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- The Oredigger Issue 4 - September 24, 2012
- 2012 IS REAL BUT WHO SHOULD WE BELIEVE? PART 6
- A BRIEF HISTORY OF QUANTUM COMPUTING 1
- ItFromQubit
- Mindful Universe
- Q5Cost Format and Library: A Tutorial About the Common Format for Quantum Chemistry Interoperability
- Philosophical Considerations of Quantum In Determinism
- Crystal Field Theory
- OK QMnotes
- Quantum Information and Relativity Theory
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Introduction

The following is extracted in the main from the on line eccyclopedia Wikipedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org and is intended to give a simple overview. In some cases this is by

analogy and this should not be taken as any lack of robustness to the concept.

For non English speakers the on line Wikipedia has an automatic translation facility.

There is also a listing of Quantum Physics and Quantum Biology related books available

in Biofeedback Resource Books.pdf available on http://imune.net/index/downloads.html

Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1

Thermodynamics............................................................................................................. 2

Entropy............................................................................................................................ 3

Quantum biology ............................................................................................................ 4

Quantum World: Instant Expert...................................................................................... 4

The birth of an idea ............................................................................................. 4

Quantum weirdness............................................................................................. 5

Uncertainty rules................................................................................................. 5

Secure networks .................................................................................................. 6

Quantum gravity ................................................................................................. 6

Economies of scale ............................................................................................. 7

Quantum Mechanics ....................................................................................................... 7

Background ................................................................................................................. 8

Old quantum theory .................................................................................................... 9

Planck's constant ......................................................................................................... 9

Bohr atom.................................................................................................................. 10

Wave-particle duality................................................................................................ 10

Development of modern quantum mechanics........................................................... 11

Schrödinger wave equation....................................................................................... 12

Uncertainty Principle ................................................................................................ 12

Quantum entanglement ............................................................................................. 14

Interpretations- the quantum micro and the newtonian macro world. ...................... 15

Consciousness causes collapse ................................................................................. 15

Quantum Electrodynamics............................................................................................ 16

Physical interpretation of QED................................................................................. 16

History....................................................................................................................... 17

Butterfly effect .............................................................................................................. 18

Fractal ........................................................................................................................... 20

History....................................................................................................................... 20

The fractional dimension of the boundary of the Koch snowflake........................... 22

Generating fractals .................................................................................................... 22

Classification of fractals ........................................................................................... 23

Fractals in nature....................................................................................................... 23

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History....................................................................................................................... 25

Bifurcation theory ......................................................................................................... 26

Extended Consciousness................................................................................................. 27

Bell's theorem ............................................................................................................... 27

Importance of the theorem ........................................................................................ 28

Bell's thought experiment ......................................................................................... 28

Notable quotes .......................................................................................................... 29

Bell test experiments................................................................................................. 29

Implications of violation of Bell's inequality............................................................ 30

Locality (Local Universe) ............................................................................................. 31

Nonlocality.................................................................................................................... 32

Tao ................................................................................................................................ 33

Some characteristics of Tao ...................................................................................... 34

Subspace- Hyperspace (science fiction) ....................................................................... 35

Subspace (Star Trek)................................................................................................. 35

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power)

is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and

volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion

of their particles using statistics. Roughly, heat means "energy in transit" and dynamics

relates to "movement"; thus, in essence thermodynamics studies the movement of energy

and how energy instills movement. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of the

need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.

The starting point for most thermodynamic considerations are the laws of

thermodynamics, which postulate that energy can be exchanged between physical

systems as heat or work. They also postulate the existence of a quantity named entropy,

which can be defined for any system. In thermodynamics, interactions between large

ensembles of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of

system and surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions

define its properties, which in turn are related to one another through equations of state.

Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials are

useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes.

With these tools, thermodynamics describes how systems respond to changes in their

surroundings. This can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering,

such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, and even

black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and

for chemistry, chemical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, and materials

science to name a few.

Page 3 of 35

Entropy

and temperature differences all tend to equalize over time. The system's entropy, which

increases with this process, is a measure of how far the equalization has progressed. For

example, take a system consisting of a cup of hot water in a cool room. Over time the

water will tend to cool and evaporate, and the room will warm up slightly. The system's

heat has become more evenly distributed, and thus the entropy of the cup of water and the

room has increased.

"how mixed-up the system is". Such statements should be approached with care, as the

terms "disorder" and "mixedupedness" are not well defined. The "disorder" of the system

as a whole can be formally defined (as discussed below) in a way that is consistent with

the realities of entropy, but note that such a definition will almost always lead to

confusion. It is only if the word is used in this special sense that a system that is more

"disordered" or more "mixed up" on a molecular scale will necessarily also be "a system

with a lower amount of energy available to do work" or "a system in a macroscopically

more probable state".

compatible, ways:

simply as a state function of a thermodynamic system: that is, a property depending only

on the current state of the system, independent of how that state came to be achieved. The

state function has the important property that, when multiplied by a reference

temperature, it can be understood as a measure of the amount of energy in a physical

system that cannot be used to do thermodynamic work; i.e., work mediated by thermal

energy. More precisely, in any process where the system gives up energy ΔE, and its

entropy falls by ΔS, a quantity at least TR ΔS of that energy must be given up to the

system’s surroundings as unusable heat (TR is the temperature of the system’s external

surroundings). Otherwise the process will not go forward.

as a measure of the number of microscopic configurations that are capable of yielding the

observed macroscopic description of the thermodynamic system. A more “disordered” or

“mixed up” system can thus be formally defined as one which has more microscopic

states compatible with the macroscopic description, however this definition is not

standard and thus prone to confusing people. It can be shown that this definition of

entropy, sometimes referred to as Boltzmann’s postulate, reproduces all of the properties

of the entropy of classical thermodynamics.

An important law of physics, the second law of thermodynamics, states that the total

entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a

maximum value. Unlike almost all other laws of physics, this associates thermodynamics

Page 4 of 35

with a definite arrow of time. However, for a universe of infinite size, which

cannot be regarded as an isolated system, the second law does not apply.

Quantum biology

mechanics. In exploring quantum mechanical explanations for biological phenomena, the

nascent science of quantum biology represents one of the first efforts to apply quantum

theory to systems much more macroscopic than the atomic or subatomic realms generally

described by quantum theory.

The following biological phenomena have been studied in terms of quantum processes:

• the conversion of chemical energy into motion;

• magnetoreception in animals.

analytical power required to model quantum effects increases exponentially with the

number of particles involved.

If successful scientific theories can be thought of as cures for stubborn problems,

quantum physics was the wonder drug of the 20 century. It successfully explained

th

phenomena such as radioactivity and antimatter, and no other theory can match its

description of how light and particles behave on small scales.

But it can also be mind-bending. Quantum objects can exist in multiple states and places

at the same time, requiring a mastery of statistics to describe them. Rife with uncertainty

and riddled with paradoxes, the theory has been criticised for casting doubt on the notion

of an objective reality - a concept many physicists, including Albert Einstein, have found

hard to swallow.

Today, scientists are grappling with these philosophical conundrums, trying to harness

quantum's bizarre properties to advance technology, and struggling to weave quantum

physics and general relativity into a seamless theory of quantum gravity.

Quantum theory began to take shape in the early 20th century, when classical ideas failed

to explain some observations. Previous theories allowed atoms to vibrate at any

frequency, leading to incorrect predictions that they could radiate infinite amounts of

energy - a problem known as the ultraviolet catastrophe.

In 1900, Max Planck solved this problem by assuming atoms can vibrate only at specific,

or quantised, frequencies. Then, in 1905, Einstein cracked the mystery of the

Page 5 of 35

specific energies. The existing theory of light as waves failed to explain the effect, but

Einstein provided a neat solution by suggesting light came in discrete packages of energy

called photons - a brain wave that won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921.

Quantum weirdness

on the experimental setup, has long stymied scientists. Danish physicist Niels Bohr

explained this wave-particle duality by doing away with the concept of a reality separate

from one's observations. In his "Copenhagen interpretation", Bohr argued that the very

act of measurement affects what we observe.

apparently detecting evidence of both wave- and particle-like behaviour simultaneously.

The work suggests there may be no such thing as photons - light appears quantised only

because of the way it interacts with matter.

Other interpretations of quantum theory - of which there are at least half a dozen - deal

with the measurement problem by suggesting even more far-fetched concepts than a

universe dependent on measurement. The popular many worlds interpretation suggests

quantum objects display several behaviours because they inhabit an infinite number of

parallel universes.

Uncertainty rules

For about 70 years, this wave-particle duality was explained by another unsettling tenet

of quantum theory - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Formulated by Werner

Heisenberg in 1927 and recently made more precise, the theory puts an upper limit on

knowledge. It says one can never know both the position and momentum of a quantum

object - measuring one invariably changes the other.

Bohr defeated Einstein in a series of thought experiments in the 1920s and 1930s using

this principle, but more recent work suggests the underlying cause of the duality seen in

experiments is a phenomenon called entanglement.

Entanglement is the idea that in the quantum world, objects are not independent if they

have interacted with each other or come into being through the same process. They

become linked, or entangled, such that changing one invariably affects the other, no

matter how far apart they are - something Einstein called "spooky action at a distance".

This may be involved in superconductivity and may even explain why objects have mass.

It also holds promise for "teleporting" particles across vast distances - assuming everyone

agrees on a reference frame. The first teleportation of a quantum state occurred in 1998,

and scientists have been gradually entangling more and more particles, different kinds of

particles, and large particles.

Page 6 of 35

Secure networks

Quantum cryptographers can send "keys" to decode encrypted information using

quantum particles. Any attempt to intercept the particles will disturb their quantum state -

an interference that could then be detected.

In April 2004, Austrian financial institutions performed the first money transfer

encrypted by quantum keys, and in June, the first encrypted computer network with more

than two nodes was set up across 10 kilometres in Cambridge, Massachusetts, US.

But keeping quantum particles entangled is a tricky business. Researchers are working on

how to maximise the particles' signal and distance travelled. Using a sensitive photon

detector, researchers in the UK recently sent encrypted photons down the length of a 100-

kilometre fibre optic cable. Researchers in the US devised a scheme to entangle

successive clouds of atoms in the hopes of one day making a quantum link between the

US cities of Washington, DC, and New York.

Lightning-fast computers

Quantum computers are another long-term goal. Because quantum particles can exist in

multiple states at the same time, they could be used to carry out many calculations at

once, factoring a 300-digit number in just seconds compared to the years required by

conventional computers.

But to maintain their multi-state nature, particles must remain isolated long enough to

carry out the calculations - a very challenging condition. Nonetheless, some progress has

been made in this area. A trio of electrons, the building blocks of classical computers,

were entangled in a semiconductor in 2003, and the first quantum calculation was made

with a single calcium ion in 2002. In October 2004, the first quantum memory component

was built from a string of caesium atoms.

But particles of matter interact so easily with others that their quantum states are

preserved for very short times - just billionths of a second. Photons, on the other hand,

maintain their states about a million times longer because they are less prone to interact

with each other. But they are also hard to store, as they travel, literally, at the speed of

light.

In 2001, scientists managed to stop light in its tracks, overcoming one practical hurdle.

And the first quantum logic gate - the brains behind quantum computers - was created

with light in 2003.

Quantum gravity

While three of the four fundamental forces of nature - those operating on very small

scales - are well accounted for by quantum theory, gravity is its Achilles heel. This force

works on a much larger scale and quantum theory has been powerless so far to explain it.

Page 7 of 35

A number of bizarre theories have been proposed to bridge this gap, many

of which suggest that the very fabric of space-time bubbles up with random quantum

fluctuations - a foam of wormholes and infinitesimal black holes.

Such a foam is thought to have filled the universe during the big bang, dimpling space-

time so that structures such as stars and galaxies could later take shape.

The most popular quantum gravity theory says that particles and forces arise from the

vibrations of tiny loops - or strings - just 10-35 metres long. Another says that space and

time are discrete at the smallest scales, emerging from abstractions called "spin

networks".

One recent theory, called "doubly special relativity", tweaks Einstein's idea of one cosmic

invariant - the speed of light - and adds another at a very small scale. The controversial

theory accounts for gravity, inflation, and dark energy. Physicists are now devising

observations and experiments that could test the competing theories.

Economies of scale

Quantum physics is usually thought to act on light and particles smaller than molecules.

Some researchers believe there must be some cut-off point where classical physics takes

over, such as the point where the weak pull of gravity overwhelms other forces (in fact,

gravity's effect on neutrons was recently measured). But macroscopic objects can obey

quantum rules if they don't get entangled.

Certainly, harnessing troops of atoms or photons that follow quantum laws holds great

technological promise. Recent work cooling atoms to near absolute zero have produced

new forms of matter called Bose-Einstein and fermionic condensates. These have been

used to create laser beams made of atoms that etch precise patterns on surfaces, and

might one day lead to superconductors that work at room temperature.

All of these hopes suggest that, as queasy as quantum can be, it remains likely to be the

most powerful scientific cure-all for years to come.

Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a physical science dealing with the behaviour of matter and

waves on the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It also forms the basis for the

contemporary understanding of how large objects such as stars and galaxies, and

cosmological events such as the Big Bang, can be analyzed and explained. Its acceptance

by the general physics community is due to its accurate prediction of the physical

behaviour of systems, including systems where Newtonian mechanics fails. This

difference between the success of classical and quantum mechanics is most often

observed in systems at the atomic scale or smaller, or at very low or very high energies,

or at extremely low temperatures. Quantum mechanics is the basis of modern

Page 8 of 35

foundation for the technology that has transformed the world in the last fifty years.

Background

has proven to be very successful and practical. The term "quantum mechanics" was first

coined by Max Born in 1924. Quantum mechanics is the foundation for other sciences

including condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry, and particle physics.

Despite the success of quantum mechanics, it does have some controversial elements. For

example, the behaviour of microscopic objects described in quantum mechanics is very

different from our everyday experience, which may provoke an incredulous reaction.

Moreover, some of the consequences of quantum mechanics appear to be inconsistent

with the consequences of other successful theories, such as Einstein's Theory of

Relativity, especially general relativity.

Some of the background of quantum mechanics dates back to the early 1800's, but the

real beginnings of quantum mechanics date from the work of Max Planck in 1900[1].

Albert Einstein[2], Niels Bohr[3], and Louis de Broglie[4] soon made important

contributions. However, it was not until the mid-1920's that a more complete picture

emerged, and the true importance of quantum mechanics became clear. Some of the most

prominent scientists to contribute were Max Born[5], Paul Dirac[6], Werner Heisenberg[7],

Wolfgang Pauli[8], and Erwin Schrödinger[9].

Later, the field was further expanded with work by Julian Schwinger, Murray Gell-Mann,

and Richard Feynman, in particular, with the development of Quantum Electrodynamics

in 1947.

bands on bubbles cannot be explained by a

model that depicts light as a particle. It can

be explained by a model that depicts it as a

wave. The drawing shows sine waves that

resemble waves on the surface of water

being reflected from two surfaces of a film

of varying width, but that depiction of the

wave nature of light is only a crude analogy.

explanations of the fundamental nature of

what we now call electromagnetic radiation.

In 1690, Christian Huygens explained the laws of reflection and refraction on the basis of

a wave theory.[10] Sir Isaac Newton believed that light consisted of particles which he

Page 9 of 35

experiments on interference that showed that a corpuscular theory of light was

inadequate. Then in 1873 James Clerk Maxwell showed that by making an electrical

circuit oscillate it should be possible to produce electromagnetic waves. His theory made

it possible to compute the speed of electromagnetic radiation purely on the basis of

electrical and magnetic measurements, and the computed value corresponded very

closely to the empirically measured speed of light.[11] In 1888, Heinrich Hertz made an

electrical device that actually produced what we would now call microwaves —

essentially radiation at a lower frequency than visible light.[12] Everything up to that point

suggested that Newton had been entirely wrong to regard light as corpuscular. Then it

was discovered that when light strikes an electrical conductor it causes electrons to move

away from their original positions, and, furthermore, the phenomenon observed could

only be explained if the light delivered energy in definite packets. In a photoelectric

device such as the light meter in a camera, when light hits the metallic detector electrons

are caused to move. Greater intensities of light at one frequency can cause more electrons

to move, but they will not move any faster. In contrast, higher frequencies of light can

cause electrons to move faster. So intensity of light controls the amperes of current

produced, but frequency of light controls the voltage produced. This appeared to raise a

contradiction when compared to sound waves and ocean waves, where only intensity was

needed to predict the energy of the wave. In the case of light, frequency appeared to

predict energy. Something was needed to explain this phenomenon and also to reconcile

experiments that had shown light to have a particle nature with experiments that had

shown it to have a wave nature.

spectroscopy which includes visible light seen in the colors of the rainbow, but also other

waves including the more energetic waves like ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays

plus the waves with longer wavelengths including infrared waves, microwaves and radio

waves. We are not, however, speaking of sound waves, but only of those waves that

travel at the speed of light. Also, when the word "particle" is used below, it always refers

to elementary or subatomic particles.

Planck's constant

Classical physics predicted that a black-body radiator would produce infinite energy, but

that result was not observed in the laboratory. If black-body radiation was dispersed into

a spectrum, then the amount of energy radiated at various frequencies rose from zero at

one end, peaked at a frequency related to the temperature of the radiating object, and then

fell back to zero. In 1900, Max Planck developed an empirical equation that could

account for the observed energy curves, but he could not harmonize it with classical

theory. He concluded that the classical laws of physics do not apply on the atomic scale

as had been assumed.

Page 10 of 35

Bohr atom

quantum jumping to ground state n=1

discovered. By means of the gold foil experiment

physicists discovered that matter is, volume for

volume, largely space. Once that was clear, it was

hypothesized that negative charge entities called

electrons surround positively charged nuclei. So at

first all scientists believed that the atom must be like

a miniature solar system. But that simple analogy

predicted that electrons would, within about one hundredth of a microsecond,[19] crash

into the nucleus of the atom. The great question of the early 20th century was, "Why do

electrons normally maintain a stable orbit around the nucleus?"

In 1913, Niels Bohr removed this substantial problem by applying the idea of discrete

(non-continuous) quanta to the orbits of electrons. This account became known as the

Bohr model of the atom. Bohr basically theorized that electrons can only inhabit certain

orbits around the atom. These orbits could be derived by looking at the spectral lines

produced by atoms.

Wave-particle duality

adequately by the sole use of either the wave analogy or of the

particle analogy. Therefore he enunciated the principle of

complementarity, which is a theory of pairs, such as the pairing

of wave and particle or the pairing of position and momentum.

Louis de Broglie worked out the mathematical consequences of

these findings. In quantum mechanics, it was found that

electromagnetic waves could react in certain experiments as

though they were particles and in other experiments as though they were waves. It was

also discovered that subatomic particles could sometimes be described as particles and

sometimes as waves. This discovery led to the theory of wave-particle duality by Louis-

Victor de Broglie in 1924, which states that subatomic entities have properties of both

waves and particles at the same time.

The Bohr atom model was enlarged upon with the discovery by de Broglie that the

electron has wave-like properties. In accord with de Broglie's conclusions, electrons can

only appear under conditions that permit a standing wave. A standing wave can be made

if a string is fixed on both ends and made to vibrate (as it would in a stringed instrument).

Page 11 of 35

That illustration shows that the only standing waves that can occur are those

with zero amplitude at the two fixed ends. The waves created by a stringed instrument

appear to oscillate in place, simply changing crest for trough in an up-and-down motion.

A standing wave can only be formed when the wave's length fits the available vibrating

entity. In other words, no partial fragments of wave crests or troughs are allowed. In a

round vibrating medium, the wave must be a continuous formation of crests and troughs

all around the circle. Each electron must be its own standing wave in its own discrete

orbital.

Werner Heisenberg developed the full quantum mechanical theory in 1925 at the young

age of 23. Following his mentor, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg began to work out a

theory for the quantum behavior of electron orbitals. Because electrons could not be

observed in their orbits, Heisenberg went about creating a mathematical description of

quantum mechanics built on what could be observed, that is, the light emitted from atoms

in their characteristic atomic spectra. Heisenberg studied the electron orbital on the model

of a charged ball on a spring, an oscillator, whose motion is anharmonic (not quite

regular). For a picture of the behavior of a charged ball on a spring see: Vibrating

Charges. Heisenberg first explained this kind of observed motion in terms of the laws of

classical mechanics known to apply in the macro world, and then applied quantum

restrictions, discrete (non-continuous) properties, to the picture. Doing so causes gaps to

appear between the orbitals so that the mathematical description he formulated would

then represent only the electron orbitals predicted on the basis of the atomic spectra.

In 1925 Heisenberg published a paper (in Z. Phys. vol. 33, p. 879-893) entitled

"Quantum-mechanical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations." So ended

the old quantum theory and began the age of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg's paper

gave few details that might aid readers in determining how he actually contrived to get

his results for the one-dimensional models he used to form the hypothesis that proved so

useful. In his paper, Heisenberg proposed to "discard all hope of observing hitherto

unobservable quantities, such as the position and period of the electron," and restrict

himself strictly to actually observable quantities. He needed mathematical rules for

predicting the relations actually observed in nature, and the rules he produced worked

differently depending on the sequence in which they were applied. "It quickly became

clear that the non-commutativity (in general) of kinematical quantities in quantum theory

was the really essential new technical idea in the paper." (Aitchison, p. 5) But it was

unclear why this non-commutativity was essential. Could it have a physical

interpretation? At least the matter was made more palatable when Max Born discovered

that the Heisenberg computational scheme could be put in a more familiar form present in

elementary mathematics.

Heisenberg approached quantum mechanics from the historical perspective that treated an

electron as an oscillating charged particle. Bohr's use of this analogy had already allowed

him to explain why the radii of the orbits of electrons could only take on certain values. It

followed from this interpretation of the experimental results available and the quantum

Page 12 of 35

any intermediate position between two "permitted" orbits. Therefore electrons were

described as "jumping" from orbit to orbit. The idea that an electron might now be in one

place and an instant later be in some other place without having traveled between the two

points was one of the earliest indications of the "spookiness" of quantum phenomena.

Although the scale is smaller, the "jump" from orbit to orbit is as strange and unexpected

as would be a case in which someone stepped out of a doorway in London onto the

streets of Los Angeles

Because particles could be described as waves, later in 1925 Erwin Schrödinger analyzed

what an electron would look like as a wave around the nucleus of the atom. Using this

model, he formulated his equation for particle waves. Rather than explaining the atom by

analogy to satellites in planetary orbits, he treated everything as waves whereby each

electron has its own unique wavefunction. A wavefunction is described in Schrödinger's

equation by three properties (later Paul Dirac added a fourth). The three properties were

(1) an "orbital" designation, indicating whether the particle wave is one that is closer to

the nucleus with less energy or one that is further from the nucleus with more energy, (2)

the shape of the orbital, i.e. an indication that orbitals were not just spherical but other

shapes, and (3) the magnetic moment of the orbital, which is a manifestation of force

exerted by the charge of the electron as it rotates around the nucleus.

These three properties were called collectively the wavefunction of the electron and are

said to describe the quantum state of the electron. "Quantum state" means the collective

properties of the electron describing what we can say about its condition at a given time.

For the electron, the quantum state is described by its wavefunction which is designated

in physics by the Greek letter ψ (psi, pronounced "sigh"). The three properties of

Schrödinger's equation that describe the wavefunction of the electron and therefore also

describe the quantum state of the electron as described in the previous paragraph are each

called quantum numbers

Uncertainty Principle

In 1927, Heisenberg made a new discovery on the basis of his quantum theory that had

further practical consequences of this new way of looking at matter and energy on the

atomic scale. In Heisenberg's matrix mechanics formula, Heisenberg had encountered an

error or difference of h/2π between position and momentum. This represented a deviation

of one radian of a cycle when the particle-like aspects of the wave were examined.

Heisenberg analyzed this difference of one radian of a cycle and divided the difference or

deviation of one radian equally between the measurement of position and momentum.

This had the consequence of being able to describe the electron as a point particle in the

center of one cycle of a wave so that its position would have a standard deviation of plus

or minus one-half of one radian of the cycle (1/2 of h-bar). A standard deviation can be

Page 13 of 35

either plus or minus the measurement i.e. it can add to the measurement or

subtract from it. In three-dimensions a standard deviation is a displacement in any

direction. What this means is that when a moving particle is viewed as a wave it is less

certain where the particle is. In fact, the more certain the position of a particle is known,

the less certain the momentum is known. This conclusion came to be called "Heisenberg's

Indeterminacy Principle," or Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. To understand the real

idea behind the uncertainty principle imagine a wave with its undulations, its crests and

troughs, moving along. A wave is also a moving stream of particles, so you have to

superimpose a stream of particles moving in a straight line along the middle of the wave.

An oscillating ball of charge creates a wave larger than its size depending upon the length

of its oscillation. Therefore, the energy of a moving particle is as large as the cycle of the

wave, but the particle itself has a location. Because the particle and the wave are the same

thing, then the particle is really located somewhere in the width of the wave. Its position

could be anywhere from the crest to the trough. The math for the uncertainty principle

says that the measurement of uncertainty as to the position of a moving particle is one-

half the width from the crest to the trough or one-half of one radian of a cycle in a wave.

For moving particles in quantum mechanics, there is simply a certain degree of exactness

and precision that is missing. You can be precise when you take a measurement of

position and you can be precise when you take a measurement of momentum, but there is

an inverse imprecision when you try to measure both at the same time as in the case of a

moving particle like the electron. In the most extreme case, absolute precision of one

variable would entail absolute imprecision regarding the other.

Bohr model of the atom: "You can say, well, this orbit is really not a complete orbit.

Actually at every moment the electron has only an inactual position and an inactual

velocity and between these two inaccuracies there is an inverse correlation."

The consequences of the uncertainty principle were that the electron could no longer be

considered as in an exact location in its orbital. Rather the electron had to be described by

every point where the electron could possibly inhabit. By creating points of probable

location for the electron in its known orbital, this created a cloud of points in a spherical

shape for the orbital of a hydrogen atom which points gradually faded out nearer to the

nucleus and farther from the nucleus. This is called a probability distribution. Therefore,

the Bohr atom number n for each orbital became known as an n-sphere in the three

dimensional atom and was pictured as a probability cloud where the electron surrounded

the atom all at once.

This led to the further description by Heisenberg that if you were not making

measurements of the electron that it could not be described in one particular location but

was everywhere in the electron cloud at once. In other words, quantum mechanics cannot

give exact results, but only the probabilities for the occurrence of a variety of possible

results. Heisenberg went further and said that the path of a moving particle only comes

into existence once we observe it. However strange and counter-intuitive this assertion

Page 14 of 35

may seem, quantum mechanics does still tell us the location of the electron's

orbital, its probability cloud. Heisenberg was speaking of the particle itself, not its orbital

which is in a known probability distribution.

It is important to note that although Heisenberg used infinite sets of positions for the

electron in his matrices, this does not mean that the electron could be anywhere in the

universe. Rather there are several laws that show the electron must be in one localized

probability distribution. An electron is described by its energy in Bohr's atom which was

carried over to matrix mechanics. Therefore, an electron in a certain n-sphere had to be

within a certain range from the nucleus depending upon its energy. This restricts its

location. Also, the number of places an electron can be is also called "the number of cells

in its phase space". The uncertainty principle set a lower limit to how finely one can chop

up classical phase space. Therefore, the number of places that an electron can be in its

orbital becomes finite due to the Uncertainty Principle. Therefore, an electron's location

in an atom is defined to be in its orbital and its orbital although being a probability

distribution does not extend out into the entire universe, but stops at the nucleus and

before the next n-sphere orbital begins and the points of the distribution are finite due to

the Uncertainty Principle creating a lower limit.

Classical physics had shown since Newton that if you know the position of stars and

planets and details about their motions that you can predict where they will be in the

future. For subatomic particles, Heisenberg denied this notion showing that due to the

uncertainty principle one cannot know the precise position and momentum of a particle at

a given instant, so its future motion cannot be determined, but only a range of

possibilities for the future motion of the particle can be described.

These notions arising from the uncertainty principle only arise at the subatomic level and

were a consequence of wave-particle duality. As counter-intuitive as they may seem,

quantum mechanical theory with its uncertainty principle has been responsible for major

improvements in the world's technology from computer components to fluorescent lights

to brain scanning techniques

Quantum entanglement

more than a necessary limitation on human ability to actually know what occurs in the

quantum realm. In a letter to Max Born in 1926, Einstein claimed that God "does not play

dice."[23] Heisenberg's quantum mechanics, based on Bohr's initial explanation, became

known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics. Both Bohr and Einstein

spent many years defending and attacking this interpretation. After the 1930 Solvay

conference, Einstein never again challenged the Copenhagen interpretation on technical

points, but did not cease a philosophical attack on the interpretation, on the grounds of

realism and locality. Einstein, in trying to show that it was not a complete theory,

recognized that the theory predicted that two or more particles which have interacted in

the past exhibit surprisingly strong correlations when various measurements are made on

them.[24] Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance". In 1935, Schrödinger

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published a paper explaining the argument which had been denoted the EPR

paradox (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen, 1935). Einstein showed that the Copenhagen

Interpretation predicted quantum entanglement which he was trying to prove was

incorrect in that it would defy the law of physics that nothing could travel faster than the

speed of light. Quantum entanglement means that when there is a change in one particle

at a distance from another particle then the other particle automatically changes to

counter-balance the system. In quantum entanglement, the act of measuring one

entangled particle defines its properties and seems to influence the properties of its

partner or partners instantaneously, no matter how far apart they are. Because the two

particles are in an entangled state, changes to the one cause instantaneous effects on the

other. Einstein had calculated that quantum theory would predict this, he saw it as a flaw

and therefore challenged it. However, instead of showing a weakness in quantum

mechanics, this forced quantum mechanics to acknowledge that quantum entanglement

did in fact exist and it became another foundation theory of quantum mechanics. The

1935 paper is currently Einstein's most cited publication in physics journals.

Bohr's original response to Einstein was that the particles were in a system. However,

Einstein's challenge led to decades of substantial research into this quantum mechanical

phenomenon of quantum entanglement. This research clarified by Yanhua Shih points out

that the two entangled particles can be viewed as somehow not separate, which removes

the locality objection[25]. This means that no matter the distance between the entangled

particles, they remain in the same quantum state so that one particle is not sending

information to another particle faster than the speed of light, but rather a change to one

particle is a change to the entire system or quantum state of the entangled particles and

therefore changes the state of the system without information transference.

As a system becomes larger or more massive (action >> h ) the classical picture tends to

emerge, with some exceptions, such as superfluidity. The emergence of behaviour as we

scale up that matches our classical intuition is called the correspondence principle and is

based on Ehrenfest's theorem. This why we can usually ignore quantum mechanics when

dealing with everyday objects. Even so, trying to make sense of quantum theory is an

ongoing process which has spawned a number of interpretations of quantum theory,

ranging from the conventional Copenhagen Interpretation to hidden variables & many

worlds. There seems to be no end in sight to the philosophical musings on the subject;

however the empirical or technical success of the theory is unrivalled; all modern

fundamental physical theories are quantum theories.

observer is responsible for the wavefunction collapse. It is an attempt to solve the

Wigner's friend paradox by simply stating that collapse occurs at the first "conscious"

observer. Supporters claim this is not a revival of substance dualism, since (in a

ramification of this view) consciousness and objects are entangled and cannot be

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considered as a speculative appendage to almost any interpretation of quantum mechanics

and most physicists reject it as unverifiable and introducing unnecessary elements into

physics

Quantum Electrodynamics

electromagnetism. QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically

charged particles interacting by means of exchange by photons, whether the interaction is

between light and matter or between two charged particles. It has been called "the jewel

of physics" for its extremely accurate predictions of quantities like the anomalous

magnetic moment of the electron, and the Lamb shift of the energy levels of hydrogen.

In classical physics, due to interference light is observed to take the stationary path

between two points; but how does light `know where it's going'? That is, if the start and

end points are known, the path that will take the shortest time can be calculated.

However, when light is first emitted, the end point is not known, so how is it that light

always takes the quickest path? The answer is provided by QED. Light doesn't know

where it is going, and it doesn't always take the quickest path. According to QED light

does not have to — it simply goes over every possible path, and the observer (at a

particular location) simply detects the mathematical result of all wave functions added up

(as a sum of all line integrals). In fact, according to QED, light can go slower or faster

than the speed of light to get there[1].

Physically, QED describes charged particles (and their antiparticles) interacting with each

other by the exchange of photons. The magnitude of these interactions can be computed

using perturbation theory; these rather complex formulas have a remarkable pictorial

representation as Feynman diagrams [1]. QED was the theory to which Feynman

diagrams were first applied. These diagrams were invented on the basis of Lagrangian

mechanics. Using a Feynman diagram, one decides every possible path between the start

and end points. Each path is assigned a complex-valued probability amplitude, and the

actual amplitude we observe is the sum of all amplitudes over all possible paths.

Obviously, among all possible paths the ones with stationary phase contribute most (due

to lack of destructive interference with some neighboring counter-phase paths) — this

results in the stationary classical path between the two points.

QED doesn't predict what will happen in an experiment, but it can predict the probability

of what will happen in an experiment, which is how it is experimentally verified.

Predictions of QED agree with experiments to an extremely high degree of accuracy:

currently about 10−12 (and limited by experimental errors). This makes QED the most

accurate physical theory constructed thus far.

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Near the end of his life, Richard Feynman gave a series of lectures on QED

intended for the lay public. These lectures were transcribed and published as Feynman

(1985), QED: The strange theory of light and matter, a classic nonmathematical

exposition of QED from the point of view articulated above. See also QED (book).

Much of Feynman's discussion springs from an everyday phenomenon: the way any sheet

of glass partly reflects any light shining on it. (The book's cover featured a beautiful

photograph of an iridescent soap bubble, another striking example of an interference-

based phenomenon (illustrating addition of wave functions, a central principle of QED).

Feynman also pays homage to Isaac Newton's struggles to come to terms with the nature

of light.

History

Quantum theory began in 1900, when Max Planck assumed that energy is quantized in

order to derive a formula predicting the observed frequency dependence of the energy

emitted by a black body. This dependence is completely at variance with classical

physics. In 1905, Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by postulating that light

energy comes in quanta called photons. In 1913, Bohr invoked quantization in his

proposed explanation of the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom. In 1924, Louis de

Broglie proposed a quantum theory of the wave-like nature of subatomic particles. The

phrase "quantum physics" was first employed in Johnston's Planck's Universe in Light of

Modern Physics. These theories, while they fit the experimental facts to some extent,

were strictly phenomenological: they provided no rigorous justification for the

quantization they employed. They are collectively known as the "old quantum theory."

Modern quantum mechanics was born in 1925 with Werner Heisenberg's matrix

mechanics and Erwin Schrödinger's wave mechanics and the Schrödinger equation.

Schrödinger subsequently showed that these two approaches were equivalent. In 1927,

Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle, and the Copenhagen interpretation of

quantum mechanics began to take shape. Around this time, Paul Dirac, in work

culminating in his 1930 monograph, joined quantum mechanics and special relativity,

pioneered the use of operator theory, and devised the bra-ket notation widely used since.

In 1932, John von Neumann formulated the rigorous mathematical basis for quantum

mechanics as the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces. This and other work from

the founding period remains valid and widely used.

Quantum chemistry began with Walter Heitler and Fritz London's 1927 quantum account

of the covalent bond of the hydrogen molecule. Linus Pauling and others contributed to

the subsequent development of quantum chemistry.

The application of quantum mechanics to fields rather than single particles, resulting in

what are known as quantum field theories, began in 1927. Early contributors included

Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli, Weisskopf, and Jordan. This line of research culminated in the

1940s in the quantum electrodynamics (QED) of Richard Feynman, Freeman Dyson,

Julian Schwinger, and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, for which Feynman, Schwinger and

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theory of electrons, positrons, and the electromagnetic field, was the first satisfactory

quantum description of a physical field and of the creation and annihilation of quantum

particles.

QED involves a covariant and gauge invariant prescription for the calculation of

observable quantities. Feynman's mathematical technique, based on his diagrams,

initially seemed very different from the field-theoretic, operator-based approach of

Schwinger and Tomonaga, but Freeman Dyson later showed that the two approaches

were equivalent. The renormalization procedure for eliminating the awkward infinite

predictions of quantum field theory was first implemented in QED. Even though

renormalization works very well in practice, Feynman was never entirely comfortable

with its mathematical validity, even referring to renormalization as a "shell game" and

"hocus pocus". (Feynman, 1985: 128)

QED has served as a role model and template for all subsequent quantum field theories.

One such subsequent theory is quantum chromodynamics, which began in the early

1960s and attained its present form in the 1975 work by H. David Politzer, David Gross

and Frank Wilczek. Building on the pioneering work of Schwinger, Peter Higgs,

Goldstone, and others, Sheldon Glashow, Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam

independently showed how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics could

be merged into a single electroweak force.

Butterfly effect

encapsulates the more technical notion

of sensitive dependence on initial

conditions in chaos theory. Small

variations of the initial condition of a

dynamical system may produce large

variations in the long term behavior of

the system. This is sometimes presented

as esoteric behavior, but can be

exhibited by very simple systems: for

example, a ball placed at the crest of a

hill might roll into any of several valleys

depending on slight differences in initial

position.

The phrase refers to the idea that a butterfly's wings might create tiny changes in the

atmosphere that ultimately cause a tornado to appear (or, for that matter, prevent a

tornado from appearing). The flapping wing represents a small change in the initial

condition of the system, which causes a chain of events leading to large-scale

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phenomena. Had the butterfly not flapped its wings, the trajectory of the

system might have been vastly different.

Recurrence, the approximate return of a system towards its initial conditions, together

with the sensitive dependence on initial conditions, are the two main ingredients for

chaotic motion. They have the practical consequence of making complex systems, such

as the weather, difficult to predict past a certain time range—approximately a week, in

the case of weather.

Hadamard and popularized by Duhem's 1906 book. The term butterfly effect is related to

the work of Edward Lorenz, who in a 1963 paper for the New York Academy of Sciences

noted that "One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct, one flap of a

seagull's wings could change the course of weather forever." Later speeches and papers

by Lorenz used the more poetic butterfly. According to Lorenz, upon failing to provide a

title for a talk he was to present at the 139th meeting of the AAAS in 1972, Philip

Merilees concocted Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in

Texas? as a title.

The concept of the Butterfly effect is sometimes used in popular media dealing with the

idea of time travel, usually inaccurately. In the 1952 short story by Ray Bradbury, "A

Sound of Thunder", the killing of a butterfly during the time of dinosaurs causes the

future to change in subtle but meaningful ways: e.g., the spelling of English, and the

outcome of a political election. According to the actual theory, however, the mere

presence of the time travelers in the past would be enough to change short-term events

(such as the weather), and would also have an unpredictable impact on the distant future.

In a Simpsons episode about Homer going back to the time of dinosaurs with a time

machine (a la Bradbury's story), Homer commits intentional and unintentional violence in

the past, violence which drastically changes the future (i.e., Homer's present).

In many cases, minor and seemingly inconsequential actions in the past are extrapolated

over time and can have radical effects on the present time of the main characters. In the

movie The Butterfly Effect, Evan Treborn (Ashton Kutcher), when reading from his

adolescent journals, is able to essentially "redo" parts of his past. As he continues to do

this, he realizes that even though his intentions are good, the actions he takes always have

unintended consequences. However, this movie does not seriously explore the

implications of the butterfly effect; only the lives of the principal characters seem to

change from one scenario to another. The greater world around them is mostly

unaffected.

Another movie which explores the butterfly effect (though not advertised as such) is

Sliding Doors. The movie observes two parallel life paths of a woman named Helen,

played by Gwyneth Paltrow. These two paths diverge when Helen attempts to catch a

commuter train. In one life path she catches the train, and in another she is delayed for

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just a few seconds and barely misses the train. This results in two

dramatically different sets of events.

The Butterfly effect was also invoked by fictional mathematician Ian Malcolm in both the

novel and film versions of Jurassic Park. He used it to explain the inherent instability of

(among other things) an amusement park with dinosaurs as the attraction - although this

interpretation can also be taken to mean that zoo animals will always escape and kill their

captors.

Fractal

The word "fractal" has two related meanings. In colloquial usage, it denotes a shape that

is recursively constructed or self-similar, that is, a shape that appears similar at all scales

of magnification and is therefore often referred to as "infinitely complex." In mathematics

a fractal is a geometric object that satisfies a specific technical condition, namely having

a Hausdorff dimension greater than its topological dimension. The term fractal was

coined in 1975 by Benoît Mandelbrot, from the Latin fractus, meaning "broken" or

"fractured."

History

that starts with a triangle and recursively replaces each line

segment with a series of four line segments that form a

triangular "bump". Each time new triangles are added (an

iteration), the perimeter of this shape grows by a factor of

4/3 and thus diverges to infinity with the number of

iterations. The length of the Koch snowflake's boundary is

therefore infinite, while its area remains finite. For this

reason, the Koch snowflake and similar constructions were

sometimes called "monster curves."

Objects that are now called fractals were discovered and explored long before the word

was coined. Ethnomathematics like Ron Eglash's African Fractals (ISBN 0-8135-2613-2)

documents pervasive fractal geometry in indigeneous African craft. In 1525, the German

Artist Albrecht Dürer published The Painter's Manual, in which one section is on "Tile

Patterns formed by Pentagons." The Dürer's Pentagon largely resembled the Sierpinski

carpet, but based on pentagons instead of squares.

The idea of "recursive self similarity" was originally developed by the philosopher

Leibniz and he even worked out many of the details. In 1872, Karl Weierstrass found an

example of a function with the non-intuitive property that it is everywhere continuous but

nowhere differentiable — the graph of this function would now be called a fractal. In

1904, Helge von Koch, dissatisfied with Weierstrass's very abstract and analytic

definition, gave a more geometric definition of a similar function, which is now called the

Koch snowflake. The idea of self-similar curves was taken further by Paul Pierre Lévy

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who, in his 1938 paper Plane or Space Curves and Surfaces Consisting of

Parts Similar to the Whole, described a new fractal curve, the Lévy C curve.

Georg Cantor gave examples of subsets of the real line with unusual properties — these

Cantor sets are also now recognised as fractals. Iterated functions in the complex plane

had been investigated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Henri Poincaré, Felix

Klein, Pierre Fatou, and Gaston Julia. However, without the aid of modern computer

graphics, they lacked the means to visualize the beauty of many of the objects that they

had discovered.

How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension.

This built on earlier work by Lewis Fry Richardson. In 1975, Mandelbrot coined the

word fractal to denote an object whose Hausdorff-Besicovitch dimension is greater than

its topological dimension. (Please refer to the articles on these terms for precise

definitions.) He illustrated this mathematical definition with striking computer-

constructed visualizations. These images captured the popular imagination; many of them

were based on recursion, leading to the popular meaning of the term "fractal".

Examples

A Julia set, a fractal related to

the Mandelbrot set

A relatively simple class of examples is the Cantor sets, in which short and then shorter

(open) intervals are struck out of the unit interval [0, 1], leaving a set that might (or might

not) actually be self-similar under enlargement, and might (or might not) have dimension

d that has 0 < d < 1. A simple recipe, such as excluding the digit 7 from decimal

representations, is self-similar under 10-fold enlargement, and also has dimension log

9/log 10 (this value is the same, no matter what logarithmic base is chosen), showing the

connection of the two concepts.

Additional examples of fractals include the Lyapunov fractal, Sierpinski triangle and

carpet, Menger sponge, dragon curve, space-filling curve, limit sets of Kleinian groups,

and the Koch curve. Fractals can be deterministic or stochastic (i.e. non-deterministic).

Chaotic dynamical systems are sometimes associated with fractals. Objects in the phase

space of a dynamical system can be fractals (see Attractor). Objects in the parameter

space for a family of systems may be fractal as well. An interesting example is the

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Mandelbrot set. This set contains whole discs, so it has a dimension of 2 and

is not technically fractal—but what is truly surprising is that the boundary of the

Mandelbrot set also has a Hausdorff dimension of 2. (M. Shishikura proved that in 1991.)

The following analysis of the Koch Snowflake suggests how self-similarity can be used

to analyze fractal properties.

The total length of a number, N, of small steps, L, is the product NL. Applied to the

boundary of the Koch snowflake this gives a boundless length as L approaches zero. But

this distinction is not satisfactory, as different Koch snowflakes do have different sizes. A

solution is to measure, not in meter, m, nor in square meter, m², but in some other power

of a meter, mx. Now 4N(L/3)x = NLx, because a three times shorter steplength requires

four times as many steps, as is seen from the figure. Solving that equation gives x = (log

4)/(log 3) ≈ 1.26186. So the unit of measurement of the boundary of the Koch snowflake

is approximately m1.26186.

[edit]

Generating fractals

Even 2000 times magnification of the Mandelbrot set uncovers fine detail resembling the full set.

Iterated function systems — These have a fixed geometric replacement rule. Cantor set,

Sierpinski carpet, Sierpinski gasket, Peano curve, Koch snowflake, Harter-Heighway

dragon curve, T-Square, Menger sponge, are some examples of such fractals.

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(such as the complex plane). Examples of this type are the Mandelbrot set, the Burning

Ship fractal and the Lyapunov fractal.

example, fractal landscapes, Lévy flight and the Brownian tree. The latter yields so-called

mass- or dendritic fractals, for example, diffusion-limited aggregation or reaction-limited

aggregation clusters.

Classification of fractals

Fractals can also be classified according to their self-similarity. There are three types of

self-similarity found in fractals:

Exact self-similarity — This is the strongest type of self-similarity; the fractal appears

identical at different scales. Fractals defined by iterated function systems often display

exact self-similarity.

Quasi-self-similarity — This is a loose form of self-similarity; the fractal appears

approximately (but not exactly) identical at different scales. Quasi-self-similar fractals

contain small copies of the entire fractal in distorted and degenerate forms. Fractals

defined by recurrence relations are usually quasi-self-similar but not exactly self-similar.

Statistical self-similarity — This is the weakest type of self-similarity; the fractal has

numerical or statistical measures which are preserved across scales. Most reasonable

definitions of “fractal” trivially imply some form of statistical self-similarity. (Fractal

dimension itself is a numerical measure which is preserved across scales.) Random

fractals are examples of fractals which are statistically self-similar, but neither exactly

nor quasi-self-similar.

It should be noted that not all self-similar objects are fractals — e.g., the real line (a

straight Euclidean line) is exactly self-similar, but since its Hausdorff dimension and

Fractals in nature

display self-similar structure over an extended, but finite, scale

range. Examples include clouds, snow flakes, mountains, river

networks, and systems of blood vessels.

computer using a recursive algorithm. This recursive nature is clear

in these examples — a branch from a tree or a frond from a fern is a

miniature replica of the whole: not identical, but similar in nature.

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Start with a triangle in 3D space and connect the central points of each side by line

segments, resulting in 4 triangles. The central points are then randomly moved up or

down, within a defined range. The procedure is repeated, decreasing at each iteration the

range by half. The recursive nature of the algorithm guarantees that the whole is

statistically similar to each detail.

A fractal is formed when pullingwithin a 4″ block of Fractal branching showing very fine

apart two glue-covered acrylic acrylic creates a fractal occurs on a microwave- natural fractals

sheets. Lichtenberg figure. irradiated DVD

Chaos theory

In mathematics and physics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear

dynamical systems that under certain conditions exhibit a phenomenon known as chaos.

Among the characteristics of chaotic systems, described below, is sensitivity to initial

conditions (popularly referred to as the butterfly effect). As a result of this sensitivity, the

behavior of systems that exhibit chaos appears to be random, even though the system is

deterministic in the sense that it is well defined and contains no random parameters.

Examples of such systems include the atmosphere, the solar system, plate tectonics,

turbulent fluids, economics, and population growth.

Systems that exhibit mathematical chaos are deterministic and thus orderly in some

sense; this technical use of the word chaos is at odds with common parlance, which

suggests complete disorder. (See the article on mythological chaos for a discussion of the

origin of the word in mythology, and other uses.) A related field of physics called

quantum chaos theory studies non-deterministic systems that follow the laws of quantum

mechanics.

For a dynamical system to be classified as chaotic, most scientists will agree that it must

have the following properties:

• it must be topologically mixing, and

• its periodic orbits must be dense.

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Sensitivity to initial conditions means that each point in such a system is arbitrarily

closely approximated by other points with significantly different future trajectories. Thus,

an arbitrarily small perturbation of the current trajectory may lead to significantly

different future behavior.

that the flapping of a butterfly's wings might create tiny changes in the atmosphere,

which could over time cause a tornado to occur. The flapping wing represents a small

change in the initial condition of the system, which causes a chain of events leading to

large-scale phenomena. Had the butterfly not flapped its wings, the trajectory of the

system might have been vastly different.

History

The first discoverer of chaos can plausibly be argued to be Jacques Hadamard, who in

1898 published an influential study of the chaotic motion of a free particle gliding

frictionlessly on a surface of constant negative curvature. In the system studied,

Hadamard's billiards, Hadamard was able to show that all trajectories are unstable, in that

all particle trajectories diverge exponentially from one-another, with positive Lyapunov

exponent. In the early 1900s, Henri Poincaré while studying the three-body problem,

found that there can be orbits which are nonperiodic, and yet not forever increasing nor

approaching a fixed point. Much of the early theory was developed almost entirely by

mathematicians, under the name of ergodic theory. Later studies, also on the topic of

nonlinear differential equations, were carried out by G.D. Birkhoff, A.N. Kolmogorov,

M.L. Cartwright, J.E. Littlewood, and Stephen Smale. Except for Smale, these studies

were all directly inspired by physics: the three-body problem in the case of Birkhoff,

turbulence and astronomical problems in the case of Kolmogorov, and radio engineering

in the case of Cartwright and Littlewood. Although chaotic planetary motion had not

been observed, experimentalists had encountered turbulence in fluid motion and

nonperiodic oscillation in radio circuits without the benefit of a theory to explain what

they were seeing.

Chaos theory progressed more rapidly after mid-century, when it first became evident for

some scientists that linear theory, the prevailing system theory at that time, simply could

not explain the observed behavior of certain experiments like that of the logistic map.

The main catalyst for the development of chaos theory was the electronic computer.

Much of the mathematics of chaos theory involves the repeated iteration of simple

mathematical formulas, which would be impractical to do by hand. Electronic computers

made these repeated calculations practical. One of the earliest electronic digital

computers, ENIAC, was used to run simple weather forecasting models.

An early pioneer of the theory was Edward Lorenz whose interest in chaos came about

accidentally through his work on weather prediction in 1961. Lorenz was using a basic

computer, a Royal McBee LGP-30, to run his weather simulation. He wanted to see a

sequence of data again and to save time he started the simulation in the middle of its

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corresponding to conditions in the middle of his simulation which he had calculated last

time.

To his surprise the weather that the machine began to predict was completely different

from the weather calculated before. Lorenz tracked this down to the computer printout.

The printout rounded variables off to a 3-digit number, but the computer worked with 6-

digit numbers. This difference is tiny and the consensus at the time would have been that

it should have had practically no effect. However Lorenz had discovered that small

changes in initial conditions produced large changes in the long-term outcome.

analog computer on November 27, 1961. The chaos exhibited by an analog computer is

truly a natural phenomenon, in contrast with those discovered by a digital computer.

Ueda's supervising professor, Hayashi, did not believe in chaos throughout his life, and

thus he prohibited Ueda from publishing his findings until 1970.

The term chaos as used in mathematics was coined by the applied mathematician James

A. Yorke.

The availability of cheaper, more powerful computers broadens the applicability of chaos

theory. Currently, chaos theory continues to be a very active area of research.

science, economics, engineering, philosophy, physics, politics, population dynamics,

psychology, robotics, etc.

Bifurcation theory

when a small smooth change made to the parameter values (the bifurcation parameters)

of a system causes a sudden 'qualitative' or topological change in the system's long-term

dynamical behaviour. Bifurcations can occur in continuous systems (described by ODEs,

DDEs or PDEs), and discrete systems (described by maps).

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Extended Consciousness

Bell's theorem

Bell's theorem is the most famous legacy of the late John Bell. It is notable for showing

that the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) differ from those of intuition. It is

simple and elegant, and touches upon fundamental philosophical issues that relate to

modern physics. In its simplest form, Bell's theorem states:

No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the

predictions of quantum mechanics.

This theorem has even been called "the most profound in science" (Stapp, 1975). Bell's

seminal 1965 paper was entitled "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox". The Einstein

Podolsky Rosen paradox (EPR paradox) assumes local realism, the intuitive notion that

particle attributes have definite values independent of the act of observation and that

physical effects have a finite propagation speed. Bell showed that local realism leads to a

requirement for certain types of phenomena that are not present in quantum mechanics.

This requirement is called Bell's inequality.

inequalities, that also assume local realism. That is, they assume that each quantum-level

object has a well defined state that accounts for all its measurable properties and that

distant objects do not exchange information faster than the speed of light. These well

defined properties are often called hidden variables, the properties that Einstein posited

when he stated his famous objection to quantum mechanics: "[God] does not play dice."

The inequalities concern measurements made by observers (often called Alice and Bob)

on entangled pairs of particles that have interacted and then separated. Hidden variable

assumptions limit the correlation of subsequent measurements of the particles. Bell

discovered that under quantum mechanics this correlation limit may be violated.

Quantum mechanics lacks local hidden variables associated with individual particles, and

so the inequalities do not apply to it. Instead, it predicts correlation due to quantum

entanglement of the particles, allowing their state to be well defined only after a

measurement is made on either particle. That restriction agrees with the Heisenberg

uncertainty principle, one of the most fundamental concepts in quantum mechanics.

Per Bell's theorem, either quantum mechanics or local realism is wrong. Experiments

were needed to determine which is correct, but it took many years and many

improvements in technology to perform them.

Bell test experiments to date overwhelmingly show that the inequalities of Bell's theorem

are violated. This provides empirical evidence against local realism and demonstrates that

some of the "spooky action at a distance" suggested by the famous Einstein Podolsky

Rosen (EPR) thought experiment do in fact occur. They are also taken as positive

evidence in favor of QM. The principle of special relativity is saved by the no-

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communication theorem, which proves that the observers cannot use the

inequality violations to communicate information to each other faster than the speed of

light.

John Bell's papers examined both John von Neumann's 1932 proof of the incompatibility

of hidden variables with QM and Albert Einstein and his colleagues' seminal 1935 paper

on the subject.

After EPR, quantum mechanics was left in the unsatisfactory position that it was either

incomplete in the sense that it failed to account for some elements of physical reality, or

it violated the principle of finite propagation speed of physical effects. In the EPR

thought experiment, two observers, now commonly referred to as Alice and Bob, perform

independent measurements of spin on a pair of electrons, prepared at a source in a special

state called a spin singlet state. It was a conclusion of EPR that once Alice measured spin

in one direction (e.g. on the x axis), Bob's measurement in that direction was determined

with certainty, whereas immediately before Alice's measurement, Bob's outcome was

only statistically determined. Thus, either the spin in each direction is not an element of

physical reality or the effects travel from Alice to Bob instantly.

that an electron might be detected in a particular region of space, or the probability that it

would have spin up or down. However, there still remained the idea that the electron had

a definite position and spin, and that QM's failing was its inability to predict those values

precisely. The possibility remained that some yet unknown, but more powerful theory,

such as a hidden variable theory, might be able to predict these quantities exactly, while

at the same time also being in complete agreement with the probabilistic answers given

by QM. If a hidden variables theory were correct, the hidden variables were not described

by QM and thus QM would be an incomplete theory.

The desire for a local realist theory was based on two ideas: first, that objects have a

definite state that determines the values of all other measurable properties such as

position and momentum and second, that (as a result of special relativity) effects of local

actions such as measurements cannot travel faster than the speed of light. In the

formalization of local realism used by Bell, the predictions of a theory result from the

application of classical probability theory to an underlying parameter space. By a simple

(but clever) argument based on classical probability he then showed that correlations

between measurements are bounded in a way that is violated by QM.

Bell's theorem seemed to seal the fate of those that had local realist hopes for QM.

Bell considered a setup in which two observers, Alice and Bob, perform independent

measurements on a system S prepared in some fixed state. Each observer has a detector

Page 29 of 35

with which to make measurements. On each trial, Alice and Bob can

independently choose between various detector settings. Alice can choose a detector

setting a to obtain a measurement A(a) and Bob can choose a detector setting b to

measure B(b). After repeated trials Alice and Bob collect statistics on their measurements

and correlate the results.

There are two key assumptions in Bell's analysis: (1) each measurement reveals an

objective physical property of the system (2) a measurement taken by one observer has

no effect on the measurement taken by the other.

regarded as repeated sampling of random variables. One might expect measurements by

Alice and Bob to be somehow correlated with each other: the random variables are

assumed not to be independent, but linked in some way. Nonetheless, there is a limit to

the amount of correlation one might expect to see. This is what the Bell inequality

expresses.

Notable quotes

Some recent popularizers of Bell's work when confronted with [Bell's inequality]

have gone on to claim that telepathy is verified or the mystical notion that all parts

of the universe are instantaneously interconnected is vindicated. Others assert that

this implies communication faster than the speed of light. That is rubbish; the

quantum theory and Bell's inequality imply nothing of this kind. Individuals who

make such claims have substituted a wish-fulfilling fantasy for understanding. If

we closely examine Bell's experiment we will see a bit of sleight of hand by the

God that plays dice which rules out actual nonlocal influences. Just as we think

we have captured a really weird beast--like acausal influences--it slips out of our

grasp. The slippery property of quantum reality is again manifested."

Bell's inequalities are tested by "coincidence counts" from a Bell test experiment such as

the optical one shown in the diagram. Pairs of particles are emitted as a result of a

quantum process, analysed with respect to some key property such as polarisation

direction, then detected. The setting (orientations) of the analysers are selected by the

experimenter.

Bell test experiments to date overwhelmingly suggest that Bell's inequality is violated.

Indeed, a table of Bell test experiments performed prior to 1986 is given in 4.5 of

(Redhead, 1987). Of the thirteen experiments listed, only two reached results

Page 30 of 35

source, when the experiments were repeated, "the discrepancies with QM could not be

reproduced".

The source S produces pairs of "photons", sent in opposite directions. Each photon

encounters a two-channel polariser whose orientation (a or b) can be set by the

experimenter. Emerging signals from each channel are detected and coincidences of four

types (++, --, +- and -+) counted by the coincidence monitor.

Nevertheless, the issue is not conclusively settled. According to Shimony's 2004 Stanford

Encyclopedia overview article

Mechanics, but not decisively because of the 'detection loopholes' or the

'communication loophole.' The latter has been nearly decisively blocked by a

recent experiment and there is a good prospect for blocking the former."

inequality is just one element of quantum physics which cannot be represented by any

classical picture of physics; other non-classical elements are complementarity and

wavefunction collapse. The problem of interpretation of quantum mechanics is intended

to provide a satisfactory picture of these non-classical elements of quantum physics.

Some advocates of the hidden variables idea prefer to accept the opinion that experiments

have ruled out local hidden variables. They are ready to give up locality (and probably

also causality), explaining the violation of Bell's inequality by means of a "non-local"

hidden variable theory, in which the particles exchange information about their states.

This is the basis of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is, however,

Page 31 of 35

particles in the universe be able to instantaneously exchange information with all others.

Finally, one subtle assumption of the Bell inequalities is counterfactual definiteness. The

derivation refers to several objective properties that cannot all be measured for any given

particle, since the act of taking the measurement changes the state. Under local realism

the difficulty is readily overcome, so long as we can assume that the source is stable,

producing the same statistical distribution of states for all the subexperiments. If this

assumption is felt to be unjustifiable, though, one can argue that Bell's inequality is

unproven. In the Everett many-worlds interpretation, the assumption of counterfactual

definiteness is abandoned, this interpretation assuming that the universe branches into

many different observers, each of whom measures a different observation. Hence many

worlds can adhere to both the properties of philosophical realism and the principle of

locality and not violate Bell's conditions -- the only interpretation that can do this.

In physics, the principle of locality is that distant objects cannot have direct influence on

one another: an object is influenced directly only by its immediate surroundings. This

was stated as follows by Albert Einstein in his article "Quantum Mechanics and Reality"

("Quanten-Mechanik und Wirklichkeit", Dialectica 2:320-324, 1948):

“The following idea characterises the relative independence of objects far apart in space

(A and B): external influence on A has no direct influence on B; this is known as the

Principle of Local Action, which is used consistently only in field theory. If this axiom

were to be completely abolished, the idea of the existence of quasienclosed systems, and

thereby the postulation of laws which can be checked empirically in the accepted sense,

would become impossible.”

Local realism is the combination of the principle of locality with the "realistic"

assumption that all objects must objectively have their properties already before these

properties are observed. Einstein liked to say that the Moon is "out there" even when no

one is observing it.

Maxwell's theory, but quantum mechanics largely rejects this principle due the presence

of distant quantum entanglements, most clearly demonstrated by the EPR paradox and

quantified by Bell's inequalities. Every theory that, like quantum mechanics, is

compatible with violations of Bell's inequalities must abandon either local realism or

counterfactual definiteness. (The vast majority of physicists believe that experiments

have demonstrated Bell's violations, but some local realists dispute the claim, in view of

the recognised loopholes in the tests.) Different interpretations of quantum mechanics

reject different parts of local realism and/or counterfactual definiteness.

Page 32 of 35

Nonlocality

A Physical theory is said to exhibit strict nonlocality if in that theory it is not possible to

treat widely separated systems as independent. The term is most often reserved, however,

just for interaction supposed to occure outside the past light cone. Nonlocality does not

necessarily imply a lack of causality. For instance, Newtonian gravitation is nonlocal

because it involves instantaneous action-at-a-distance but Newtonian mechanics is

certainly causal. Effects that appear nonlocal in Quantum Mechanics, some physicists

say, actually obey locality; in these cases, the nonlocal interaction affects correlations that

are considered within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics to pertain to

states of matter that result from the wave collapse upon measurement of irreal states

comprised of the sum of mutually exclsive possibilities, e.g., the singlet state. Einstein

criticised this interpretation of quantum mechanics on the grounds that these effects

employed "spooky instantaneous action at a distance". This issue is very closely related

to Bell's theorem and the EPR paradox. Quantum field theory, on the other hand, which is

the relativistic generalization of quantum mechanics, contains mathematical features that

assure locality, so that nonrelativistic quantum mechanics should be local as well. Thus,

the EPR paradox.

interpretation and the interpretation based on Consistent Histories, where the

wavefunction is not assumed to have a direct physical interpretation or reality it is

realism that is rejected. The actual definite properties of a physical system "do not exist"

prior to the measurement and the wavefunction has a restricted interpretation as nothing

more than a mathematical tool used to calculate the probabilities of experimental

outcomes, in agreement with positivism in philosophy as the only topic that science

should discuss.

have a physical interpretation or reality (the nature of which is unspecified), the principle

of locality is violated during the measurement process via wavefunction collapse. This is

a non-local process because Born's Rule, when applied to the system's wave function,

yields a probability density for all regions of space and time. Upon measurement of the

physical system, the probability density vanishes everywhere instantaneously, except

where (and when) the measured entity is found to exist. This "vanishing" would be a real

physical process, and clearly non-local (faster-than-lightspeed), if the wave function is

considered physically real and the probability density converged to zero at arbitrarily far

distances during the finite time required for the measurement process.

The Bohm interpretation always wants to preserve realism, and it needs to violate the

principle of locality to achieve the required correlations.

Page 33 of 35

counterfactual definiteness is rejected by the extension of the notion of reality to allow

the existence of parallel universes.

Because the differences between the different interpretations are mostly philosophical

ones (except for the Bohm and many-worlds interpretations), the physicists usually use

the language in which the important statements are independent of the interpretation we

choose. In this framework, only the measurable action at a distance - a superluminal

propagation of real, physical information - would be usually considered to be a violation

of locality by the physicists. Such phenomena have never been seen, and they are not

predicted by the current theories (with the possible exception of the Bohm theory).

Locality is one of the axioms of relativistic quantum field theory, as required for

causality. The formalization of locality in this case is as follows: if we have two

observables, each localized within two distinct spacetime regions which happen to be at a

spacelike separation from each other, the observables must commute. This interpretation

of the word "locality" is closely related to the relativistic version of in physics. In physics

a solution is local if the underlying equations are either Lorentz invariant or, more

generally, generally covariant or locally Lorentz invariant.

Tao

Tao or Dao refers to a Chinese character that was of pivotal meaning in ancient Chinese

philosophy and religion. Its most generic meaning, it refers to the "head path," and is

generally translated into English as "The Way".

The semantics of vary widely depending on the context, and may variously refer to a

concept of religion, morality, duty, knowledge, rationality, ultimate truth, path, or taste.

The CEDICT allows several different definition words for , as it varies in translation:

direction, way, method, road, path, principle, truth, reason, skill, method, Tao (of

Taoism), a measure word, to say, to speak, and to talk.

Tao is central to Taoism, but Confucianism also uses it to refer to "The Way," or the

"noble way" of personal conduct in life. The philosophic and religious use of the

character can be analyzed in two main segments: one meaning is "doctrine" or

"discourse"; every school owns and defends a specific Tao or discourse about doctrine. In

the other meaning, there is the 'Great Tao', that is the source of and guiding principle

behind all the processes of the universe. Beyond being and non-being, prior to space and

time, Tao is the intelligent ordering principle behind the unceasing flow of change in the

natural world. In this sense Tao gains great cosmological and metaphysical significance

comparable to the theistic concept of God; the Greek concept of the logos; or the Dharma

in Indian religions.

The nature and meaning of the Tao received its first full exposition in the Tao Te Ching

of Laozi, a work which along with those of Confucius and Mencius would have a far-

Page 34 of 35

reaching effect on the intellectual, moral and religious life of the Chinese

people. Although a book of practical wisdom in many ways, its profoundly metaphysical

character was unique among the prevailing forms of thought in China at that time. The

religion and philosophy based on the teaching of Laozi and his successor Zhuangzi is

known in English as "Taoism." Even though the Tao is often said to be undefinable and

unexplainable with words (even Chinese ones), the present article focuses on the Tao of

Taoism

There is a flow in the universe, and it is called dao. Dao flows slowly, however; it is

never stagnant and is incredibly powerful and keeps things in the universe balanced and

in order. It manifests itself through change of seasons, cycle of life, shifts of power, time,

and so forth. Dao has a strong and deep connection with cosmology and the natural

world, as the most well-known Daoist philosophers Laozi and Zhuangzi agreed. Dao is

the law of Nature. When you follow dao, you become one with it. And it is best to also

understand chi, because chi and dao go hand in hand. Chi is a Chinese term that is

translated as breath, vapour, and energy. Because chi is the energy that circulates the

universe, it can be said that dao is ultimately a flow of chi. Being one with dao brings

best outcomes, because that way things fall into place that they are meant to be.

The concept of Tao is based upon the understanding that the only constant in the universe

is change, (ie. I Ching, the "Book of Changes") and that we must understand and be in

harmony with this change. The change is a constant flow from non-being into being,

potential into actual, yin into yang, female into male. The symbol of the Tao, called the

Taijitu, is the yin yang confluently flowing into itself in a circle.

The Tao is the main theme discussed in the Tao Te Ching, an ancient Chinese scripture

attributed to Lao Tsu. This book does not specifically define what the Tao is; it affirms

that in the first sentence, "The Tao that can be told of is not an Unvarying Tao" (tr.

Waley, modified). Instead, it points to some characteristics of what could be understood

as being the Tao. Below are some excerpts from the book.

• Tao as the origin of things: “Tao begets one; One begets two; Two begets three;

Three begets the myriad creatures.” (TTC 42, tr. Lau, modified)

• Tao as an inexhaustible nothingness: “The Way is like an empty vessel / That yet

may be drawn from / Without ever needing to be filled.” (TTC 4, tr. Waley)

• Tao is omnipotent and infallible: “What Tao plants cannot be plucked, what Tao

clasps, cannot slip.” (TTC 54, tr. Waley)

In the Yi Jing, a sentence closely relates Tao to Yin-Yang or Taiji, asserting that "one

(phase of) Yin, one (phase of) Yang, is what is called the Tao". Being thus placed at the

conjunction of Yin and Yang alternance, Tao can be understood as the continuity

principle that underlies the constant evolution of the world.

Page 35 of 35

Thought could be summarized in the simple question: who is closer to the Tao, or, in

other words, whose "Tao" is the most powerful? As used in modern spoken and written

Chinese, Tao has a wide scope of usage and meaning.

In science fiction, hyperspace is any region of space co-existing with our own universe

(in some cases displaced in an extra spatial dimension) which may be entered using some

sort of energy field or space-altering device. While hyperspace is in some way anchored

to the normal universe, its properties are not the same as normal space, so traveling in

hyperspace is largely inequivalent to traveling in normal space. This makes for a handy

explanation of faster than light (FTL) travel: while the shortest distance between two

points in normal space is a straight line, hyperspace allows those points to be closer

together, or a curved line in normal space to be straight, etc. Hyperspace is the most

common device used for explaining FTL in a science fiction story where FTL is

necessary for interstellar travel or intergalactic travel. Spacecraft able to use hyperspace

for FTL travel are said to have hyperdrive.

Subspace is a term used in many different science fiction media to explain many different

concepts. Most often, subspace is used as a means to justify faster-than-light transit, in

the form of interstellar travel or the transmission of information. Subspace is loosely

associated at times with certain ideas expressed in string theory, which state that the

Universe is not limited to four dimensions; there may be upwards of ten which we do not

readily perceive but affect us summarily. By exploiting these higher dimensions, thus

circumventing the limitations of the four we are most accustomed to, FTL speeds are

imitated (or potentially achieved). Subspace is also comparable to hyperspace (science

fiction); the two ideas are often interchangeable and applied in similar fashion.

In most Star Trek series, subspace communications are a means to (usually) establish

instantaneous contact with people and places that are light-years away. The physics of

Star Trek describe infinite speed (expressed as Warp 10) as an impossibility; as such even

subspace communications which putatively travel at speeds over Warp 9.9 may take

hours or weeks to reach certain destinations. Once the connection is made, however,

communication between the two points often becomes instantaneous.

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