Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Science Revision Year 8

The Earth

The Earth's outermost surface is called.. crust


How thick is the continental crust at its deepest ? 35km
How thick is the oceanic crust (crust below the ocean) on average ? 5km
How much of the earth is made by mantle ? 80%
What type of rock is on the deep ocean floor Basalt
How far is it from the base of the crust to the outer core ? 2880km
Give an example of material from the mantle that is pushed into the crust diamond
What is the temperature range in the mantle ? 1000-2500
What is a zone of weak rocks 100km below the surface called ? asthenosphere
What is above this layer in the mantle ? lithosphere
What is the liquid layer of the core called and how deep is it ? inner core
What is the solid layer of the core called and how deep is it ? outer core
What causes continental drift ? asthenosphere moves lithosphere
From which layer of the earth is the magnetic field generated from ? inner core
20cm3 of Mangnetite has a mass of 104g. What is its density ? 5.2g
What is a common way of finding out about the earth's interior ? seismographic waves
What is another way ? digging
What do seismographic stations do ? Observe earth movements
What does elasticity of rocks means? How easily it melts
What determines how far earthquake waves travel through rocks? The types of rock
P or Primary earthquake waves travel through .. Solid, liquid
S or Secondary earthquake waves travel through.. Solid
What happens to earthquake waves went they travel from one material to The path of the wave is bent
another
What are three types of rock ? sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic
Where are sedimentary rocks formed ? on the surface of the earth
How are sedimentary rocks formed ? erosion, weathering
How are sedimentary rocks classified ? size, type
Which sedimentary particle would be moved by swift flowing rivers, or by gravel
landslides, or glaciers.
Which sedimentary particle would be moved by slow-moving stream silt, clay or mud
How are igneous rocks formed ? through lava cooling
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of silt (mud) ? gravel
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of clay (mud) ? silt, clay or mud
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of sand ? Mudstone
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of gravel ? Sandstone
How are metamorphic rocks like slate or marble formed ? intense pressure in the mantle

Electricity

What happens inside the atoms of a material that is electrically charged ? Number of protons and electrons unequal

Draw a picture of the atom and explain the particles. can't draw
Moving electricity or electical current will only flow .. in conductors
What else is needed for moving electricity energy
What is used to measure voltage ? voltmeter
What is current ? moving electricity
What is used to measure current ? ampmeter
What substances are used to make resistors ? tungsten, platinum
What happens to some of the energy as electricity moves through resistors It is converted to heat

What is the name given to non-conductors that do not allow electriticity to insulators
pass through
Name three good conductors. copper, iron, silver
Name three good insulators. plastic, rubber, wood
Name three good resistors. platinum, tungsten, nichrome
Sequence of energy changes in Hydro-electric power station gravitational-potential, kinetic, electrical
Sequence of energy changes in Coal-fired power station chemical potential, kinetic, electrical
What is the difference between conductor, resistor, and inulator. conductors can carry electricity, resistors convet some
electricity to heat, insulators don't conduct electricity.
Draw the common electrical symbols and label can't draw

Page 1 of 4
Science Revision Year 8

Heat
How does heat travel by conduction ? heat transfers from warm objects to cooler objects.
How does heat travel by convection ? heat transfers in liquids and gases
How does heat travel by radiation? heat transfers by vibrating particles

Page 2 of 4
Science Revision Year 8

The Earth

The Earth's outermost surface is called.. Crust


How thick is the continental crust at its deepest ? 35km
How thick is the oceanic crust (crust below the ocean) on average ? 5km
How much of the earth is made by mantle ? 80%
What type of rock is on the deep ocean floor Basaltic Rock
How far is it from the base of the crust to the outer core ? 2880 km
Give an example of material from the mantle that is pushed into the crust Diamonds
What is the temperature range in the mantle ? 1000°C to 2500°C
What is a zone of weak rocks 100km below the surface called ? Asthenosphere
What is above this layer in the mantle ? Lithosphere.
What is the liquid layer of the core called and how deep is it ? Outer core. 2270km thick.
What is the solid layer of the core called and how deep is it ? Inner core. 1200km thick.
What causes continental drift ? When the plastic type material of the asthenosphere moves
the rigid lithosphere.
From which layer of the earth is the magnetic field generated from ? Outer core which contains iron.
20cm3 of Mangnetite has a mass of 104g. What is its density ? density = mass/volumne = 104 / 20 = 5.2 g/cm3
What is a common way of finding out about the earth's interior ? Earthquake or Seismic analysis
What is another way ? They can dig but the deepest so far has only been 12km
What do seismographic stations do ? They are laboratories that detect and monitor earthquake
activities.
What does elasticity of rocks means? How quickly the rocks spring back to the original shape.
What determines how far earthquake waves travel through rocks? The density and the elasticity of the rocks.
P or Primary earthquake waves travel through .. both solids and liquids
S or Secondary earthquake waves travel through.. only solids
What happens to earthquake waves went they travel from one material to The path of the wave is bent.
another
What are three types of rock ? Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
Where are sedimentary rocks formed ? On the surface of the earth
How are sedimentary rocks formed ? As existing rocks are weathered and eroded, the sediments
are carried away by water, ice or wind and deposited to
form horizontal layer of sediment. Over millions of years,
the layers of sediment are pressed and cemented together
to form sedimentary rocks.
How are sedimentary rocks classified ? By the type and size of the sedimentary particles (gravel,
sand or mud) ?
Which sedimentary particle would be moved by swift flowing rivers, or by Gravel.
landslides, or glaciers.
Which sedimentary particle would be moved by slow-moving stream Silt, clay or small sand.
How are igneous rocks formed ? When liquid magma cools and solidifies either below the
surface (eg graphite) or on the surface (eg Basalt) where it
is thrown by volcanoes.
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of silt (mud) ? Shale
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of clay (mud) ? Mudstone
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of sand ? Sandstone
What is the name of the sedimentary rock formed out of gravel ? Conglomerate.
How are metamorphic rocks like slate or marble formed ? When other rocks are subject to intense pressure and heat
they are changed and become more denser - metamorphic
rocks.

Electricity

What happens inside the atoms of a material that is electrically charged ? The number of protons and electrons are not equal
because some electrons have escaped ?
Draw a picture of the atom and explain the particles.
Moving electricity or electical current will only flow .. in good conductors like metals.
What else is needed for moving electricity energy. called voltage, is needed to drive the electrons.
What is used to measure voltage ? Voltmeter.
What is current ? The amount of electric charge passing a given point in a
second
What is used to measure current ? Ampeter.

Page 3 of 4
Science Revision Year 8

What substances are used to make resistors ? Substances that allow electricity to pass through but offer a
lot of resistence
What happens to some of the energy as electricity moves through resistors It is converted to heat energy.

What is the name given to non-conductors that do not allow electriticity to Insulators.
pass through
Name three good conductors. Copper, silver, gold, aluminium, iron
Name three good insulators. Plastic, rubber, wood, porcelain, glass
Name three good resistors. Platinum, Nichrome and Tungsten
Sequence of energy changes in Hydro-electric power station Gravitational potential energy - kinetic energy - mechanical
energy - electrical energy
Sequence of energy changes in Coal-fired power station Chemical energy - heat energy - mechanical energy -
electrical energy
What is the difference between conductor, resistor, and inulator. Conductor fully allows electrons to readily pass through
them. Resistors put up resistance to the pass through of
electrons, thus producing heat from the energy of these
electrons resisted to. Insulators do not allow electrons to
pass through.
Draw the common electrical symbols and label

Heat
How does heat travel by conduction ? Particles vibrate faster and bump into their neighbours
which in turn vibrate faster and impact neighboroughing
particles and so heat spreads through the solid.
How does heat travel by convection ? Liquid or gas particles move from one place to another
transferring heat.
How does heat travel by radiation? Heat travel through as invisible rays and these rays can
trval through empty space or vacuum (unlike the other two
forms heat transfer)

Combinations
What is a compound ? A compound is the result of two or more elements
combined in fixed proportion.
What are three methods to separate mixtures ? Evaporation, Filtration and Crystallisation.

Page 4 of 4