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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования


Ухтинский государственный технический университет

Английский язык в профессиональной сфере


Методические указания
для студентов ФБО 2-5 курсов
специальности СО

Ухта 2009
УДК 802.0 (075)
Л 25

Ларева, А.Г.
Английский язык в профессиональной сфере [Текст]: метод. указания для
студентов ФБО 2-5 курсов специальности СО / А.Г. Ларева, О.А. Серебро. – Ухта:
УГТУ, 2009. – 88 с.

Методические указания предназначены для студентов 2-5 курсов


специальности СО ФБО.
Методические указания состоят из 5 частей. Каждая часть включает несколько
разделов:
-учебную программу на семестр;
-учебные тексты и упражнения к ним;
-контрольные работы;
-устные темы;
-требования к зачёту или экзамену.
Каждый учебный текст сопровождается группой упражнений,
предназначенных для тренировки лексических и грамматических структур,
различных видов чтения, перевода.
Методические указания соответствуют рабочей программе и рекомендуются к
внедрению в учебный процесс.
Методические указания рассмотрены и одобрены на заседании кафедры
26 марта 2009, протокол № 6.

Рецензент:
Старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Т.В. Ложкина

План 2009 г., позиция 10.


Компьютерный набор. Подписано в печать 16.06.09.
Объем 88 с. Тираж 50 экз. Заказ № 232.

© Ухтинский государственный технический университет, 2009


169300, Республика Коми, г. Ухта, ул. Первомайская 13.
Отдел оперативной полиграфии УГТУ.
169300, Республика Коми, г. Ухта, ул. Октябрьская 13.
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Уважаемый студент!
Внимательно ознакомьтесь с соответствующими разделами этих
методических указаний (см. оглавление) и только потом приступайте к выполнению
заданий по курсу «Иностранный (английский) язык в профессиональной сфере». Все
задания разделов должны быть проработаны до начала сессии.
Контрольная работа выполняется в отдельной тетради и сдается на проверку в
методический кабинет кафедры иностранных языков (№ 319 Л) за неделю до начала
сессии (оформление см. там же). Контрольные работы №5 и №6 выполняются по
вариантам, а вариант определяется по последней цифре Вашего шифра (1, 2 –
1вариант;.3, 4 -2 вариант; 5, 6 – 3 вариант; 7, 8 – 4 вариант; 9, 0 – 5 вариант).
Для консультации по контрольным работам №5 и №6 можно обратиться к
пособию Захарова Е.В., Ульянищева Л.В. «Welcome to the World of Public Relations»:
Учебное пособие для студентов высших учебных заведений.- М.:ИМПЭ им. А.С.
Грибоедова, 2003.-128с. (данное пособие находится в читальном зале корпусе «К»
УГТУ).

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 2 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр)

1. Тексты 1,2,3 и упражнения после текстов.


2. Контрольная работа №4.
3. Зачет.

Данная учебная программа должна быть выполнена в соответствии со


следующими требованиями:
1. Чтение и письменный перевод текстов и выполнение упражнений после
них.
2. Выполнение контрольной работы № 4 и ее защита.
3. Разговорная тема «PR».
4. Зачет.
Требования к зачету

Оценка «зачтено» при отсутствии экзамена ставится студенту, выполнившему


план – график учебного процесса дисциплины, умеющему решать практические
задачи и показавшему знание основных положений теоретического курса.
От студента требуется:
1. 100% посещаемость практических занятий и выполнение программы
семестра.
2. 100% сдача норм аудиторного и внеаудиторного чтения.
3. Сдача разговорных тем по программе семестра.
4. Выполнение семестровой контрольной работы и успешная ее защита.
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Раздел I. Учебные тексты для студентов 2-го курса специальности СО
ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»
(весенний семестр).

Task 1. Read and translate texts 1, 2, 3 and do exercises in the written form.

Text 1

Most of the skills required by anyone within PR are the same as most other
communication or creative job. However, there are some particularly important
professional and personal skills of a PR specialist. First of all, he or she is to like working
with people and within a team. Other necessary personal abilities are to communicate well
under pressure, listen and take a brief from a client, to think in a business sense, which
means to appreciate and help to facilitate the commercial growth or profitability of a
client. A PR specialist should be able to meet deadlines and assume considerable
responsibility. A PR specialist can not do without some essential professional skills, as the
following: to write good and clear prose, speak more than one language, have experience
with the Internet and basic computing skills and presentation skills.

Task 2. Make up a list of capabilities and skills a PR specialist must possess. What
do you think the main one is?
Task 3. Think of some more skills of a highly qualified PR specialist. Prove your
ideas. Do you possess any of them?

Text 2: Planning of PR Process

The process of PR must be planned and sustained in a more systematic way. It is


therefore necessary to understand the overall business objectives and strategies and
finalize practical and realistic communications objectives. You must research and fully
understand the trends in the market for you to be aware of the situation. Do not forget to
establish useful feedback and information systems so that you evaluate your campaign and
alter thing is required. Then you should establish which target audiences needs to be
prioritized.
Agreement on communications strategy is of great importance here; it means you
must adopt necessary tactics. Then you need to finalize budgets and implement
programme. Establish who is involved in the plan and who is responsible for its execution,
involve and consult key people on the receiving ends of your messages. While working
continue to plan and evaluate the results of your work.

Task 4. Give definitions of the following words and expressions:


− feedback
− key people
− target audience
− to finalize
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− budget
− to evaluate

Text 3

Public relations specialists evaluate, plan, and expedite programmes to communicate


with all the publics (groups of people) with whom the company has a relationship. Those
programmes manage communications using a variety of tools including press releases,
special events and customized promotions, speaking engagements and seminars,
community involvement, newsletters. Media relations include a variety of methods of
contact and giving information to the media: news releases, press kits, media advisories,
news conferences, press tours and personal letters or phone calls to editors and reporters.
Open houses, fund raisers, trade shows, award ceremonies, contests, stunts,
receptions, speeches by VIPs are examples of special events. Publications typically 4 to 12
pages in length, although some are longer, with short articles intended to keep customers,
clients, members, investors, or donors up-to-date on what an organization and its people
are doing. It may also contain advice or other information of particular interest to the
audience. If one doesn't want to organize a special event, he can sponsor somebody else is
organizing or a local sports team, musical group, community theater. But the PR specialist
should make sure the sponsorship is acknowledged on advertising, programmes, uniforms,
posters or other promotional materials. Directly thanking customers for their business, and
donors for their contributions will encourage repeat business.

Task 5. Answer the questions:


1. What kind of tools can a PR specialist use in communication?
2. What methods of contact and giving information to the media do you know?
3. What is a special event?
4. What are the ways of organizing special events?
5. What is the role of PR specialist in this process?

Task 6. Make up a plan of the text and retell it.

Раздел II. Контрольная работа № 4 для студентов 2 курса специальности


СО ФБО по дисциплине « Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»
(весенний семестр).

Task 1. Read, rewrite and translate text in Russian in the written form.

I study at Ukhta State Technical University. My future speciality is called Public


Relations. It is a new speciality not only for our university but for our country as well. But
it is rapidly developing. It is worth while explaining what the term PR means.
Among PR practitioners and academics the most widely accepted definition is that
adopted in 1978 by the Institute of Public Relations (IPR).
Public Relations practice is the management function that identifies, establishes, and
maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various
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publics on whom its success or failure depends. It evaluates public attitudes, identifies the
policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with public interest, plans and
executes a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
Public Relations practice helps our complex society to reach decisions and to
function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and
institutions. It serves to bring private and public policies into harmony. It is also a means
for the public to have its desires and interests heard by organizations. The public relations
specialist is an advisor to management, acting as a mediator and interpreter to translate
organizational goals into reasonable, publicly acceptable policy and action.
One of the most effective ways to increase awareness of your business in your
community is through well planned PR activity. With the help of them one can tell you a
story and create an image designed to attract new sales associates and customers. Public
Relations can also work to reinforce the existing, positive image of a company among
current staff.
I think my future profession is an art on the one hand and science on the other. That
is why, we are trained the humanities alongside with some technical subjects. We study
History of the World's Literature, History of Our Country, Russian and Culture of Speech,
Ethics, Foreign Language and so on. To be good specialists of Public Relations our
students should study Theory and Practice of PR, Business Communication, Psychology
of Intercourse, Computer Operating and Business Press. So, we can receive this
knowledge at this University.

Task 2. Translate the words and expressions. Give the synonyms.


1. rapid
2. to accept
3. to adopt
4. to identify
5. to establish
6. to maintain
7. a benefit
8. to evaluate
9. to execute
10. a means
11. a goal
12. to aware ( of, that)
13. awareness
14. to reinforce
15. a peculiarity

Task 2. Match each verb with its correct dictionary definition below.
To accept, to adopt, to identify, to establish, to maintain, to execute, to reinforce.
1. to keep up, to retain, to continue, to support.
2. to carry out, to give effect to
3. to make stronger by adding or supplying more or material, to increase the size,
thickness of smb.
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4. to take an idea or custom and use, to acceptable
5. to agree, to receive, to recognize, to approve
6. to say, to show, to prove who or what a person or thing is.
7. to set up, to put on a firm foundation
8. to find out, to decide the amount or value of.

Task 3. Put in an appropriate word.


Rapid, beneficial, means, goal, to aware, peculiarity
1. We are fully......of these facts.
2. His........in life was to become a good PR specialist.
3. One of the …....of English phonetic system is that 3 letters are sometimes
pronounced as one sound.
4. Does the end always justify the …..?
5. Fresh air and good food are........to the health.
6. Not so long ago we could see the.......growth of economical contacts
between our country and the USA.

Task 4. Find word combinations in the text which mean the same as each of the
following. Use them in your own examples.
1. to be needed
2. a professional man
3. to get smth. in return
4. to have a share in
5. to lead to agreement
6. a translator
7. present time employees
8. from one point of view and from another
9. parallel with
10. social conversation

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 3 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (осенний семестр)

1) Текст « PR is a Part of Every Day Life» и упражнения после него.


2) Контрольная работа № 5.
3) Экзамен.

Данная учебная программа должна быть выполнена в соответствии со


следующими требованиями:
1. Чтение и перевод текста и выполнение упражнений после него.
2. Выполнение контрольной работы №5 и ее защита.
3. Повторение разговорной темы «PR» за 2 курс по вопросам:
1) What is PR?
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2) What other possible definitions of PR terms do you know?
3) What is PR practice?
4) What are the duties of PR specialist?
5) What skills should PR specialist possess?
6) What are the main stages of PR planning process?
7) What communicative tools do you know?
8) What is a special event?
9) What is the role of PR specialist in PR work?
10) What are the results of highly qualified PR activity?
4. Экзамен.
Содержание экзамена:

1. Монологическое высказывание по теме «PR speciality».


2. Беседа с экзаменатором по пройденным темам и прочитанному тексту.

Критерии оценок
«отлично»
Считать ответ студента на экзамене по иностранному языку отличным при
следующих условиях:
1. Монологическое высказывание в устной форме в объёме 20 предложений
без ошибок.
3. Беседа по разговорным темам в объёме 18-20 предложений без ошибок.

«хорошо»
1. Монологическое высказывание на тему «PR» в объёме 15 предложений без
грубых ошибок.
2. Беседа по разговорным темам и прочитанному тексту в объёме 12-15
предложений без грубых ошибок.

«удовлетворительно»
1. Монологическое высказывание в устной форме в объёме 20 предложений
без грубых ошибок.
2. Беседа по разговорным темам и прочитанному тексту в объёме 10
предложений без грубых ошибок.

Раздел I. Учебные тексты для студентов 3 курса специальности СО ФБО


по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (осенний
семестр).

Task1. Read and translate the text. Do the exercises below in the written form.
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Text: PR is a Part of Every Day Life

Public Relations is a great part of our everyday life. Any time a person acts in a
particular way in order to influence how someone perceives him or thinks about him, he is
practicing public relations.
PR is basically the effort to create a positive image of one's company and to manage
the perception of your business. This positive image would be created with your unique
audience in mind; customers, employees and members of the media like newspapers and
TV stations are all important audiences to any business.
PR helps our complex, pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more
effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions. It
serves to bring private and public policies into harmony.
Every organization, institution and individual has public relations whether or nor
this fact is recognized. As long as there are people, living together in communities,
working together in organizations and forming a society, there will be an intricate web of
relationship among them.
In its most basic form, building that intricate web is what PR is all about. The fact
that human beings live together forces them to think about their interactions and organize
their relationships with one another. In a primitive society the relationships are fairly basic
and organization is minimal, but as the society advances and becomes more complex, so
do the relationships.
On an individual level any time a person consciously acts in a particular way in
order to influence how someone perceives him or thinks about him, he's practicing public
relations.
Organizations, like people, must communicate with others because they do not exist
alone in the world. They must use communication to coordinate their behavior with people
who affect them and are affected by them.
Their size and complexity generally require them to have different relationships than
individuals. Instead of person-to-person relationships, they rely on a combination of
organization-to-individual relationships, organization-to-group relationships, and
organization-to-organization relationships.
Public Relations serve a wide variety of institutions in society as businesses, trade
unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations, hospitals, schools,
colleges and religious institutions. To achieve their goals, these institutions must develop
effective relationships with many different audiences or publics such as employees,
members, customers, local communities, shareholders, and other institutions, and with
society at large.
PR on the one hand is the craft of getting your message across in a more objective
way. Editors and producers decide whether their outlet will carry your message. There are
no guarantees that it will get into that media outlet. When an objective observer mentions
your company, personnel, products or services, your message gains more credibility.
People know that you are not paying for this mention, so they now have an outside
observer validating your message. PR reinforces the messages in your advertising and
marketing work. Public Relations and advertising objectives should be keyed to one
another in a comprehensive marketing that's keyed outlined in your marketing plan.
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PR is part of the management process and the marketing mix. It manages a
company's image through communication. It deals with public perception, and can change
negatives into positives by utilizing a range of communicative tools:
- publicity: media releases, articles, speeches, interviews.
- promotions: giveaways, special offers, displays, flyers, competitions, reports,
leaflets.
- publications: newsletters, brochures, leaflets, annual reports.
- relationships: sponsorship, networking, events.
Public Relations is part of the marketing and promotional mix along with
advertising, direct marketing, design, sales promotion, and personal selling. Advertising
involves buying television and radio air time, or space in a newspaper or magazine.
Market research identifies public attitudes. Marketers determine what people are thinking
and what are the strengths and weaknesses of a company or organization's image. Direct
marketing concentrates on individuals. Sales promotions demand an immediate response.
They use marketing tools such as direct mail, press, TV or brochures to address certain
issues and concerns, thus creating a demand for a product or service. Advertising, sales
promotion and direct marketing are closely tied to sales and financial performance.
PR can create a positive environment within which a company can conduct its
business productively and successfully. It enables a company to talk directly to each
defined target group in the relevant language or style.
PR exists and consists of all communications with the people an organization
comes into contact.
The there main elements of PR are practically as old as society: informing people,
persuading people and integrating with people. Of course, the means and methods of
accomplishing these elements have changed as society has changed.
Results of PR can be measured through:
- media monitoring & content analyses that measure how much media coverage
your company receives and how much of it is positive versus negative.
- image surveys that examine the public's attitude toward your company or
industry;
- motivation research which look at why the public's perception is favorable or not;
- effectiveness surveys that examine the impact of public relations on public
opinion;
To summarize, PR serves to create awareness, recognition, and acceptance in the
selling of yourselves, your company, your services and your product. It works well in
conjunction with and supported by advertising and marketing but this will depend on an
organization's budget and specific requirements.
The benefits of PR can be immediate. It is a cost-effective investment within the
business and marketing plan because its impressions can last.

Task 2. Answer the questions in the written form.


1) What is PR?
2) What is the PR contribution to the life of society?
3) What is the aim of PR?
4) How is PR revealed on the individual and organizational levels?
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5) Why do different social institutions use PR to achieve their goals?
6) What are the main PR communicative tools?
7) What are the aims of advertising, sales promotions and direct marketing?
8) What are the three main elements of PR?
9) What helps to measure results of PR process?
10) What does PR serve to do?

Task 3. Make up the plan of the text and retell it.

Task 4. Find the synonyms to the following words from the text:

an aim (n.) society, fellowship


perception (n.) to supply, to help
to contribute (v.) to go forward, to progress
community (n.) special skill, technique
intricate (adj.) recognition, grasp, realization
to advance (v.) to be based on, to depend on
to rely (v.) difficult, complex, tangled
a craft (n.) probability, reputation, status
credibility (n.) society, fellowship

Раздел II. Контрольная работа №5 для студентов 3-го курса


специальности СО ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в
профессиональной сфере» (осенний семестр).

Вариант 1
Task 1. Translate the texts in writing.

The Public Relations Writer

The ability to write well is a necessity for work in public relations. Writing is an
integral part of the public relations process of research, planning, communication, and
evaluation. It is most visible at the third stage, when a program is being implemented and
various messages are being communicated to key audiences important to the success of
your program.
Effective writing is based on facts that are presented clearly, concisely, and
accurately. From this standpoint, both the public relations writer and the journalist share a
common ground. Indeed, there was a time when experience in newspaper writing was
practically a requirement for a job in public relations.
Although this is no longer true, emphasis remains on use of a journalistic style in
public relations writing. This is because much of what you write is directed to the news
media. A solid understanding of journalistic principles and concepts is needed, but it is a
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mistake for public relations writers to consider themselves simply "journalists in
residence".
A public relations writer differs from a journalist in at least three basic aspects:
objectives, audiences, and channels.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. public relations — паблик рилейшнз, связи с общественностью
2. to communicate — сообщать, передавать (новости, мнение); передавать
сообщение; обмениваться информацией
3. communication — связь, система связи; передача, система передачи;
обмен информацией
4. evaluation — оценка, анализ
5. standpoint — точка зрения
6. public relations writer — автор, пишущий в области паблик рилейшнз
7. journalistic style — публицистический стиль

Objectives

A journalist is usually employed by a news organization to gather, process, and


synthesize information for the primary purpose of providing news to the organization's
subscribers, viewers, or listeners. A hallmark of professional reporting is to present
information in an objective manner. A reporter's personal preference may affect the choice
of words and the news angle of the story, but in general, the reporter tries to maintain an
attitude of strict neutrality.
The public relations writer, in contrast, is usually employed by an organization that
wants to communicate with a variety of audiences, either through the news media or
through other channels of communication. This may include corporations, government
agencies, environmental groups, labor unions, trade associations, or public relations firms
who provide information on behalf of clients.
The writer's purpose is not objectivity but advocacy. The goal is not only to inform
but also to persuade and motivate.
Hence all public relations writing should begin with the question, How does this help
the organization attain its objectives? For example, does a product news release point out
the advantages of the company's new product and how can it benefit a potential customer?
The editor of a company employee newsletter must also consider company objectives
when planning various articles. If the company wants to increase employee productivity,
the editor may decide to run several features about employees who are outstanding
workers.

□ Words and word-combinations


objective — цель; объективный, непредвзятый; to attain objectives — достичь
цели; audience — аудитория (радиослушателей, телезрителей); channel — канал;
телевизионная сеть; сеть телевизионного вещания, телесеть; information —
информация, сообщения; знания, осведомленность; to gather information — собирать
информацию; to process information — обрабатывать информацию; to synthesize
13
information — синтезировать информацию; to present information — подавать
информацию; to provide news — предоставлять информацию; subscriber —
подписчик; viewer — зритель; listener — слушатель; news media — средства
массовой информации; средства распространения последних новостей; customer —
клиент, заказчик; to run several features — провести несколько передач; дать
несколько занимательных статей

Task 2 . Give English equivalents:


неотъемлемая часть, основываться на ч.-л., требование к ч.-л., отличаться от
к.-л., от имени к.-л., достичь цели, иметь мало общего с ч.-л., удовлетворить любые
интересы, максимальное понимание, в первую очередь

Task 3 . Give Russian equivalents:


to present facts, journalistic principles and concepts, to provide news, to benefit a
customer, to process information, by definition, the audience and its composition, highly
specialized occupation, a limited audience, a special event, to increase productivity

Task 4. Give synonyms:


basic, solid, outstanding, broad, range, persuasive, to select, purpose.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


effective, accurately, objective (adj.), to include, to benefit, suburban, maximum,
constantly.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1) What process includes research, planning, communication, and evaluation?
2) What is effective writing based on?
3) Why does emphasis remain on use of a journalistic style?
4) Where is much of public relations writing directed to?
5) What is the primary purpose of gathering, processing and synthesizing
information in journalism?
6) What other channels of communication besides the news media does the public
relations writer use?
7) Where does a suburban daily newspaper circulate?
8) What interest may the readers of a specialized magazine share?

Task 7. Write a short composition on the following: Public relations writing is


different from journalistic writing. It has different objectives, different audiences, and
different channels of communication.
14
Вариант 2
Task 1. Translate the texts in writing.
Audiences
The journalist writes for one audience - readers, listeners, or viewers of the medium
for which he or she works. Newspapers, magazines, radio, and television are usually
defined as "mass media" because the audience is numerous and unknown to the
communicator, and its members have little in common. A suburban daily newspaper, for
example, circulates primarily among people who share a common residential area but have
a broad range of backgrounds and interests. Such mass media, by definition, usually
present material written at the fourth- to sixth-grade level and offer a wide variety of
stories and features to satisfy almost any interest, be it sports, local news, or the daily
horoscope.
In contrast, the readers of a special interest magazine share a very strong interest in
only one subject - a particular hobby, a specific industry, or a highly specialized
occupation. Reporters for such magazines write about just one subject for a limited and
intensely interested audience.
The public relations writer, however, may write for numerous and radically different
audiences - employees, constituents, customers, business people, homemakers, travelers,
bankers, stockholders, farmers, and many others, effective public relations writing is based
on carefully defining the audience and its composition so that you can tailor your
information to its interests and concerns. A public relations writer does research constantly
to determine these audience needs, concerns, and interests. Armed with this information,
you can write a more persuasive message.
1. to circulate — распространять (тираж газет, журналов); распространяться
2. to tailor information — подгонять, приспосабливать информацию
Channels
Journalists, by nature of their employment, reach th eir audiences through one
channel, the medium that publishes or broadcasts their work.
The public relations writer, with many specific audiences to reach, will probably use
many channels. Indeed, public relations writers must not only determine the message but
also select the most effective channel of communication. In many cases, the channel may
not be any of the traditional mass media - newspapers, magazines, radio, and television.
The most effective channel for the tailored message may be direct mail, a pamphlet, an
organizational newsletter, a videotape, a poster, or a special event. Any combination of
channels may be selected, to achieve message penetration and maximum understanding.
1. medium — средство коммуникации
2. to broadcast — передавать по телевидению; передавать по радио
3. message — сообщение, информация; идея, мысли, взгляды
Task 2. Give English equivalents:
неотъемлемая часть, основываться на ч.-л., требование к ч.-л., отличаться от
к.-л., от имени к.-л., достичь цели, иметь мало общего с ч.-л., удовлетворить любые
интересы, максимальное понимание, в первую очередь.
15
Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:
to present facts, journalistic principles and concepts, to provide news, to benefit a
customer, to process information, by definition, the audience and its composition, highly
specialized occupation, a limited audience, a special event, to increase productivity.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


basic, solid, outstanding, broad, range, persuasive, to select, purpose.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


effective, accurately, objective (adj.), to include, to benefit, suburban, maximum,
constantly

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1. What audiences may the public relations writer work for?
2. What are the traditional mass media?
3. What are the channels for the message of the public relations writer?
4. Can they be combined?

Task 7. Write a short composition on the following: Effective public relations


writing is based on carefully defining the audience and its composition so that you can
tailor your information to its interests and concerns

Вариант 3

Task1.Translatethetextsinwriting.
Writing Guidelines

Before beginning any writing assignment, take the time to ask yourself some key
questions.
• What is the desired communication outcome? In other words, what do we want
our audience to do or not to do?
• Who is our target audience? (The more specific the segment, the better.) What
are our target audience's needs, concerns, and interests? What is our message?
• What communication channel is most effective? Who is our most believable
spokesperson? Answering these questions goes a long way toward helping you determine
the content and structure of your message. You should also keep in mind the following
techniques and concepts of effective writing.

Outlining

Before you start writing anything, make an outline of what you are going to include
in your message. It may be brief (as for a short press release) or comprehensive (as for a
large booklet). You w i l l probably modify it as you gather information, but an outline will
help to keep your thinking in order.
16
In the simplest terms, an outline is a list of topics to be written about in the order in
which they will be presented. Usually an outline has major topics, and within each major
topic there are minor topics.

1. the communication outcome — конечный результат коммуникации


2.target audience — потенциальная аудитория; основная аудитория
3.spokesperson — представитель(ница), выразитель(ница) (чьих-то
интересов); оратор
4.content — содержание (например, книги); суть, сущность (например, статьи);
pl. оглавление; объем книги
5.outline — набросок, очерк, краткий обзор, конспект, либретто,
краткое содержание фильма.

Sentences and Paragraphs

Sentences should be clear and concise. Longer sentences may often be necessary,
but a good test is to go back over the material and see how many sentences can be cut
down. Mixing long and short sentences improves the rhythm.
The typical paragraph should normally include only one idea. As a general practice,
it ought to be no longer than six or eight lines. If necessary, a longer paragraph may be
used, but brevity is preferable. Writing that goes on and on without a pause is hard on the
reader.

Task 2. Give Russian equivalents:


to keep in mind, major, minor, comprehensive, concise, to be common to, to be
derived from, elaborate expressions, to grasp.

Task 3. Give English equivalents:


определить содержание и структуру, составить план, сократить (текст),
краткость, предпочтительный, быть перегруженным ч.-л., жаловаться на ч.-л., в
области ч.-л.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


outline, concern, assignment, short, to modify, readily, key (adj.)

Task 5. Give antonyms:


believable, brief, to improve, complicated, desired, in order, necessary.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


l) What should a public relations writer think over before beginning any writing
assignment?
2) What should an outline include?
3) What is the structure of the outline?
4) What can improve the rhythm of the material?
5) What is the usual length of the typical paragraph?
17
6) How many words did Lincoln's Gettysburg Address consist of?
7) What do writers often forget?
8) Which words are more understandable: Anglo-Saxon or derived?
9) When can more complex words be used?
10) Who seems to like elaborate expressions?

Task 7. Write a short composition on the following: Sentences should be clear and
concise. Longer sentences may often be necessary, but a good test is to go back over the
material and see how many sentences can be cut down.

Вариант 4

Task 1. Translate the texts in writing.


Redundancies

Another gross error in writing is the use of redundant words. It is not necessary to
use the word "totally" to modify a word like "destroyed" or "completely" to modify
"demolished". A lot of writers also say that something is "somewhat" or "very" unique.
"Unique", by definition, means one of a kind; either something is unique or it isn't.
Too Many Words
Like redundancies, excessive words impede understanding and readability. Here are
two examples of "overstuffed sentences" and their remedied versions:
BLOATED SENTENCE: Studying advertising research findings leads one to
believe that the most important factors in effectiveness are the quality of creative work and
the readers' interest in the message.
REVISED SENTENCE: Research indicates that the most effective ads are
creative and appeal to readers' interests.
BLOATED SENTENCE: Should you have the occasion to know of someone
whose background configuration approximates the p osition specifications above, we
would welcome a recommendation from you or directly from the exploring individual.
REVISED SENTENCE: If you know of someone who qualifies for this job,
please let us know or have the person contact us.

□ Words and word-combinations


redundant — избыточный, лишний, многословный; excessive — чрезмерный,
изобильный; to impede understanding — затруднять понимание (мешать)

Too Many Numbers

People can digest a few figures but not a mass of statistics. Use numbers sparingly
in your writing, and keep in mind the following points:
- It is better to write "$92 million" than "92,000,000 dollars".
- It is better to give a readily understood comparison than a massive number.
For example, you could say that 500 million pounds of garbage are produced in the United
States every day, but it would be more effective to express that as 10 pounds per citizen.
18
- Check your math. The price of something can go up more than 100 percent,
but it can never go down more than 100 percent.
Hype
You can ruin the credibility and believability of your message by using
exaggerated words and phrases. Companies often describe their products as "first of its
kind", "unique", and even "revolutionary", which tends to raise suspicion among media
gatekeepers as well as readers.
The following words are often overused: leading, enhanced, unique, significant,
solution, integrated, powerful, innovative, advanced, high-performance, and sophisticated.
□ Words and word-combinations
sparingly — умеренно; hype — навязчивая реклама; преувеличение; газетная
шумиха
Task 2. Give English equivalents:
требовать внимания к ч.-л., выявлять ошибки, жертвовать ч.-л., проверить
значение слова, унаследовать, иметь одинаковое звучание, грубая ошибка, мешать
пониманию, улучшенный вариант, вызвать подозрение, обидеть, осознавать.
Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:
to brand smb., to make for smth, ponderous, to obscure an idea, to modify a word,
to cause confusion, descendants, ancestors, to presume, to assume, redundant words,
excessive words, to imply.
Task 4. Give synonyms:
inconsiderate, irrelevance, frequently, massive, significant, powerful, innovative.
Task 5. Give antonyms:
careless, acceptable, appropriate, similar, to impede, integrated, awareness,
supporter.
Task 6. Answer the questions:
1) Why is it important to proofread a copy even after it has been corrected by a
spell-checker program?
2) What is another gross error in writing?
3) Can excessive words impede understanding?
4) Why should a writer be very careful with figures?
5) What words are often overused?
6) How can gender bias be avoided?
7) What words are preferable to describe both men and women in the
workplace?
8) What is called "politically correct" language?
Task 7. Write a short composition on the following: In today's world of diversity at
all levels of national life, there is increased sensitivity about which words are used to
describe minorities and other groups of people
19
Вариант 5
Task 1. Translate the texts in writing.
Bias

Avoid gender bias by using non-gender-related words. Awareness of the irrelevance


of an employee's gender is why airlines now have "flight attendants" instead of
"stewardesses" and why the postal service hires "mail carriers" instead of "mailmen". It
also is unnecessary to write that something is "man-made" when a neutral word like
"synthetic" or "artificial" is just as good. "Employees" is better than "manpower", and
"chairperson" is more acceptable than "chairman". Some terms may seem difficult to
neutralize - "congressperson", "business person", and "waitperson" don't exactly trip off
the tongue. However, with a little thought, you can come up with appropriate titles, such
as "legislator", "executive", and "server".
The problem of avoiding gender bias is particularly difficult because much of our
language is geared to the use of the word "man" as a generic term for both males and
females. Attempts to avoid this lead to such usages as "he/she" or "his/her" that make for
difficult reading. However, another word can be used in most cases. If you pluralize the
noun in question/the pronoun "their" will serve nicely. In other cases, you can use words
such as "personnel", "staff, "employee", "worker", "person", or "practitioner" to describe
both men and women in the workplace.

□ Words and word-combinations


bias — тенденциозность; manpower — личный состав; людские ресурсы;

Politically Incorrect Language

Beyond avoidance of stereotypes, there is an ongoing controversy about what


constitutes "politically correct" (commonly called "PC") language. In today's world of
diversity at all levels of national life, there is increased sensitivity about what words are
used to describe minorities and other groups of people.
Such concern has merit, and writers should be sensitive to words that may offend
individuals or groups. However, critics charge that a flood of euphemisms can cause a loss
of clarity and may result in a kind of political censorship that is not healthy for freedom of
expression. For example, some groups think the word "civilization" is politically incorrect
because it infers that some people are not civilized. Still others object to the word
"disabled" and want to substitute "physically challenged". Is a person an "alcoholic" or
just "suffering from substance abuse"? Even the old term "Dutch treat" is under attack
because it implies that Dutch people are cheap.
On another level, however, some suggestions seem quite logical. For example, in a
global economy, American companies now refer to "international" sales because "foreign"
sounds ethnocentric. Writers are using terms like "Asian-American" instead of the now
pejorative "Oriental". And currently, there is some argument as to whether "African-
American" is more politically correct than "black"; both terms have their supporters.
20
Language, and its connotations, is constantly changing. The professional public
relations writer must be aware of the changes and must make decisions on the basis of
such factors as sensitivity to the audience, accuracy, and clarity of communication.

□ Notes
Dutch treat — угощение, при котором каждый платит за себя; складчина,
угощение в складчину
□ Words and word-combinations
merit — заслуга, достоинство; to charge — обвинять, выдвигать обвинение
(требования); euphemism — эвфемизм; censorship — цензура; pejorative —
уничижительный, connotation — коннотация; дополнительное значение

Task 2. Give English equivalents:


требовать внимания к ч.-л., выявлять ошибки, жертвовать ч.-л., проверить
значение слова, унаследовать, иметь одинаковое звучание, грубая ошибка, мешать
пониманию, улучшенный вариант, вызвать подозрение, обидеть, осознавать.

Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:


to brand smb., to make for smth, ponderous, to obscure an idea, to modify a word,
to cause confusion, descendants, ancestors, to presume, to assume, redundant words,
excessive words, to imply.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


inconsiderate, irrelevance, frequently, massive, significant, powerful, innovative.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


careless, acceptable, appropriate, similar, to impede, integrated, awareness,
supporter

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1) Why is it important to proofread a copy even after it has been corrected by a
spell-checker program?
2) What is another gross error in writing?
3) Can excessive words impede understanding?
4) Why should a writer be very careful with figures?
5) What words are often overused?
6) How can gender bias be avoided?
7) What words are preferable to describe both men and women in the
workplace?
8) What is called "politically correct" language?

Task 7. Write a short composition on the following: People can digest a few figures
but not a mass of statistics.
21

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 3 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр)

1. Тексты из раздела 3 (Unit 3), стр. 55-60, учебника Л.В. Ульянищева,


Е.В. Захарова « Welcome to the world of Public Relations» М.2003.
2. Контрольная работа № 6.
3. Статья на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News» (газетную статью можно
взять в 319 «Л» УГТУ или подобрать самостоятельно).
4. Зачет.

Данная учебная программа должна быть выполнена в соответствии со


следующими требованиями:
1. Чтение и перевод текстов и выполнение упражнений после них.
2. Выполнение контрольной работы №6 и ее защита.
3. Чтение и перевод газетной статьи на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News»
Перевод и беседа по статье.
4. Зачет.

Раздел I. Учебные тексты с упражнениями для студентов 3 курса


специальности СО-ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в
профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр).

Task 1. Read, translate the texts and do the exercises below (1-12) in writing.
Generating News

Action generates news. When an association holds an annual meeting, the media
report on the general nature of the meeting and usually run feature stories based on
speeches, discoveries, and statements by participants. Such coverage doesn't happen
automatically; it takes a lot of work by public relations personnel to set up interviews,
provide copies of speeches, and otherwise orchestrate the flow of information.
If you can't find anything going on, it may be time to make something happen to
find a creative opportunity.
The Creativity Factor
Generating news often takes imagination and creativity, coupled with a strong
ability to solve problems. For example, how does one get media attention for a canned
soup?
Campbell's solved a problem for its new cream of broccoli soup by linking it with
President Bush's dislike of the vegetable.
The company decided to sponsor a recipe contest called "How to Get the President to
Eat Broccoli". Of course, one rule was that the soup be used in the recipe.
Creativity and imagination are essential attributes for writers and publicists.
However, these things are difficult to teach and even more difficult to learn.
22
Trend Stories
Many organizations get media placements because they have learned to relate their
activities or products to trends.
The news media are often criticized for their "herd" instinct, but the fact remains
that certain topics are "hotter" than others.
The surveys found that the topic of health generated the most interest on the part of
editors. In descending order were the topics of senior citizens, medicine, agriculture,
environment, food, education, consumer issues, recreation, and finance.
Creativity and imagination can help you use such topics as an angle for your client!
or organization. AIDS, for example, is a health topic. Perhaps this is where you can!
develop a news story or feature article about what your client or employer is doing about
AIDS education in the workplace.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to report on smth — сообщать о
2. to run a feature story — напечатать очерк
3. to set up an interview — организовать интервью
4. creativity — творчество
5. the fact remains — факт остается фактом
6. to generate interest — вызвать интерес
7. angle — точка зрения; аспект, подход

Special Events

There are two kinds of events: those planned primarily to generate publicity and
those that produce publicity as a by-product.
At times, things that occur on a routine basis can become the focus of a special
event. A new story may quietly open its doors for business, or it can make it a special
event by having a “grand opening” and getting a celebrity to cut the ribbon. Ground-
breakings are similar. You can start construction on a new office building without fanfare,
or you can have a groundbreaking ceremony with the mayor and other dignitaries
attending. In both cases, the situations would have happened if there were no publicity, but
they benefit from the by-product.
You must look at every possibility in your organization with an eye toward publicity.
Can something be done? Can a meeting be held? Can the organization stage an open
house, a plant tour, a parade? Can it give an award or a scholarship? Can it sponsor a
contest or a team? Can it help other organizations? Can it help the local schools? If it is a
large organization, can it do any of these things on a national or regional scale?
For any event there can be publicity both before and after. For a continuing event,
there may be a stream of publicity throughout it.
Rallies and Protests
Few television stations or newspapers can resist covering a rally or a protest dem-
onstration, each of which has high news value from the standpoint of human interest and
conflict. Moreover, rally or protest is event oriented and has action, which is ideal for
television coverage and newspaper photographs.
23
In almost all cases, a demonstration is planned in advance. The manuals of activist
groups, for example, point out that supporters should be asked to participate and bring
placards and signs. In addition, the media should be contacted in advance to assure
coverage. Prominent people and celebrities, if possible, could be asked to joint the march
or give a talk at a rally. Prominence, as activists know, is another important news value.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to generate publicity — привлекать внимание широких слоев
населения; вызывать интерес
2. by-product — побочный продукт
3. a celebrity — знаменитость
4. to break the ground — начинать новое дело
5. to hold a meeting — проводить собрание
6. to stage an open house — провести день открытых дверей
7. to stage a plant tour — провести экскурсию по заводу
8. on a national scale — в масштабах страны
9. in advance — заранее
10. manuals — учебники, руководства
11. a groundbreaking ceremony — церемония закладки здания

Product Demonstration

The objective of a demonstration is to prove something. When General Electric


demonstrated a new superconductor process, it got nationwide publicity. Lear garnered
extensive media coverage by demonstrating a new general service aircraft, explaining that
new materials had reduced the weight and a new design had increased the speed, making
the new plane remarkably fast and fuel-efficient.
Contests
A common device for generating news is the contest. In fact, it is often advised
that "if all else fails, sponsor a contest".
How successful each of these is in generating news often depends on the city
and the scope of the local media. Most major newspapers and broadcast outlets ignore
most of these contests, but weekly papers in smaller towns often thrive on such
material.
Personal Appearances
Two kinds of personal appearances generate news. First is the kind where news
incidental to something else. Second is the appearance where news is the only
objective. Most typical of the first type is the situation where someone makes a speech
to a» organization. If the president of a company addresses the local chamber of
commerce, he will be heard by all who attend the meeting.
The audience for the speech, however, may be greatly increased if the media are
supplied with copies of the speech or news release summarizing what was said. As a
general rule, every public appearance should be considered an opportunity for news
both before and after the incident. And, of course, there should always be an effort to
get reporters to attend the meeting and get the story themselves.
24

□ Notes
Campbell-(Campbell Soup Co) — компания по производству пищевых
продуктов, зарегистрирована в 1922 г., свою историю ведет с 1869 г.
Управление
корпорацией находится в г. Калуене, шт. Нью-Джерси.
General Electric — "Дженерал Электрик", компания по производству
электротехнического оборудования, основана в 1892 г. Правление находится
в г. Фэрфильде, шт. Коннектикут.
Lear — Уильям Лир, инженер-электронщик и промышленник. В 1962 г.
основал корпорацию "Лир Джет" (Lear Jet Corp.), которая стала ведущим
производителем частных реактивных самолетов.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to get nationwide publicity — получить известность по всей стране
2. contest — соревнования, конкурс
3. broadcast outlets — теле- и радиоканалы
4. public appearance — появление на публике
5. to address the chamber of commerce — выступить перед торговой
палатой

1. Give English equivalents:


получать выгоду от ч.-л., в национальном масштабе, побочный
продукт, типичный для ч.-л., присудить премию, учредить стипендию,
участники, поток информации, мэр, предоставить копии речи, суммировать.
Reproduce them in situations from the text.

2. Give Russian equivalents:


general nature of a meeting, to orchestrate, to relate smth to smth, trends,
dignitaries, celebrities, to cut the ribbon, groundbreaking, to resist doing smth, fuel-
efficient, to thrive on smth, the scope of smth.

3. Translate in writing:
1) The first paragraph of the text
2 ) The second paragraph of the sector R a l l i e s and P r o t e s t s

4. Give synonyms:
essential, to link with smth, in advance, an aircraft, to reduce the weight,
remarkably, fast, incidental.

5. Give antonyms:
descending, senior, to benefit, to increase the speed, appearance, typical,
ability.

6. Answer the questions:


1) Action generates news, doesn't it?
25
2) What should be done if you can't find anything going on?
3) What contest did Campbell's sponsor?
4) What topics generate the most interest on the part of editors?
5) How can these topics be used?
6) Are all the events planned primarily to generate publicity?
7) What are the possibilities of an organization to make publicity?
8) Do rallies and protest demonstrations have high news value from the
standpoint of human interest and conflict?
9) Are demonstrations usually planned in advance?
10) What is the objective of a demonstration?
11) Is the contest a common device to generate news?
12) What are two kinds of personal appearances?

7. Explain grammar usage in the following sentences. Make


up your own examples with the following grammar cases:
1) One rule was that the soup be used in the recipe.
2) In both cases, the situation would have happened if there were no
publicity.
3) There should always be an effort to get reporters to attend the meeting.

8. Insert preposition:
1) How successful each .......... these is ........... generating news often
depends .................. the size ...... the city and the scope ... the local media.
2) Weekly papers.....smaller towns often thrive . ….such material.
3) Campbell's solved a problem....... its new cream ........ broccoli soup
.................... linking it ..... President Bush's dislike...…..the vegetable.
4) If it is a large organization, can it do any........................ these things a
national or regional scale?
5) Most typical ..... the first type is the situation where someone makes a
speech ................... ...an organization.

9. Explain the statements:


1) You must look at every possibility in your organization with an eye toward
publicity.
2) At times, things that occur on a routine basis can become the focus of a special
event.
3) The new media are often criticized for their "herd" instinct, but the fact remains
that certain topics are "hotter" than others.
4) For a continuing event, there may be a stream of publicity throughout it.
5) A rally or protest is event oriented and has action, which is ideal for television
coverage and newspaper photographs.

10. Comment on the statements:


1) Generating news often takes imagination and creativity, coupled with a
strong ability to solve problems.
26
2) Creativity and imagination are essential attributes for writers and
publicists. However, these things are difficult to teach and even more difficult to
learn.

11. Answer the questions:


1) Do you agree with the list of topics which generate the most interest on
the part of editors? Could you add any more topics to this list?
2) Can you think of any special event to generate publicity?
3) What sort of contests do you know?

12. Develop the statements:


1) News does not just happen. Creativity and imagination are required to
generate publicity.
2) Some opportunities for generating publicity include trend stories,
special events, protests and rallies; product demonstration, contests, and personal
appearances.

Раздел II. Контрольная работа №6 для студентов 3-го курса


специальности СО-ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в
профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр).

Вариант 1
Task 1. Read the texts and translate them in writing.
Persuasive Writing

Your purpose is to persuade your target audience. Your message may be delivered in
one way, a few ways, or many different ways. As you work on message content however,
you should keep in mind the concepts of audience analysis; source credibility appeal to self-
interest; clarity of the message; timing and context; symbols, slogans, and acronyms,
semantics; suggestions for action; and content and structure.
Audience Analysis
A message must be compatible with group values and beliefs. Taxpayers, for exam-
ple, get more interested in recycling when the message points out that trash collection
costs millions of tax dollars annually or that recycling will generate revenues to keep taxes
down.
Tapping a group's attitudes and values in order to structure a meaningful message is
called channeling. It is the technique of recognizing a general audience's beliefs and
suggesting a specific course of action related to audience members' self-interests. In this
example, the incentive to participate in recycling programs is given a strong push by the
prospect of tax savings.
It must be remembered, however, that taxpayers are only one target audience. A
message to members of hiking clubs might emphasize that overflowing landfills and
mountains of trash are despoiling scenic areas. You should always keep in mind that the
more you can segment various audiences, the more you can tailor your message to specific
group attitudes.
27

□ Notes
an acronym — акроним, т.е. слово, образованное из первоначальных букв
группы слов, например, UNESCO — United Nations Educational Scientific an
Cultural Organization.
□ Words and word-combinations
1. to deliver a message — передать сообщение
2. message content — содержание информации
3. clarity of the message — ясность, четкость информации
4. a taxpayer — налогоплательщик
5. revenue — доход
6. scenic area — место, пространство, пейзаж

Source Credibility

A message is more believable to an audience if the source has credibility. That is


why writers try to attribute information and quotes to perceived experts; it makes the
material more persuasive.
Indeed, expertise is a key element in credibility. The other two elements are
sincerity and charisma. Ideally, a source will have all three attributes.
Depending on the message and the audience, various spokespersons can be used
and quoted for source credibility. For example, if you are writing a news release about a
new product for a trade magazine, perhaps the best source to quote would be the director
of research and development for the company. This person is a credible source primarily
because of personal knowledge and expertise. If the news release is about the fourth-
quarter earnings of the company, the most credible person to quote in the news release
would be either the chief executive officer or the vice president for finance, both experts
by virtue of their position.
Source credibility also can be hired.
Additional credibility is gained if the spokesperson comes across as being sincere
about the message.
Sincerity is an important component in celebrity endorsements. Sincerity and cha-
risma are the key elements of using celebrities to provide source credibility.
Celebrities are used primarily to call attention to a product, service or idea. The
sponsor's intent is to associate the person's popularity with the product. This is called
transfer.
The use of various sources for credibility depends in large part on the type of
audience being reached. That is why audience analysis is the first step in formulating
effective public relations messages.

Words and word-combinations


1. source credibility — достоверность источника (информации)
2. to attribute information to — приписать информацию к.-л.
3. sincerity — искренность
4. charisma — харизма, обаяние
28
5. to quote — цитировать
6. to gain credibility — получить доверие (добиться)
7. to endorse smth — подтверждать, поддерживать
8. transfer — перевод, трансферт

Appeal to Self-interest

A public relations writer must at all times be aware of what the audience wants to know.
Writing publicity for a new food product can serve as an example. A news release to the trade
press serving the food industry (grocery stores, suppliers, wholesalers, distributors) might
focus on how the product was developed, distributed, and made available to the public, the
manufacturer's pricing policies, or the results of marketing studies that show that
consumers want the product. This audience is interested in the technical aspects of
distribution, pricing, and market niche.
You would prepare quite a different news release or feature article for the food
section of a daily newspaper. The consumer wants information about the food product's
nutritional value, convenience, and cost and wants to know why the item is superior to
similar products. The reader is also looking for menu ideas and recipes using the product.
Clarity of the Message
The objective in all communication should be not to create understanding but to
prevent misunderstanding.
There are several things you can do to avoid this problem. First, you should work on
your writing style. Second, you should use a thesaurus regularly. Many words have
numerous synonyms, but each of these has a slightly different effect on the receiver. For
example, "youthful" is a favorable word, but "juvenile" has negative connotations. Third,
you should test your writing before you inflict it on the public. If at all possible, try it out
on members of the target audience.
Timing and Context
Your message must arrive at a time when it can conveniently be considered. If it is
too early, your audience may not be ready to think about it. April is not the time to talk
about winter sports or sports equipment, but October might be just right. Information
about income taxes is especially interesting just before the tax deadline, but it's "old hat" a
few days later. News about a cure for male baldness gets full attention from middle-aged
bald-headed men at almost any time.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to appeal to — обращаться к к.-л., апеллировать
2. suppliers — поставщики
3. wholesalers — оптовики
4. distributors — распределители, дистрибьюторы
5. available — доступный, находящийся в наличии
6. consumers — потребители
7. pricing — определение цен
8. market niche — место на рынке; сфера торговли
9. nutritional value — питательная ценность
29
10. convenience — удобство
11. clarity of the message — ясность информации
12. misunderstanding — неправильное понимание; недопонимание
13. thesaurus — словарь, тезаурус, энциклопедия; сокровищница
14. timing — выбор наиболее подходящего времени '
15. income taxes — подоходный налог
16. deadline — предел, крайний срок

Task 2. Give English equivalents:


поставщики, оптовики, налогоплательщики, крайний срок, ежегодно,
перспектива, в большой степени, потребитель, сдерживать рост налогов, в
первую очередь

Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:


to be compatible with smth, scenic, by virtue of smth, celebrity, to inflict
smth on smb, a cure for smth, to generate revenues, tax savings, to associate smth
with smth, nutritional value.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


to call attention, in large part, the type of audience, at all times, to focus on,
to be aware, numerous synonyms, slightly different.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


compatible, meaningful, sincerity, to gain, popularity, superior, credible,
favorable.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1) What should be kept in mind when working on message content?
2) What should a message be compatible with?
3) What is channeling?
4) Why is it so important to segment audiences as much as possible?
5) Why do writers try to attribute information to perceived experts?
6) What does the choice of a spokesperson depend on?
7) Can source credibility be hired?
8) What are the key elements of using celebrities to provide source
credibility?
9) What is transfer?
10) What is the first step in formulating effective public relations messages?
11) Is appeal to self-interest important for a public relations writer?
12) What should be the objective in all communication?
13) When must the message arrive?
14) What will happen if the message arrives too early?

Task 7. Give a summary of the texts.


30
Task 8. Develop the following statements:
1) The main purpose of persuasive writing is to persuade the audience.
2) The objective in all communication is not only to create understanding but to
prevent misunderstanding.
3) A PR specialist must adopt the message to a specific audience.

Вариант 2
Task 1. Read the texts and translate them in writing.
Trademark Law

An organization's name, products, slogans, and manufacturing processes are usu-


ally trademarked. That means that these things are officially registered and their use is
restricted to the owner or manufacturer. A trademark is legally protected and should be
capitalized whenever it is used.
A trademark is a valuable asset zealously guarded by its owners. Sony, Coca-
Cola, IBM, Porsche, McDonald's, and Reebok are all registered trademarks. So is the
Mercedes-Benz star symbol.
Organizations and corporations protect their trademarks in various ways. One
method is to establish standard policies on how the organization should use and display its
trademarked names. You must know the registered trademarks of your company and how
they may be used.
Companies also guard their trademarks by continually using them, sending
advisories to media outlets about proper use of these trademarks, placing advertisements
in journalism publications reminding readers of trademarked names, and monitoring
publications to ensure that other organizations are not infringing on a trademark. If they
are, legal action is threatened or taken.
In sum, make yourself familiar with what might be considered trademark
infringement. Even if you are innocent, the money and time spent fighting a lawsuit are
rarely worthwhile.
Here are some guidelines the courts use to determine if a trademark has been
infringed:
• Has the defendant used a name as a way of capitalizing on the reputation
of another organization's trademark?
• Is there an intent to create confusion in the public mind? Is there an intent
to imply a connection between the defendant's product and the item identified by the
trademark?
• How similar are the two organizations? Are they providing the same kinds
of services or products?
• Has the original organization actively protected the trademark by
publicizing it and using it?
• Is the trademark unique? A trademark that merely describes a common
product might be in trouble. Microsoft, for example, lost a bid to trademark the word
"windows" for its exclusive use.
31
Words and word-combinations
1. to trademark—иметь торговую марку
2. to capitalize — печатать или писать прописными буквами
3. to capitalize on — наживаться, извлекать выгоду
4. advisory — консультант; инструкция, совет
5. to monitor publications — контролировать публикации
6. to infringe on a trademark — нарушать закон о торговой марке
7. to fight a lawsuit — защищать иск в суде; отстаивать дело
8. defendant — ответчик
9. to lose a bid — потерпеть неудачу, lost a bid to trademark the word
"windows" — не удалось получить слово "windows" в качестве торговой марки
Contract Considerations
A contract is a legal agreement that contains three elements: offer and acceptance,
time, and consideration — in the simplest terms, this means that it states what will be
done, when it will be done, and how much will be paid. If any of these elements is
missing, no contract exists. Contracts can be verbal, but it is much safer to put them in
writing. You may need to make contracts with clients, freelancers, and various facilities.
Client Contracts
If you are working for or with a public relations firm, it is important that a contract
or letter of agreement be signed. This is a good idea at two levels of the process.
The first level is the request by the client for a proposal of ideas from the public
relations firm. Public relations firms often complain that prospective clients go fishing for
ideas and then implement the best ones without retaining the firms that suggested them.
To preclude this, a firm should draw up a letter of agreement in which the prospective
client promises not to use any of the ideas presented without payment. Recognize,
however, that ideas must be truly novel or original to warrant such protection.
The second level is when the public relations firm actually begins working for the
client. A contract or letter of agreement should spell out exactly what is to be done, in
what time period, and for what amount of money.
If you are charging the client for mileage or working by the hour, this should be
specified. If you are charging by the job, say, for writing a news release, make sure that
you specify a fee that will cover your time and energy for several rewrites. A thorough
discussion of billing procedures and fees at the beginning of a client relationship will save
much agony and recrimination later.

Words and word-combinations


1. freelancer — лицо, работающее без договора; внештатный сотрудник
2. facilities — оборудование; приспособление; средства обслуживания
3. to fish for — выуживать (секреты)
4. to retain the firms — зд. упомянуть названные фирмы
5. to preclude — предотвратить; помешать
6. to charge smb for mileage — брать деньги на проезд
7. to work by the hour — работать повременно
8. to charge by the job — просить (оплату) за сделанную работу
9. recrimination — взаимное или встречное обвинение
32

Freelancer Contracts
More and more companies are relying on temporary help to balance their
workload. If 20 hours' work a week is needed on an account, it is more cost effective to
use a freelancer for 20 hours a week than to hire a full-time employee who is busy only
half the time. The drawback is that some firms use temporary help to get around laws and
regulations that apply to employees. The firm may save money, but the "temporaries" are
denied regular employee benefits.
Generally, a freelancer is not expected to conform to the rules governing regular
employees. A freelancer is an independent contractor. Among the matters covered in the
freelancer's contract should be ownership of work produced by the freelancer,
maintenance of confidentiality, terms of payment. The job should be paid per unit or item
produced, not per hour worked. Also, it is customary to bar the freelancer from being
employed directly by the client but not by a competing agency.
Facilities Contracts
Meetings, conventions, meals, and outdoor activities arc typical occasions where
you will need to negotiate a contract with a restaurant, caterer, or hotel, ['or your own
financial safety, any contract should be written so that you thoroughly understand basic-
costs as well as add-on costs.
For example, a restaurant may quote you $25 per person for a meal but neglect to
tell you that this docs not include taxes and a gratuity for staff. On top of this, you may
even find yourself paying a basic rental charge for the banquet room if this isn't clarified
in your negotiations.
In sum, know exactly what you want and how much the restaurant or hotel will
charge. Ask a lot of questions, and get all price quotations in writing.
Words and word-combinations
1. to balance one's workload — сбалансировать рабочую нагрузку
2. to get around laws and regulations — обойти законы и правила
3. temporaries — временные работники
4. regular employee benefits — пособия, положенные постоянным
работникам
5. to conform to — соответствовать; подчиняться
6. ownership — право собственности
7. add-on costs — дополнительные расходы
8. gratuity — денежный подарок; чаевые; наградные
Task 2. Give English equivalents.
размещать рекламу, грозить, уникальный, полагаться на ч.-л.,
временный, недостаток, лишать к.-л. ч.-л., постоянный штат, условия оплаты,
чаевые, устное соглашение, обойти закон.

Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:


media outlets, to take legal actions, to be worthwhile, to monitor publications, to
preclude smth., to spell out, on top of this, to be missing, to conform to smth, basic costs,
add-on costs, a caterer, price quotation. Use them in situations of your own.
33

Task 4.. Give synonyms:


an intent, to capitalize on smth, to draw up, customary, to bar, a gratuity,
novel (adj)

Task 5. Give antonyms:


innocent, rarely, a drawback, verbal, to hire, safe, temporary, to conform to
smth

Task 6. Answer the following questions:


1) What is usually trademarked?
2) Is a trademark legally protected?
3) How do organizations and corporations protect their trademarks?
4) What are the main guidelines the courts use to determine if a trademark
has been infringed?
5) How many elements does a contract contain?
6) Who may contracts be made with?
7) What do public relations firms often complain of?
8) What should a contract or agreement spell out exactly?
9) Do companies often rely on temporary help to balance their workload?
10) Is a freelancer expected to conform to the rules governing regular employees?
11) What do facilities contracts imply?
12) What should be clarified and specified in such contracts?

Task 7. Translate the following expressions and use them in the sentences of your
own.
regular employees — regular benefits —
regular army — regular hours — regular features —
regular customers —

Task 8. Give the derivatives of the following words. Translate them and use in
the sentences of your own:
to sign — to require

Task 9. Explain the grammatical structure of the sentences. Use


the same structure in the sentences of your own.
1) It is important that a contract or letter of agreement be signed.
2) A freelancer is not expected to conform to the rules governing regular
employees.
3) It is customary to bar the freelancer from being employed directly by the
client.

Task 10. Insert prepositions:


1) More and more companies are relying.......... temporary help to balance their
workload.
34
2) The drawback is that some forms use temporary help to get.......... laws
and regulations that apply.......... employees.
3) A freelancer is not expected to conform.......... the rules governing
regular employees.
4) Companies also guard their trademarks........... continually using them,
sending advisories.......... media outlets.......... proper use......... these trademarks,
placing advertisements.......... journalism publications reminding readers
…….... trademarked names.
5) If you are charging the client.......... mileage or working.......... the hour,
this should be specified.

Task 11. Explain the following statements:


1) A trademark is a valuable asset zealously guarded by its owners.
2) Make yourself familiar with what might be considered trademark
infringement.
3) Prospective clients go fishing for ideas and then implement the best ones
without retaining the firms that suggested them.
4) A thorough discussion of billing procedures and fees at the beginning of a
client relationship will save much agony and recrimination later.
5) A restaurant may quote you $25 per person for a meal but neglect to tell you
that this does not include taxes and a gratuity for staff.
6) A freelancer is an independent contractor.

Task 12. Topical questions:


1) Do you know any trademarks of the companies in Russia?
2) What regular benefits are freelancers denied? Is it a common practice to use
freelancers in our country?

Task 13. Give a summary of the texts.

Task 14. Develop the following statements:

1) Trademarks are valuable assets. It is your responsibility to protect and


use them correctly.
2) Written contracts or letters of agreement are necessary for the
employment of freelance writers and other outside consultants.

Вариант 3
Task 1. Read the texts and translate them in writing.
Copyright Law

The purpose of a copyright is (o secure for the creator of original material all the
benefits earned by creating it. Copyrights apply not only to written words but also to
illustrations, plays, musical works, motion pictures, sound recording, graphics, sculptures,
35
pantomimes, and dances. Two aspects of copyright law concern you: the use of
copyrighted material and the protection of the work that you do.
The copyright law protects original material published during and after the author's
lifetime as well as unpublished material.
If the material is prepared "for hire", the protection runs for 75 years from the first
year of publication or the first year of creation, whichever is shorter. Anything you write
on the job is considered "for hire", and your client or company is the owner of your work,
including the copyright.
Material does not have to be printed or distributed for copyright protection. As soon
as it is created in a concrete form, it is protected, particularly if it bears a copyright notice
but also even if it does not.
Distributing or offering lo distribute copies of a work to the public is considered
publication. Such distribution may be free or paid.
If you want the most unassailable copyright protection, you should take formal
steps to acquire it as soon as any material is published.
News releases, features, and illustrations accompanying them are not normally
copyrighted. Booklets, leaflets, books, and similar publications usually are copyrighted
unless there is a desire to allow others to reproduce them. In that case, it is customary lo
place a notice in the publication stating that reproduction and distribution of copies is
permissible without charge.

Words and word-combinations


1. copyright — авторское право
2. to copyright — обеспечивать авторское право
3. copyright law — закон о защите авторских прав
4. copyright notice — предупреждение о сохранении авторского права
5. copyright protection — охрана авторских прав
6. free — бесплатный
7. rental — сумма арендной платы; рентный доход
8. lease — аренда, наем
9. lending — ссуда, заем
10. without charge — бесплатно

Fair Use and Infringement

As a public relations writer, you will use information and materials from a variety
of sources. Therefore, it is important for you to understand thoroughly the dividing line
between fair use and copyright infringement.
Fair use of materials, in general, can be done for purposes of criticism, comment,
news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research. If you are writing something and
want to use a quotation from a copyrighted article or book, you may do so as long as you
give proper credit to the author and the source.
If you quote a lengthy passage from an article or a book, however, it is best to get
permission. In general, using a paragraph from a 1,000-word article is acceptable, but
using several paragraphs might constitute copyright infringement if permission has not
36
been obtained. Writers should also be careful about using whole paragraphs of copy-
righted material with only a few words changed. If the content and structure of the
sentences are virtually the same, this constitutes not merely copyright infringement but
also plagiarism, a form of theft.
Writers of company newsletters and magazines, primarily using information for
news reporting purposes, generally are within the boundaries of the fair use concept.
Writers who prepare materials directly supporting the sales of a product or service (news
releases, advertisements, promotional brochures), however, need to be more concerned
about copyright infringement.
The use of a selected quotation from an outside source in a product news release or
sales brochure, for example, should be cleared with the source.
In addition, using selected quotes may distort the author's meaning. For example,
a research report may give a new computer product an overall poor performance rating
but mention some good things about the product too. To use only the favorable quote
from the review in a news release or advertisement, the computer company should clear
the quote with the report's authors to avoid possible lawsuits.
Titles of books and plays cannot be copyrighted, but the principle of unfair compe-
tition applies nevertheless. Lawyers say that a public relations staff should not copy
anything if the intent' is to capitalize on or take advantage of its current renown. The key
to a lawsuit is whether an organization is in some way obtaining commercial advantage by
implying that a service or product has the endorsement of or is closely allied with the
literary property. This is also a problem in using names and logos that closely resemble
registered trademarks of well-known companies.
The use of cartoons, illustrations, and photographs from outside sources (either
previously published or unpublished) always requires copyright permission. Copyright
infringement also extends to videotaping television documentaries or news programs if
the intent is for widespread use of the material lo internal or external audiences.
Another category that always requires copyright permission is musical material.
The holders of musical copyrights do not permit use of any part of their compositions
without prior written permission. It is forbidden to quote even a part of a lyric or to play
only a few bars of a tune. But also keep in mind that most classical music, especially
that of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, is in the public domain and can be used
without permission.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. infringement — нарушение (авторского права)
2. fair use — честное использование
3. to get permission — получить разрешение
4. to obtain permission — получить разрешение
5. plagiarism — плагиат, заимствование
6. theft — кража
7. to clear smth — прояснить
8. to distort — искажать
9. unfair competition — нечестная конкуренция
10. logo — логотип
37
11. trademark — торговая марка
12. domain — владение

Guidelines for Using Copyrighted Materials

Public relations personnel can avoid costly lawsuits by observing the following
guidelines:
• Ideas cannot be copyrighted, but expression of those ideas can be.
• Be careful about using the titles of movies, books, and songs as themes for
public relations materials and programs.
• News releases and publicity photographs are not ordinarily copyrighted
because their purpose is widespread distribution and use by the media.
• Major public relations materials (brochures, pamphlets, newsletters,
videotapes, and position papers) should be copyrighted if only to prevent
unauthorized use and copying of the format by competitors.
• Copyrighted material intended to advance the sales and profits of an
organization should not be used unless permission is obtained.
• Copyrighted material should not be taken out of context, particularly if it
implies endorsement of the organization's products or services
• Reprints of an article should be ordered from the publisher.
• Permission must be obtained from the copyright owner to use segments of
popular songs (written verses or sound recordings)
• Permission is required to use segments of television programs or motion
pictures.
• Photographers retain rights to negatives, and permission must be obtained
to reprint photos for uses other than originally agreed on.
• Photographs of celebrities living or dead cannot be used for promotion and
publicity purposes without permission
• Permission is required to reprint cartoons and cartoon characters. Cartoons,
like other artwork and illustrations, are copyrighted.
• Government documents are not copyrighted, but caution is necessary if the
material is used in such a way as to imply endorsement of products or services.
• Private letters, or excepts from them, cannot be published or used in sales
and publicity materials without the permission of the letter writer,

□ Words and word-combinations


1. competitor — конкурент, соперник
2. to retain rights to negatives — сохранять права на негативы

Task 2. Give English equivalents:


кража, в рамках, исказить смысл, напоминать ч.-л., торговая марка, от-
рывок (выдержка), музыкальные произведения, широкое использование,
предосторожность, конкурент.
38
Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:
unassailable, virtually, to profit from smth, to obtain commercial advantage,
to extend to smth, a lyric, a bar of a tune, to retain rights, to bear a notice, overall, to
advance the sales and profits, to imply, an unauthorized use

Task 4. Give synonyms:


free, intent, to capitalize on smth., to secure, renown, to permit, personnel,
boundaries.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


permissible, lengthy, formal, paid, outside, to agree on smth, widespread use,
advantage.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1) What is the purpose of a copyright?
2) Do copyrights apply only to written words?
3) How long does the copyright law protect original material?
4) Does material have to be printed for copyright protection?
5) Is distributing or offering to distribute copies of a work to the public
considered publication?
6) Are news releases normally copyrighted?
7) For what purposes can fair use of materials be done?
8) When is permission to quote absolutely necessary?
9) What is plagiarism?
10) Should the use of a selected quotation from an outside source in a product
news release be cleared with the source?
11) How may using selected quotes distort the author's meaning?
12) Can titles of books and plays be copyrighted?
13) Does the use of cartoons, illustrations, and photographs from outside
sources require copyright permission?

Task 7. Give the derivatives of the following words and use them in the
sentences of your own:
to permit — to ally — to endorse —

Task 8. Paraphrase the italicized words:


1) It is customary to place a notice in the publication stating that reproduction
and distribution of copies is permissible without charge.
2) ... you may do so as long as you give proper credit to the author and the
source.
3) Most classical music ... is in the public domain and can be used without
permission.
4) Booklets, leaflets, books and similar publications usually are copyrighted
unless there is a desire to allow others to reproduce them.
39
Task 9. Find in the text all the cases of Modal Verbs, translate them and explain
their usage.

Task 10. Insert prepositions:


1) Writers.......... company newsletters and magazines, primarily using
information.......... news reporting purposes, generally are.......... the boundaries..........
the fair use concept.
2) The use……... a selected quotation………. an outside source.......... a
product news release or sales brochure should be cleared.......... the source.
3) Copyright infringement also extends.......... videotaping television
documentaries or news programs if the intent is.......... widespread use....... the
material.......... internal or external audiences.
4) The purpose.......... a copyright is to secure.......... the creator..........
original material all the benefits earned………. creating it.
5) Fair use......... material, .......... general, can be done……….
purpose………. criticism, comment, and news reporting.

Task 11. Explain the following statements:


1) Lawyers say that a public relations staff should not copy anything if the
intent is to capitalize on or take advantage of its current renown.
2) The key to a lawsuit is whether an organization is in some way obtaining
commercial advantage by implying that a service or product has the endorsement of
or is closely allied with the literary property.
3) If the material is prepared "for hire", the protection runs for 75 years from
the first year of publication or the first year of creation, whichever is shorter.

Task 12. Give a summary of the texts.

Task 13. Topical questions:

1) How do you understand the statement: "Ideas cannot be copyrighted, but


expression of these ideas can be"?
2) Do you know any cases of copyright infringement? Speak on them.

Вариант 4

Task 1. Read the texts and translate them in writing.


What Makes News

Students in news-writing classes are taught the basic components of what


constitutes "news". Public relations writers, or publicists, must also be familiar with these
components if they are to generate the kind of information that appeals to media
gatekeepers. Aspects of news include timeliness, prominence, proximity, significance,
unusualness, human interest, conflict, and newness.
40
Timeliness
Timeliness may be the most important characteristic of news. By definition, news
must be current and timely.
One way to make news timely is to announce something when it happens. A
company usually contacts the press as soon as an event occurs — the issuing of the
quarterly earning report, the appointment of a key executive, the layoff of workers. Any
delay in conveying this information to the news media runs the risk of being rejected as
"old news".
Another aspect of timeliness is offering information within the context of events
and issues that are already on the public agenda. Auto club and insurance companies, for
example, have excellent placement success with articles about safe driving just before a
long holiday weekend. Because Christmas-time is the major season for purchasing
children's toys, the media are receptive to news releases from manufacturers about new
toys on the market and what kinds of toys are setting sales records. Consumer groups also
use the context of Christmas to issue warnings about the safety of some toys.
Prominence
The news media rarely cover the grand opening of a store unless a celebrity is
involved.
Another way of looking at prominence is to remember that "names make news".
People are interested in other people, particularly if they are prominent or known in some
way. The success of People magazine proves the point.
Although the media are invariably attracted to the presence of movie stars, rock
stars, and pro athletes at an event, other types of prominent people also make news.
Note that prominence is not restricted to people; it extends also to organizations.
Large multinational corporations like IBM or Exxon automatically get more media
attention because they control so many resources and affect so many lives. If you work
for a smaller, less prominent company, you will have to try much harder to get media
coverage.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to constitute news — составить (построить) новости
2. to generate information — производить, подавать информацию
3. to appeal to — привлекать, притягивать; правиться
4. timeliness — своевременность
5. prominence — известность; значительность
6. proximity — близость, доступность
7. significance — важность, значительность
8. human interest — интерес широкой публики
9. newness — новизна
10. to issue — издавать, выпускать, опубликовать
11. quarterly earnings — заработки за квартал
12. a key executive — важное лицо в правительстве (государстве) или в
руководстве фирмы
13. layoff — увольнение
14. to convey — передавать
41
15. to be on the agenda — быть включенным в повестку дня
16. placement — размещение
17. to set sales records — установить рекорд продаж
18. to cover an event — освещать событие
19. to get coverage — получить освещение в прессе и других средствах
массовой информации
Proximity

Surveys have shown that the news releases most acceptable to media gatekeepers
are those with a local angle. These stories are custom tailored for an organization or an
individual's local newspaper. Typically, the local angle is in the lead and top half of the
release.
Obviously, the local angle — proximity — has strong news value. Whenever pos-
sible, it is important to "localize" information. Publicists should take the time and extra
effort to tailor national information by including the names of local dealers, retailers, and
other area representatives for the news media serving a particular city or the surrounding
area.
Significance
If a situation or an event is likely to affect a substantial number of people, it is
significant. Ал increase in the price of heating oil is significant in the Northeast, where
many homes are heated by oil. However, this news is not very significant in the West,
where most homes are heated by gas. However, an increase in the price of gasoline
receives a great deal of local, regional, and national coverage because it affects almost
every family.
In judging significance, you must know not only the numbers of people affected but
also who will be affected. A requirement that filling stations install equipment to reduce
the amount of gasoline vaporized into the atmosphere was of minor interest to the public,
but it was extremely significant to the oil companies and service station owners because of
added costs. Consequently, the general press gave the new requirement a few paragraphs,
whereas it received extensive coverage in oil industry publications.
Unusualness
Anything out of the ordinary normally attracts press interest and public attention.
Activist groups like Greenpeace and animal rights advocates often generate news coverage
by staging demonstrations with protesters wearing animal costumes or conducting a mock
funeral procession.
Unusual events and situations are often created solely for the sake of publicity.

Words and word-combinations


1. to tailor stories for smb — приспосабливать, обрабатывать
информацию
2. to be in the lead — газетная информация, помешенная на видном
месте; наиболее важная информация (в последних известиях)
3. to be in the top half of the release — информация, помешенная в
верхней части первой страницы газеты
42
4. to receive local, regional, national, major extensive coverage —
получить освещение в местном (региональном, общенациональном) масштабе;
получить широкое освещение
5. added costs — добавочная стоимость

Human Interest

People like to read about other people. That is why the news media often focus on
the lives of the rich and famous or even the poor and downtrodden.
A journalist may focus on the plight of one welfare family to illustrate the
problems of the entire social services system. Television news, which tries to explain
complex issues in a minute or two, often uses the vehicle of personalizing the problem or
issue by letting one individual or family speak. Indeed, people would rather listen to the
problems of a welfare mother in her own words than view a series of bar charts showing
the decline in state funding.
Conflict
When two or more groups advocate different points of view on a topic of current
interest, this creates news. Indeed, reporters often fuel the controversy by quoting one side
and then asking the other side for a comment.
Organizations get coverage when they state a point of view that is contrary to other
points of view.
Newness
Advertising and marketing people say that the two words they find most useful are
"new" and "free". You will seldom use "free", but you should constantly search for
something "new". Any news release announcing a new product or service has a good
chance of being published. Every year, the automobile companies get major coverage in
the media when they announce their new models.
New uses for old products are the basis of most food publicity. There is nothing
new about potatoes or walnuts, yet food editors steadily publish new recipes for these and
scores of other foods..
One note of caution. The news media are getting somewhat distrustful of claims
that a product or service is "new". In many cases, the only thing "new" about a product is
the packaging; from an editor's point of view, that is not "new" enough.

□ Words and word-combinations


1. to focus on — фокусировать внимание на, привлекать внимание к ч.-л.
2. downtrodden — угнетенный
3. the plight — (затруднительное, плохое) положение или состояние
4. vehicle — зд. средство выражения мысли (передачи)
5. chart — карта, диаграмма, таблица
6. to fuel — подливать масла в огонь, подогревать
7. free (of charge) — бесплатный
8. recipe — рецепт (кулинарный)
9. scores of — десятки ч.-л.
10. caution — 1) предостережение; 2) осторожность
43
11. distrustful — недоверчивый
12. claim — заявление, утверждение (часто голословное)

Finding News

Now that you understand what constitutes news, you should have a good framework
as you go about the process of finding news.
Internal News Sources
The first step is to become totally familiar with the organization you arc
representing. This would include the organization's purpose and objectives, its products or
services, the corporate philosophy and its key policies, the organizations chart, the history
and background of the organization, its annual revenues, its key markets, its major
competitors, and its relative position in the market. To get this information, you must
study the organization closely and keep up with changes, you must also play the role of
reporter by moving around in the organization. Talk to a variety of people, ask a lot of
questions, and constantly be on the lookout for something new or different. News stories
don't necessarily come to you; you must come to the stories. Other people may have no
awareness of the news value of an event or a situation, so you must be alert to clues and
hints as well as hard facts.
A new source of a raw material may represent merely costs and quantities to the
purchasing agent but may lead you to several stories. For example, a new fiber might
change the characteristics of a textile, with interesting consequences for clothing
manufacturers, consumers, designers, and fashion writers.
A change in work schedules may affect traffic and thus be important to the
community. Personnel changes and promotions may interest editors of business and trade
papers. A new contract, which means hiring new employees, might be important to the
regional economy. By the same token, the loss of a major contract — and its implications
for the employees and community — also qualifies as significant news.
External News Sources
You must read, listen to, and watch the news for events or situations that may affect
your organization.
Public relations writers and personnel should be constantly on the alert for events or
situations that can be applied to the employer or client. Other sources of information, in
addition to the general press, are census reports, national polls, trade media, financial
analyst reports, sales figures for entire industries, and updates on competitors.

□ Notes
People — популярный еженедельник, содержащий короткие заметки и мно-
жество фотоматериалов о людях, которые часто появляются в новостях или на
экранах телевизора, о популярных спортсменах, кинозвездах, представителях
высшего света. Издается в Нью-Йорке, основан в 1974 г
IBM — International Business Machines Corp — компания по производству
электронной техники и программного обеспечения. Правление компании нахо-
дится в г. Армонк, шт. Нью-Йорк, где была создана первая ЭВМ.
44
EXXON — нефтяной концерн, правление которого находится в г.
Ирвинге, шт. Техас. Крупнейшая в мире нефтяная корпорация, владеет
широкой сетью бензоколонок.
updates — последние данные, информация
Words and word-combinations
1. background — происхождение; предпосылка
2. annual revenues — ежегодный доход
3. competitor — конкурент
4. keep up with changes -— идти в ногу со временем, не отставать от
современности; вовремя производить замены
5. to be on the lookout for = to be on the alert for — быть настороже;
выискивать или высматривать ч.-л.
6. to have an awareness of the news value of an event — иметь чувство
событийной ценности
7. to be alert to smth — быть настороже
8. promotion — повышение по службе; продвижение
9. by the same token — кроме того; к тому же
10. to qualify — квалифицировать
11. census reports — данные, полученные при переписи населения
12. national polls — списки избирателей (для всеобщих выборов)

Task 2. Give English equivalents:


ради ч.-л., увольнение, страховая компания, предпринять
дополнительные усилия, организовать демонстрацию, установить
оборудование, рабочий график, транспорт, кадровые изменения, повышение
по службе.

Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:


to run the risk, delay, to be receptive to smth, to be restricted to smb. smth, to
extend to smth, retailers, to vaporize into atmosphere, a claim, a plight, welfare.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


major, prominent, an advocate, mock, downtrodden, amount, scores of,
totally, a vehicle.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


minor, contrary to, substantial, normally, ordinary, to advocate, significant, to
reduce.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1) What do aspects of news include?
2) Why is timeliness the most important characteristic of news?
3) What kind of people can make news?
4) What have surveys shown as far as proximity is concerned?
5) What kind of situation or event can be called significant?
45
6) Are unusual events and situations specially created sometimes?
7) Why do the news media often focus on the lives of the rich and famous?
8) How does conflict create news?
9) What words do advertising and marketing people find most useful?
10) What is the first step in the process of finding news?
11) What may lead a public relations writer to a story?
12) What are external news sources?

Task 7. Paraphrase the following statements:


1) Typically, the local angle is in the lead and top half of the release.
2) A journalist may focus on the plight of one welfare family...
3) ... you must be alert to clues and hints as well as hard facts.

Task 8. Explain the grammatical structure of the following sentences.


Think of your own sentences with the same structure using the active words
and expressions.
1) A requirement that filling stations install equipment to reduce the amount
of gasoline vaporized into the atmosphere was of minor interest to the public.
2) People would rather listen to the problems of a welfare mother in her
own, words than view a series of bar charts showing the decline in state funding.
3) If a situation or an event is likely to affect a substantial number of people,
it is significant.

Task 9. Insert prepositions:


1) An increase ............ the price .............. heating oil is significant..... the
North-East, where many homes are heated oil.
2) A journalist may focus ...... the plight................... .one welfare family.
3) When two or more groups advocate different points.................... view
.............a topic. current interest, this creates news.
4) Organizations get coverage when they state a point view that is contrary
............ other points....... view.
5) You should constantly search............. something "new".
6) Talk .. ….a variety .................... people, ask a lot....... questions, and
constantly
be ........ the lookout............. something new or different.
7) Public relations writers and personnel should be constantly.......... the
alert..... .....events or situations that can be applied........ the employer or client

Task 10. Explain the following statements:


1) Another aspect of timeliness is offering information within the context of
events and issues that are already on the public agenda.
2) Consumer groups also use the context of Christmas to issue warnings
about the safety of some toys.
3) Surveys have shown that the news releases most acceptable to media
gatekeepers are those with a local angle.
46
4) Whenever possible, it is important to "1 о с a l i z e" information.
5) Unusual events and situations are often created solely for the sake of
publicity.
6) Reporters often fuel the controversy by quoting one side and then asking
the other side for a comment

Task 11. Comment on the following statements and illustrate them:


1) News stories don't necessarily come to you, you must come to the stories.
2) The news media are getting somewhat distrustful of claims that a
product or service is "n e w".

Task 12. Topical questions:


1) Do you know any unusual events or situations solely created for the sake of
publicity?
2) What moral norms should be observed when a journalist focuses on the lives
of the people?

Task 13. Develop the following points:


1) To be considered newsworthy, information should have one or more of
the following attributes: timeliness, prominence, proximity, significance,
unusualness, human interest, conflict, and newness.
2) The first step in preparing publicity is to be thoroughly familiar with the
company or organization.
3) A public relations writer should constantly monitor current events and
situations that may affect the organization or provide opportunities for publicity.

Вариант 5
Task 1. Read the texts and translate them in writing.

A major purpose of many public relations programs is to provide news and


information to the media in the hope that it will be published or broadcast. The resulting
coverage is called publicity. The public relations writer who writes and places stories in
the media is commonly referred to as a publicist, although most public relations firms and
corporations don't use the term in official job titles. The term "publicist" or "press agent"
is more common in the entertainment industry, but the role in the communication industry
is the same.
Media Coverage and Barriers to it
The purpose of media coverage, from an organization's standpoint, goes beyond
just news and information. Publicity is designed to advance the organization's goals. This
may be to create favorable attitudes and opinions about the organization, its products, or
its services. In many cases, publicity is strongly marketing oriented and designed to
generate sales.
There are several barriers to getting publicity in the media. Some of them are as
follows:
47
1. Publicity Versus Advertising. Reporters and editors ultimately decide whether an
organization's information qualifies as news and is worthy of being published or
broadcast. They may choose to change the order of the information, delete parts of it, or
even completely rewrite it. Thus a two-page news release from a company may be
published as a full story, a one-paragraph news item, or not at all. Advertising copy has
no such barrier. The organization buys the space in which the advertisement will run, and
the ad appears exactly as submitted. The material is handled by the advertising or sales
department of the newspapers or broadcast station, not the news department.

Words and word-combinations


1. coverage — показ, передача, репортаж
2. publicity — содействие популярности: "паблисити" (с привлечением
внимания широких слоев населения к личностям, товарам или услугам с
использованием средств массовой информации); информация, используемая
для придания известности или популярности отдельным личностям, товарам,
услугам
3. story — (ам.) газетный материал, сообщение в печати (очерк)
4. publicist — публицист; агент по рекламе
5. entertainment industry — индустрия развлечений
6. communication industry — индустрия коммуникации
7. standpoint — точка зрения
8. to advance a goal — выдвигать (ставить) цель (задачу)
9. to create favorable attitudes and opinions — создавать благоприятную
оценку и мнение
10. marketing — маркетинг; политика в области сбыта
11. to generate sales — производить реализацию товара
12. advertising — реклама; передача рекламы; рекламное дело; рекламная
деятельность
13. advertisement = ad — реклама; объявление
14. to submit an advertisement — представить рекламу
15. to run an advertisement — показывать рекламу; публиковать рекламу
16. to handle the material — иметь дело с материалом; трактовать материал
17. advertising department — отдел рекламы
18. sales department — отдел реализации
19. news department — отдел информации

2. Shrinking News Holes. The recession in the early 1990's left many publications
scrambling for advertising dollars, which directly affected the news space available.
Many periodicals have cut back on pages and have consequently reduced the news hole.
The result is increased competition for getting your publicity accepted and published. A
newspaper or trade magazine editor, for example, has hundreds of news releases and
story ideas for every edition, and only a few can be used.
3. Changing Nature of the Mass Media. The mass media are becoming
increasingly fragmented, meaning that they no longer offer the opportunity of reaching
48
large numbers of people in a single effort. The "one size fits all" news release is dead. In
addition, evening papers have died in many cities, morning papers have lost circulation.
4. Information Overload. Our society is experiencing widespread information
clutter. The decline of the mass media has been accompanied by a proliferation of more
specialized media — weeklies, trade newspapers and magazines, cable channels,
electronic online databases — that all compete for the individual's attention. As a
consequence, your organization's news, even if it does get published or broadcast, may
never get the attention of the audience. To use a metaphor, your story is only one tree in a
vast forest.
Despite these barriers, the news media are indispensable if the organization's
objective is to inform, persuade, and motivate various audiences. You, however, must
recognize the barriers and do several things to make your efforts more effective. They
include (1) targeting the right media with your information, (2) thinking continuously
about the interests of the readers or listeners, (3) keeping in mind the objectives of the
client or employer, and (4) exercising creativity in thinking about how to present
information that will meet the requirements of media gatekeepers. Also, don't try to
blanket the media with a blizzard of news items.
To work effectively, you must understand what makes news, how to find it, and
how to generate it

□ Notes
Versus — (Лат.) (обыкн. сокращ. V) против {юр. или спорт.); в
сравнении с
Words and word-combinations
1. news hole — место, отведенное под информацию
2. news space — количество строк, отведенное под информации
3. periodicals — периодические издания
4. to cut back on pages — сократить количество страниц в
периодическом издании
5. competition — конкуренция, соревнование
6. "one size fits all" news — новости, удовлетворяющие все вкусы
(интересы)
7. circulation — тираж
8. overload — перегрузка, перенасыщение
9. information clutter — мешающая информация, мешающие сюжеты
(избыток в передаче непрограммного материала между различными шоу:
рекламные вставки, титры, различного рода объявления, анонсы — все. что
может раздражать телезрителя и снизить действенность рекламы);
информационный хаос.
10. a weekly — еженедельное периодическое издание
11. cable channel — канал кабельного телевидения
12. indispensable — необходимый; обязательный
13. to target — нацелить
14. to meet the requirements — отвечать требованиям
49
15. gatekeeper — цензор (чаше всего цензором является продюсер,
издатель и другие липа из руководящего состава, ответственные за
окончательный выпуск программы)
16. to blanket — зд. "забросать" (в большом количестве) новостями

Task 2. Give English equivalents:


с точки зрения к.-л.. выхолить за пределы, сохранить количество
страниц, тираж, распространение, перегруженность информацией, отвечать
требованиям, представить информацию, предоставить возможность, таким
образом.

Task 3. Give Russian equivalents:


to refer to smb, to qualify as smth., to be worthy of, to delete, to submit, to handle
the material, to shrink, indispensable, to compete for smth., to exercise creativity.

Task 4. Give synonyms:


ultimately, to affect, to reduce, a consequence, vast, despite, commonly, a
standpoint.

Task 5. Give antonyms:


official, completely, to increase, the decline, common, worthy, available, to
reduce.

Task 6. Answer the questions:


1. What is the main purpose of many public relations programs?
2. What is publicity?
3. What is publicity designed to do?
4. Who decides whether an organization's information qualities as news and is worthy
of being published or broadcast?
5. Which departments of the newspaper or broadcast station handle advertisements?
6. What is the result of the fact that many periodicals have cut back on pages?
7. Why are the mass media becoming increasingly fragmented?
8. What has the decline of the mass media been accompanied by?
9. Why are the news media indispensable, despite the barriers?
10. What must a public relations writer understand to work effectively?

Task 7. Find in the text the cases of the Complex Object and translate these
sentences into Russian.

Task 8. Insert prepositions:


1) There are several barriers ...........getting publicity the media.
2) Many periodicals have cut back pages.
3) They no longer offer the opportunity.... ....... reaching..........large
numbers....…people…...........a single effort.
4) The purpose…………media coverage, ….........an organization's standpoint,
goes............just news and information.
50
5) The material is handled………….the advertising or sales
department...........the newspaper or broadcast station.

Task 9. Explain the following statements:


1) In many cases, publicity is strongly marketing oriented and designed to
generate sales.
2) The recession in the early 1990s left many publications scrambling for
advertising dollars, which directly affected the news space available,
3) Our society is experiencing widespread information clutter.
4) Don't try to blanket the media with a blizzard of news items

Task 10. There are 4 points in the text that a public relation writer must keep in
mind to make his effort more effective.
Do you agree with them? Illustrate your point of view.

Task 11. Develop the following statements:


1) A major objective of many public relations programs is to get publicity
for the employer or the client.
2) Placing news and information (publicity) in the news media should be done
with the objective of helping the organization achieve its goals.
3) Publicity is difficult to achieve. There is a great deal of competition for
available news space.

Раздел III. Работа с газетной статьей.

Task 1. Read and translate the article from newspaper “The Moscow News”. Make
your own list of new words and expressions.

Task 2. Study the expressions and use them in your article annotation.

а) - The article under review is taken from …


- It was published …
- It is headlined (entitled) as … (The title of the article is … )
- The author is …
б) - The article is a (an) report about …
........................... comment about …
.......................... review of …
........................... interview with …
в) - The article touches upon …
........................... deals with …
........................... is devoted to …
.......................... is about …
........................... gives information on …
- (Some fact) … is given much comment to.
- The fact is …
51
- It is pointed out that …
- It should be noted …
г) - In conclusion the article says / reads …
- It comes to the following conclusion.
- In summary I'd like to add / to point out / to draw your attention to ...
д) - According to …
- In my opinion
- From my (the author's) point of view
- I found the article interesting (dull) / valuable (of no value) / easy (hard) to
understand.

Task 3. Make up the annotation to your article.

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 4 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (осенний семестр)

1. Тексты 1,2, 3 и задания к ним


2. контрольная работа № 7
3. Статья на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News» (газетную статью можно
взять в методкабинете 319 «Л» УГТУ или подобрать самостоятельно).
4. Экзамен.

Данная учебная программа должна быть выполнена в соответствии со


следующими требованиями:
1. Чтение и перевод текстов и выполнение заданий после них.
2. Выполнение контрольной работы №7 и ее защита.
3. Чтение и перевод газетной статьи на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News».
4.Экзамен
Содержание экзамена

1. Перевести письменно текст по специальности объемом 900 п.з. за 45 мин. со


словарем.
2. Ознакомиться с содержанием текста объемом 900 п.з. за 15 мин. без словаря.
Беседа по теме текста.

Раздел I. Учебные тексты для студентов 4-го курса специальности СО


ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (осенний
семестр).

Task 1. Read and translate the following texts and do the exercises.
52
Text 1: Media Dependence on Public Relations

Public relations people work with the media in many ways. This unit discusses how
to prepare for press interviews, organize a news conference, conduct a media tour, and
write such materials as fact sheets, press kits, and op-ed articles.
The unit begins with a review of how reporters and public relations people are
mutually dependent upon each other for accomplishing their respective goals. It also
mentions areas of friction that often contribute to an adversarial atmosphere. An important
part of the relationship is based on mutual trust and credibility. For your part, you must
always provide accurate, timely, and comprehensive information. Only in this way any
medium can do its job of informing readers, listeners, or viewers about matters of
importance to them.
Public relations sources provide most of the information used in the media today. A
number of research studies have substantiated this, including the finding that today's
reporters and editors spend most of their time processing information, not gathering it.
1,200 New York Times, Washington Post front pages were studied as far back as
1993 and it was found that 58.2 percent of the stories came through routine bureaucratic
channels (official proceedings, news releases, and conferences or other planned events).
Just 25.2 percent were the products of investigative journalism, and most of these were
produced by interviews, the result of routine access to spokespersons. As the report said,
"The reporter cannot depend on legwork alone to satisfy his paper's insatiable demand for
news. He looks to official channels to provide him with newsworthy material day after
day".
A New York public relations firm, Jericho Promotions, sent questionnaires to 5,500
journalists worldwide and got 2,432 to respond. Of that number, 38 percent said they get at
least half of their story ideas from public relations people. The percentage was higher
among editors of lifestyle, entertainment, and health sections of newspapers but much
lower among metropolitan reporters, who spent most of their time covering "hard" news.
In other words, public relations materials save media outlets the time, money, and
effort of gathering their own news.

□ Notes:
New York Times – ежедневная газета. Считается наиболее влиятельной и
информированной в стране. Придерживается прогрессивных взглядов и славится
достаточно беспристрастной оценкой событий. Издается в Нью-Йорке. Основана в
1851 г. Washington Post - ежедневная утренняя газета. Издается в Вашингтоне.
Основана в 1877 г. Одно из самых влиятельных либеральных изданий в стране.

Vocabulary:
accomplish one's goal – достичь своей цели
adversial – враждебный, недоброжелательный
be dependent upon smb. – зависеть от к.-л.
comprehensive – исчерпывающий
contribute to smth. – способствовать
53
credibility – взаимное доверие
fact sheet – подборка данных, «объективка»
friction – разногласие
insatiable – неуемный, жадный, ненасытный
media outlets – местные телестудии, радиостанции, редакции, «точки» средств
массовой информации
medium – средство
mutual – обоюдный, взаимный
op-ed page/article – полоса газеты, где публикуются статьи, отражающие точку
зрения на какой-либо вопрос, колонка читателей
press kit – пресс-подборка, информационная подборка для прессы (набор
рекламно-информационных материалов)
process information – обрабатывать информацию
provide information – предоставлять информацию
respective – соответственный
routine – обычный
satisfy demand – удовлетворить спрос
story – газетный материал, сообщение в печати
substantiate – подтвердить данными
timely – своевременный

1) Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
источники; с вашей стороны; читатели, слушатели и зрители; по всему миру;
первая страница газеты; мероприятия; размещать материал в газете; из этого
количества; по крайней мере; освещать события.

2) Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:
1. firm belief, confidence -
2. regular and usual -
3. always wanting more of smth. -
4. people who have been chosen to speak officially for a group, organisation or
government -
5. an occasion when a famous person is asked questions about their life,
experiences, or opinions for a newspaper, magazine, television program etc. -

3) Translate the following word combinations into Russian:


to provide information
to gather
to process
media tour
outlets
advisories
investigative journalism
54
report
work
accurate information
timely
comprehensive

4) Match the words. Use them in sentences of your own:

fact advisories
op-ed sheets
media kits
press articles
routine channels
news demand
insatiable release

5) Match the words which are close in their meaning:


a goal disagreement
adversarial objective
friction hostile
to respond almost
nearly To react

6) Match the words having the opposite meaning:

trust waste
accurate lack of trust
timely inopportune
metropolitan inexact
save local

7) Complete the sentences with the following words:


(information; friction; trust; sources; media; adversarial; credibility):
1. Public relations............provide most of the............used in the…………today.
2. It also mentions the areas of…………that often contribute to
an…………atmosphere.
3. An important part of the relationship is based on mutual…………and………….
55

8) Insert prepositions where necessary (on; for; of; to; upon; with):
1. The chapter begins……….a review……….how reporters and public relations
people are mutually dependent………..each other……….accomplishing their
respective goals.
2. It also mentions……….areas………..friction that often contribute……….an
adversarial atmosphere.
3. The reporter cannot depend……….legwork alone to satisfy his paper's insatiable
demand…………news.

9) Answer the following questions:


1. What are the main points of the text?
2. Are reporters and public relations people mutually dependent upon each other?
3. What is an important part of their relationship based on?
4. What sort of information should be provided?
5. What have a number of research studies substantiated?

Text 2: Public Relations Dependence on the Media

The purpose of public relations is to inform, shape opinions and attitudes, and
motivate. This´ can be accomplished only if people receive messages constantly and
consistently.
The media, in all their variety, are cost-effective channels of communication in
an information society. They are the multipliers that enable millions of people to
receive a message at the same time. Through the miracle of satellite communications,
the world is a global village of shared information.
On a more specialized level, the media are no longer just mass communication.
Thousands of publications and hundreds of radio, television, and cable outlets enable
the public relations communicator to reach very specific target audiences with
tailored messages designed just for them. Demographic segmentation and
psychographics are now a way of life in advertising, marketing, and public relations.
The media's power and influence in a democratic society reside in their
independence from government control. Reporters and editors make independent
judgments about what is newsworthy and what will be disseminated. They serve as
screens and filters of information, and even though not every one is happy with what
they decide, the fact remains that media gatekeepers are generally perceived as more
objective than public relations people who represent a particular client or
organization.
This is important to you because the media, by inference, serve as third-party
endorsers of your information. Media gatekeepers give your information credibility
and importance by deciding that it is newsworthy. The information is no longer from
your organization.
Consequently, your dependence on the media requires that you be accurate and
honest at all times in all your public relations materials.
56
□ Notes:
psychographic - a system for classifying people by mental attitudes and values rather
than by physical characteristics, income level, or place of residence; психография.□
Vocabulary:
be designed for smb. - быть предназначенным для к.-л.
channels of communication - каналы связи
cost-effective - рентабельный
disseminate - распространять
endorse information - поддерживать, распределять информацию
gate-keeper - редактор
inference - заключение, вывод
make a judgment - сделать заключение
reside in smth. - принадлежать ч.-л., заключаться в ч.-л.
satellite communications - спутниковая связь
shape opinions and attitudes - сформировать точку зрения, мнение
tailored message - сообщение, составленное с учетом ситуации; рассчитанное на
определенную аудиторию
target audience - целевая аудитория
variety - разнообразие

1) Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
следовательно; представлять клиента или организацию; служить чем-то; цель
чего-то; дать возможность; объективный; влияние; независимость от кого-то,
чего-то; реклама; требовать.

2) Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:
1. Bringing the best possible profits or advantages for the lowest possible costs -
2. Important or interesting enough to be reported as news -
3. A person at a publishing or broadcasting institution who decides whether to use
news supplied by outsiders, typically public relations personnel sending material on
behalf of their clients or employers -

3) Translate the following word-combinations into Russian. Use them in your own
sentences:

channels of communication
satellite
mass
to endorse information
shared
screens and filters of
57
4) Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. His talent resides in his story-telling abilities.
2. They made a judgment without knowing all the facts.
3. Teenagers' tastes, preferences and opinions are shaped by what they see in the media.
4. The office is designed for two clerks, with double work areas.
5. These messages are being widely disseminated via the Internet.
6. These days, he endorses products including health foods and sunglasses.

5) Match the words which are close in their meaning:

to disseminate precise
to perceive to spread
credibility to demand
to require trust
accurate to think of

6) Complete the sentences with the following words:


(target audiences; mass communication; accomplished; level; messages; outlets; designed;
consistently):
1. This can be………….only if people receive………….constantly and…………..
2. On a more specialized ………….. , the media are no longer just…………
3. Thousands of publications and hundreds of radio, television, and cable………….
enable the public relations communicator to reach very specific……………with
tailored messages…………..for them.

7) Insert prepositions where necessary (at; in; to; as; on; from; by; of):
1. Your dependence……….the media requires that you be accurate and honest
…………all times………..all your public relations materials.
2. The media's power and influence ………..a democratic society reside
…………their independence………….government control.
3. This is important…………you because the media, ………….inference,
serve third-party endorsers………….your information.

8) Can you explain the following?


1. Through the miracle of satellite communications, the world is a global village of
shared information.
2. Demographic segmentation and psychographics are now a way of life in adverti-
sing, marketing and public relations.
3. The media, by inference, serve as third-party endorsers of your information.
58
9) Agree or disagree:
Make sure to use the following expressions:
I fully agree with it I disagree with it
Beyond all doubt There's something in it, but...
I wouldn't say so Oh, that's all wrong, I'm afraid
I agree with it on the whole but it could be
said that...

1. On a more specialized level, the media are no longer just mass communication.
2. The media's power and influence in a democratic society reside in their indepen-
dence from government control.

10) Write down one phrase showing the main idea of the text.

Text 3: Effective Media Relations

There will always be areas of friction and disagreement between public relations
people and journalists, but that doesn't mean that there can't be a solid working
relationship based on mutual respect for each other's work including journalists.
A good working relationship with the media is vital for a public relations writer.
Indeed, one definition of public relations is the building of relationship between the
organization and its various publics.
Dealing with the Media
Many guidelines for dealing effectively with the media have been compiled. Most of
them are well tested and proven, but you must always remember that there are no ironclad
rules. Media people are also individuals to whom a particular approach may or may not be
applicable. Here's a list of general guidelines.
1. Know your media. Be familiar with the publications and broadcast outlets that
are regularly used. Know their deadlines, news format, audiences, and needs. Do your
homework on other publications and broadcast shows before sending a pitch letter or news
material.
2. Limit your mailings. Multiple news releases are inefficient and costly, and they
alienate media gatekeepers. Send releases only to publications and broadcast outlets that
would have an interest in the information.
3. Localize. Countless surveys show that the most effective materials have a local
angle. Take the time to develop that angle before sending materials to specific
publications.
4. Send newsworthy information. Don't bother sending materials that are not
newsworthy. Avoid excessive hype and promotion.
5. Practice good writing. News materials should be well written and concise. Avoid
technical jargon in materials sent to nontechnical publications.
6. Avoid gimmicks. Don't send T-shirts, teddy bears, balloon bouquets, or other
frivolous items to get the attention of media gatekeepers.
59
7. Be environmentally correct. Avoid giant press kits and reams of background
materials. Save trees.
8. Be available. You are the spokesperson for an organization. It is your
responsibility to be accessible at all times, even in the middle of the night. Key reporters
should have your office and home telephone numbers.
9. Get back to reporters. Make it a priority to respect your promises and call
reporters back in a timely manner. They have deadlines to meet.
10.Answer your own phone. Use voice mail systems as a tool of service, not as a
screening device. Reporters (like other people) hate getting bogged down in the electronic
swamp of endless button pushing.
11.Be truthful. Give accurate and complete information even if it is not flattering to
your organization. Your facts and figures must be clear and dependable.
12.Answer questions. There are only three acceptable answers: "Here it is", "I don't
know but I'll get back to you within an hour" and "I know but I can't tell you now
because..." "No comment" is not one of the three alternatives.
13.Protect exclusives. If a reporter has found a story, don't give it to anyone else.
14.Be fair. Competing media deserve equal opportunity to receive information in a
timely manner.
15.Help photographers. Facilitate their work by getting people together in a central
location, providing necessary props, and supplying subjects' full names and titles.
16.Explain. Give reporters background briefings and materials so that they
understand your organization. Tell them how decisions were reached and why.
17.Remember deadlines. The reporter must have enough time to write a story. One
good rule is to provide information days or weeks in advance. In addition, don't call a
media outlet to make a pitch at deadline time.
18.Praise good work. If a reporter has written or produced a good story, send a
complimentary note. A copy to the editor is also appreciated.
19.Correct errors politely. Ignore minor errors such as misspellings, inaccurate
ages, and wrong titles. If there is a major factual error that skews the accuracy of the entire
story, talk to the reporter who wrote the story. If that doesn't work, talk to the editor or
news director.

Notes:
to screen one's calls - to find out who is calling on the telephone, especially by using an
answering machine, so that you do not have to speak to somebody you do not want to
speak to - «просеивать» звонки
Vocabulary:
alienate – отдалять, отвращать
angle – точка зрения, подход
applicable – применимый
avoid – избегать
compile – составить
concise – краткий, сжатый
deadline – крайний срок
60
definition – определение
device – приспособление
exclusive – эксклюзивное сообщение
facilitate – облегчать
flatter – льстить
guidelines – правила, инструкции, директивы
ironclad rules – «железные» правила
meet the deadline – выполнить ч.-л. в срок
pitch letter – рекламно-информационное письмо
priority – первостепенная задача, приоритет
props – реквизит
ream – груда
skew – исказить
take the time – не торопиться
vital – жизненно важный
voice mail system – автоответчик

1) Find the English equivalents in the text and use them in sentences of your own:
заранее; взаимное уважение; высоко оценивать; фактическая ошибка; непра-
вильное написание; неэффективно; достоверный факт; пустяковая, ерундовая
вещица; приемлемый ответ; бесчисленные опросы.

2) Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:
1. rules or instructions about the best way to do smth. -
2. a date or time by which you have to do or complete smth.-
3. to add local interest material to a story -
4. the thing that you think is most important and that needs attention before anything
else -
5. an important news story that is in only one newspaper, magazine, television news
program etc. -

3) Translate the following words and word-combinations into Russian. Make up


sentences of your own:
1. to meet a deadline
to miss a deadline
to set a deadline
to work under a tight deadline at
deadline time
2. to establish priorities
a top/ high/ first priority
to have/ take/ get priority
to get one's priorities straight/right
61

4) Match the words (there can be more then one variant). Use them in sentences
of your own:

News rules
Ironclad answer
News letter
Acceptable director
Pitch releases

5) Translate the following sentences into Russian:


1.Lawyers examined reams of documents.
2.Jackson's comments alienated many baseball fans.
3.It depends on your definition of success.
4.Try approaching the problem from a different angle.
5.Dividing students into small groups usually helps facilitate discussion.

6) Match the words which are close in their meaning:

regularly reliable
costly conflict
disagreement essential
solid constantly
vital expensive

7) Match the words which are opposite in their meaning:

frivolous redundant
timely flexible
flatter inopportune
ironclad criticize
concise sensible

8) Answer the following questions:


1. What should be done to know your media?
2. How can you limit your mailings?
3. Why is it important to localize your materials?
4. What sort of information should be sent?
5. How should news materials be written?
62
6. Why should gimmicks be avoided?
7. What does "to be environmentally correct" mean?
8. Why should you be always accessible for the media?
9. Why can't "no comment" be one of the possible answers to reporters' questions?
10.In what way should you be fair to competing media?
11.How can you help photographers?
12.In what way should you react to errors?

9) Can you explain the following:


1. Reporters (like other people) hate getting bogged down in the electronic swamp of
endless button pushing.
2. Countless surveys show that the most effective materials have a local angle.

Раздел II. Контрольная работа №7 для студентов 4 курса специальности


СО ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный (английский) язык в
профессиональной сфере» (осенний семестр).

Task 1. Read and translate the text orally.

Meeting the Press


Press interviews, news conferences, media tours, and other kinds of gatherings
provide excellent opportunities to communicate your message to a variety of audiences.
They are more personal than just sending written materials and allow reporters to get
direct answers from news sources.
Company executives prone to stage fright may view direct one-to-one contact with
the media as a nightmare. They fear that they will say something stupid, be misquoted, or
be "ambushed" by an aggressive reporter who will slant the interview to imply that the
organization is guilty of some wrongdoing.
Nevertheless, media interviews help the organization accomplish the objectives of
increasing visibility, consumer awareness, and sales of services or products. The key is
preparation.
Individual Interviews
Most press interviews are set up in advance. They can be initiated by you as the
public relations representative, or they can be requested by a reporter who is looking for
credible experts to fill out a story.
If a reporter calls requesting an interview, you should interview the reporter before
the reporter interviews you. Some common questions are, "What's the nature of your
story?" "Why did you call me?" "What are you looking for from me?"
By doing this kind of questioning, you can decide if you are qualified to answer the
questions or whether someone else in the organization would be a better source. You may
also decide that the context of the story is not appropriate for your organization and
decline to be interviewed. For example, the reporter may ask you to comment on some
topic that has nothing to do with your organization.
63
One danger in a telephone interview is that you're caught off guard and don't have
time to formulate your thoughts. But before you know it, you and the reporter are chatting
away like old friends about a number of topics. This is fine, but do remember that a name
and a quote will probably appear in the article or as a sound bite on a newscast. It may be
accurate, or it may be completely out of context.
A better approach for a major interview, whether initiated by you or by the reporter,
is to schedule it in advance. If you know the purpose of the story, this will help you
prepare yourself or other spokespersons for the session.
There are some tips:
1.Define your key points. Know the three most important points you want to get ac-
ross to the interviewer.
2.Anticipate difficult questions. Make a list of questions that might be asked - and
be prepared for them.
3. Rehearse. It is normal to feel uncomfortable when you're in the "hot seat" when
reporters start questioning you. Practice making your key points and answering diffi-cult
questions. If you're preparing an executive for the interview, you role-play as the
reporter.
4. Follow up. After the interview, provide any material promised to the reporter.
Respect a reporter's deadlines. Getting back to a reporter in several days often isn't good
enough.
Another common suggestion is to provide reporters with company background
materials in advance or at the time of the interview. This will help them get facts and na-
mes correct. Body language is also important: Be confident and relaxed, always look a
reporter in the eye and never look away, keep your hands open, smile, and lean forward
when you're talking.

□ Vocabulary:
ambush – заманить в ловушку
accomplish the objective – достичь цели
in advance – заранее
anticipate – ожидать, предвидеть
appropriate – подходящий
be in the hot seat (col.) – быть как на иголках
body language – язык жестов
catch smb. off guard – застигнуть к.-л. врасплох
chat away – болтать
consumer awareness – потребительская осведомленность
decline – отвергнуть, отказаться
follow up – довести до конца
get across to smb. – донести до к.-л.
imply – намекать, предполагать
newscast – последние известия (по радио или телевидению)
nightmare – кошмар
prone to smth. – склонный к ч.-л.
64
rehearse – репетировать
slant – передергивать факты; необъективно представлять информацию
stage-fright – страх перед публикой

Task 2. Copy out and translate in writing 4 paragraphs from the text describing how you
could get ready for the interview.

Task 3. Answer the questions in writing.


1. Why are press interviews, news conferences etc, so important to public relations people?
2. Why may company executives sometimes view direct one-to-one contact with the media
as a nightmare?
3. What is the key to a successful interview?
4. Who can initiate a press interview?
5. What questions should be asked before a reporter interviews you?
6. What can be achieved by doing this kind of questioning?
7. What are dangers of a telephone interview?
8. What should reporters be provided with in advance or at the time of the interview?

Task 4. Make up the rules of preparing for an interview (about 10).

Task 5. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. She is prone to say exactly what she thinks.
2. It was a nightmare driving home in the snow.
3. The report was heavily slanted toward the city council's version of events.
4. The sudden snowstorm caught weather forecasters off guard.
5. The movie is appropriate for children over 12.
6. Sales are better than anticipated.
7. It was difficult to get his idea across to the committee.
8. The salesmen implied that the cars were safe.
9. He declined their invitation to take part in the conference.
10. If it is viewed from an environmental perspective, the factory's closing is a good
thing.

Раздел III. Работа с газетной статьей.

Task 1. Read and translate the article from newspaper “The Moscow News”. Make
your own list of new words and expressions.

Task 2. Make up the annotation to your article.


65

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 4 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр)

1. Тексты 4, 5, 6 и задания к ним.


2. Контрольная работа № 8.
3. Статья на выбор из газеты « The Moscow News».
4. Устная тема «PR Perspectives in My Native Place».
5. Зачет.

Данная учебная программа должна быть выполнена в соответствии со


следующими требованиями:
1. Чтение и перевод текстов и выполнение заданий после них.
2. Выполнение контрольной работы №8 и ее защита.
3. Чтение и перевод газетной статьи на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News»
(газетную статью можно взять в 319 «Л» УГТУ или подобрать самостоятельно).
4. Пересказ устной темы «PR Perspectives in My Native Place».
5. Зачёт.

Раздел I. Учебные тексты для студентов 4-го курса специальности СО


ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере»
(весенний семестр).

Task 1. Read and translate the following texts and do the exercises.
Text 4: The Basics of a Print Ad
There are several key elements in a print advertisement. They are headline, text,
artwork, and layout.
Headline. Advertising expert John Caples says, "The headline is the most important
element in most ads - and the best headlines appeal to the reader's self-interest or give
news".
Headlines should be specific about a benefit, or they can be teasers that arouse
interest. Here is a headline about a specific program: "The Phoenix Mutual Insurance
Retirement Income Plan". Caples thought this was all right, but he created a headline that
sold much more successfully: "To Men Who Want to Quit Work Some Day". This was
accompanied with an illustration of a smiling senior citizen fishing in a mountain stream.
Text. The headline is followed by what is known as text or body copy. This is the
words that persuade the reader to do something. In general, copy should be limited to only
one or two major points. Sentences should be short and punchy. A declarative sentence is
much better than one that includes a dependent or an independent clause.
The copy should invoke emotion, provide information of value to the reader, and
suggest a way that the reader can act on the information. You might include a toll-free
telephone number, an address to write for more information, or a suggestion that people
visit a local dealer.
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Artwork. An ad can consist of just a headline and copy, but ads usually have a
strong graphic element. This may be a striking photo, a line drawing, or a computer-
generated design. Artwork attracts the reader to the ad and breaks up large blocks of type.
Layout. The headline, copy, and graphic elements need to be integrated into an
attractive, easy-to-read advertisement. A layout can be a mock-up of the planned ad, or it
can be a detailed comprehensive that includes the actual type and artwork that will be
used.
□ Vocabulary:
print – печатный
headline – заголовок
artwork – художественное оформление; рисунок
layout – макет объявления печатной рекламы
appeal to – обращаться к, привлекать
self-interest – личная заинтересованность
benefit – польза, выгода
teaser – (разг.) рекламное объявление; головоломка «дразнилка» (дразнящее
рекламное объявление или заголовок, не сообщающее всей необходимой
информации, но содержащее указание на то, что отсутствующие сведения будут
даны в последующих публикациях или на последующих щитах)
arouse interest – вызывать интерес
phoenix – (миф) Феникс; чудо
mutual – взаимный
insurance – страхование; страховая премия
retirement – отставка; выход на пенсию, в отставку
income – доход
create – создавать
quit – бросать что-то, уходить
fish – удить, ловить рыбу
a stream – ручей
body сору – основной текст
persuade – уговорить к.-л., убедить
major – крупный, важный
sentence – предложение (грамматическое)
punchy – эффективный, энергичный
declarative – декларативный; повествовательное предложение
dependent – подчинительное предложение
independent – самостоятельный, независимый
clause – придаточное предложение
involve – взывать к
provide – предоставлять, обеспечивать
value – ценность
suggest – предложить
toll-free – бесплатный (междугородный телефонный разговор)
dealer – дилер; биржевой торговец; торговец;
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graphic – графический
striking – поразительный, ошеломляющий
line drawing – штриховой рисунок
computer-generated design – компьютерный рисунок
a block of type – блок набора
break up – разбивать (на части)
integrate into – объединять
easy-to-read – легко читаемый; легкий (простой) для прочтения
mock-up – оригинал-макет в натуральную величину
comprehensive – чистый макет (рекламного объявления)
actual – реальный, действительный

Task 1. Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
1. печатные рекламные объявления
2. «дразнилки», вызывающие интерес
3. короткие и энергичные предложения
4. предоставлять информацию
5. бесплатный междугородный телефонный разговор
6. основной текст рекламы
7. штриховой рисунок
8. компьютерный рисунок
9. реклама, легкая для прочтения

Task 2. Find in the text the words, which describe or mean the following:
1. the title of a newspaper article, printed in large letters above the article -
2. the way in which writing and pictures are arranged on a page -
3. a strong human feeling such as love, hate, anger -
4. pictures that are made for a book or magazine, or for another product such as a
computer program -
5. to produce words, numbers, or pictures on paper or other material, using a machine
which puts ink onto the surface -
6. to make a serious public request for help, money, information, etc. -
7. including everything that is necessary -
8. a full-size model of something that is going to be made or built, which shows how it
will look -
9. something that gives you advantages or improves your life in some way -

Task 3. Match the words, which are close in the meaning:

Task 4. Match the opposites

to persuade to withdraw
punchy to convince to do
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to print unpaid
detailed to involve
free accurate
to include energetic
to avoid to publish
Task 5. Match the words:

to be specific about a headline


a specific the reader
to create clause
a declaration a benefit
an independent the reader
to appeal to sentence
to persuade program
to attract the reader

Task 6. Complete the following sentences from the text and translate them into
Russian:
1. An ad can consist of just....
2.... is followed by what is known as text or body copy.
3.... need to be integrated into an attractive, easy-to-read advertisement.
4. Headlines should be specific about....
5. The copy should invoke emotion, provide....
6. A layout can be a mock-up of....

Task 7. Insert prepositions: of, on, by, with, to, up


1. The headline is followed……….what is known as text or body copy.
2. The copy should suggest a way that the reader can act………..the information.
3. This was accompanied………..an illustration of a smiling senior citizen fishing in
a mountain stream.
4. Artwork attracts the reader………..the ad and breaks……….large blocks of type.
5. An ad can consist……….just a headline and copy.

Task 8. Answer the following questions:


1. What are the key elements in a print advertisement?
2. What kinds of headlines are considered to be the best?
3. What should the copy be limited to?
4. What should the copy be aimed at?
5. What graphic elements should be included in an ad?
69

Task 9. Give a summary of the text.

Text 5: Other Advertising Channels


Other forms of advertising that have value in public relations programs are outdoor,
transit panels, posters, sponsored books, T-shirts and buttons, and hot lines and toll-
free telephone numbers. Direct mail is also a valuable channel.
Outdoor. Most outdoor advertising employs paper sheets pasted on a wooden or
metal background. The 24-sheet poster is standard, but there are also painted bulletins,
which use no paper. Outdoor advertising reaches large audiences in brief exposures.
Accordingly, advertising for this medium must be eye-catching and use few words. Ten
words is a rule-of-thumb limit for outdoor copy. When design and copy are approved, the
individual sheets of paper that will make up the whole advertisement are printed and then
pasted to the background.
Location is vital in this medium - and prices are based on the traffic that is exposed
to the site. Occasionally, nonprofit organizations can obtain free or heavily discounted
usage of outdoor space that is temporarily unsold. Displays are usually scheduled in
monthly units, and occasionally there are gaps in the schedules, so it may pay to keep in
touch with local outdoor companies.
Transit Panels. This category includes both the small posters placed in subway and
commuter rail stations and the cards used in buses and rail cars. Both types of transit
advertising require eye-catching graphics, but the copy can be longer than for outdoor
posters. The person waiting for a train or holding a strap or a bar on a bus or rail car has
some time to absorb a message. Cards in transit vehicles often carry coupons or tear-off
notes allowing readers to ask for more information or respond to some sort of offer.
□ Vocabulary:
value – ценность, значимость, цена
outdoor – наружный, внешний, на открытом воздухе
transit panel – рекламный щит в городском транспорте, метро, электричках
poster – афиша, плакат, постер
sponsored book – заказанная, субсидированная книга
valuable – ценный, полезный
employ – зд. применять, использовать
sheet – лист бумаги
paste – приклеивать
background – фон; задний план
24-sheet poster – двадцати четырех-листовой плакат
standard – стандарт, норма
reach – достигать, добиваться, зд. охватывать
exposure – экспонирование, контакт (с рекламой)
accordingly – соответственно; таким образом
eye-catching – привлекающий, бросающийся в глаза
rule-of-thumb – приблизительный; грубо говоря
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vital – существенный, насущный
medium – среда; средство массовой информации
nonprofit – некоммерческий
heavily discounted – с большой скидкой; намного ниже номинальной стоимости
occasionally – иногда, время от времени; случайно
temporarily – временно
schedule – (n) график, план, расписание; (v) – намечать, планировать
gap – пробел, брешь, интервал, промежуток
keep in touch with – поддерживать связь с
commuter rail station – пригородная станция железной дороги
card – билет (в городском или пригородном транспорте)
strap – ремень (в транспорте) bar – поручень (в транспорте)
absorb – поглощать, впитывать, зд. успеть прочитать и понять
vehicle – транспорт; средства передвижения, машина
coupon – купон, средство сейлз промоушн, предъявление которого гарантирует
получение определенных льгот (оговоренная скидка и т.п.)
tear-off note – отрывное приложение к рекламному объявлению, заполнив и
отослав которое в адрес рекламодателя, покупатель заявляет о своем желании
приобрести рекламируемый товар, либо предъявитель которого получает огово-
ренную скидку при покупке товара

Task 1. Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
1. листы бумаги
2. двадцати четырех-листовый плакат
3. наружная реклама
4. текст для наружной рекламы
5. поддерживание связи с к.-л. может окупиться
6. пригородные железнодорожные станции
7. отрывные приложения к рекламному объявлению

Task 2. Find in the text the words, which describe or mean the following:
1. to regularly travel by train or car between one's work in a town and one's home in the
country or suburbs -
2. existing, happening, or used outside, not inside a building -
3. the pattern or color on top of which something has been drawn, printed, etc. -
4. the way that something has been planned and made, including its appearance, how it
works, etc. -
5. to uncover or show something that is usually covered or not able to be seen -
6. to officially accept a plan, a proposal, etc. –
7. to plan that something will happen at a particular time

Task 3. Translate the following words into Russian. Use them in sentences of your own:
1. outdoor advertising
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2.outdoor copy
3. outdoor site
4.outdoor space
5. outdoor companies
6. outdoor poster

Task 4. Match the words. Use them in sentences of your own:

direct graphics
transit advertising
eye-catching organizations
outdoor mail
nonprofit vehicles

Task 5. Match the words having close meaning:


temporarily in the open
occasionally to authorize
outdoor commercial
profitable to take in
to absorb briefly
to approve irregularly

6) Answer the following questions:


1. What are other forms of advertising?
2. What is a standard outdoor advertisement?
3. What is the procedure for this type of advertising?
4. How can nonprofit organizations obtain usage of outdoor space?
5. What do cards in transit vehicles often carry?

7) Sum up the contents of the text in one or two sentences.

Text 6: Selecting Speakers


It is imperative to select speakers who can convey ideas and information
effectively. In some cases the chief executive officer is the only possibility. If
reporters demand a statement from the president, their request must be granted, but if
circumstances permit, it may he better to choose someone else.
J.L. Kraft was the founder of Kraft Cheese Co. He was a very able man but had
a voice like a rock crusher. He was a very poor speaker. Both he and his people knew
this, so Kraft made very few public speeches. This is not to say that speakers should
72
he selected for their dulcet voices or attractive faces, but the possible public reaction
to any speaker should be considered.
Another factor in choosing a speaker is expertise. The speaker will be expected
to have considerable knowledge of the subject to be discussed. If there is one person
in the organization who is familiar with the subject, that person is the logical
candidate, but if there are several who are knowledgeable, it may be advisable to
choose the one who will make the best impression.
The ideal speaker is one who knows much about the subject, whose voice and
appearance will help make a good impression, and who is a polished public speaker.
You won't always find ideal speakers, but if you consider the desirable characteristics
and make reasoned selections, your speakers should be effective.
Preparing Speakers
No one should ever make a public appearance without preparation. Even if a
hostile reporter is sitting in the reception room and demanding an immediate hearing,
the spokesperson must take time to prepare for the session. On most occasions there
will be enough time to do the job thoroughly, but even when time is at a premium, a
few minutes must he set aside for at least a minimum of preparation. Preparation
include providing information, determining the key points to be made, coaching or
training, and giving suggestions on grooming and personal mannerisms.
Informing Speakers
The speaker must know the nature of the session. If it is a panel, a debate, or an
interview, the speaker must know what procedures will be followed. Most of these are
similar, but there may be slight differences, and you should warn the speaker of any
deviations from the norm. If there is to be an interview at a radio station, the speaker
should listen to at least one program. If a TV appearance is to be made, the speaker
should first watch at least one episode.
A session on home ground will be in familiar surroundings, but if the
appearance is to occur at a station, the speaker must know where to sit, where to look,
and to whom to talk. Placement of cameras, microphones, and lights is important,
your speaker should be familiarized with the setup well before the program is to start.
This means early arrival.
If the appearance is a panel, your speaker must know who the other people are
and what they are likely to say. This will enable your speaker to avoid echoing others
and to supplement their remarks rather than repeating them.
If the appearance is a debate, it is imperative to know the arguments of the
opposition. If the speaker knows what the other side is going to claim, it may be
possible to demolish erroneous statements and to present more effective arguments.
Debating coaches often start their teams by having them present the opposition's
arguments
A team that is to argue in favor of the value-added tax might start by preparing
a strong case against it. In this way the debaters will be prepared for the arguments
they are likely to face.
73
□ Notes:
Kraft Cheese Co. – компания по производству продуктов питания.
Производит сыры с товарным знаком «Крафт», продукты переработки
растительных масел – майонез, маргарин и т.д. Расположена в г. Гленвью,
шт. Иллинойс.
□ Vocabulary:
imperative – необходимый
grant a request – удовлетворить просьбу
permit – позволять
dulcet – сладкий, нежный
at a premium – быть в дефиците
groom – подготавливать
panel – группа экспертов; жюри; семинар, «круглый стол»
deviation – отклонение
demolish – опровергать, уничтожать
erroneous – ошибочный
value-added tax (VAT) – налог на добавленную стоимость
present an argument – выдвинуть аргумент
supplement – добавлять, дополнять

Task 1. Find the English equivalents in the text. Use them in sentences of your own:
избежать ч.-л.; характер встречи; предупредить кого-либо о ч.-л.;
выступление по телевидению; знакомая обстановка; расположение
камер и микрофонов; в пользу ч.-л.; тщательно сделать работу;
основные вопросы; произвести хорошее впечатление.

Task 2. Find the words in the text which describe or mean the following:
1. extremely important, necessary, and urgent -
2. a noticeable difference from what is expected or normal -
3. incorrect or wrong -
4. soft and pleasant to hear -
5. to prepare someone for an important job or position in society by training
them over a long period -
6. a group of people with skills or special knowledge who have been chosen
to give advice or opinions on a particular subject -
Task 3. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Hotel rooms are at a premium during the summer.
2. It's imperative that you leave immediately.
3. At least 15 million Americans still hold the erroneous view that cancer is
contagious.
4. His son was being groomed to take over the business.
5. A panel of scientists met to discuss the issue of nuclear safety.
74
6. She refused to grant our request for an interview.

Task 4. Match the words which are close in their meaning:

attractive coach
imperative productive
only (adj.) urgent
effective appealing
groom singular

Task 5. Match the words having the opposite meaning:

permit friendly
attractive fruitless
poor repulsive
effective refuse
hostile superior

Task 6. Complete the sentences with the following words, then translate them into
Russian:
(at a premium; granted; expertise; imperative; deviations; permit; convey).

1. It is………….to select speakers who can…………..ideas and information


effectively.
2. You should warn the speaker of any……………from the norm.
3. Another factor is choosing a speaker is…………… .
4. Even when time is……………. a few minutes must be set aside for at least
a minimum of preparation.
5. If reporters demand a statement from the president, their request must
be…………… , but if circumstances……………., it may be better to choose
some-one else.

Task 7. Make up 10 questions to the text. Begin them with:


who; how; when; where; in what way; why; what.
Task 8. In every paragraph find one sentence showing the main idea of it.
75
Раздел II. Контрольная работа №8 для студентов 4 курса специальности
СО ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный (английский) язык в
профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр).

Task 1. Copy out and translate the following text into Russian.
Using an Advertising Agency
Most public relations advertising is prepared and placed by advertising agencies.
The agency has people who are experts in all phases of creating the ads and getting them
published or broadcast in the chosen media.
If your organization has an advertising department, it is likely to be the prime
contact with the agency. However, there are some organizations, in which the public
relations department is the contact. In either case, the public relations people are identified
as the "client", the entity that approves or disapproves the agency's recommendations.
This relationship must be one of enthusiastic cooperation. Agency and client are not
adversaries but partners. In general, the public relations role is to determine broad
objectives ("what to do") while the agency determines the means ("how to do it").
Advertising agencies do not normally charge anything for their services. Their
compensation comes from the "agency discount" that is granted by most media. Normally
this discount is 15 percent of the cost of the space or time, and it is not granted to
advertisers. It works this way: If the space or time costs $1000, the agency bills the
advertiser for the sum but remits $850 to the medium. The $150 difference is retained by
the agency as pay for preparing the ad.
Agencies bill clients for the cost of materials purchased for use in preparing the
advertising for publication or broadcast.

Task 2. Find in the text the words that describe or mean the following.

1. to ask someone a certain amount of money for something you are selling -
2. to send someone a bill -
3. the amount of money that you have to pay in order to buy, do, or produce something -
4. to give someone something that they have asked for, especially official permission to do
something -
5. a reduction in the usual price of something -
6. something that exists as a single and complete unit -
7. to buy something –

Task 3. Find in the text the following word combinations and use them in the
sentences or situations of your own
1. рекламные агентства
2. реклама паблик рилейшнз
3. рекламодатель
4. рекламный отдел
5. определить цели
6. определить средства
76

Task 4. Answer the questions.

1. What do people working for advertising agencies do?


2. Who determines objectives?
3. Who determines means?
4. What do agencies bill clients for?

Task 5. Describe an advertisement according to the following plan.

1. What is this advertisement for?


2. What components does it consist of?
3. Describe each component.
4. What general impressions does it make?
5. Where can you see (read or get) this advertisement?

Раздел III. Работа с газетной статьей.

Task 1. Read and translate the article from newspaper “The Moscow News”. Make
your own list of new words and expressions.
Task 2. Make up the annotation to your article.
Раздел IV. Устная тема «PR Perspectives in My Native Place».

Task 1. Read and translate the following text.


PR Perspectives in Ukhta

We study at Ukhta State Technical University. In two years we shall submit a


graduation paper and get the qualification of a PR specialist. Public Relations is the art
and science of managing communication between an organization and its key public
constituents to build, manage, and sustain its positive image. PR specialists can assist in
fostering positive relationships between companies and their publics.
Ukhta is a modern town with plenty of well-equipped enterprises and great
scientific and educational potential. There are a lot of enterprises in the town, working in
engineering, building, timber and woodworking industry.
"Gazprom Transgas Ukhta" company as a part of "Gasprom" concern is one of the
largest companies in the gas industry of Russia. The central office is situated in the centre
of the town and its numerous subsidiaries are in the suburbs and out of town. The activities
of this many-profile company include: recovery, transportation and refining of gas and
condensate, hydrocarbons, drilling, motorcar maintenance, civil engineering, wood
processing, farming, scientific research institutes, consumer goods production, foreign
economic activity including export of its products, cooperation with foreign companies
aimed at improving techniques and methods of hydrocarbons recovery and refining.
"Pechornipineft" Institute became the largest scientific-research and designing
institution in the North in the early 1970-s. Its work determined strategies and methods
77
of the Timan-Pechora oil-gasbearing province development. The Institute is engaged in
scientific and design development, systematization and generalization of data on
development and recovery primary and residual fields and also in more complicated
ones.
The branch of “VNIIGAZ” scientific research and designing institute -
“SeverNIPIgas”- carries out researches in the following fields: geology, development and
exploitation of gas, gas-condensate, oil and gas condensate deposits; techniques and
technology of well drilling, increasing reliability of their exploitation; gas and
condensate production, their refining and transportation; hydrocarbons research;
environment protection.
“Ukhtaoilgasgeology” is a leading state company, engaged in the exploration of the
Timan-Pechora province, situated in the northwestern part of European Russia. The
company is willing to offer vast lands for exploration and exploitation, it participates in
joint ventures and oil and gas production, development and introduction of new
technologies in mine drilling and environment protection, in production of
microelements out of waterbearing layers.
The foundation of the Ukhta oil refinery dates back to 1934, it is one of the oldest
enterprises in our town. It produces more than 20 kinds of fuel, oil products, lubricants,
petrol, diesel oil, building and road bitumen, mazut. It collaborates with Great Britain,
the USA, Sweden, Hungary, Denmark, Belgium, Switzerland, Ukraine, Moldova and other
foreign partners. It supplies Vorkuta, Pechora, Labytnangy, Tula, Veliky Ustyug,
Sosnogorsk, Vologda, Koslan, Kirov, Mikun, St.Petersburg, Mirny, Rostov with its oil
refinery products
A few plants are also located in our town: machine works, brick-works, a milk
factory, a bread-baking plant and a mechanical plant. In the vicinity of Ukhta production
of bauxites is developed and a new power-chemical-metallurgic complex will be
established here.
The following banks are located in the town: joint-stock Komi regional bank
“Ukhtabank”, “Geobank”, “Severgasbank”, and also Ukhta branches of “Saving bank of
Russian Federation”, “Gasprombank”, “Northern People's Bank” and others.
Ukhta is a town of students. In our town there is the only in the Komi Republic
Ukhta State Technical University (the former Ukhta Industrial institute), which gives
young people an opportunity to acquire specialities connected with plenty of industrial
fields: oil, gas, timber, building, architecture, economy, geology and geophysics. It is
considered to be one of the best and most promising higher schools in the country’s
European north.
Higher education in Ukhta is also provided by the following educational
establishments: Management and International Business Institute (MIBI), the branches of
Metropolitan Humanitarian Academy, Modern Humanitarian Institute and Russian State
Open Technical University of Railway Transport.
As far as mass media is concerned it is necessary to mention some periodicals. The
local newspaper “Ukhta” which gives coverage of town events is read by pensioners and
workers of the town administration. The weekly “NEP+S” - informational-analytical
edition is for businessmen and active energetic people. It provides up-to-date information
on local events, publishes interviews with outstanding people of our town and famous
78
people coming from other cities of Russia. The newspapers with free advertisements:
“Zolushok Present”, “Buy and Sell”, “Cross-roads” (deals with automobiles) contain the
following: some pieces of news, a little useful information, a TV schedule, jokes,
horoscopes. Free editions: “Buy and Sell (a show-window), “Pilot” are spread through
mail boxes and present the combination of advertisements and a TV schedule.
So our town provides a lot of job opportunities for PR specialists.

Task 2. Describe what job opportunities as a PR specialist you can find in Ukhta
and/or in your native place. You may use the questions as a plan.

1. Where do you study? Do you combine your studies and work? If yes, where do
you work? (Describe your enterprise) What is your position? What do your duties involve?
Do you like your job? Why?
2. Would you like to have another job? Where would you like to work? Why?
(Describe this enterprise) How would you manage your duties?

Учебная программа
для студентов специальности СО ФБО 5 курса по дисциплине
«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр)

1. Тексты 1,2,3 и задания после них.


2. Контрольная работа № 9.
3. Статья на выбор из газеты «The Moscow News».
4. Устная теме «My PR Practice».
5. Экзамен (содержание экзамена см. на стр. 89).

Раздел I. Учебные тексты для студентов 5-го курса специальности СО


ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере».

Task 1. Read and translate texts 1, 2, 3 and do the tasks following each text.
Text 1: On Newspapers

Newspapers are archives, objects of record. They can be referred to, checked back
on, in a way that the television or radio news cannot. They can describe events at greater
length, add more relevant detail, give authoritative comment from people in a position to
detect trends and the likely lines in which a news story will develop.
But the old concept of a newspaper “scoop” the presentation of a startling hard
news story a day before its rivals, is virtually dead – killed by radio and television.
What is newsworthy?
During the day, newsworthy events will happen that are quite unpredicted. A
passenger plane may crash, a bank raid may take place, a film star announces she is getting
a divorce.
“Newsworthy?” But are these events newsworthy? Who says they are newsworthy?
Different countries have different customs. So who says these things are newsworthy?
79
Who chooses to report a bank raid rather than the one hundredth birthday of Mrs. Jemima
Snooks, who has had a telegram from the Queen?
Let us look at the finished product and work back from here. Every newspaper,
every radio and television news bulletin has a “lead” story – the first story given greatest
prominence on the front page or put first in the bulletin. The editor - or more usually the
chief subeditor, since the editor is usually too busy to be concerned with the minute-by-
minute running the organization - chooses which story he thinks will be most important to
the readers, listeners, viewers.
If there is an earthquake in Peru with an estimated 2,000 dead, the quality papers in
Britain would probably put that prominently on their front pages. The popular papers
would try to discover whether any Britons were working in the area, and if they found that
an English girl was there – and particularly if the picture department could produce a
photograph of her – that might rate the first page.
Otherwise, if the dead toll were entirely local, the popular press would probably
place the disaster on an inside foreign page.
If a house fell down in Liverpool trapping a family, the Liverpool Echo would
probably put that prominently on the front page. The national papers might put it briefly
lower down their front pages, and the popular tabloids would probably put the story inside
the paper.
Each newspaper, each news bulletin is thus a product manufactured from what is
available. No newspaper ever comes out with blank columns and the comment that there is
“no news today” except in those countries where governments impose press censorship.
The quality papers, sometimes called the “papers of record”, do however print
stories that they should be recorded, even if they are dull and unlikely to appeal to many
readers. It is said that there used to be a competition on the foreign desk of The Times to
write the dullest headline, which was once won by a journalist who wrote the headline:
“Small Earthquake In Chile: Not Many Dead”.
(After David Wainwright)

Notes:
a scoop – эксклюзив
(a) hard news (story) – главные новости
a news bulletin – сводка новостей
a quality paper – качественная газета

Task 2. Translate the following expressions from the text into Russian. Use any 5 of them
in the situations of your own.

object of record; to be referred to; at greater length; to give authoritative comment; the
likely lines; a startling hard news story; the finished product; to give greatest prominence;
to be concerned with something; to run the organization; to put a story prominently on the
front page; to rate the first page; an inside foreign page; newsworthy events; popular
tabloids; quality papers; to impose press censorship; the dullest headline.
80
Task 3. Answer the following questions:

1. Why does the author think that newspapers are archives? Do you agree with this point
of view? Have you ever read any old newspapers in search for some necessary
information?
2. Do you agree that newspapers always reflect the actual situation in the world events?
Can they always serve as reliable source of news?
3. Do all newspapers give prominence to the same news?
4. Have you ever tried to compare news stories published in quality and tabloid
newspapers dealing with the same problem?
5. Can you name any last news, which may be described as predictable or non-predictable?
6. Do you agree that the concept of a newspaper ”scoop” is now outdated? Explain why.
7. What specialists have to refer to old newspapers? Why? (politicians, economists,
writers, actors, architects, lawyers, linguists, historians, etc.)
8. Do you agree that newspapers are more interesting than radio and television?
9. What is newsworthy from your viewpoint?
10. What is the approach of tabloid and quality newspapers to the choice of news?
11. What is your favourite newspaper? Is it a tabloid or quality newspaper? What news
does it usually give greatest prominence to? Describe it in detail in writing.

Text 2: Press Relations in the History of


American Presidency

While nineteenth-century USA Presidents submitted themselves to occasional


private interviews with friendly journalists, the White House was not a regular beat for
Washington, D.C., reporters until 1896, when William Price of the Washington Star,
stationed himself outside the presidential mansion to interview Grover Cleveland’s
visitors. Price’s initiative inspired imitators, and, on a winter day in 1902, Theodore
Roosevelt saw reporters huddle around the north portico and invited them inside. Later
that year he had a pressroom built in the new West Wing, which, historian George
Juergens notes, “conferred a sort of legitimacy on their presence… They were no longer
there as guests of the president.”
Woodrow Wilson was the first Chief Executive to hold regular press conferences,
initiated when 125 reporters crowded into the East Room on Saturday afternoon, 15 March
1913, eleven days after Wilson’s inauguration. Joseph Tumulty, the President’s secretary,
also gave a daily briefing for the White House regulars, about thirty reporters from the
major news organizations, just as presidential secretary William Loeb had done during
Theodore Roosevelt’s administration.
Roosevelt and Wilson, unlike William Howard Taft, whose term fell between theirs,
both appreciated the importance of news to presidential leadership. And if activist
Presidents had uses for the press, so too did the expansionist newspaper and magazine
industry want energetic White House occupants who could help it sell its products.
Future Presidents might have learned from the ways Roosevelt and Wilson
manipulated the press by taking advantage of the conventions and necessities of news-
gathering or simply by intimidating reporters. Roosevelt was the inventor of colourful
81
phrases, precursors of sound bites of the television age. He was an expert at releasing
information to gain maximum attention, sometimes putting out a story on Sunday night
that would gain extra coverage on Monday morning. He mastered the trial balloon, a
technique designed to measure support for proposal without actual endorsing it. He used
calculated leaks of previously secret information, sometimes to undercut an opponent. And
he is known to restrict the access of offending reporters.
Wilson eventually stopped holding press conferences, citing national security
concerns as his excuse, but Warren G. Harding the only newspaper editor ever to have
been elected President, reinstituted them, insisting, however, that reporters’ questions had
to be submitted in advance in writing. He also invented the term “White House
spokesman” to allow him to speak without direct attribution. Calvin Coolidge and Herbert
Hoover continued the written-question rule. Twice-a-week press conferences thus became
institutionalized in the 1920s on terms very advantageous to Presidents.
During most of the twentieth century, the history of presidential press relations was
largely a history of the press conference. At one time the New York Times Washington
bureau even hired a limousine to get its reporters back to the office, since, according to the
journalist James Reston, “Many of these conferences took place near deadline when it was
hard to find a taxi.” Franklin D. Roosevelt held 998 press conferences (and one private
interview) during his twelve-plus years in office, and, although oral questioning was
permitted, most of his answers had to be used without quoting him or on background
(meaning without White House attribution) or were off the record (meaning not for
publication).

Notes:
a beat – тема
sound bite – часть интервью, используемого в радио и телевизионных новостях,
газетной статье
deadline – конечный срок подачи материала журналистом

Task 2. Translate the following expressions from the text into Russian. Use any 5 of them
in the situations of your own.

to submit oneself to something; to hold press conferences; to appreciate the importance of


something; to take advantage of something; to manipulate the press by; to gain attention;
to measure support for a proposal; to restrict the access of reporters; to submit the
questions in advance; to allow somebody to do something; the written question rule; to be
advantageous to somebody; to be off the record.

Task 3. Answer the following questions:

1. Did American Presidents submit themselves to private interviews regularly in the


nineteenth century?
2. When did William Price of the Washington Star station himself outside the president
mansion to interview Grover Cleveland’s visitors?
3. Who had the pressroom built in the West Wing to accommodate reporters?
82
4. Who was the first Chief Executive to hold regular press conferences?
5. How did Theodore Roosevelt and Wilson manipulate the press?
6. What is a trial balloon?
7. What is the aim of calculated leaks technique?
8. Who stopped holding press conferences?
9. Who reinstituted press conferences?
10. Why did the reporters’ questions have to be submitted in advance in writing?
11. Who invented the term “White House Spokesman”?
12. What is meant by “speaking without direct attribution”?
13. What president stayed in office more than 12 years?
14. How many press conferences did Franklin D. Roosevelt hold during his presidency?
15. What kind of press conferences can be considered to be advantageous for presidents?
16. What does the expression “to be off record” mean?

Text 3: Public Relations in Great Britain

The concept of public relations as a distinct branch of communications is


comparatively recent, though the practice is of course ancient. Any organization wants to
present itself to the public in the best possible light. Government departments and
transport undertaking – particularly the Post Office and London Transport – were among
the first to tackle this form of self-presentation.
The Post Office in the 1930s made several excellent films as a public relations
exercise, the most famous (and still a classic) being Night Mail, directed by Harry Watt
and Basil Wright with a script by W.H. Auden and music by Benjamin Britten. London
Transport led the way with its excellent graphics and directional signs designed by Edward
Johnston for Frank Pick, and a series of posters of uniquely high standard.
Today public relations embraces all these visual and practical aspects of a
company’s public ‘image’, and also controls the relations between the company and the
press and television. Where a company takes its public relations seriously and where the
department has direct access to the highest decision-making strata of the company at
Board level, public relations may be useful. Where the public relations department is a
comparatively minor outpost, a front-line pillbox to warn the company of imminent attack
by predatory inquirers, public relations is useless and indeed dangerous, since it confirms
the view of many journalists that public relations officers (PROs) are mere whitewashing
agents paid to disguise what is really happening.
The public relation officer must work out the best way of introducing his company
or organization usefully to the media. This may be by means of handouts – circulars sent
through the post – or printed publicity material; by special events such as press
conferences or receptions; or on a more personal level by introducing the company’s
executives to journalists, sometimes over lunch. Not all the most successful PROs work
over substantial expense-account lunches, though; and many journalists are skeptical of
this form of softening-up, however readily they may accept a good lunch.
It is for each PRO to determine what the best and most cost-effective method of
communicating his company’s interests is. This presupposes that the initiative comes from
the PRO.
83
The other function of public relations departments is to answer queries from the
press and television. This is almost more important than the previously mentioned
approaches. If a public relations department earns a reputation for finding the answers to
press queries swiftly, effectively and accurately, and presenting them in a form that is
usable by the media, then what that department says is likely to be believed, trusted and
used. If, on the other hand (as too often happens), a public relations department treats press
and television inquiries as tedious interruptions in the day’s work, to be dealt with casually
and at whatever space may suit the PRO, then the department will earn a reputation for
awkwardness and must not be surprised if journalists are constantly trying to get into touch
with the company bosses direct.
(From “Journalism Made Simple” by David Wainwright)

Task 2. Translate the following expressions from the text into Russian. Use any 5 of them
in the situations of your own.

the public relations officer; by means of handouts; substantial expense-account lunches;


the best and most effective method; to answer queries; television inquiries; at whatever
space; to get into touch with somebody; to be usable by the media; a reputation for
awkwardness; on the other hand; visual and practical aspects.

Task 3. Answer the following questions:


1. Do you agree that the practice of public relations is ancient? Give your arguments.
2. What organizations were the first in Britain to introduce their presentation in the best
possible light?
3. How did they organize this form of self-presentation? When did it happen?
4. How is a company’s public ‘image’ created now?
5. Why is it necessary to control the relations between the company and the press and
television?
6. How does a direct access to the highest decision-making strata of the company
influence public relations of the company?
7. In what case is public relations useless and dangerous?
8. Why does the author use the phrase “predatory inquirers” describing representatives of
press and television?
9. Do you agree that public relations officers are sometimes contemplated as unwelcome
visitors? Why?
10. Why does the author write that some journalists consider public relations officers as
whitewashing agents paid to disguise what is really happening? Can you give an example
of such attitude from your own experience?
84
Раздел II. Контрольная работа №9 для студентов 5 курса специальности
СО ФБО по дисциплине «Иностранный (английский) язык в
профессиональной сфере» (весенний семестр).

Task 1. Read, copy and translate the text into Russian in written form.

Some basic courses a future public relations worker should include in a college
program would be newspaper reporting and editing, broadcasting, principles of
advertising, marketing, public opinion, public speaking, principles of economics,
American government and history, general psychology. The public relations prospect
cannot overspecialize in his educational training, by the very nature of his chosen field. He
must be careful to select a broad band of social science courses, in addition to his
communications concentration. If he is in the news editorial or advertising area, he will
include basic courses in the other area. If he is in business administration, he will want to
include several basic journalism courses, and vice versa. If courses in public relations
theory and methods are offered (and they are more commonly offered by journalism
schools than by business schools), he will of course take them. In a few instances, he will
find a major offered in his field.
College graduates who prepare themselves both in communications skills and in
general background knowledge are in demand even though they may be inexperienced. A
survey of public relations departments and firms by the Public Relations Society of
America showed that one out of every three persons hired is a college graduate without
experience. Entry is easiest in advertising agencies, industries, and institutions; it is less
easy in public relations firms, welfare organizations, and governmental units. These
employers, having typically smaller staffs, are more likely to demand previous media
experience.
Although writing skill ranks highest in the minds of public relations men, there are
openings on large company staffs for those who write adequately but who prefer other types
of work. Specialists in survey and statistical work, good speakers who have organizational
ability and training in group discussion, radio-television and film specialists, persons who
have specialized in corporate organization or labor relations - these are some who can find a
place in the public relations field and advance to high levels.

Task 2. Read the following job advertisement. Imagine you are going to get this job. Make
up a resume of your own.

Advertisement:
Information Services Department
Senior Public Relations Assistant
(Harlow News)

Harlow News is the Council’s own award-winning monthly tabloid newspaper.


Delivered free to every home in town, it is a vital part of the communications programme,
which keeps local people in touch with the council services and policies, and community
85
events. We need someone who can take complete responsibility for Harlow News from the
researching and writing of copy through to layout and production.
We have just acquired a new desktop publishing system to make the job quicker and
easier and we will give training to the person appointed if required.
The job is based in the busy Public Relations section of the council committed to an
exceptionally high standard of information services. You will also be involved with related
activities, including media relations, and there is scope for you to develop other PR skills.
A knowledge of local government will be useful but not essential. You will need to
demonstrate that you have a talent for writing, an eye for design, and an understanding of
layout and production processes.

Task 3. Read the text “How to Prepare a Handout”, write out and translate into Russian
the most interesting pieces of advice that may be useful for you (about 7).

How to Prepare a Handout

Remember that a handout is prepared to be read, often by very busy people to whom
it will be one more piece of paper (or sheaf of pieces of paper) among hundreds in the
morning mail. While every PRO must believe that the information he is putting out is of
vital importance, it may not seem that way to the recipient.
Just as a journalist writing a news story must contrive an opening sentence that
attracts and holds the attention of the reader, so must the handout writer catch the attention
of journalists who are predisposed not to be interested in what they read.
If the subject of the handout is long and complicated, it is a good idea to summarise
the subject at the top of the first page, or on a covering sheet, to explain why the subject
deserves to be treated at length.
Much the same applies to speeches by chairman, managing directors and chief
executives. Some PROs circulate ten pages speeches by their lords and masters to the
press, and are then disappointed and surprised that not a line appears in print. Better to
extract one or two short, sharp and (if possible) controversial sentences as a lead-in.
The same principles of layout are applied to handouts as to copy for the press. Use
one side of the paper only, of course. Leave wide margins. Never run a sentence from one
sheet to another. And always check spellings, names, dates and figures. Newspapers have
in general only one filing system, the waste-paper basket, and corrections to handouts sent
by the following post seldom catch up the original mistake.
Keep it simple. If technical terms must be used, work in an explanation of what they
mean. If the handout is to be issued in advance (e.g. the advance text of a speech) make
sure the embargo time and date is clearly marked on each sheet.
Finally, check the circulation list. It is wasteful to send handouts to people who
obviously have no interest in them (e.g. to send handouts about food and cooking to
magazines with no cookery column). Many PROs have an annual weed out of the handout
circulation lists; but be careful not to offend those who can be useful to you. Sometimes
over-enthusiastic departments send arrogant demands that if the recipient wants the
handouts, he should ask for them. Some who would be quite glad to receive the handouts
86
are not prepared to go through this routine, and a useful channel of communication might
become blocked through false efficiency if the recipient takes offence.
Remember that it is the PRO who needs the publicity for his message, not the other
way round.

Раздел III. Работа с газетной статьей.

Task 1. Read and translate the article from newspaper “The Moscow News”. Make
your own list of new words and expressions.
Task 2. Make up the annotation to your article.

Раздел IV. Устная тема «Моя PR практика».

Task 1. Read and translate the following texts - practice reports.


My PR Practice (1)

This spring I worked as a PR specialist during the election campaign to Ukhta Town
Council. Our candidate was … He did not have any experience of taking part in elections,
so he completely relied on us, his team.
Our task was very difficult since all of us were students. Besides, we had a very
scant budget. At last, our rivals were very serious and experienced. We put in our best
licks to promote the candidate. We prepared and published leaflets with our candidate’s
biography, his political program and his appeals. In addition, we started the edition of the
“Point of View” newspaper, the political bulletin to be exact. We worked up the design of
calendars to give them out. We electioneered among the potential voters, the people who
lived in his district. Of course, we could not do without many shaped deceits. E.g., we
asked his rivals tricky questions at their meetings with voters.
In spite of all our efforts, our nominee was not a success.

Notes:
scant – ограниченный, скудный
a rival – соперник, конкурент
to put in one’s best licks – прилагать все усилия, стараться
a tricky question – вопрос с подвохом

My PR Practice (2)

To my mind, it is very difficult and very important for us, students, to determine
what sphere of Public Relations we will work in. And to make a right decision we should
try ourselves in as many specializations as possible.
As for me, I took my practice at the “Polytechnic” university newspaper
department. The readership of the “Polytechnic” is the students, the teaching staff and
collaborators of Ukhta State Technical University.
87
I was given some tasks by the editor-in-chief. At first, I had to collect necessary
information about people who had been working at our university for many years. Then I
interviewed them. It was very interesting to talk to them. Every time I found out
something new and useful. Sometimes I took photos of these people. Then we discussed
drafts of our future articles with the editor. She always gave us some very useful practical
advice. Soon the “Polytechnic” came out with my article on the front page. I think it was a
great experience.

Task 2. Answer the following questions making use of the given expressions.
1. Where do you study at? (a fifth year student; the Extra Mural Faculty; my
speciality)
2. Where did you take your PR practice?
3. How long did your PR practice last?
4. What exactly did you do during your practice? (to give / get certain tasks; to
take interviews; to work out / design / create; to decide; to collect / find out; to prepare
handouts)
5. Who was your supervisor? Did he/she help you a lot?
6. Did you fail in anything during your practice?
7. Do you find your PR practice necessary and useful? Why?
Task 3. Make up your own practice report making use of your answers and get ready to
tell about it.
88
Уважаемый студент!

Обратите внимание на структуру итогового экзамена по дисциплине


«Иностранный язык в профессиональной сфере».
В процессе подготовки к экзамену Вам следует повторить структуру
аннотации, а также все пройденные устные темы (названия можно уточнить у
Вашего преподавателя).
Не забудьте принести с собой на экзамен хороший англо-русский словарь.
Кафедра иностранных языков желает Вам успехов как на самом экзамене, так
и в Вашей дальнейшей профессиональной деятельности на поприще PR!

Федеральное агентство по образованию


Ухтинский государственный технический университет
Кафедра иностранных языков

Дисциплина – Иностранный (английский) язык в профессиональной сфере


Курс 5 Семестр 9
Специальность СО Форма обучения - заочная

ЭКЗАМЕНАЦИОННЫЙ БИЛЕТ № … (образец)


1. Переведите письменно текст «название» объёмом 900 п. зн. за 45 минут.
2. Прочитайте и переведите устно статью. Составьте к ней аннотацию.
3. Беседа по теме.

Содержание

Учебная программа 2 к. (весенний семестр) ................................................................ 3


Учебная программа 3 к. (осенний семестр) .................................................................. 7
Учебная программа 3 к. (весенний семестр) .............................................................. 21
Учебная программа 4 к. (осенний семестр) ................................................................ 51
Учебная программа 4 к. (весенний семестр) .............................................................. 65
Учебная программа 5 к. (осенний семестр) ................................................................ 78