UN’ initiatives in solving
sensitive and complex issues within the UN framework in various areas such
as arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

China has been active in international affairs. China has been fulfilling its
financial obligations to the UN completely, timely, and unconditionally. At the
end of 2006, China contributed 2.053 percent to the UN budget, up from the
0.995 percent in 2000. China is the ninth largest donor among all member
countries and the largest donor among developing countries.

China has up-scaled its participation in peacekeeping operations of the

UN. China’s peacekeeping task force ranks the 12th among all member
countries, and the first among the five permanent members of the Security
Council. In September 1988, China submitted an officially application to join
the Special Committee on Peace Keeping Operations. In April 1990, China sent
five military observers to the UN Truce Supervision Organization, one of the
oldest subsidiary organizations of the UN, which was the first time that
Chinese military personnel participated in the peacekeeping operations of the
UN. By the end of 2006, 6000 Chinese military personnel, policemen and
civilian officials had participated in 16 UN peacekeeping operations in conflict
ridden regions in Liberia, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Haiti and Sudan. On July 26,
2006, Du Zhaoyu, a UN military observer from China, lost his life in the
Israelis’ bombing of a UN peacekeeping station in Lebanon. Peacekeepers from
China are highly commended by UN organizations and the government and
people of the hosting countries, for being disciplined, valiant and dedicated.

Relations with Major Powers

China has maintained mutually beneficial relations in various fields and at

different levels with major countries in the world. The healthy relations
between China and these countries have continued their growth.

China-U.S. Relations

As the Sino-U.S. relations continue to grow, China and the United States
find more and more common stakes in international affairs. The two countries
have coordinated positions and cooperated in such fields as the Korean
nuclear issues, Iranian nuclear issues, antiterrorism and non-proliferation of
nuclear weapons. The two countries have also reached consensus on
maintaining peace and stability across the Taiwan Straight. China is the
largest developing country, while the United States is the largest developed
countries in the world. Peace between the two countries will bless both parties
whereas collision will wreak both. Hence, China and the United States must
deepen communication and understanding, and enhance consensus and
confidence. Friendly relations between the two countries will not only benefit
the two people but also promote world peace.

China-EU Relations

Since forging comprehensive strategic partnership in 2003, China and

European Union (EU) have been on good terms, which is reflected in deeper
trust and more frequent exchange of high-level visits. China-EU relation has
becoming more and more mature and pragmatic. With a closer partnership,
responsibilities on both sides increase.

Trade between China and the EU saw rapid expansion. The EU is by far
the largest trading partner of China, and China is the second largest trading
partner of the EU. The EU’s investment in China continues to grow. Notable
progress in all ranges of the bilateral ties was made. The comprehensive
partnership between China and the EU is on a solid track.

China-Russia Relations

China and Russia make full tap on the cooperation mechanisms between
the two governments, actively implementing the important consensus reached
between the leaders of the two countries, continuously expanding the mutual
collaboration in all fields and achieving notable achievements. The relations
between China and Russia maintain good momentum.

China and Russia have worked more closely together in international

affairs. The two countries have worked together in pushing for a feasible
solution to the nuclear issues in North Korea and Iran.

The business ties between the two countries are increasingly tight. Their
trade and economic cooperation shows sound and rapid development.

Enjoying high-level political mutual trust and mutual benefit, strategic

coordination and common political wills, China and Russia share the desire and
determination of the two peoples to become “good neighbors, close partners
and friends.”

Beijing will unswervingly abide by the Treaty of Good Neighborliness and

Friendly Cooperation between China and Russia, and together with Moscow,
continue to promote the strategic cooperative partnership.

China-Japan Relations

China and Japan are two neighboring countries divided only by a narrow
strip of water. Since their normalization of diplomatic relations in 1972, the
bilateral ties have made substantial headway. However, the two countries also
face a series of issues of how to increase mutual trust and seek common
strategic interests.

Both sides must bear the historical lessons in their minds and cherish the
hard-won peace fruits when dealing with Sino-Japanese relations.

Taking history as a mirror and facing forward to the future, China and
Japan should bide by the principle and spirit of the China-Japan Joint
Statement, the China-Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship and the China-
Japan Joint Declaration, expand the common interest of both and pay
attention to and each other’s concerns, especially those with regard to
historical issues and the Taiwan question. Leaders of China and Japan should
view and handle bilateral relations from strategic height and long-term
perspective, grasp historical opportunities and further promote long-term and
stable friendly and cooperative relations.

Relations with African Countries

Relations between China and African countries have been long-lasting and
bestowed with a solid foundation. Suffering from similar historical experiences,
the two sides have built up profound friendship through mutual support
toward each other in their fights for national liberation.

The founding of the New China in 1949 and the independence of African
countries have opened a new chapter of China-Africa relations. Through the
past half-century, bilateral political relations have been close, high-level visits
frequent, trade and economic ties fortified, cooperation in other fields
substantial, and negotiation and coordination in international affairs
strengthened. China has provided assistance in its power to African countries,
which has extended strong supports to China.

Sincerity, friendship, equality, mutual benefit, reciprocity and common

prosperity are the principle of exchanges and cooperation between China and
Africa, as well as the impetus that drive the development of the bilateral ties.

Relations with Neighboring Countries and Multilateral Diplomacy

China affirms the balance and sustainable development of the global

economy and society. The international community should work together to
gradually address the prominent problems including widening gap between the
rich and the poor, as well as worsening ecological environment.

Military Diplomacy

As supplement to traditional diplomacy, military exchanges between

countries are barometers of diplomatic relations. China’s military diplomacy in
2006 was fruitful.

In 2006, China exchanged military personnel with over 300 countries,

played host to over 40 defense ministers or chiefs of staff from other
countries, participated in more than 40 bilateral or multilateral consultation or
talks and provided humanitarian aid to Lebanon, Indonesia and the

Exchanges of high-level military visits facilitate trust and understanding,

and promote consensus and cooperation. As a result, military relations
between China and Russia have deepened, and that between China and the
United States are growing steadily. All round and multilevel military exchanges
and cooperation are underway between China and other foreign countries.

Joint military exercises, defense and security consultations and dialogues

between China and other countries have boosted China’s clout abroad. In
September and November 2006, naval forces from China and the United
States conducted two phases of joint maritime rescue exercises; with each
phase on the territory waters China and the United States respectively. The
joint exercise is a new starting point in the military cooperation between the
two countries. In September, China and Tajikistan held a joint antiterrorism
exercise with the code name of "cooperation-2006." The two sides explored
commanding and combating strategies in anti-terrorism, rehearsed
coordination between the two forces, and built the platform to further anti-
terrorism cooperation. The exercise was also a pilot for the joint military
exercises among SCO member countries to be held in 2007. In November,
China and Pakistan launched an antiterrorism exercise in Pakistan with the
code name “Friendship 2006”. The exercise has strengthened friendly relations
between the two countries and two military forces, and has promoted
cooperation between the two countries in security affairs, in particular

China has always valued the development of friendly relations with

neighboring countries and the maintenance of stability in its neighborhood. In
2006, military delegations from China visited more than 20 countries in East
Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia. In the meanwhile, 30 short
high-level military delegations from neighboring countries visited China. In
addition, China exchanged military personnel with countries in West Asia,
Africa, Southern Pacific and Latin America. The forms of military contacts were
also diversified.