Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 260

A+ (220-902)

First Edition

LearnKey provides self-paced training courses and online learning solutions to education, government, business, and individuals
world-wide. With dynamic video-based courseware and effective learning management systems, LearnKey provides expert
instruction for popular computer software, technical certifications, and application development. LearnKey delivers content on
the Web, by enterprise network, and on interactive CD-ROM. For a complete list of courses visit:

http://www.learnkey.com/

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means now known or to be
invented, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without
written permission from the author or publisher, except for the brief inclusion of quotations in a review.

© 2016 LearnKey www.learnkey.com

104171
Table of Contents
Introduction
Using this Workbook  �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
Best Practices Using LearnKey’s Online Training  ____________________________________________________9
A+ (220-902) Introduction  �������������������������������������������������������������������� 11
Skills Assessment  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12
A+ (220-902) Time Tables  �������������������������������������������������������������������� 14

Domain 1 Session 1:
Fill-in-the-Blanks  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 16
32-Bit vs. 64-Bit Operating Systems  ������������������������������������������������������������� 18
Windows Aero  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 19
Windows Gadgets  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21
User Account Control  ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 22
Using Shadow Copy  ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23
Using ReadyBoost  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
Compatibility Mode and Virtual XP Mode  ������������������������������������������������������� 26
Windows Defender  �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 28
File Structure and Paths  ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
Control Panel Views  ������������������������������������������������������������������������� 30
Side-by-Side Apps   �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31
Metro UI, Start Screen, and Pinning  ������������������������������������������������������������� 32
Using OneDrive and Live Sign-In  �������������������������������������������������������������� 33
The Windows Store  �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 34
Using Multimonitor Taskbars in Windows 8  ������������������������������������������������������ 35
Charms  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 36
Using PowerShell  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37
Security Center/Action Center  ����������������������������������������������������������������� 38
Upgrade Paths  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 39
Windows Installation: Boot Methods  ������������������������������������������������������������ 41
Windows Installations: Installation Types  ��������������������������������������������������������� 43
Windows Installation: Partitioning  �������������������������������������������������������������� 45
Windows Installations: File Systems and Formats ___________________________________________________46
Windows Installation: The Final Steps  ����������������������������������������������������������� 48

Domain 1 Session 2
Fill-in-the-Blanks  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51
Using Task Management Commands  ������������������������������������������������������������ 53
Using Repair Commands  ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 54
File and Folder Commands  �������������������������������������������������������������������� 56
Copy Commands  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58
Using Disk Commands  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������60
Using Group Policy Commands  ���������������������������������������������������������������������62
Using the Help Command  �������������������������������������������������������������������������63
Introducing Administrative Tools  ��������������������������������������������������������������������64
Using System Configuration  ������������������������������������������������������������������������66
Using Task Manager  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������68
Using Disk Management to Add Disks  ���������������������������������������������������������������72
Working with Disk Partitions  �����������������������������������������������������������������������75
Using Arrays and Storage Spaces  ��������������������������������������������������������������������77
Windows Migration Tools  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������79
System Utilities  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������81
Using the Microsoft Management Console  ������������������������������������������������������������83
Using DXDIAG  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������84

Domain 1 Session 3
Fill-in-the-Blanks  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������86
Internet Options  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������88
Controlling Display Settings  ������������������������������������������������������������������������90
Configuring User Accounts  �������������������������������������������������������������������������92
Folder Options  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������93
Using the System Applet  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������94
Setting Power Options  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������95
Controlling Programs and Features  �������������������������������������������������������������������97
Devices and Printers  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������98
Controlling Sound  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������100
Troubleshooting  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������101
Device Manager  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������102
Peer-to-Peer Networks  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������103
Joining a Computer to a Domain  �������������������������������������������������������������������105
Setting Up and Mapping to Shares  ������������������������������������������������������������������106
Printer Sharing and Mapping  ����������������������������������������������������������������������108
Establishing Network Connections  ������������������������������������������������������������������109
Controlling Proxy Settings  ������������������������������������������������������������������������111
Using Remote Desktop Connections  ����������������������������������������������������������������112
Network and Sharing Center  �����������������������������������������������������������������������114
Using Windows Firewall  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������115
Configuring an Alternative IP Address  ���������������������������������������������������������������117
Network Card Properties  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������118
Keeping Computers Updated  ����������������������������������������������������������������������120
Scheduling and Running Backups and Recovery  �������������������������������������������������������122
Using System Restore  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������124
Scheduling and Running Disk Maintenance Tasks ______________________________________________________125
Domain 2
Fill-in-the-Blanks  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������127
Mac Best Practices  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������129
Mac Tools  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������131
Mac Features  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������133
Linux Commands  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������135
Client-Side Virtualization  �������������������������������������������������������������������������137
Types of Cloud Infrastructures  ���������������������������������������������������������������������139
Server Roles  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������141
Other Network Host Services  ����������������������������������������������������������������������142
Overview of Mobile Operating Systems  ��������������������������������������������������������������143
Enabling and Disabling Cellular Network Features ______________________________________________________145
Pairing Devices using Bluetooth  ��������������������������������������������������������������������146
Configuring Corporate Email on Mobile Devices _______________________________________________________147
Commercial Email Configuration  �������������������������������������������������������������������148
Other Mobile Device Network Concepts  �������������������������������������������������������������149
Synchronization Data Types and Methods  ������������������������������������������������������������150

Domain 3
Fill-in-the-Blanks  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������153
Types of Malware  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������155
Common Security Threats and Vulnerabilities  ���������������������������������������������������������156
Physical Security  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������158
Digital Security  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������160
User Policies and Privileges  ������������������������������������������������������������������������162
Standard Windows Users and Groups  ���������������������������������������������������������������163
NTFS vs. Share Permissions  �����������������������������������������������������������������������165
File Attributes  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������167
Shared Files and Folders  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������168
Other Basic Windows OS Security Settings  �����������������������������������������������������������170
BitLocker and BitLocker To Go  ��������������������������������������������������������������������171
Using Encrypting File System (EFS)  ����������������������������������������������������������������173
Password Best Practices  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������174
Account Management  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������175
Workstation Security Best Practices  �����������������������������������������������������������������176
Setting Screen Locks on Mobile Devices  �������������������������������������������������������������177
Remote Applications on Mobile Devices  �������������������������������������������������������������178
Authentication Types and Restrictions  ���������������������������������������������������������������179
Other Mobile Device Security Methods  ��������������������������������������������������������������180
Physical Destruction  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������182
Recycling or Repurposing Best Practices  �������������������������������������������������������������183
Wireless Security in SOHO Networks  ���������������������������������������������������������������184
Securing SOHO Networks  ������������������������������������������������������������������������185
Domain 4
Fill-in-the-Blanks  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������188
Troubleshooting System Performance  ����������������������������������������������������������������190
Troubleshooting Startup and Shutdown Problems _______________________________________________________192
Aligning Multiple Monitors  �����������������������������������������������������������������������194
Software Troubleshooting Tools  ��������������������������������������������������������������������195
Using the Defrag Tool  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������197
Editing the Registry  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������198
Event Viewer  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������200
Common PC Security Issues  �����������������������������������������������������������������������202
Security Troubleshooting Tools  ���������������������������������������������������������������������204
Best Practices for Malware Removal  �����������������������������������������������������������������206
Common Mobile Operating System Issues  �����������������������������������������������������������207
Mobile OS and Application Troubleshooting Tools ______________________________________________________209
Mobile OS and Application Security Issues  �����������������������������������������������������������210
Mobile OS and Application Security Tools  �����������������������������������������������������������212

Domain 5
Fill-in-the-Blanks  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������214
Proper Component Handling and Storage  ������������������������������������������������������������217
Personal Safety  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������219
Keeping a Solid Work Environment  �����������������������������������������������������������������222
Power Surges, Brownouts, and Blackouts  �������������������������������������������������������������223
Incident Response  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������224
Software Licensing  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������226
PII, Corporate Policies, and Best Practices  ������������������������������������������������������������227
Using Proper Communication Techniques  ������������������������������������������������������������228
Showing Professionalism  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������229
The Troubleshooting Theory  �����������������������������������������������������������������������231

Appendix
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 1 Course Map _______________________________ 234
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 2 Course Map _______________________________ 236
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 3 Course Map _______________________________ 238
A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Course Map ___________________________ 240
A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Course Map  ��������������������������������������������������������243
A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Course Map _________________________________________ 246
A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Optional Procedures Course Map _______________________________________________249
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 1 Outline ___________________________________ 251
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 2 Outline ___________________________________ 252
A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Session 3 Outline ___________________________________ 253
A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Outline _______________________________ 254
A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Outline  ������������������������������������������������������������255
A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Outline _____________________________________________ 256
A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Optional Procedures Outline _________________________________________________ 257
8 Week Sample Lesson Plan  �����������������������������������������������������������������������258
9 Week Sample Lesson Plan  �����������������������������������������������������������������������259
10 Week Sample Lesson Plan  ����������������������������������������������������������������������260

7| A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using this Workbook
The exercises in this manual serve as a companion to LearnKey’s training and are organized by session to match the presented
concepts. Within each session, exercises are arranged from easiest to most challenging. In the Introduction section of each
session, you will find outlines of the training and sample lesson plans which will give you an overview of the training content
and help you to structure your lessons. The following sections are included for each session of training:

Skills Assessment: The skills assessment will help you and your students to gauge their understanding of course topics
prior to beginning any coursework. Each skill listed is tied directly to an exam objective. Understanding where your students
feel less confident will aid you in planning and getting the most from the training.

Objective Mapping and Shoot File Links: The objective mapping provides a quick reference as to where in the
training a specific certification exam objective is covered. The Files column lists the name of the Course Support files (Excel
spreadsheets, Photoshop files, etc.) that are used and demonstrated during the training. The files will typically have a starting
file containing all data necessary to begin the demonstrated skill, as well as a completed file which shows the final result.

Keyboard Shortcuts and Tips: The keyboard shortcuts and tips provide a reference of product-specific keyboard
shortcuts and helpful hints to make working more efficient.

Short Answer and Matching: The short answer questions facilitate a recall of the basic training concepts to further
aid in retention of the course topics and information in preparation for the training’s Pre-Assessments, Post Tests, and
MasterExam. The matching exercise provides additional learning reinforcement of terms and concepts found throughout the
training in the course’s glossary.

Projects: The projects in this manual are organized by session to match the concepts presented in the LearnKey training.
Each project is assigned a difficulty level of either beginner, intermediate, or advanced. Some projects will be noted as
“beginner-intermediate” or other range. Within each session, projects are arranged from easiest to most challenging. Each
project includes a description of the task as well as steps required for successful completion. Note that the steps may
not indicate each required action but will provide the expectation of what is required, leaving the action to the student.
References to the concepts demonstrated in the LearnKey training that are required for successful completion of the project
are also included. Each project will also indicate the files and software used to complete the tasks. Some projects may only
include a file named “ProjectTitle_End.” Projects only including an end file typically begin with a new file which is indicated
in the first step. The “ProjectTitle_End” file is included to illustrate a possible correct result. Other projects may include a file
named “ProjectTitle_Start” or other files. Projects with a “ProjectTitle_Start” file begin with that file instead of a new file.
“Start” files typically contain data required for the project pre-inserted to focus the project on concepts versus data entry.

8 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Best Practices Using LearnKey’s Online Training
LearnKey offers video-based training solutions which are flexible enough to accommodate the private student, as well as
educational facilities and organizations.

Our course content is presented by top experts in their respective fields and provides clear and comprehensive information.
The full line of LearnKey products have been extensively reviewed to meet superior standards of quality. The content in our
courses has also been endorsed by organizations, such as Certiport, CompTIA®, Cisco, and Microsoft. However, it is the
testimonials given by countless satisfied customers that truly set us apart as leaders in the information training world.

LearnKey experts are highly qualified professionals who offer years of job and project experience in their subjects. Each
expert has been certified in the highest level available for their field of expertise. This provides the student with the knowledge
necessary to also obtain top-level certifications in the field of their choice.

Our accomplished instructors have a rich understanding of the content they present. Effective teaching encompasses not only
presenting the basic principles of a subject, but understanding and appreciating organization, real-world application, and links
to other related disciplines. Each instructor represents the collective wisdom of their field and within our industry.

Our Instructional Technology


Each course is independently created, based on standard objectives provided by the manufacturer for which the course was
developed.

We ensure that the subject matter is up-to-date and relevant. We examine the needs of each student and create training
that is both interesting and effective. LearnKey training provides auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning materials to fit
diverse learning styles. The following are three levels of implementation:

Standard Training Model


The standard training model allows students to proceed through basic training, building upon primary knowledge and
concepts to more advanced application and implementation. In this method, students will use the following toolset:

Pre-assessment: The pre-assessment is used to determine the student’s prior knowledge of the subject matter. It
will also identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses, allowing the student to focus on the specific subject matter
he/she needs to improve most. Students should not necessarily expect a passing score on the pre-assessment as it is
a test of prior knowledge.

Video training session: Each course of training is divided into sessions that are approximately two hours in
length. Each session is divided into topics and subtopics.

Post test: The post test is used to determine the student’s knowledge gained from interacting with the training. In
taking the post test, students should not consult the training or any other materials. A passing score is 80 percent
or higher. If the individual does not pass the post test the first time it is taken, LearnKey would recommend the
incorporation of external resources, such as the workbook and additional customized instructional material.

9 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Intermediate Training Model
The intermediate training model offers students additional training materials and activities which allows for better
retention, review, and interaction. This model includes not only the standard model material, but also includes the
following toolset:

Study guides: Study guides are a list of questions missed which can help students recognize areas of weakness
and necessary focus. They can be accessed from either the pre-assessment or post test.

Labs: Labs are interactive activities that simulate situations presented in the training. Step-by-step instructions
and live demonstrations are provided.

Workbooks: Workbooks have a variety of activities, such as glossary puzzles, short answer questions, practice
exams, research topics, and group and individual projects, which allow the student to study and apply concepts
presented in the training.

Master Training Model


The master training model offers the student an additional opportunity to prepare for certification by further examining his/
her knowledge. This model includes the materials used in the standard and intermediate models, as well as the MasterExam.

MasterExam: The MasterExam draws from a large pool of questions to provide a unique testing experience each
time it is taken. LearnKey recommends a student take and pass the exam, with a score of 80 percent or higher, four times in
order to prepare for certification testing. Study guides can also be accessed for the MasterExam.

10 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Introduction
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Series include the five domains that are covered in exam 220-902. This series thoroughly
covers the objectives in each domain and will prepare students for A+ exam 220-902. These domains include:
Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems
Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies
Domain 3: Security
Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting
Domain 5: Operational Procedures

Benefits: 
• Provide a full library of knowledge that can be referenced time and time again
• Interactive labs, student workbooks, and hundreds of pre/post test questions
• View your online courseware anytime, anywhere

Disclaimer on Practice Exercises:


Many of the practice exercises in this manual require computer equipment, such as a desktop computer, laptop
computer, mobile device, and network equipment such as a switch and a router. Before attempting the practice
exercise, check the Required Materials section to see if you have the equipment necessary to complete the exercise.

For many of these exercises, a simulated lab can be found at http://www.veterans.learnkey.com/Apluspracticelabs.


php. Use the website to get practice for possible test questions and job-related scenarios. Check the website often as it
will be frequently updated with new lab exercises.

One more tip: Pay attention to the Points to Remember reminders at the end of each project. This will help sharpen
your knowledge both for the A+ test and for real-life, on-the-job situations.

11 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Skills Assessment
Instructions: Rate your skills on the following tasks from 1-5 (1 being needs improvement, 5 being excellent).

Skills 1 2 3 4 5
Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft
operating systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows
8.1).
Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using
appropriate methods.

Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools.

Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features


and tools.

Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities.

Given a scenario, install and configure Windows networking on a client/


desktop.
Perform common preventive maintenance procedures using the
appropriate Windows OS tools.
Identify common features and functionality of the Mac OS and Linux
operating systems.

Given a scenario, set up and use client-side virtualization.

Identify basic cloud concepts.

Summarize the properties and purpose of services provided by


networked hosts.

Identify basic features of mobile operating systems.

Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email.

Summarize methods and data related to mobile device synchronization.

Identify common security threats and vulnerabilities.

Compare and contrast common prevention methods.

Compare and contrast differences of basic Windows OS security


settings.
Given a scenario, deploy and enforce security best practices to secure a
workstation.

Compare and contrast various methods for securing mobile devices.

Given a scenario, use appropriate data destruction and disposal methods.

Given a scenario, secure SOHO wireless and wired networks.

Given a scenario, troubleshoot PC operating system problems with


appropriate tools.

12 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Instructions: Rate your skills on the following tasks from 1-5 (1 being needs improvement, 5 being excellent).

Skills 1 2 3 4 5
Given a scenario, troubleshoot common PC security issues with
appropriate tools and best practices.
Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application
issues with appropriate tools.
Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application
security issues with appropriate tools.

Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures.

Given a scenario with potential environmental impacts, apply the


appropriate controls.
Summarize the process of addressing prohibited content/activity, and
explain privacy, licensing, and policy concepts.

Demonstrate proper communication techniques and professionalism.

Given a scenario, explain the troubleshooting theory.

13 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Time Tables
Domain 1 Session 1 Actual Time Domain 3 Actual Time
Introduction to A+ Part Two 00:04:07 Security 00:03:30
Windows Vista and 7 Features 00:35:54 Common Threats and Vulnerabilities 00:19:51
Windows 8 Features 00:24:36 Prevention Methods 00:27:18
Operating System Installations 00:53:10 Windows Security Settings 00:26:25
Total Time 01:57:47 Workstation Security 00:20:31
Mobile Device Security 00:20:34
Domain 1 Session 2 Actual Time Data Destruction and Disposal 00:04:56
Command Line Tools 00:43:37 Securing SOHO and Wireless 00:20:26
Networks
Microsoft Operating System Tools 00:46:08
System Utilities 00:18:12 Total Time 02:23:31

Total Time 01:47:57

Domain 1 Session 3 Actual Time Domain 4 Actual Time


Windows Control Panel Utilities 00:40:56 Software Troubleshooting 00:01:05
Windows Networking 00:43:54 PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting 00:44:29
Windows Maintenance Procedures 00:14:43 PC Security Issues 00:28:51
Total Time 01:39:33 Mobile OS and Application Issues 00:17:38
Mobile Security Issues 00:13:05

Domain 2 Actual Time Total Time 01:45:08

Other Operating Systems and 00:00:32


Technologies Domain 5 Actual Time
Mac and Linux Operating Systems 00:50:55 Operational Procedures 00:00:40
Client-Side Virtualizations 00:13:33 Safety Procedures 00:05:55
Basic Cloud Concepts 00:13:28 Environmental Impacts 00:07:58
Network Services 00:13:12 Prohibited Content and Privacy 00:09:32
Mobile Operating System Features 00:12:02 Communication and Professionalism 00:11:36
Mobile Device Connectivity and 00:18:52
Troubleshooting Theory 00:13:04
Email
Exam Preparation 00:07:15
Mobile Device Synchronization 00:09:24
Total Time 00:56:00
Total Time 02:11:58

***The actual time is calculated based on how long it will take to simply watch the video files.
***The total training time (inlcuding watching the videos, completing the labs, projects, and assessments) may double or even
triple the actual time.

14 | Introduction A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1, fill in the missing words
according to the information presented by the instructor. [References are found in the brackets.]

Windows Vista and 7 Features

1. A 32-bit operating system can address up to of RAM. [32-Bit vs. 64-Bit]

2. 64-bit operating systems support up to . [Processor Requirements]

3. The key combination is used to tab through open apps and programs on a Windows 7 or Vista
machine. [Aero]

4. A and a passcode are used to decrypt a hard drive encrypted using BitLocker. [BitLocker]

5. A , Easy Transfer cable, or a network connection can be used to transfer data using Windows
Easy Transfer. [Easy Transfer]

6. Windows Defender is the built-in software for Windows-based machines. [Windows Defender
and Firewall]

7. The Action Center is called the in Windows Vista. [Action Center]

8. The Control Panel can be viewed by , large icons, or small icons. [Control Panel Views]

9. The C drive is the of a Windows machine and stores the operating system. [File Structure and
Paths]

10. Virtual XP mode is used to run as a virtual machine on a Windows 7 device. [Virtual XP Mode]

Windows 8 Features

11. The Metro user interface is made up of . [Metro UI]

12. On a Windows 8 machine, apps can be pinned to or the taskbar. [Pinning]

13. The Windows cloud service OneDrive used to be called . [OneDrive]

14. A is required in order to access the Windows Store. [Windows Store]

15. The Charms bar is located on the of the screen on a Windows 8 device. [Charms]

16. Windows 8 tiles can be and resized. [Start Screen]

17. PowerShell is a miniature application . [PowerShell]

16| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


18. Windows can only upgrade to better versions, they cannot downgrade. [Upgrade Paths]

19. The is used to warn users about operating system incompatibilities. [Windows Anytime
Upgrades]

Operating System Installations

20. Operating systems are installed using a clean install or an . [Boot Methods]

21. and hard drives can be used to install a Windows operating system. [Boot Methods]

22. A hard drive can be installed into a machine while it is running. [Clean Windows Installation]

23. An operating system installation is an automated form of installation. [Installation Types]

24. is used to install Windows onto multiple machines simultaneously. [Installation Types]

25. A is a type of RAID-0. [Basic and Dynamic Partitions]

26. has three categories of permissions. [File System Types]

27. NTFS does not support encryption and at the same time. [File System Types]

28. Workgroups have no , making them less useful in corporate environments. [Workgroup vs.
Domain Setup]

29. On a Windows 8 machine, Windows Update is located under . [Windows Update]

30. The C drive is the partition of a Windows device. [Boot Drives and the Correct Partitions]

17 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


32-Bit vs. 64-Bit Operating Systems
Description:
When installing Windows, one of the first determinations to make is whether to install a 32-bit version of Windows or a 64-bit
version of Windows. The vast majority of computers can easily handle a 64-bit installation. The determining factor for support is the
CPU. If the CPU is a 32-bit CPU, only 32-bit Windows installations are possible. If the CPU supports 64-bit installations, a 64-bit
Windows installation is possible.

The biggest advantages to a 64-bit Windows installation are:

• 64-bit CPUs can process many more instructions simultaneously than that of 32-bit CPUs.
• Applications built for 64-bit processors can run at maximum capacity.
• 64-bit operating systems can support up to 17 exabytes of RAM, while 32-bit operating systems can only support up to 4 GB of
RAM.
While a 32-bit operating system can be installed on a 64-bit CPU, the reverse is not true. After completing this project, you will know
how to see whether a 32-bit or 64-bit operating system is installed.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Start key on the keyboard if using Windows 8).
2. Type: system.
3. When you see the System icon, click on it. It will look like this: , and the System screen will appear.
4. Look for the System area and the System type. It will either say 32-bit Operating System or 64-bit Operating System. Here is an
example:

5. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The processor will determine whether you can install a 64-bit operating system or you will need to install a 32-bit operating
system.
• 32-bit operating systems support up to 4 GB of RAM.
• 64-bit operating systems support up to 17 EB of RAM.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: 32-Bit vs. 64-Bit

Difficulty: Beginner
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes per machine checked
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.i 32-bit vs. 64-bit

18| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Aero
Description:
Windows Aero is a feature which started in Windows Vista. It is meant to provide a more translucent Windows experience as well as
make it easier to navigate among open programs. Windows Aero uses some processing power to work and will not work if the video
card on a computer is deemed to not being able to handle the Windows Aero features.

Some of the main Windows Aero features, most of which started in Windows 7, include:

Aero Peek: Allows one to hover a mouse over a taskbar icon and see a miniature program window and show the desktop when the
mouse is hovered over the lower-right corner of the screen.
Aero Snap: Dragging a window to one side of the screen causes it to snap to that half of the screen. This feature is available in
Windows 7, 8, and 8.1 even if Aero is not on.
Progress Indicators: A miniature green fill covers an Internet browser button on the taskbar as a download takes place. The higher
percentage of progress in the download, the more of a green fill inside the button.
Another Aero feature is the ability to flip through open programs through holding down the Windows key and pressing the Tab key.

Upon completing this project, you will know how to identify if Aero is on and you will know how some of the Aero features can
enhance your Windows experience.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows machine, open the Calculator app.
2. On the same Windows machine, open Notepad.
3. To start to see if an Aero theme is present, click the Start button and then Control Panel. The Control Panel will appear.
4. If the Control Panel is showing the Large icons or Small icons view, click the drop-down arrow in the View by area and click
Category.
5. Once in the Category view, in the Appearance and Personalization area, click the Change the theme link. The following will
appear:

19 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


6. Scroll up and click the Windows 7 theme. After about a minute, the Aero theme will be in effect.
7. To test the Aero theme, hold down the Windows key on the keyboard and press the Tab key. Your screen will resemble this:

8. Move your mouse over to the lower-right corner of the screen. You should see your desktop and only outlines of your open
windows.
9. Move your mouse over the Notepad icon in the taskbar. You should see a miniature version of the Notepad program, as see here:

10. Close all of your open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Aero provides for a more interactive Windows experience.
• Aero will only work if the graphics processor in a computer can run Aero.
• Aero is enabled through enabling an Aero-based Windows theme.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Aero

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer with Windows, preferably Windows 7
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

20| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Gadgets
Description:
Windows Gadgets are miniature apps used for information such as telling the time, streaming news, or providing weather updates.
Windows Gadgets are a part of Windows Vista and Windows 7 but due to vulnerabilities were discontinued for Windows 8. In
Windows Vista, a sidebar on the right side of the desktop stored the gadgets. The sidebar does not exist in Windows 7. Thus, gadgets
in Windows 7 are added to a desktop and then it is up to the user to arrange the gadgets as needed. Upon completing this project, you
will know how to add and configure gadgets.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista or
Windows 7 computer, click
the Start button and then click
Control Panel. The Control
Panel will appear.
2. If the Control Panel is not in
Category view, click the drop-
down arrow on the View by
field and click Category.
3. Click the Appearance and
Personalization link. The
Appearance and Personalization
options will appear.
4. Click Desktop Gadgets. You
will see the image on the right:
5. Click and drag the Clock
gadget out to the desktop.
6. To set the time zone for the clock, hover your mouse over the clock.
7. Click the wrench. The clock settings will appear, as seen on the right:
8. Click the drop-down arrow in the Time zone field and choose a time
zone other than the time zone you are in.
9. Click the OK button. The clock will appear on the desktop.
10. To remove the clock gadget, hover your mouse over the clock and click
the X once it appears.
11. Close any other open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Gadgets are a part of Windows Vista and Windows 7 but not Windows
8 or 8.1.
• Gadgets were stored in a sidebar in Windows Vista.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Gadgets Feature

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista or Windows 7
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows
Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.i 32-bit vs. 64-bit
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost,
Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative Tools, Defender, Windows
Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

21 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


User Account Control
Description:
User Account Control (UAC) is a tool which warns users when they are trying to install a program and/or change Windows settings.
UAC is working when a message pops up on the screen whenever an installation is taking place. This helps protect users from installing
an app they did not plan on installing. In Windows Vista, UAC has two settings: on and off. In Windows 7, there are four UAC
settings:

• Always notify when programs try to install software or make changes to the computer or Windows settings
• Notify only when programs try to make changes to the computer (the default setting)
• Notify only when programs try to make changes to the computer without dimming the desktop
• Never notify when programs try to install software or make changes to the computer or Windows settings
At the end of this project, you will know how to configure UAC so it has the best settings for your environment.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 machine, open
the Control Panel.
2. If the Control Panel is in Category view,
click the drop-down arrow on the View by
field and click Large Icons.
3. Click the Action Center link.
4. On the left side of the window, click
Change User Account Control settings.
Your screen will look similar to the screen
on the right.
5. Click and drag the slider up to the Always
notify setting at the top of the screen.
Notice the message.
6. Click and drag the slider down to the
second setting from the bottom. Notice
that the setting is similar to the default
setting but the desktop will not dim if
there is an attempt to install a program.
7. Click and drag the slider down to the last settings and notice that this setting will turn off UAC notifications.
8. Click and drag the slider back to the default setting (the second setting from the top).
9. Click the OK button. If you get the User Account Control dialog box, click the Yes button.
10. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• UAC provides a user notification of an attempt to install a program.
• UAC only has on and off settings in Windows Vista.
• UAC has four settings in Windows 7, 8, and 8.1.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 1 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Windows Vista and 7 Features: User Account Control 1.1. Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating
Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
Difficulty: Intermediate 1.1.a. Features
1.1.a.i. 32-bit vs. 64-bit
1.1.a.ii. Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System
Required Materials: A computer with Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer,
Administrative Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes; 10 minutes Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

if you attempt to run an installation file after changing UAC


settings

22| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Shadow Copy
Description:
Shadow Copy is a feature for Windows Vista and Windows 7 which allows for storing and then retrieving previous versions of files.
Shadow Copy runs in conjunction with Windows Backup. Windows Backup must be set up before Shadow Copy will work. Once
this is set up, anytime Windows Backup runs, an extra version of files are stored. Then, should one need to restore a file, one can do
so through restoring a previous version of a file. For Shadow Copy in Windows Vista, a network drive is needed for backup. For
Windows 7, either a network drive or external drive can be used. For Windows 8/8.1, the Shadow Copy feature has been renamed to
File History. Later in this domain, a project called Setting up Windows Backup will walk you through setting up Windows Backup.
This project assumes you are on a computer which already has Windows Backup up and running. At the conclusion of this project, you
will know how to restore a file using Shadow Copy.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 7 or Windows Vista computer, open Windows Explorer.
2. Navigate to your Documents folder.
3. Right-click any folder inside of your Documents folder and click Properties.
4. Click the Previous Versions tab. You will see a screen similar to one of the two screens below:
5. If you do have a previous version of a folder to restore, click the version you wish to restore and then click the Restore button. You

will see a warning on the screen.


6. Click the Restore button. You will receive this message:
7. Click the OK button.
8. Close the Properties folder.
9. Open the folder you just restored. Any files in that
folder will have modified dates prior to the backup
date.
10. Close all open windows.
Points to Remember:
• Shadow Copy is available in Windows Vista and Windows 7.

23 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


• Shadow Copy allows for multiple versions of files to be accessible in case a file or folder needs to be restored.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Shadow Copy; File History

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista or Windows 7 with Windows Backup enabled
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

24| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using ReadyBoost
Description:
ReadyBoost is a feature which started with Windows Vista and allows a USB 2.0 or higher drive to serve as extra memory and to
cache disk content. ReadyBoost will work on USB drives which have a storage capability of at least 256 MB. ReadyBoost can provide
significant performance boosts to systems with a small amount of RAM (1 GB or less) to begin with.

When ReadyBoost is in use, the disk space reserved for extra memory and disk cache content is not available for storage, thus one
may not want to use all of the available disk space for ReadyBoost. At the end of this project, you will know how to use ReadyBoost to
improve system performance.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1, insert a USB
drive with at least 256 MB of free space.
2. Open Windows Explorer.
3. Right-click the USB drive and click Properties.
4. Within the Properties screen, click the ReadyBoost tab. The
screen on the right will appear:
5. Click the Use this device option.
6. If you do not want the entire USB drive dedicated to
ReadyBoost, use the slider in the Space to reserve for system
speed area to the left, making sure you leave at least 256 MB
for ReadyBoost.
7. Click the Apply button to apply ReadyBoost to the USB
drive.
8. Click the OK button.

Points to Remember:
• ReadyBoost is used as extra memory and disk cache storage.
• ReadyBoost is available on a USB 2.0 drive or higher with at
least 256 MB of available storage space.
• The disk space used for ReadyBoost will not be available for
storage.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System
Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: ReadyBoost

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer and a USB 2.0 or higher disk drive with at least 256 MB of
available storage space

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

25 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Compatibility Mode and Virtual XP Mode
Description:
Windows XP has been out of life (unsupported) since April, 2014. Yet, many apps currently used are built to run on Windows XP.
Most of these apps run just fine on Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1. Some apps, though, will show errors instead of run properly on newer
operating systems.

These apps can be set to run in Compatibility Mode, which will allow apps built for older operating systems to run in newer operating
systems. In the upcoming project, you will explore two ways to run apps in compatibility mode.

If Compatibility Mode does not work, you can run, on a Windows 7 computer, Virtual XP mode. This allows for Windows XP to run
as a virtual machine inside of Windows 7. This will allow one to run apps built for Windows XP to run on a Windows 7 system. Keep
in mind that Windows XP no longer has supported security updates, so running Windows XP in any environment is a big security
risk.

After completing this project, you will know how to attempt to


get an app built for an older operating system to run in a newer
operating system.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control
Panel.
2. If necessary, put the Control Panel into Category view.
3. Once in Category view, click Programs.
4. In the Programs and Features group, click Run programs
made for previous versions of Windows. You will see the
introductory Program Compatibility screen on the right:
5. Click the Next button. You will see a list of programs from
which to choose. Choose the program experiencing the
compatibility problem and click the Next
button. You will see the choices on the
right:
6. Click the Try recommended settings
option. After a few moments the Test
compatibility settings screen will appear.
Click the Test the program button. If the
program opens, any compatibility issues
are solved.
7. Close all open windows.
8. To set Compatibility Mode directly on an app, navigate to an app (you may have one on the desktop or you may need to navigate
to an app in the C:\Program Files folder. Right-click the app and click Properties.)
9. Click the Compatibility tab.
10. Select the Run this program in compatibility mode for check box.
11. If you need to run the app as an administrator, select the Run this program as an administrator check box.
12. Click the OK button.

Points to Remember:
• Compatibility Mode allows apps built to run in a newer operating system when they were built for an older operating system.
• Compatibility Mode can be set directly in the app’s properties or through the Program Compatibility wizard in the Control Panel.
• Apps built for Windows XP but will not run in Compatibility Mode in Windows 7 can be run via Virtual XP mode.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1:
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Compatibility Mode

26| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

27 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Defender
Description:
Windows Defender is an antispyware tool that comes with Windows. While it is not a complete antimalware tool, it does defend
against spyware, so long as the definition files stay updated. Definition files are files which ensure that an antispyware or antimalware
program has the files necessary to combat the latest spyware or malware attacks taking place.

At the conclusion of this project, you will know how to find Windows Defender, update the definition files, and run a scan on your
system to see if any spyware is present.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel.
2. If necessary, change the view to Large icons or Small icons.
3. Click the Windows Defender link.
4. Click the Update tab.
5. If the virus and spyware definitions need updating, click the Update button. The update will take several minutes.
6. When the update is finished, click the Home tab.
7. To run a scan, click the Scan now button. The scan will take several minutes.
8. When the scan is complete, close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Windows Defender is an antispyware program that comes with Windows.
• As is the case with any antispyware or antimalware program, it is important to keep the program definitions up to date.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Windows Defender and Firewall

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15-30 minutes, depending upon the length of time it takes to run the scan
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

28| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


File Structure and Paths
Description:
System files have a specific location in which they are stored in a Windows installation. User folders, such as Documents, Downloads,
Music, and Videos, all have a default location in which they are stored. Each user who logs into a machine will have a set of user
folders. The Public folders are seen by anyone who logs into the machine. As an example, when one installs a program and has the
option of putting a shortcut just on that user’s desktop or let everyone see the desktop shortcut, the choice actually being made is
whether to store the desktop shortcut in the user’s Desktop folder or in the Public Desktop folder.

The user folders are located in the C:\Users folder. For example, a user named Robin has C:\Users\Robin as the location for Robin’s
documents, desktop shortcuts, music, photos, and video. Here are the locations for some system folders and the purposes they serve:

Location What It Is What It Does


C: Root Drive Stores operating system
C:\Program Files Program Files folder Stores programs - 64-bit programs if this is a 64-bit operating system and 32-bit pro-
grams if this is a 32-bit operating system
C:\Program Files (x86) Program Files folder Stores 32-bit programs in a 64-bit operating system
C:\Windows Boot Partition Windows files (especially boot files) are stored here
C:\Windows\CSC Client Side Cache Stores Offline Files
C:\Windows\Fonts Fonts folder Stores fonts. When fonts are downloaded from the Internet, they need to be installed
here. Usually, fonts are automatically installed with apps
C:\Windows\System32 System files folder Stores Windows system files
C:\Windows\Temp Temporary files folder Stores temporary files. This includes open files and, at times, installation files

The easiest way to see these files and folders is to navigate through Windows Explorer in Windows Vista or 7 and File Explorer
for Windows 8/8.1. At the end of this project, you will know how to find system and user folders using Windows Explorer or File
Explorer.

Steps for Completion:


1. A user is running a 32-bit installation of Windows 7. A new program is installed. In which folder is the program most likely

located?

2. A user needs a font installed. In which folder will a technician install the font?
3. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the folder icon on the taskbar to open Windows Explorer (for Windows Vista or
7) or File Explorer (for Windows 8).
4. To find your user folders, double-click the C: drive link on the left side of the screen.
5. Double-click the Users folder.
6. Find your username and double-click that folder. You should see a list of folders.
7. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Windows Explorer for Windows Vista and 7 and File Explorer for Windows 8/8.1 is the main location for navigating files and
folders.
• System files and folders have defined locations.
• User files and folders are found inside of C:\Users\ and then the username.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 1 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating
Windows Vista and 7 Features: File Structure and Paths Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
Difficulty: Beginner 1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System
Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer,
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 Administrative Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File
Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes


29 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Control Panel Views
Description:
With each version of Windows, there are multiple ways to view the Control Panel. With Windows Vista, 7, 8, and 8.1 one of the main
Control Panel views is the Category view. The Category view will list several main categories and make it easier for one to explore
the different apps available in the Control Panel. The other available views differ depending upon the version of Windows one has
installed. The other Control Panel views are as follows:

Classic: Available in Windows Vista. This view makes the Control Panel look like the classic view in Windows XP, a view in
which the categories are grouped by icons.
Large icons: Available in Windows 7, 8, and 8.1. This view shows icons instead of categories, with the icons linking directly to
Control Panel applets. This view is more favorable for those who know exactly what they are looking for in the Control Panel.
Small icons: The view is similar to the Large icons view, with the only significant difference being the size of the icons.
After completing this project, you will have a greater familiarity of these Control Panel views.

Steps for Completion:

1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1


machine, open the Control Panel. As
a refresher, one easy way to open the
Control Panel is to click the Start
button (press the Windows key in
Windows 8), type: Control Panel, and
click the Control Panel link.
2. On a Windows 7 computer, the
Control Panel could open to the
Category view, as seen on the right, or,
the Large icons view, displayed below:
3. Click the drop-down arrow on the View
by field and choose one of the other
views listed. Observe the difference
between the previous view and the
current view.
4. If you are using Windows 7, 8, or 8.1,
you have one more view to observe.
Click the drop-down arrow on the
View by field and choose the view you
have not yet seen. Again, observe the
characteristics of the view.
Points to Remember: 5. Close the Control Panel.
• Each version of Windows on the A+ exam has a Category view within the Control Panel.
• Windows Vista also has a Classic view in the Control Panel.
• Windows 7, 8, and 8.1 have both a Large icons view and a Small icons view in the Control Panel. These views provide faster access
to Control Panel applets.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 1 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Control Panel Views Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
Difficulty: Beginner 1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System
Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer,
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, Administrative Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File
Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
or 8.1

Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes (10-15 if you


have both Windows Vista and Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 to use)
30| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Side-by-Side Apps
Description:
Beginning with Windows 7, one could open two apps, drag one app to the left side of the screen and have it cover the left half of the
screen, and drag the other app to the right side of the screen and have it cover the right half of the screen. In Windows 8, this side-
by-side functionality has been carried over to the built-in Windows apps. So long as the computer’s screen resolution height is set to
768 pixels or higher, you can open Windows apps and place them side-by-side. After completing this project, you will see the process
needed to get two Windows 8 apps to show side-by-side.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 8 or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key on the keyboard if working in Windows 8).
The Metro user interface with app tiles will appear.
2. Click the Maps app. The app will cover the entire screen.
3. Hover your mouse over the top part of the screen. When the title bar appears, click the title bar and drag the app to the left.
When you see the divider appear, let go of the mouse. The app will cover the left side of the screen.
4. Click the right side of the screen. The Start screen will reappear.
5. Click the Money app. The app will automatically fill the blank space on the right side of the screen.
6. Click the divider and drag it toward the right side of the screen. When you let go of the mouse, the Maps app will cover the whole
screen. If the Money app does not hide, click the divider again and drag it further to the right.
7. Close all open apps.

Points to Remember:
• Side-by-Side apps is a Windows 8 feature which allows two Windows apps to appear side by side.
• Once the two apps are loaded, clicking the divider and dragging it in one direction or the other a significant amount will hide one
of the apps.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1:
Windows 8 Features: Side-by-Side Apps

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows 8 or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center.

31 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Metro UI, Start Screen, and Pinning
Description:
Windows 8 has a dramatically different look for a Start screen than that of Windows 7. Rather than boot up to a desktop with a
Start button, Windows 8 boots up to a Start screen with square tiles as shortcuts to apps. This new look is known as the Metro User
Interface (Metro UI). The Start screen shows main apps and apps which have been pinned to the Start screen.

Depending upon the version of Windows (8 or 8.1), navigating down to the Apps screen differs. In Windows 8, right-clicking the
bottom part of the Start screen and clicking an All Apps button will show the Apps screen. For Windows 8.1, a downward-pointing
arrow in the lower-left corner leads to the Apps screen. From the Apps screen, apps can be pinned to the Start screen and/or the
Windows taskbar. From the Start screen, apps can be pinned to the Windows taskbar.

To access the Start screen from a Windows 8 desktop, one needs to press the Windows logo key on the keyboard as the Start button
disappeared in Windows 8. With Windows 8.1, the Start button was put back. Upon completion of this project, you will have some
familiarity with the Windows 8 Start screen
and you will know how to pin an app to the
Start screen and to the taskbar.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 8.1 computer, log in, or,
if you are already logged in and see the
desktop, click the Start button in the
lower-left corner of the screen to access
the Start screen (or, if on Windows
8, press the Windows key on the
keyboard). Your screen should resemble
the screen on the right:
2. In the lower-left corner of the screen,
click the downward pointing arrow (on
Windows 8, right-click the bottom part
of the screen and click All Apps) to
reach the Apps screen.
3. To pin the Calculator app to the Start

screen, right-click the Calculator app and click Pin to Start. The calculator app will display on the right edge of the Start screen.
4. To pin the Calculator app to the Windows Taskbar, right-click the Calculator app and click Pin to Taskbar.
5. Scroll to the left side of the Start screen and click Desktop. The Calculator app shortcut should be pinned to the Windows taskbar.
6. To unpin the Calculator app from the Windows taskbar, right-click the Calculator app on the Windows taskbar and click Unpin
this program from taskbar.

Points to Remember:
• The Metro UI interface displays apps as tiles on the Start screen.
• Many apps are on the Start screen. Most, if not all apps can be found on the Apps screen.
• Apps can be pinned to both the Start screen and the Windows taskbar.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 1 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating
Windows 8 Features: Metro UI; Pinning; Start Screen Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
Difficulty: Beginner 1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store,
Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action
Required Materials: Windows 8 or 8.1 Center

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes

32| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using OneDrive and Live Sign-In
Description:
One characteristic of Windows 8/8.1 is the increased importance of the role a Microsoft account plays in one’s use of apps, files, and
the devices which access those apps and files. OneDrive, Store, and many other apps rely on a live sign-in account. A live sign-in
account is an account created on the Microsoft website. Any legitimate e-mail address can serve as a live sign-in account so long as
it is registered with Microsoft. Many Windows 8 apps require a live sign-in, so obtaining an account is important for Windows 8
functionality.

One major app which uses a live sign-in is OneDrive. OneDrive is Microsoft’s online storage platform. OneDrive allows a user with a
Microsoft account the ability to store files on OneDrive. This in turn not only synchronizes with the user’s local device but also on any
other device the user logs into. For example, a salesperson can store a Word file from a laptop on OneDrive. The same salesperson can
then read the same Word file on a tablet or smartphone should those devices be using the salesperson’s Microsoft account.

In order to complete this project, you will need a Microsoft account and access to two Windows 8/8.1 devices. A Microsoft account
can be obtained at signup.live.com or at www.microsoft.com/account. At the end of this project, you will know how to synchronize
files using OneDrive.

Steps for Completion:


1. Log into a Windows 8 or 8.1 machine using a Microsoft account.
2. If necessary, click the Start button to view the Start screen.
3. Click the OneDrive tile. OneDrive will open and your screen will
look like the image on the right:
4. Right-click the Documents tile. Some options will appear at the
bottom of the screen.
5. Click the New Folder button. A name box will appear.
6. Replace the New Folder text with the name, Word files.
7. Click the Create button. The new folder will appear in the App.
8. Minimize the OneDrive app.
9. Open File Explorer.
10. Click the OneDrive link on the left side of the File Explorer. The
Word files folder should be showing in the OneDrive folder.
11. Log off of the machine you are on.
12. Log onto another machine, using the same Microsoft account.
13. From the Start screen, click the OneDrive app tile. Once OneDrive finishes loading, you should see your Word files folder in the
window, indicating the synchronization worked.
14. Close all open windows and log off the machine.

Points to Remember:
• A live sign-in (a Microsoft account) is needed for many Windows 8 apps.
• OneDrive is the online cloud storage for Windows 8/8.1.
• OneDrive allows a user to access files and folders from many different devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and
smartphones.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 1 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating
Windows 8 Features: OneDrive; Live Sign-in and Action Center Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
Difficulty: Intermediate 1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store,
Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action
Required Materials: Windows 8 (preferably 8.1) Center

Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes

33 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


The Windows Store
Description:
The Windows Store (known as the Store) is the Windows 8 app through which many Windows 8 apps are obtained. Many Store apps
are free while some apps need to be bought. A live sign-in is required for full use of the Store.

After completing this project, you will know how to search for an app and download and install an app from the Store.

Steps for Completion:


1. Log into a Windows 8 or 8.1 machine with a Microsoft account.
2. From the Start screen, click the Store app.
3. Click in the Search for apps box and type: Fresh Paint.
4. Click the Fresh Paint app.
5. Click the Install button. After several moments, Fresh Paint will be installed on your
computer. When the app finishes installing, you will see a confirmation message resembling
the message on the right:
6. Close the Store app.
Points to Remember:
• The Store is the app in Windows 8 from which many apps are obtained.
• Some Store apps are free and some need to be bought.
• A live sign-in account is needed for most Store apps.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows 8 Features: Windows Store

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows 8 or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center

34| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Multi-Monitor Taskbars in Windows 8
Description:
One new feature of Windows 8 is the ability to show taskbar buttons on multiple monitors, if one is using multiple monitors. This
adds the convenience of being able to click the Start button (in Windows 8.1) or access open apps or launch a pinned app from either
screen. The knowledge you will gain from completing this project is simply the ability to configure how the taskbar displays on multiple
monitors if multiple monitors are present. Thus, you need two or more monitors present to complete this project.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 8/8.1 machine with two or more displays present, navigate to
your desktop.
2. Right-click the taskbar and click Properties. You will see the Taskbar properties,
and within the properties an area for multiple displays, as shown on the right:
3. If the Show taskbar on all displays check box is not selected, select it.
4. Click the drop-down arrow on the Show taskbar buttons on field to show the
possibilities for how taskbar buttons can be displayed.
5. Click the drop-down arrow on the Buttons on other taskbars field to show the possibilities for how buttons are displayed on extra
displays.
6. Click the OK button to set any changes you have made.

Points to Remember:
• Multi-monitor displays are new in Windows 8.
• Multi-monitor displays allow a user to control how the taskbar displays (and if it displays) on displays other than the main display.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows 8 Features: Multi-Monitor Taskbars

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows 8 or 8.1 and a multi-display setting
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center

35 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Charms
Description:
Charms (also known as the Charms Bar) is a Windows 8 feature which offers users easy access to configuration features such as
settings, personalization, network connections, system volume, and other Windows settings. The Charms show when one moves the
mouse to the top-right corner of the screen.

Charms lead to settings which are somewhat context-sensitive, in that the settings which appear when Charms are accessed will be
different from the desktop compared to a Windows app such as Store or News.

Upon completing this project, you will know how to access Charms and you will see which types of settings are available from the
Charms.
Steps for Completion:
1. On a Windows 8 or 8.1 computer, show the Desktop.
2. Hover the mouse over the top-right corner of the screen. The
Charms will appear. They look like the example on the right edge
of the page:
3. Click the Settings icon. You will see the Settings area. An example
of this is to the right of this step:
4. Notice the different areas you can reach through the settings. Click
on the desktop to close the settings area.
5. Open the Store app.
6. Hover your mouse over the top-right corner on the screen. The
Charms bar will once again appear.
7. Click the Settings icon. Notice that the list of settings is context-
sensitive for the Store app.
8. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Charms provide a means in which settings, devices, and other
Windows areas can be reached.
• Charms, when used to access settings, will access settings which
are context-sensitive to the desktop or open Windows app.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training,
Session 1
Windows 8 Features: Charms

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows 8 or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems
(Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task
Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center

36| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using PowerShell
Description:
In previous editions of Windows, many technicians felt the command prompt lacked administrative functionality. And, in general,
technicians are not programmers and thus would not want to learn an overly complex command line language to do administrative
tasks. Over the last several editions of Windows, PowerShell, a task automation and configuration management tool, has become a
more important and valuable tool administrators use to perform management tasks. For example, before PowerShell, adding 100 users
to Active Directory was a very laborious process. Now, a PowerShell script can take a delimited file with names and other properties
and instantly create Active Directory accounts.

PowerShell is used for many of Windows Server and Windows Server application tasks, so an A+ technician is not likely to use
PowerShell a lot, but, an A+ technician should still be aware of PowerShell and its uses. PowerShell uses cmdlets (lightweight
commands) written as verb-noun commands to perform most of the work done in PowerShell. At the end of this project, you will have
been given an introduction to PowerShell and its cmdlets.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine, open a command prompt.
2. At the command prompt, type: PowerShell.
3. Press the Enter key. You will see a PS in front of the command line, indicating PowerShell is on. Here is an example:

4. To see a list of PowerShell commands, type: get-command, and then press the Enter key. A very long list of cmdlets will appear.
5. To send this list of PowerShell commands to a text file, type: get-command > pscommands.txt, and then press the Enter key.
6. Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer for Windows 8/8.1).
7. Navigate to the folder showing in the Command Prompt window.
8. Open the pscommand.txt file to see the list of PowerShell commands. When you are done looking at the file, close all open
windows.

Points to Remember:
• PowerShell is a scripting platform used to automate tasks and perform configuration management.
• PowerShell uses a verb-noun designation for the vast majority of its commands.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows 8 Features: PowerShell

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.iii Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center

37 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Security Center/Action Center
Description:
The Action Center for Windows 7, 8, and 8.1 (Security Center in Windows Vista) is a central point for security and maintenance
tasks and issues. It will pop up a notification onto a desktop if it detects a potential performance problem, such as a lack of an antivirus
program or lack of a backup system for a computer.

Upon completing this project, you will have an understanding of where the Action Center is located and the elements on a system the
Action Center tracks.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
computer, look for a flag in the
notification area in the lower-right
corner of the screen. It will look like

the following icon:


2. Click the flag. You will see a
warning message.
3. Click Open Action Center. You will
see a screen similar to the screen on
the right:
4. From this screen, you can address a
specific issue showing in the Action
Center, run the troubleshooting
wizard, or run a system restore.
Once you are done exploring
the options within the Action
Center, close it and any other open
windows.

Points to Remember:
• The Action Center (Security Center
in Windows Vista) is accessible via
the notification area.
• The Action Center shows possible
security and maintenance issues
with one’s system.
• The Action Center contains links to troubleshooting and System Restore.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1:
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Action Center

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
1.1.a.iii. Side-by-Side Apps, Metro UI, Pinning, OneDrive, Windows Store, Multimonitor Task Bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live Sign-in, Action Center

38| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Upgrade Paths
Description:
There are two basic ways to upgrade a computer from one version of Windows to another. A clean install can take place, in which the
old operating system does not need to be compatible with the new operating system, or, with an in-place upgrade, in which the newer
operating system is installed on top of the older operating system and the user’s settings and files are preserved.

Here is a list of eligible in-place upgrades from older operating systems to newer operating systems:

Original Can Upgrade to


Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate
Windows Vista Business Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate
Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Ultimate
Windows 7 Starter Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro
Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro
Windows 7 Home Premium Windows 8, Windows 8 Pro
Windows 7 Professional Windows 8 Pro
Windows 7 Ultimate Windows 8 Pro
Windows 8 Windows 8.1, Windows 8.1 Pro
Windows 8 Pro Windows 8.1 Pro
Windows 8 Pro with Media Center Windows 8.1 Pro

Note that if the Windows 8 to 8.1 upgrade is taking place through the Store, the edition of Windows has to stay the same.

For upgrading within the same edition of Windows, known as a Windows Anytime Upgrade, here are the eligible upgrades:

Original Can Upgrade to


Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Professional, Premium, Ultimate
Windows 7 Home Premium Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate
Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Ultimate
Windows 8 Windows 8 Pro
Windows 8.1 Windows 8.1 Pro

Here are three main points to upgrades for Windows:

When going from one edition to another (like Windows 7 to Windows 8), the upgrade can either be with the same version or a higher
version (Home Basic to Pro, for example). But the upgrade cannot go from a higher version to a lower version.

One can usually upgrade one edition, but not two editions. For example, Windows Vista users can upgrade to the next edition directly
(Windows 7) but not directly to Windows 8.

When upgrading within the same edition of Windows, one can go up to a higher version but not down to a lower version.

Before installing Windows, one should go look at the compatibility tools, located at https://sysdev.microsoft.com/en-US/hardware/
lpl/. This website lists hardware which is compatible with Windows.

Before upgrading, one should run the Windows Upgrade Advisor (Upgrade Assistant for Windows 8). This can be found through
a search on Microsoft’s website, downloaded, and then run. This will warn a user of any potential hardware or software issues with
Windows 8. A later project will further cover the Windows Upgrade Advisor.

At the completion of this project, you will have a better understanding of upgrade paths in Windows. You will also be well educated on
compatible hardware for Windows.

39 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Steps for Completion:
1. For each upgrade situation, indicate whether the upgrade can take place as an in-place upgrade or if the upgrade needs to be a
clean install:

a. Windows Vista Business to Windows 8 Pro:

b. Windows 7 Home Basic to Windows 8 Pro:

c. Windows 8 Pro to Windows 8

2. Is Windows 8 eligible to upgrade to Windows 8.1 Pro through the Store?


3. Using a web browser, navigate to https://sysdev.microsoft.com/en-US/hardware/lpl/ and search for a hardware device you either
have or know of to see if it is compatible with an operating system you may be trying to install.

Points to Remember:
• For in-place upgrades from one version of an operating system to another, the commonality is that operating systems can go up
one edition and go up or stay on the same version.
• For in-place upgrades within the same operating system edition, one can move up in versions but not down in versions.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows 8 Features: Upgrade Paths; Windows Anytime Upgrades; Compatibility Tool

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: A web browser
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.b Upgrade paths – Differences Between In-Place Upgrades, Compatibility Tools, Windows Upgrade OS Advisor

40| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Installation: Boot Methods
Description:

When planning a Windows installation, whether it is for one computer or thousands of computers or somewhere in between, the
first determination to make is the boot method one will use to perform the installation. Here are some boot methods and situations
in which these boot methods are typically used, each with the goal of using the default Windows image or a custom image to deploy
Windows:

Boot Method When it is typically used


USB Most flash drives are large enough to hold a Windows installation image. The BIOS must be set to boot the USB for this
installation method to work.
CD-ROM Hardly used as CD-ROM discs only hold 700 MB of data and even many Linux installations are upwards of 1 GB.
DVD The primary method of Windows installs. The BIOS must be set to boot to the DVD drive for this installation to work.
Preboot Execution The most common method used to deploy Windows over a network, especially when a large number of machines are in-
Environment (PXE) volved. A computer using PXE needs a network card and PXE boot needs to be enabled in the BIOS.
Solid-State/Flash If the installation image can fit on a solid-state or flash drive, it can be used to install Windows.
Drives
External/Hot Swap- This type of drive can be used for an installation so long as the Boot, Sources, and BootMgr files are copied to the external
pable Drive drive. Then, the drive must be made into a bootable drive through running the <source drive>:\boot\boot\bootsect.exe /nt60
< destination drive> command on a disk partition using the DISKPART command. If this drive is a magnetic HDD or
SSD drive, it can be placed in a machine and used as an internal drive for installing Windows.

If installing Windows from an internal drive, the Sysprep tool may need to be run on the system after the installation is complete.
Sysprep gives a computer a unique security identifier (SID). Sysprep should also be run on a system used to create a Windows image
before the image is captured. A non-Windows technology used to install Mac OS or Linux over a network is called Netboot. Netboot
can create either Mac or Linux images and then install those over a network. Upon completing this project, you will be able to choose
wisely the boot method to be used for a Windows installation given a situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the boot method which should be used to start a Windows installation:

a. A technician needs to install the same image of Windows 8.1, to a network of 200 computers:

b. One user needs Windows 8. The user’s laptop does not have an optical disk drive:

c. Two computers need Windows 7:

d. Mac OS X needs to be installed on 30 corporate computers:

Points to Remember:
• USB and DVD are the two most common boot methods for installing Windows. For either method to work, the method of
choice must be enabled as a boot disk in the BIOS.
• PXE is a common boot method used to deploy Windows over a network.
• Netboot is a common boot method used to deploy a Mac or Linux installation over a network.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Operating System Installations: Boot Methods

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes

41 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using appropriate methods
1.2.a Boot Methods
1.2.a.i USB
1.2.a.ii CD-ROM
1.2.a.iii DVDs
1.2.a.i PXE
1.2.a.v Solid-State/Flash Drives
1.2.a.vi Netboot
1.2.a.vii External/Hot Swappable Drive
1.2.a.viii Internal Hard Drive (Partition)

42| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Installations: Installation Types
Description:

Once a boot method is determined for an installation, the next determination to make is the type of installation to take place. Many
installations will take place as brand new installations but there are several other types of installations. Here is a list of common
Windows installations, along with the situations in which these installations are used:

Installation Type When it is Used


Unattended Installation This installation method is used when the same image is going to be deployed to a large number of machines. An answer
file is created and used to automatically answer questions which come up during the installation, such as keyboard type and
default language. The answer file can also allow or block features, such as games. Often, the answer file is created using the
System Image Manager (SIM) inside of the Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK).
Upgrade Make sure the current operating system has the latest service pack before upgrading. Installing a new operating system on
top of the previous operating system will move the previous operating system files to a Windows.old directory. Running
Disk Cleanup after the installation will delete the Windows.old directory.
Clean Install The most common install. This install does not save settings from any previous installation. The two types of clean installs
are:
Bare metal: An installation on a machine with no previously installed operating system.
Install on existing system: A fresh installation overriding an existing operating system.
Repair Installation On the first installation screen, choose the Repair Windows option. This will run in a similar mode to an in-place upgrade.
With this installation, the goal is to repair or replace corrupted system files. Existing Windows data will be moved to a
Windows.old folder.
Multiboot Also known as a dual boot. In this setup, two or more operating systems are installed on the same machine. At boot time,
the user will make a choice as to which operating system to boot. Install the operating systems on different partitions. Install
the newest operating system last. If this is a Windows/Linux combination, always install Windows first.
Remote Network The installation will start from a network share, usually in the form of a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) as indicated
Installation with a \\server\share notation. The network speeds need to be fast in order for the installation to work well. The remote
network installation can also start from a PXE boot.
Image Deployment All Windows installations for Windows 7 and newer start with an image of the operating system. The image can be the
default image (install.wim) on the DVD or it can be a custom image containing specific hardware drivers and applications.
The image needs to first be captured and then it can be deployed to multiple machines.
Recovery Partition This is an extra partition on a hard drive holding the original image for the computer. A recovery image could also be on a
DVD instead of the hard drive. Running the recovery will usually erase any existing data on the hard drive.
Refresh/Restore During the installation process, if a hot swappable disk is inserted, the Refresh option should show the disk which has just
been added.

At the end of this project, you will have a better idea on which installation type to use given an installation scenario.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, indicate which installation type you will use for installing Windows:

a. Windows is installed on the machine but cannot boot due to boot errors:
b. The same image needs to be deployed to multiple machines without users having to answer questions during the installation:

c. A Windows 8 machine needs Windows 8.1 on it and the user’s files need to be preserved:

d. Windows 7 and Windows 8.1 both need to be installed on a test machine:


e. For the machine needing both Windows 7 and Windows 8.1, which operating system should be installed first?

Points to Remember:
• All installations of Windows from Windows 7 forward start with an image file.
• Windows installation image files can be customized, captured, and deployed.
• Remote network installations can be started from a network share or through a PXE boot.

43 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Operating System Installations: Installation Types

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using appropriate methods
1.2.b Type of Installations
1.2.b.i Unattended Installation
1.2.b.ii Upgrade
1.2.b.iii Clean Install
1.2.b.iv Repair Installation
1.2.b.v Multiboot
1.2.b.vi Remote Network Installation
1.2.b.vii Image Deployment
1.2.b.viii Recovery Partition
1.2.b.ix Refresh/Restore

44| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Installation: Partitioning
Description:
One choice to make when installing Windows is the disk partition on which the installation will take place. By default, Windows will
want to install on the main partition (and usually the only partition on the hard drive). If a partition is not present and the disk space is
unallocated, a partition will need to be created. Here are the types of partitions which can be created for Windows installations, along
with a description of each partition:

Partition Description
Dynamic A versatile partition which allows for up to 2000 partitions on a hard disk. This partition does not support a dual boot. The types of
volumes which can be created are:

Striped: Writes data to multiple disks at once (a RAID 0) with no fault tolerance. Uses between 2 and 32 disks.
Mirrored: Data writes to one disk and then mirrors to another disk (a RAID 1). This is supported on Windows 7 or newer
operating systems.
Spanned: This partition includes space on more than one physical disk, but appears as one physical disk. If one of the spanned
disks fails, the entire volume is lost. Boot and system volumes cannot be spanned.
Basic A standard volume which supports up to four partitions. The most common type of volume is a Master Boot Record (MBR) volume,
which has a size limit of 2 TB. Basic disks can be converted to dynamic disks but dynamic disks cannot be converted back to basic
disks.
Primary Used for a single, bootable volume. This partition is located for an operating system during the bootup process.
Extended This partition allows for adding multiple logical drives (with drive letters) to a physical disk. Only one extended partition is allowed per
basic volume (in addition to three primary partitions).
Logical Partitions which reside inside of an extended partition. This allows for a disk to have more than four partitions overall (three primary
and one extended with however many logical partitions are needed).
GPT Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) Partition Table (GPT) partitions are used for hard drives larger than 2 TB. A GPT volume
supports up to 128 primary partitions and up to 9.4 zetabytes (ZB) of data. GPT volumes are supported on most Linux installations
and on Windows 7 or later installations.

Some of these partitions will be created in the upcoming project on Disk Management. Upon completing this project, you will have a
better understanding of which type of partition to create depending upon a need in a Windows installation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, indicate the type of partition which needs to be created to fulfill a Windows installation need:

a. Windows is to be installed on a 3 TB partition:

b. A machine with two disks needs a partition which supports a RAID 0:

c. A partition needs to support five drive letters so that files can be organized by category:

Points to Remember:
• Dynamic partitions can host more partitions than that of a basic partition.
• Logical partitions (with logical drive letters) reside inside of extended partitions.
• A GPT partition is needed if the partition size needs to exceed 2 TB.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Operating System Installations: Basic and Dynamic Partitions; Primary and Extended Partitions

Difficulty: Intermediate

Required Materials: None 1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems
using appropriate methods
1.2.c.vi GPT

1.2.c Partitioning
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 1.2.c.i Dynamic
minutes 1.2.c.ii Basic
1.2.c.iii Primary
Objectives: 1.2.c.iv Extended
1.0 Windows Operating Systems 1.2.c.v Logical

45 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Installations: File Systems and Formats
Description:
When installing Windows, the default file system format used is the New Technology File System (NTFS) format. NTFS supports
encryption, compression, and granular security permissions on files and folders. While that is the predominant disk format used for
Windows installations, there are several other file system formats a technician needs to be aware of, should a technician come across
one of these formats or need to use one of these formats. Here are some common file system formats, along with a description of each:

File Description
System
exFAT FAT64 format supported mostly on Windows-based systems. This format is used mostly on Flash drives to overcome the limits of
FAT32 (mainly the file size limit).
FAT32 File Allocation Table (FAT32) was common prior to Windows XP. The three available permission categories are Read, Change, and
Full Control. FAT32 does not support Windows Vista or newer, so this format is found mainly on USB thumb drives. The maximum
file size is 4 GB and the maximum partition size is 32 GB.
NTFS The most common file system format for Windows. Permissions can be assigned to files and folders. Encryption and compression are
available (but not both at the same time). There is no defined file size limit. The maximum partition size is 2 TB on MBR disks or 256
TB on GPT disks.
CDFS Compact Disc File System (CDFS) is the standard format for optical discs.
NFS Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system which allows a client computer to access files on another computer as if it were
the user’s own computer.
ext3 A Linux file system which supports up to 32 Tibibytes (TiB) of data. TiB is similar to TB. ext3 does not support the recovery of de-
leted files. ext3 supports up to 32,000 subdirectories.
ext4 A Linux file system which support up to 1 Exbibyte (EiB) of data. ext4 supports an unlimited number of subdirectories.

In addition to file system types, Windows support two types of formatting (erasing) when a disk is formatted for a Windows
installation or a disk is formatted after a Windows installation. The two types of formatting are:

Quick Format: Formats a disk but does not check for and isolate bad sectors.
Full Format: Formats a disk and while doing so, checks a disk for bad sectors and marks them so that there is no attempt to write
data to those sectors.
After completing this project, you will know which file system format to use given a situation and you will know which type of
formatting to use when formatting a hard drive.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the file system format either in use or needed to fulfill a computer need:
a. A user needs to access files on another computer without it looking like the files are on another computer:

b. A thumb drive needs to hold 5 GB installation files:

c. A Linux installation needs to support the recovery of deleted files.

Points to Remember:
• NTFS supports larger files and partitions than that of the FAT32 file system format.
• Two common Linux file system formats are ext3 and ext4.
• NFS supports distributed files over a network and users can access those files as if the files were on their own computers.
• A full format will isolate bad disk sectors while a quick format will not check for bad disk sectors or isolate them.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Operating System Installations: File System Types

46| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using appropriate methods
1.2.d File system types/formatting
1.2.d.i ExFAT
1.2.d.ii FAT32
1.2.d.iii NTFS
1.2.d.iv CDFS
1.2.d.v NFS
1.2.d.vi ext3, ext4
1.2.d.vii Quick Format vs. Full Format

47 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Installation: The Final Steps
Description:
As one goes through a Windows installation, there are decisions to be made both during and after the installation process. In addition
to choosing a boot method, installation type, partition, and file system format, here are some other decisions which need to be made
during a Windows installation process:

Decision Description
Load alternate These can be loaded at the same time as a partition is selected. Or, they can be added to a custom image prior to the installation
third-party drivers through the Windows Automated Installation Kit (WAIK).
Workgroup vs. After a Windows install, a computer will be in a workgroup (a peer-to-peer network) by default. Workgroups are best served
Domain for small office home office (SOHO) networks. The maximum number of concurrent connections to a computer are as follows:
Windows Vista Home Basic: 5
Windows Vista Home Premium and Ultimate: 10
All Windows 7 and 8/8.1 editions: 20
A domain is a client/server network with a central server which controls access to resources. This is most commonly seen in a
medium to large business setting.
Time/Date/Region The first decision to be made after starting the Windows installation. Choice needs to be made for language, time format,
Language settings currency format, and keyboard settings. These can be changed after the installation via the Region and Language applet in the
Control Panel.
Driver Installation Most hardware will install automatically when connected to a computer. However, a technician should still have the latest avail-
able drivers for the hardware in case the drivers are needed. The Device Manager will show hardware with missing or incorrect
drivers.
Software and Software updates are dependent upon the app manufacturer. Windows updates are controlled via the Windows Update applet.
Windows Updates The three choices for Windows Updates are:
• Always install updates
• Download updates but choose which ones to install
• Choose what to download and update
• Never update
Factory Recovery For many pre-built computers, a factory recovery partition is present on the hard drive to restore a device to factory settings if
Partition needed. To invoke the recovery, press F8 (Shift + F8 on Windows 8/8.1) when booting and then choose to restore the device.
This will often erase the data currently on the device.

In addition to installation choices, there are three special partitions to be aware of, each with a role in ensuring Windows boots and
runs efficiently:

System partition: The C: drive. Files needed to boot the computer are stored here.
Boot partition: The C:\Windows folder. This folder stores operating system files.
System reserved partition: A 100-MB partition created during the Windows installation if there is unallocated space available for
it. This partition holds system boot files, space for BitLocker drive encryption, and a Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE).
Upon completing this project, you will know how to make the choices necessary for your environment when installing Windows. This
project uses a DVD or USB drive to install Windows 8.1 on a system.

Steps for Completion:


1. Insert your installation media for your Windows installation. If you are using a DVD, make sure your computer is set to boot to
the DVD in the BIOS. If you are using a USB drive, make sure your computer is set to boot to a USB drive in the BIOS.
2. With your installation media present in your system, reboot your machine. After a few moments, the first setup screen will appear.
3. If you need to change the default language, time or currency format, or keyboard, click the drop-down arrow for the appropriate
field and make the change. When you are done making changes, click the Next button.
4. On the next screen, click the Install now button.
5. The next screen is the License terms screen. Select the I accept the license terms check box and click the Next button.
6. If you are upgrading from a previous version of Windows, you would select the Upgrade option. For this installation, select the
Custom: Install Windows only (advanced) option.

48| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


7. On this screen, you could click Load driver and load third-party drivers. The Refresh option allows for a refresh of the available
disks should you plug in a hot swappable drive. The Delete, Extend, Format, and New options all allow you to work with disk
partitions. For this installation, take the default settings and click the Next button.
8. The installation process will take between 10 and 30 minutes to complete. When the installation is done, the next screen you will
be given a chance to name the computer, as seen below:
9. Click in the PC name box and type a name for your computer.
10. Click the Next button.
11. On the Settings screen, click the Use express settings button.
12. To bypass using a Microsoft account, click the Create a new account option.
13. At the bottom of the screen, click the Sign in without a Microsoft account option.
14. Click in the User name text box and type a user name.

15. Click in the Password text box and type a password.


16. Click in the Reenter password text box and reenter the password you typed in the previous text box.
17. Click in the Password hint text box and type a password hint.
18. Click the Finish button. After a few more minutes of setting up, the installation will be complete.

Points to Remember:
• The time, region, language, and keyboard settings are the first set of choices to make when installing Windows.
• Other choices to make when installing Windows include choosing a partition, loading drivers, and setting an account once the
installation is almost complete.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Operating System Installation: Upgrading Windows; Clean Windows Installation; Finishing an Upgrade; Finishing a Clean Installation; Third-Party
Drivers; Workgroup vs. Domain Setup; Time, Date, Region, Language Settings; Driver Installation; Windows Update; Factory Recovery Partition;
Boot Drives and the Correct Partitions

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer and Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 installation media
Estimated Time to Complete: 30 minutes for the Windows installation
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating System Features
1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using appropriate methods
1.2.e Load Alternate Third Party Drivers When Necessary
1.2.f Workgroup vs. Domain Setup
1.2.g Time/Date/Region/Language settings
1.2.h Driver Installation, Software and Windows Updates
1.2.i Factory Recovery Partition
1.2.j Properly Formatted Boot Drive with the Correct
Partitions/Format

49 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2, fill in the missing words
according to the information presented by the instructor. [References are found in the brackets.]

Command Line Tools


1. The TASKLIST command is the command prompt equivalent of the . [TASKLIST and
TASKKILL]

2. BOOTREC is used to fix the . [BOOTREC]

3. and MD are command prompt directory commands. [File and Folder Commands]

4. The COPY command cannot copy and move . [COPY Commands]

5. The ROBOCOPY COPYALL subcommand will copy all file information including .
[ROBOCOPY]

6. Reformatting a hard drive using the FORMAT command will erase any on the hard drive. [Disk
Commands]

7. The command restricts and allows permissions on a machine. [Group Policy]

8. The DIR command is used to directory contents. [DIR Command]

9. EXIT is used to close the command prompt and exit apps. [EXIT and HELP Commands]

10. The EXTRACT command is used to extract a file. [EXTRACT Command]

Microsoft Operating System Tools


11. Shortcuts to the Event Viewer and are located in Computer Management. [Administrative
Tools]

12. Account, firewall, and policies are configured under Local Security Policy. [Local Security Policy]

13. The service is a common point of interest for A+ technicians. [Services]

14. Task Scheduler is located in and Computer Management. [Task Scheduler]

15. Building a data source creates an connection. [Data Sources]

16. and printers are configured in Print Management. [Print


Management]

51 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


17. The Task Manager will show how a process or application is affecting the CPU, , and hard drive
disk of a computer. [Task Manager]

18. Extending a disk partition creates more within the partition. [Extend a Partition]

19. The tab in Disk Management is used to scan for new disks on a system. [Add Drives]

20. and the Windows Easy Transfer tool are used for data migration. [Data Migration Tools]

System Utilities
21. It is vital to have a point of reference or plan before working on the . [Regedit]

22. The box can be used to open the Services windows. [Services]

23. MSTSC is the terminal shortcut for . [MSTSC]

24. Notepad saves simple text files with no . [Notepad]

25. In the event that or disappears, the Run box can be used to bring it
back. [Explorer]

26. The MSINFO32 shortcut opens the window. [MSINFO32]

27. DirectX is a Windows feature which controls the and elements on


a Windows machine. [DXDIAG]

28. If a hard drive is making sounds, it will need to be defragmented. [Defrag]

29. A restore point is a of the system registry. [System Restore]

30. Software updates can be performed using Windows Update. [Windows Update]

52| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Task Management Commands
Description:
A technician may need to use a command prompt to list running tasks, end a running task, or even shutdown and restart a computer as
part of a process. Part of learning the different command prompt commands also involves knowing how to get help on any particular
command for its usage, specifically the possible attributes and switches that affect how a command performs a task.

One of the easiest ways to learn any command is to type the name of the command, a space, and a /? to get a list of attributes and
switches and descriptions of each for a command. Even experienced technicians use the /? feature a lot in order to get reminders on
how a command operates. The four commands which work with listing running tasks, stopping running tasks, and shutting down and
restarting a computer are:

TASKLIST: Lists running tasks. The results here will be similar to what one would see for running processes in Task Manager.
TASKKILL: Stops a running task by process number.
SHUTDOWN: Shuts down a computer. The –r attribute with the shutdown command restarts a computer.
EXIT: Exits a command prompt window, or, if a shell app is running such as NSLOOKUP, the EXIT command will close the
shell app and return a user to the command prompt.
At the completion of this project, you will know how to obtain help on a command and you will also know how to use command lines
to list running tasks, end a running task, and shutdown and restart a computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key on a Windows 8 machine).
2. Type: cmd.
3. When the Command Prompt or cmd.exe shortcut appears, click the shortcut. The command prompt will launch.
4. Type: TASKLIST /? and then, press the Enter key. You will see a description and some attributes.
5. Scroll down through the descriptions
6. Type: TASKLIST and then, press the Enter key. You will see a list of tasks and process ID numbers.
7. Find the process number for the cmd.exe executable (similar to the process ID of 1044 you see in the screen shot above).
8. Type: TASKKILL /PID and the process ID number for cmd.exe (TASKKILL /PID 1044 is an example).
9. Press the Enter key. The cmd.exe process will end, closing the command prompt.
10. Open another command prompt window.
11. Type: SHUTDOWN –r. If you press the Enter key, your computer will restart. Do not press the Enter key.
12. Erase the shutdown command you typed and type: EXIT and then, press the Enter key. The command prompt window will close.

Points to Remember:
• TASKLIST and TASKKILL control task management.
• SHUTDOWN shuts down and/or restarts a computer.
• EXIT exits a command prompt window or a shell app running inside the command prompt.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: TASKLIST and TASKKILL; SHUTDOWN; EXIT and HELP Commands

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes (15 if the shutdown command is run)
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.a TASKKILL
1.3.c SHUTDOWN
1.3.d TASKLIST
1.3.s EXIT
1.3.v [command name] /?

53 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Repair Commands
Description:
Repair commands attempt to fix startup issues and/or system files issues with Windows computers. The two main repair commands,
along with their important switches, are as follows:

Command Description
SFC Attempts to repair system files. Switches include:
/SCANNOW: Scans system files and repairs files when possible.
/VERIFYONLY: Scans system files for integrity but does not repair files.
/SCANFILE: Scans the integrity of a single file and repairs it if possible.
/VERIFYFILE: Verifies the integrity of a system file but does not attempt to repair it.
BOOTREC Attempts to fix startup problems. Switches include:
/FIXMBR: Fixes the Master Boot Record.
/FIXBOOT: Writes a new boot sector onto the system partition.
/SCANOS: Scans the disk for compatible Windows installations and displays installations not currently in the boot
configuration store.
/REBUILDBCD: Scans disks for compatible Windows installations and allows the user to choose which installation to
add to the boot configuration store.

BOOTREC runs in the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE). SFC is one of several commands which requires the command
prompt to be run as an administrator. Commands which can change the system configuration need to be run in a command prompt
run as an administrator. Running the command prompt as an administrator is known as running the command prompt in elevated
mode. At the end of this project, you will have some familiarity with both the SFC and BOOTREC commands and know how to run
a command as an administrator.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key if using Windows 8).
2. Type: cmd. When the shortcut for the command prompt or the cmd.exe file appears, right-click the file and click Run as
administrator. If the User Account Control screen appears, click the Yes button.
3. To see the System File Checker (SFC) options, type: SFC /?, and then press the Enter key. In addition to the SFC switches, you
will see examples of how to use SFC, as shown here:

4. Type: SFC /SCANNOW, and then press the Enter key. The system check can take several minutes. If you do not want to wait for
SFC to finish, close the command prompt window at any time.
5. Restart your system. When the splash screen appears, press F8 (Shift+F8 on Windows 8/8.1) to access the startup settings.
6. On a Windows Vista or 7 computer, move your up or down arrows until the Repair your Computer option is selected and then
press the Enter key.
7. On a Windows 8 computer, press the F10 key to see recovery options and then press the number 1, click Troubleshoot, and click
Advanced options.
8. Click the Command Prompt option. A command prompt window will appear. If you are using Windows 8, you will need to first
enter your password.
9. Type: BOOTREC /FIXBOOT, and then press the Enter key. You will get a message indicating a successful completion.
10. Type: EXIT, and then press the Enter key. You will be prompted to restart Windows (Windows Vista or 7) or Continue
(Windows 8 or 8.1).
Points to Remember:
• SFC is used to check integrity of system files and, if prompted, attempt to repair system files.
• BOOTREC is used in WinRE to fix potential startup issues.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: BOOTREC; Disk Commands

54| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes (longer if you wait for the SFC to finish)
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.b BOOTREC
1.3.n SFC
1.3.w. Commands available with standard privileges vs. administrative privileges

55 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


File and Folder Commands
Description:
When working in a command prompt, technicians will sometimes need to create or remove folders, add or remove files, and check to
see what files and subfolders are in a folder. Several commands are used to fulfill these needs. Here are some common file and folder
commands and their descriptions, including important attributes and switches:

Command Description
MD Makes a directory (folder). The MKDIR command also works here.
RD Removes a directory. RMDIR will also work. Two important switches for this command are:
/s: Removes subdirectories. This switch must be used if there are files and/or folders in the directory one is trying to remove.
/q Removes directories without prompting the user for confirmation.
CD Changes the directory one is working in. CHDIR also works here. Some ways to use CD include:
CD..: Moves up a folder in a folder structure. For example, when focused on C:\HR\Docs, CD.. moves the focus up to C:\HR.
CD\: Moves back to the root of the drive (C: for example)
DEL Deletes individual files. Wildcards can be used to delete multiple files. Some important switches include:
/p: Prompts before deletion.
/f: Forces deletion of read-only files.
/s: Deletes file in all subdirectories.
/q: Suppresses confirmation when using wildcards. For example, the DEL *.* /q command removes all files in a folder without
confirmation.
DIR Lists the contents of a folder. Wildcards can be used to filter a file list.

One shortcut one can take advantage of when entering a command is to type part of the command and then press the Tab key. For
example, if there is a folder named Southern Region, and one wants to navigate to that folder, one can type CD SOU and then press
the Tab key until Southern Region shows on the screen. The results will cycle through anything starting with the letters SOU once
part of the text is typed and the Tab key is pressed.

In addition, any files for folders with spaces must be in quotes when used in commands. For example, to delete a text file called Old
Policy, the command needs to look like this: DEL “Old Policy.txt” and not DEL Old Policy.txt. In the latter instance, the DEL
command would be trying to delete a folder named Old as it cannot read past the space after the word Old. After completing this
project, you will be familiar with these file and folder commands in a command prompt.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open Windows Explorer (File Explorer for Windows 8/8.1).
2. Navigate to the C: drive.
3. On the C: drive, create a folder. Name the folder HR.
4. Inside the HR folder, create a folder. Name the folder West.
5. Inside the HR folder, create another folder. Name the folder North.
6. Inside the HR folder, create a text file. Name the file Old Policy.
You do not need to put any text in the file.
7. Inside the HR folder, create another text file. Name the file New
Policy. You do not need to put any text in the file. Your completed
file structure should look like the file structure on the right:
8. Open a command prompt.
9. To navigate back to the root drive, type: CD C: \, and then press the Enter key.
10. To navigate to the HR folder,
type: CD HR, and then press the
Enter key.
11. To list the contents of the HR
folder, type: DIR, and then press
the Enter key. You should see
two folders and two files, as seen
on the right:
12. To make a new directory in the
HR folder called East, type: MD
East, and then press the Enter
key.
56| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
13. To remove the North directory, type: RD North, and then press the Enter key.
14. To delete the Old Policy file, type: DEL O, and then press the Tab key to fill up the rest of the Old Policy.txt file.
15. Press the Enter key.
16. Type: DIR, and press the Enter key. You should notice that the North folder and the Old Policy text file are no longer there.
17. Close the command prompt window.

Points to Remember:
• The MD command makes directories.
• The RD command removes directories.
• The CD command changes the directory of focus.
• The DEL command deletes files.
• The DIR command lists folder contents.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: File and Folder Commands; DIR Command

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.e MD
1.3.f RD
1.3.g CD
1.3.h DEL
1.3.r DIR

57 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Copy Commands
Description:
When working with files and folders, a technician will sometimes need to copy files and folders and/or move files and folders using
command-line commands. For example, a backup script may need to be created to be run on a nightly schedule. As part of that script,
certain files and folders may need to be copied from a hard drive to an external drive. There are three copy commands one can use in a
command prompt setting, each with a distinct role in copying files and folders: The three copy commands, along with their roles, are as
follows:

Command Description
COPY Copies files and folders from a source to a destination. Switches include:
Copy /a: Used for ASCII-based text files.
Copy /v: Verifies files were copied correctly.
Copy /y: Suppresses prompts for overwriting files.
Copy file1 + file2 + file3 file4: Combines the first three files into a fourth file. This is generally only done with text files.
XCOPY Unlike the COPY command, XCOPY can also copy subdirectories using the /s switch.
ROBOCOPY Includes all COPY and XCOPY features. Also copies metadata including attributes, time stamps, permissions, owner informa-
tion, and auditing information. Switches include:
/copyall: Copies all metadata.
/e: Includes empty subdirectories when copying files and folders.
/purge: Deletes destination files and folders which no longer exist at the source.
/move: Copies files and folders and then deletes the source files. This is the command prompt equivalent of cut and paste.

Upon completing this project, you will have enough knowledge of all three copy commands to use them effectively in a real-life
situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. This project builds on the previous project, File and Folder Commands. If you have not completed that project, do so and then
come back to this project. If you have completed the previous project, open a command prompt on a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
computer.
2. In the command prompt, type: CD C:\HR, and then press the Enter key to navigate to the HR folder.
3. To copy the New Policy file into
the East folder, type: COPY
“New Policy.txt” East, and then
press the Enter key.
4. To make sure the New Policy file
is in the East folder, type DIR
East, and then press the Enter
key. You should see the image on the right:
5. To make a backup copy of the HR folder and all of its
subfolders, type XCOPY /s C:\HR C:\HRBackup, and press
the Enter key. You will see the prompt on the right:
6. To create the HRBackup directory and copy the files from HR
to HRBackup, type: D. You should see a message indicating the number of files copied.
7. To make sure the HRBackup directory has the file and two folders from the HR directory, type: DIR C:\HRBackup, and then
press the Enter key. You should see two folders (East and West) and one file (New Policy.txt).
8. To move the policy file from the HR folder into a new folder called HRPolices, type: ROBOCOPY C:\HR C:\HRPolicies /
move, and press the Enter key.
9. To make sure the New Policy.txt file has been moved, type: DIR C:\HRPolicies, and press the Enter key. The New Policy file
should show in the file list.
10. Close the command prompt window.

58| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Points to Remember:
• COPY copies files and folders from a source to a destination.
• XCOPY copies files, folders, and subfolders from a source to a destination.
• ROBOCOPY has the COPY and XCOPY features plus the ability to copy metadata on files and folders and move files and
folders.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: COPY Commands; XCOPY; ROBOCOPY

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.j COPY
1.3.k XCOPY
1.3.l ROBOCOPY

59 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Disk Commands
Description:
There are several disk commands a technician needs to be aware of in order for a technician to be able to format, partition, or check
disks for errors. Occasionally, a technician may need to extract a single file from an installation file on a CD, DVD, or similar media
for the purpose of replacing a bad system file. Here are some common disk commands used in a command prompt, along with their
descriptions:

Command Description
FORMAT Used to erase the data on a hard drive. A full format scans for and marks bad sectors on a disk while a quick format will not
scan for or mark bad sectors on a disk. Three common switches used in the FORMAT command are:
/fs:file-system: Formats the disk with a specific file system. For example, running FORMAT D:/fs:ntfs will format the
D: drive with the NTFS file system format.
/V:label: Names the disk with a specific label.
/Q: Performs a quick format.
DISKPART A shell app which lists partition information and can format, convert, expand, or shrink a volume.
CHKDSK Looks for and fixes disk errors. Some common switches include:
/F: Fixes errors on the disk.
/R: Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.
EXTRACT Used in MS-DOS to extract a file out of a .cab file. This has since been replaced with the EXPAND command.

After completing this project, you will have some familiarity with these disk commands.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open an elevated command prompt (a command prompt in administrator mode).
2. To list the possible switches and attributes for the FORMAT command, type: FORMAT /?, and then press the Enter key. Take a
moment to look through the different switches and their uses.
3. Since EXTRACT has been replaced with EXPAND, type: EXPAND /?, and then press the Enter key to get a description of and
switches for the EXPAND command.
4. To start DISKPART, type: DISKPART, and then press the Enter key. If you get a User Account Control prompt, click the Yes
button to continue. DISKPART will open in a separate window.
5. In the DiskPart window, type: LIST, and then press the Enter key to see several LIST commands.
6. Type: LIST DISK, and then press the Enter key to see the list of disks on the computer. Your screen should look similar to the

one below:
7. Type: SELECT DISK 0, and then press the Enter key to select the first disk in your disk list.
8. To see a list of available commands on the disk, type ?, and then press the Enter key. You will see a list of commands for tasks you
can perform on your selected disk.

60| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


9. To exit the DiskPart
window, type: EXIT, and
then press the Enter key.
10. To check your hard drive
for potential bad sectors,
in the command prompt
window type CHKDSK,
and then press the Enter
key. The CHKDSK will
take a few moments to
run. When it is complete,
the results will look
similar to these on the
right:
11. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• FORMAT is a command which erases and formats a disk.
• DISKPART is a shell app used to manipulate a disk’s configuration.
• CHKDSK checks a disk for errors and bad sectors and, when called upon, attempts to fix those bad sectors.
• EXTRACT has been replaced with EXPAND, which is a command used to extract individual files from a .cab file.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: Disk Commands

Difficulty: Intermediate/Advanced
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.i FORMAT
1.3.m DISKPART
1.3.o CHKDSK
1.3.u EXTRACT

61 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Group Policy Commands
Description:
An A+ technician is unlikely to control Group Policy, a centrally-based policy management tool which controls configurations on
machines based on users and the organizational units to which they belong. However, a technician does need to know how to update
Group Policy settings on a computer and be able to run a report showing which Group Policies have been applied to a computer and
user. The two commands which accomplish this are:

GPUPDATE: Used to perform an immediate Group Policy update on a computer. Though Group Policy changes update
computers on a regular basis, sometimes an update is done at the server level and needs to be applied on a client machine
immediately.
GPRESULT: Used to run a report to show which Group Policies have been applied to a computer and user. The /r switch runs
a report while the /h switch combined with a filename and a .html extension on the end puts the report in HTML format. For
example, the command GPRESULT /h gpreport.html places a report called gpreport in the directory the user is working with in
the command prompt.
After completing this project, you will be able to update one’s Group Policy and run a report showing which Group Policies have been
applied to a computer and its user.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open a command prompt.
2. To update the Group Policy on the
computer, type: GPUPDATE, and
then press the Enter key. When the
update is complete, you should see this:
3. To run a Group Policy report, type:
GPRESULT /r, and then press the
Enter key. When the report is finished running, scroll up and down the screen to see the results. The last part of the report should
look similar to the screen on the
right:
4. Close the command prompt
window.

Points to Remember:
• GPUPDATE performs an
immediate Group Policy update
on a computer.
• GPRESULT shows the Group
Policies applied to a computer and
its user.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1:
Windows Operating Systems Training,
Session 2
Command Line Tools: Group Policy

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.p GPUPDATE
1.3.q GPRESULT

62| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using the Help Command
Description:
In all of the efforts to learn command prompt commands and use them, one should generate a list of all available commands and their
descriptions. Rather than try to find every command through a number of online searches, the command prompt offers the HELP
command. The HELP command simply lists every command available in the context of where a user is (Windows or the WinRE
environment) along with a description of each command. At the end of this project, you will know how to use the HELP command
and copy the results of the HELP command to a text file.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1, open a command prompt.
2. Type: HELP, and then press the Enter key. You will see a list of all available commands and their descriptions. Your screen should
look like this:

3. To send the commands to a text file, type: HELP > help.txt, and then press the Enter key.
4. Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer in Windows 8/8.1).
5. Navigate to the folder the help.txt file is in, as indicated in the command prompt window (most likely C:\Users\ and then your
username).
6. If you wish to open the help.txt file or move it to a location to where you can reference it later, do so. Otherwise, close all open
windows.

Points to Remember:
• The HELP command lists all available command prompt commands and their descriptions.
• The HELP command, with a >, and a file name, will write all of the commands to a file, which then can be referenced any time
you need to look up a command and its description.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Command Line Tools: EXIT and HELP Commands

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
1.3.t HELP

63 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Introducing Administrative Tools
Description:
Administrative tools aid in configuring and managing Windows. With administrative tools, a technician can check event logs, manage
printers shared on the computer, view and schedule tasks, and check system configuration and system information. The Administrative
Tools window has one purpose: to provide shortcuts to these configuration tools. Many of these actual tools are covered in detail in
other projects throughout this workbook. The purpose of this project is to locate the Administrative Tools area in the Control Panel
and be able to describe the function of each tool. Here are the tools one will typically find in the Administrative Tools window, along
with a description of each tool:

Administrative Tool Description


Computer Management Area in which tasks, events, shares, users, groups, and disks can be viewed and managed. Shortcuts are also avail-
able to Performance Monitor and Device Manager. This area is broken down into three groups: System Tools,
Storage, and Services and Applications.
Device Manager The Device Manager shows all drivers for all hardware. Yellow warning signs on hardware indicate potential
problems. Black arrows on hardware indicate the item in question is disabled. Through Device Manager, one can
update hardware drivers, or, if needed, roll back a driver on a hardware device to a previous version.
Local Users and Groups Found in Computer Management. This helps manage users and the groups to which they belong. Similar to the
Device Manager, any black arrow on a user indicates a disabled account. The built-in Administrator and Guest
accounts should be disabled as they are easy targets for an attacker.
Local Security Policy Area in which password policies and account policies are set for a local machine. On domain-based networks, the
Local Security Policy will be overridden by a domain’s Group Policy.
Performance Monitor Shows how a computer is performing in four main areas: Processor, Memory, Disk, and Network. One can take
Data Collector sets to show how a computer is performing over time.
Services Used to start, stop, and configure services. If a service should be set to start automatically and is not, one should go
here to configure that service.
System Configuration Also known as MSCONFIG. This area controls general configuration settings, boot settings, services, tools, and
startup settings in Windows Vista and Windows 7. For Windows 8/8.1, startup settings are now controlled via the
Task Manager.
Task Scheduler Used to schedule maintenance tasks, such as a defragmentation of a hard drive or a system backup. Tasks can be
based on triggers (such as day and time), actions a user takes, or conditions, with one example being only running
defrag if the computer is on. Task settings control how a task operates. Task History shows a list of successful and
failed attempts to run a task.
Component Services Component Object Model (COM) objects. These are objects of code which can be used in multiple applications.
For example, many financial applications can use a COM object to calculate an interest rate for a loan. For Win-
dows Vista, this is not found in the Administrative Tools window. In Windows Vista, Component Services has to
be run as a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in or as comexp.msc.
Data Sources Stores Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) data sources. This allows a user to store a connection to SQL,
Oracle, Access, and similar databases so long as the user has the proper credentials to those databases.
Print Management Used to manage multiple shared printers on a system.
Windows Memory Used to check for memory problems. This tool is usually set to run on a restart.
Diagnostics
Windows Firewall Used to allow or block data and apps based on ports, protocols, and programs. The Advanced Security feature al-
lows one to be more specific about which ports and/or protocols to allow or block.
At the end of this project, you will know how to find these administrative tools.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, change the view to the Category view.
2. In the Category view, click the System and Security link. You will see a list of system and security options.
3. Click Administrative Tools.
4. Though many of these tools will be covered in later projects, feel free to double-click a shortcut to explore a tool. For example,
double-click Performance Monitor to see your computer’s current CPU, Disk, Network, and Memory performance.
5. When you are finished exploring any of these administrative tools, close all open windows.

64| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Points to Remember:
• Administrative Tools can be found in the Control Panel under System and Security.
• The Administrative Tools window contains shortcuts to tools which help configure and manage Windows.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Administrative Tools

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2


Microsoft Operating System Tools: Administrative Tools; Local Users and Groups; Local Security Policy; Performance Monitor; Services; System
Configuration; Task Scheduler; Component Services; Data Sources; Print Management; Windows Memory Diagnostics; Windows Firewall with
Advanced Security

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes to explore the Administrative Tools window and 5-10 more minutes if a tool itself is
explored
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.a Administrative
1.4.a.i Computer management
1.4.a.ii Device manager
1.4.a.iii Local Users and groups
1.4.a.iv Local security policy
1.4.a.v Performance monitor
1.4.a.vi Services
1.4.a.vii System configuration
1.4.a.viii Task scheduler
1.4.a.ix Component services
1.4.a.x Data sources
1.4.a.xi Print management
1.4.a.xii Windows memory diagnostics
1.4.a.xiii Windows firewall
1.4.a.xiv Advanced security

65 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using System Configuration
Description:
The System Configuration window, also known as MSCONFIG, helps a technician to control startup options and services on a
computer. In addition, through MSCONFIG one can launch a number of Windows configuration tools. The tabs on the System
Configuration window, along with a description of each, are as follows:

Tab Description
General Controls startup information from the standpoint of a normal startup vs. a diagnostic startup (in case one needs to troubleshoot startup
problems).
Boot Controls how a system starts. If a system is set to multiboot, the boot order of the operating systems can be changed. A system can also be
set to boot into Safe Mode if needed.
Services Shows which services are running. In this window, services can be disabled. Further service configurations take place in the Services window.
Startup Shows apps that start when Windows starts. Clearing a check box will stop an app from starting up.
Tools Many system tools are found in this window. One can select a tool and click the Launch button to launch the tool.

For Windows 8, the Startup tab has been moved to the Task Manager. As one works with the System Configuration window, here are
two best practices to follow:

• If Safe Mode is enabled under the Boot tab, make sure to clear that check box once troubleshooting on the machine is complete.
Otherwise, the computer will always boot into Safe Mode.
• On the Startup tab, if an app which is starting up is not recognized, it is best to research the app to make sure it is a legitimate app
and if it needs to start up before deciding to not have the app start at startup.
At the completion of this project, you
will know the purpose of the System
Configuration window and be able to
make configuration changes as needed.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
computer, open Administrative
Tools.
2. Double-click the System
Configuration shortcut. The System
Configuration window will launch.
3. Click the Boot tab. You will see
these settings, as seen on the right:
4. On this tab, you can set the
computer to boot into Safe Mode
and/or boot without a Graphical
User Interface (GUI), which can help troubleshoot startup problems or allow one to run a thorough antivirus/antimalware scan.
Click the Services tab. A list of enabled services will appear, as seen here:

66| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


5. Clearing a check box on the Services tab will disable that service. Click the Tools tab. You will see a screen similar to the
following:

6. Click a tool and then click the Launch button to launch the tool.
7. If you are running Windows Vista or Windows 7, return to the System Configuration window and click the Startup tab. A list of
apps which start up when Windows starts will be listed, as seen here:

8. If you wish to not have an app start up when Windows starts, clear the check box next to the app.
9. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The System Configuration tool (MSCONFIG) allows one to control startup settings and services and provides a place from
which Windows tools can be launched.
• The Startup tab is only present in Windows Vista and Windows 7. For Windows 8, it has been moved to the Task Manager.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: MSCONFIG

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.b MSCONFIG
1.4.b.i General
1.4.b.ii Boot
1.4.b.iii Services
1.4.b.iv Startup
1.4.b.v Tools

67 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Task Manager
Description:
Task Manager is a Windows feature which allows one to see which applications and processes are running, how a system is
performing, the network bandwidth being used, and which users are logged onto a system. Here are the different areas of Task
Manager for Windows Vista and Windows 7, along with a description of each area:

Area Description
Applications Shows applications which are running and those which are not responding. A new task can be started here or a task can be stopped.
Processes Shows all of the running processes and the CPU and Memory those processes are using.
Services Shows running services. A service can be started or stopped.
Performance A visual indicator of the CPU and memory. CPU usage and history shows for the last 60 seconds. Total and available physical
memory shows. System information such as system uptime is also present, as well as a link to the Resource Monitor.
Networking Shows the percentage of network bandwidth being consumed.
Users Shows the active users logged into the machine.

The Task Manager has a different look in Windows 8/8.1. The changes made to the Task Manager are as follows:

• Applications now display as apps on the Processes tab and display in three groups: Apps, Background Processes, and Windows
Processes.
• An App History tab has been added to show how built-in Windows apps are utilizing the CPU and Network performance of the
computer.
• The Startup tab has been moved from the System Configuration feature to the Task Manager. The Startup tab controls which apps
start up when Windows starts.
• A Details tab has been added to show more details on running processes, such as the Process ID and Description. Some of these
items have been moved from the Processes tab in Windows 7.
At the end of this project, you will be able to see a machine’s overall performance and be able to adjust that performance through the
Task Manager. This project has two exercises, one for Windows Vista/7 computers and one for Windows 8/8.1 computers.

Steps for Completion (Windows Vista/7):


1. On a Windows Vista or Windows 7 machine, navigate to the desktop.
2. Right-click the taskbar and click Task Manager. The Task Manager will appear,.
3. If necessary, click the Applications tab. A list of running applications will display.
4. To end an application, click the application to end and then click the End Task button.
5. Click the Processes tab. You will see a screen similar to the one below:

68| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


6. To see which process is taking up the most CPU, click
the CPU column heading. A downward-pointing
arrow will appear above the CPU column heading,
indicating that the column is sorting in descending
order. The processes using the highest percentage of
CPU will be at the top of the list.
7. Click the Services tab to see a list of services, both
running and stopped.
8. Click the Performance tab. You will see the current
CPU and Memory usage, as shown on the right:
9. Click the Networking tab. You will see the amount of
bandwidth being consumed on your current network
connection.

10. Click the Users tab. You will see a list of users
connected to your computer. If there is a user showing
who should not be logged in, click the user and then
click the Logoff button.
11. Close the Task Manager.

Steps for Completion (Windows 8/8.1):


1. On a Windows 8 or 8.1 computer, navigate to the
desktop.
2. Right-click the taskbar and click Task Manager. The Task Manager will open.
3. If necessary, click the More Details link. You will see a screen similar to this one:
4. Click the Processes tab, if needed. Notice the three groups of processes running: Apps, Background processes, and Windows

processes.
5. To see which processes are consuming the most memory, click the Memory column heading. A downward pointing arrow will
appear next to the percentage indicator in the Memory column heading and the processes consuming the most memory will
appear at the top of the list of processes.
6. To return the view to the previous three groupings, click the Name column heading.
7. Click the Performance tab. You will see a snapshot of CPU, Memory, Disk, and Ethernet performance, as seen here:

69 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


8. Click the App history tab. Here, you will see the built-in Windows apps and the CPU time they have consumed since the date

indicated on the tab. An example of this is shown here:


9. Click the Startup tab. Any apps which are set to start up when Windows starts will display here. To prevent an app from starting

70| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


up when Windows starts, click the App and click the Disable button.
10. Click the Users tab. This tab shows a list of users connected to your computer. If there is a user who does not need to be connected
at this time, click the user and then click the Disconnect button.
11. Click the Details tab. Here, you will see the processes which showed on the Processes tab, but with more details, such as process
ID (PID), the user or system account running the process, and a process description. If you need to end a process, click the process
and then click the End Task button.
12. Click the Services tab. This tab will show a list of running and stopped services on your computer. To control any of these services,
click the Open Services button to open the Services window.
13. Close the Task Manager window.

Points to Remember:
• The Task Manager helps one administer a computer through controlling processes, viewing system performance, and managing
users.
• The Task Manager has changed significantly in Windows 8 as compared to previous Windows versions.
• The Startup tab is in the Task Manager in Windows 8 but is in the System Configuration feature in Windows 7 and prior.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: Task Manager

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista or 7 for one exercise and Windows 8 or 8.1 for the other exercise
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes for each exercise for a total of 20 minutes if completing both exercises
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.c Task Manager
1.4.c.i Applications
1.4.c.ii Processes
1.4.c.iii Performance
1.4.c.iv Networking
1.4.c.v Users

71 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Disk Management to Add Disks
Description:
Disk Management is a Windows tool which allows a technician to control the hard drive setup on a computer. With Disk
Management, disk partitions can be added, extended, split, and shrunk. Drive letters can also be assigned through Disk Management.
If a computer supports disk arrays, such as a RAID 0 (striped volume) or RAID 1 (spanned volume), the arrays can be set up through
Disk Management. Hard drives can either be physical (as in magnetic hard drives or solid-state drives) or virtual. Virtual hard drives
are large storage files which can store as little as a few documents or as much as an entire operating system, as is the case with virtual
machines. Whenever drives are present in Disk Management, each disk will have one of the following statuses present:

Unreadable: This is most likely due to a hardware failure. The disk will probably need to be replaced.
Foreign: This status will show on a dynamic disk which has been moved from another computer. Right-click the disk and import
it.
Online: The status one wants. The disk is available for read and write access.
Offline: Either the disk is new or it may have a problem. Right-click the disk and click the Online or Reactivate option.
Missing: If one of the disks for a RAID volume is not accessible, this status will display.
Failed: A possible hardware problem exists. Use CHKDSK to diagnose the disk. If CHKDSK does not fix the disk, it will need to
be reformatted or replaced.
The following specific disk management tasks can be performed in Disk Management so long as the computer has the hard drive(s)
and hard drive space necessary to perform these tasks. Here is a list of Disk Management tasks, along with a description of each:

Task Description
Mounting A drive is mounted as an empty volume within a folder instead of having a letter assigned to it. This can only be done on empty
NTFS folders. This is often done with virtual hard drives which can then be easily moved from one computer to another.
Initializing When a hard disk is added to a system, the disk needs to be initialized. New hard disks should be prompted to initialize automati-
cally when starting disk management.
Drive letters Drive letters can be assigned or changed through right-clicking the drive and clicking Assign Drive Letter or Change Drive Letter.
Adding a drive If a drive is added, it should show right away. If it does not, have Disk Management rescan the computer for new disks.

Disk Management is located inside the Computer Management window. Upon completing this project, you will know how to add,
initialize, and mount disks through Disk Management.
Steps for Completion:
1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, create a folder on the C: drive and name it Sales. This folder will be used later in this
project for a mounted volume.
2. Open Administrative Tools.
3. From the Administrative Tools window, double-click the Computer Management shortcut to open the Computer Management
window.
4. In the Storage group on the left side of the screen, click Disk Management. Your Disk Management area will look like the screen
below:

72| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


5. To create a virtual hard drive which will then be
mounted to the Sales folder you just created, click the
Action menu and then click Create VHD. The window
on the right will appear:
6. Click the Browse button.
7. Navigate to your Documents folder.
8. Click in the File name box and type: Western Sales.
9. Click the Save button.
10. Click in the Virtual hard disk size text box and type: 10.
11. Click the drop-down arrow to the right of the number
you just typed and click GB. This will set the size of the
virtual hard drive to 10 GB.
12. Click the OK button. The drive will be created and
should show in the Disk Management window, as seen
below:
13. To initialize the new disk,
right-click the Disk 1 area and
then click Initialize Disk. In the
Initialize Disk window, click
the OK button. The disk status
should switch to Online.
14. To mount part of the drive to the C:\Sales folder, right-
click inside the space marked Unallocated and click
New Simple Volume. The New Simple Volume wizard
will appear.
15. Click the Next button. The Specify Volume Size step
will appear.
16. Change the Simple volume size in MB to 5000 and
click the Next button. You will see the screen on the
right:
17. Select the Mount in the following empty NTFS folder
option.
18. Click the Browse button. You will see the window
below:

19. Click the + to the left of the C: drive.


20. Click the Sales folder.
21. Click the OK button.
22. Click the Next button. The Format Partition screen will appear.
23. To name the volume, click in the Volume label field, erase the
existing text, and type: Western Sales.
24. Click the Next button.
25. Click the Finish button.
26. To format the remaining 5 GB with a drive letter, right-click the Unallocated space and click New Simple Volume.
27. On the welcome page, click the Next button.
28. Make sure all of the remaining space is in the volume size and click the Next button.
29. On the Assign Drive Letter or Path page, take the default letter given and click the Next button.
30. To name the volume, click in the Volume label text box, erase the existing text, and type: Eastern Sales.
31. Click the Next button.
32. Click the Finish button.
33. Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer for Windows 8).
34. Notice the Eastern Sales drive on the left side of the window.
35. Navigate to the C: drive. Notice the Sales folder, mounted as a drive.
36. Close all open windows.
73 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Points to Remember:
• Physical and virtual drives can be added to a computer.
• Drives need to be initialized before volumes can be created.
• Volumes can be mounted drives in empty folders or they can be assigned drive letters.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: Disk Management; Mount a Drive to a Folder; Change a Hard Drive Letter; Add Drives; Initialize a Drive and
Allocation

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and at least 20 GB of free disk space
Estimated Time to Complete: 25 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.d Disk management
1.4.d.i Drive Status
1.4.d.ii Mounting
1.4.d.iii Initializing
1.4.d.vii Assigning/Changing Drive Letters
1.4.d.viii Adding Drives

74| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Working with Disk Partitions
Description:
In addition to basic disk management tasks, the following can be done with disk partitions on disks:

Extend partitions: Extending a partition allows for the creating of logical disks (multiple drive letters) inside of a primary
partition. Extending a volume is the task of allowing an existing volume to take advantage of unallocated space.
Shrink partitions: This process takes advantage of unused space. With the remaining space, a new partition can be created.
Defragmenting a magnetic hard disk drive could free up a slightly higher amount of space with which to shrink a partition.
Split partitions: This process involves shrinking a partition and then creating a new partition with the remaining space.
Once partitions are set, one may want to change the drive letters on a drive as to avoid confusion and conflict with a drive letter which
users may be familiar with using for a network drive.

Upon completing this project, you will know how to extend, shrink, and split partitions using the Disk Management tool.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 7, Vista, 8, or 8.1 computer, open Administrative Tools.
2. Double-click Computer Management to open the Computer Management tool.
3. On the left side of the screen, click Disk Management.
4. Using the Disk Management tool, create a virtual hard drive called Regions with a size of 10 GB and store the virtual hard drive
in your Documents folder. If you need guidance on creating a virtual hard drive, refer to steps 4-12 in the previous project on using
Disk Management to add disks.
5. Initialize your new disk. Your new disk should look similar to the example on the right:
6. Right-click the unallocated space and click New Simple Volume. The New Simple Volume
Wizard will appear.
7. Click the Next button.
8. Adjust the size of the volume to be 5000 MB.
9. Click the Next button.
10. Make sure the Assign the following drive letter option is selected and click the Next button.
11. Label the volume with the label, North.
12. Click the Next button.
13. Click the Finish button. Your disk should resemble the
example on the right:
14. To extend the North disk to use
the unallocated space, right-
click the North disk and click
Extend Volume. The Extend
Volume Wizard will appear.
15. Click the Next button. You will
see the Select Disks screen, as
seen on the right:
16. Make sure the maximum
amount of MB space is
allocated to the Select the
amount of space in MB field
and click the Next button.
17. Click the Finish button. The
North disk should now have a
size of 10 GB.

75 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


18. To split the volume into two disks (North and South), the North partition must first be shrunk. Right-click the North disk and
click Shrink Volume. You will a screen similar to the image below:

19. Click in the Enter the amount of space to shrink in MB text box, erase the number in the box, and type: 4000.
20. Click the Shrink button.
21. Using the remaining unallocated space, create a new simple volume with a drive letter and label the volume South. Your disk
should look similar to the image below:

22. To rename the South drive as the S: drive, right-click the South drive and click Change Drive Letter and Paths.
23. Click the Change button.
24. From the list of available drive letters, click the drop-down arrow and click S. If S is not available because it is assigned to another
drive, choose a different letter.
25. Click the OK button.
26. Click the Yes button to continue the process. Your South drive will have a new drive letter.
27. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Extending a partition allows for multiple logical drives to be created.
• Shrinking a partition recovers allowable space for creating one or more new partitions.
• Splitting a partition involves shrinking an existing partition and then creating a new partition with the open space.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: Extend a Partition; Split and Shrink a Partition; Change a Hard Drive Letter; Add Drives

Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: Windows 7, Vista, 8, or 8.1 and at least 20 GB of free disk space
Estimated Time to Complete: 15-20 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.d Disk management
1.4.d.iv Extending Partitions
1.4.d.v Splitting Partitions
1.4.d.vi Shrink Partitions

76| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Arrays and Storage Spaces
Description:
One aspect of disk management is having the ability to create an array of disks. An array is a group of disks working together to make
data storage faster and/or redundant, thus speeding up data transfers, protecting data in case a disk fails, or, both. Windows supports
three types of arrays:

RAID 0: Instead of data being written to a single disk, data is written to two disks at once, speeding up writing performance.
However, should one disk fail, the entire volume is lost. In Disk Management, creating a new striped volume creates a RAID 0.
RAID 1: Data is written to one disk and then mirrored to another disk. In this scenario, should one disk fail, the data is still
intact. In Disk Management, creating a new mirrored volume creates a RAID 1.
RAID 5: Three or more disks are required. Data is written to two of the three disks and then a parity bit is store on the third disk
to help restore data should a disk fail. RAID 5 is only supported in Windows 8/8.1.
RAID volumes can either be created through Disk Management or they can be created using storage spaces. Storage spaces, new
to Windows 8, allow for pooling of multiple disks (known as a storage pool) into a single storage area. For disks to be included in a
storage space, disks must be initialized but cannot be allocated a volume or drive letter. There are three types of storage spaces:

Simple space: Same as a RAID 0 in that data is striped over two disks.
Mirror space: One disk in a two-disk or three-disk set is set aside for mirroring purposes to protect against data failure. This is
similar to a RAID 1.
Parity space: Same as a RAID 5 in that data is striped over two disks and a parity bit on a third disk helps to restore data should a
disk fail.
The advantage of a storage space is that disks can easily be added to the space at a later time. In addition, storage spaces support
thin provisioning, a concept in which more space can be allocated than physical space available. For example, a storage space can be
provisioned for 2 TB of space even if only 1 TB of physical disk space is available. Of course, another 1 TB of disk space will be needed
if the original 1 TB space becomes full. After completing this project, you will know how to create a storage space with an array of
disks.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 8 or 8.1 computer, open the Computer Management window.
2. Using Disk Management, create two virtual disks, named Storage 1 and Storage 2, and 10 GB
each in size. Store these disks in your Documents folder. If you need a refresher on the steps it
takes to complete this task, refer to the Using Disk Management to Add Disks project.
3. Initialize the disks but leave the space in each disk unallocated. Your two disks should look like
the example on the right:
4. Open the Control Panel.
5. If necessary, display the Control Panel in Category view. Click the System and Security link.
6. On the System and Security link screen, click Storage Spaces. If the User Account Control screen appears, click the Yes button.
7. Click Create a new pool and storage space.
8. Make sure both check boxes (one for each drive) are selected and click the Create pool button.
9. Click in the Name box, erase the current text, and type: International Files.
10. Notice that the resiliency type is set to Two-way mirror, thus the maximum size is the size of a single disk. To change the Resiliency
type, click the drop-down arrow
on the field and click Simple. This
will use the entire storage space as
a striped volume.
11. Click the Create storage space
button. The finished result will
look like the example on the
right:
12. Open File Explorer. Notice that
the new storage space appears in
the disk list.
13. Close all open windows.

77 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Points to Remember:
• Arrays are sets of disks which can store data in striped or mirrored volumes.
• Arrays can be created in Disk Management.
• Arrays can be created in storage spaces in Windows 8 and 8.1.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: Disk Management; Create a Storage Space

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.d Disk management
1.4.d.ix Adding Arrays
1.4.d.x Storage Spaces

78| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Windows Migration Tools
Description:
When a computer user transitions from one computer to another, or from one operating system to another, transferring the user’s
settings and files from one computer to another or from the old operating system to the new operating system is a very important
task. One method of transferring files is to use a network drive or external drive. While this is both common and effective, it is quite a
manual process as a technician needs to work closely with a user to make sure all important files and folders transfer from the old setup
to the new setup.

Windows has two file transfer tools as possible tools for transferring files and settings from one computer to another. If a technician
is only transferring files and settings for one user, the tool of choice is usually the Windows Easy Transfer tool. The Windows Easy
Transfer tool, included in Windows 7 and available via download in Windows Vista, can transfer data in one of several ways: an Easy
Transfer cable plugged into the USB ports of both computers, over a network, or with a USB external drive.

For larger environments, such as corporate environments, the normal tool of choice is the User State Migration Tool (USMT). The
USMT is included in the Windows Automated Installation Kit, a kit used to create and deploy Windows images to computers. The
USMT has two prominent command-line tools:

Scanstate: Scans a system for settings and data and stores them in a migration file stored externally on a USB or network drive.
This command can also capture data from the windows.old folder, a folder created when Windows is upgraded.
Loadstate: Reads data from the migration file into the new operating system.
As part of upgrading a system, a technician should check to make sure the hardware and software on the system will work in the
upgraded operating system. To aid in this process, the Windows Upgrade Advisor (Upgrade Assistant for Windows 8/8.1) can be run
on the system about to be upgraded. The Windows Upgrade Advisor will warn of potential hardware and software problems in case of
an upgrade. At the end of this project, you will know how to obtain the Windows Upgrade Advisor (or Upgrade Assistant) and check
to make sure a computer you are about to upgrade can handle the new operating system.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 7 computer, open Internet Explorer.
2. Navigate to http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/p/?LinkId=261871.
3. When the pop-up appears asking if you want to run or save the Windows Upgrade Assistant, click the Run button.
4. If you get the User Account
Control screen asking you if you
want to make changes to the
computer, click the Yes button.
5. Several moments later, you will get
one of two messages. Either you
will be told you cannot upgrade
this system, or, after checking
apps and devices, you will see the
results from the Windows Upgrade
Assistant as seen on the right:
6. Click the See compatibility details
link to get details on what may
need to be upgraded or reinstalled
in order for Windows 8.1 to run properly on your machine. When you are done examining the list, close it.
7. As this project is not looking to upgrade Windows, close the Upgrade Assistant.

Points to Remember:
• The Windows Easy Transfer tool transports files and settings from a user’s old computer to a user’s new computer.
• The User State Migration Tool transports files and settings from an old computer to a new computer. It is an appropriate tool to
use in a larger, corporate environment.
• The Windows Upgrade Advisor for Windows 7 or Upgrade Assistant for Windows 8 will check a system for possible problems
with operating system upgrades.

79 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Easy Transfer

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2


Microsoft Operating System Tools: Data Migration Tools; Windows Easy Transfer

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A Windows 7 system (a Windows Vista or 8/8.1 system can be used but adjustments will be need to be
made in the steps in this project)

Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.e Other
1.4.e.i User State Migration Tool (USMT)
1.4.e.ii Windows Easy Transfer
1.4.e.iii Windows Upgrade Advisor

80| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


System Utilities
Description:
To help configure and manage Windows, a number of system utilities are available. Here are several of the main system utilities, along
with a description of each utility:

System Utility Description


REGEDIT A database which stores all of the system and app settings. One should only change the registry if the exact changes are known
and done carefully. One bad change to the registry can cause an application, or worse, Windows, to not function.
COMMAND This used to be the program run for the command prompt. Now, CMD is the program of preference for the command prompt as
in the COMMAND version, the 8.3 naming convention (eight characters maximum for a file name and three characters for the
extension) must be used.
SERVICES.MSC This command opens the Services window. In this window, services can be started, stopped, restarted, enabled, and disabled.
MSTSC Microsoft Terminal Services Client (MSTSC) is the app which runs Remote Desktop, the app used to connect remotely to
other systems.
NOTEPAD Used to create text files with no formatting, otherwise known as plain-text files.
EXPLORER The window which shows the drive, folder, and file structure on a computer. This is known as Windows Explorer in Windows
Vista and Windows 7 and File Explorer in Windows 8/8.1.
MSINFO32 The System Information tool, used to show hardware, components, CPU, RAM, BIOS, and other important system information.
DXDIAG The DirectX diagnostic tool. This is used to show the current version of DirectX, diagnose DirectX problems, and show current
video and audio configuration information.
DEFRAG Used to defragment a magnetic hard disk drive. As data is saved to disk sectors, it becomes fragmented and slows down disk
performance, thus necessitating the occasional use of the DEFRAG tool.
System Restore Used to revert Windows to a previous point in time from the standpoint of system settings and installed apps. This is often done
when an app install causes instability within the system. System Restore does not affect individual user files.
Windows Update A tool which installs operating system updates for performance, reliability, and security. Updates can be classified as important,
recommended, or optional. Windows Update can be set to one of four settings:
Always install: Installs are downloaded and installed automatically.
Download but let me choose to install: Updates are downloaded but it is up to the user to decide which installs will run.
Let me choose what to download and install: The user selects which updates to obtain.
Never check for updates: Updates are neither downloaded nor installed.

Another tool administrators will use is the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). MMC is a tool in which administrators can add
other tools, known as snap-ins, and customize the MMC environment to show the tools an administrator works with the most. Here
are some common MMC utilities, the snap-in names, and their role in computer management:

Command Snap-in What it Does


Eventvwr.msc Event Viewer Views logs
Gpedit.msc Group Policy Editor Manages local Group Policy settings
Perfmon.msc Performance Monitors system performance
Secpol.msc Local Security Policy Controls local system security settings
Services.msc Services Starts, stops, and configures services
Taskschd.msc Task Scheduler Schedules tasks
Wf.msc Advanced Windows Firewall Controls advanced settings for Windows Firewall

Many of these system utilities are covered in other projects throughout this project workbook. After completing this project, you will
know which utility to use given a situation and you will have familiarity with some of these system utilities.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the system utility needed to resolve the situation:
a. A user trying to write instruction files is saying customers cannot read the format used in these files. The user is currently

using Microsoft Word to write these files:


b. You are training a Mac user in using Windows 8. You want to show the user how to find the user’s document libraries:

81 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


c. A new technician is told to use cmd.exe for a command prompt instead of using the older command prompt tool. Which tool

is the technician currently using?


2. To run MSINFO32, on a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer click the Start button (press the Windows logo key if in
Windows 8) and type: msinfo32.
3. When you see the msinfo32 appear, click it. The following System Information window will appear:

4. Scroll up and down the system information summary to see information such as name, model, processor, BIOS version, and
default directories.
5. When you have finished viewing the summary of the system information, close the System Information window.

Points to Remember:
• System utilities help a technician configure and manage Windows.
• MMC is a snap-in tool which allows a technician to use one central tool to manage several Windows processes.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
System Utilities: Command; Notepad; Explorer; MSINFO32

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.i REGEDIT
1.4.f.ii COMMAND
1.4.f.iii SERVICES.MSC
1.4.f.iv MMC
1.4.f.v MSTSC
1.4.f.vi NOTEPAD
1.4.f.vii EXPLORER
1.4.f.viii MSINFO32
1.4.f.ix DXDIAG
1.4.f.x DEFRAG
1.4.f.xi System Restore
1.4.f.xii Windows Update

82| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using the Microsoft Management Console
Description:
The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is a management tool which allows an administrator to add management tools and then
store a console configuration so that the same tools can be accessed when needed. This concept is similar to someone with a toolbox
and a favorite compartment for one’s favorite tools. After completing this project, you will know how to use MMC to start a new
console, add tools to the console, and save the console.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key if working with Windows 8).
2. Type: mmc.
3. When the mmc.exe shortcut appears, click the shortcut. If the User Account Control window appears, click the Yes button. The
Microsoft Management Console window will appear.
4. To add a tool to the console, click the File menu and then click Add/Remove Snap-in. The Add or Remove Snap-ins window will
appear
5. In the Available snap-ins area on the left side of the window, click Component Services.
6. Click the Add button.
7. In the Available snap-ins area on the left side of the window, click Performance Monitor.
8. Click the Add button.
9. Click the OK button. Both snap-ins will be added to the console.
10. In the console window, double-click Performance Monitor. The Performance Monitor will appear.
11. To save the console, click the File menu and then click Save.
12. Click in the File name text box, erase the current console name, and type: My Console.
13. Click the Save button.
14. Close the Microsoft Management Console window.
15. Reopen the Microsoft Management Console.
16. Click the File menu. Your My Console file should be in the file list.
17. Click the My Console file. It will reopen and the two snap-ins you added earlier in this project will appear.
18. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The MMC is a tool which allows a technician to add tools (snap-ins) and customize the administrative environment.
• Console files can be saved and reused.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
System Utilities: MMC

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.iv MMC

83 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using DXDIAG
Description:
The DirectX Diagnostic tool (DXDIAG) is a tool which shows information for DirectX, a collection of application programming
interfaces for video and game programming. The tool also shows the current display and sound devices and their drivers. Furthermore,
this tool will show input devices (such as a mouse and a keyboard) currently connected to a computer. DXDIAG also shows any
potential problems with display, sound, and input devices. Upon completing this project, you will know how to use DXDIAG to see
DirectX information and information about display, sound, and input devices, including potential problems with those devices.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key if you are using Windows 8).
2. Type: dxdiag. When the dxdiag shortcut appears, click it. If you get a message asking if you want to check to see if your drivers are
digitally signed, click the Yes button. The DirectX Diagnostics window will open, as seen below:

3. Note the DirectX version at the bottom of the screen. It should be DirectX 11 or newer.
4. Click the Display tab. The device drivers for your video display and the enabled DirectX features will appear. If any problems exist
with the display drivers, they will be indicated as such in the Notes area.
5. Click the Sound tab. On this tab, you will see the sound device and driver(s) for the device. Look at the Notes section to make
sure there are no problems with the sound setup.
6. Click the Input tab. You will see the status of the mouse and keyboard on your computer. Again, the Notes section will indicate
any problems with any input devices.
7. If you are running a 64-bit version of Windows, you will see a Run 64-bit DxDiag button. Click the button to run the 64-bit
DirectX Diagnostics test.
8. After viewing the test results, close the DirectX Diagnostic tool.

Points to Remember:
• The DirectX Diagnostic tool (DXDIAG) shows the version of DirectX running on a computer.
• DXDIAG also shows information for display, sound, and input devices and shows potential problems with those devices.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems
Training, Session 2
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
System Utilites: DXDIAG Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
Difficulty: Beginner 1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.ix DXDIAG
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
84| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3, fill in the missing words
according to the information presented by the instructor. [References are found in the brackets.]

Windows Control Panel Utilities


1. can be configured in the Internet Properties window. [Internet Options]

2. Internet, , trusted sites, and restricted sites are the four security zones on a Windows machine.
[Internet Options]

3. The is enabled or disabled in the Privacy tab of the Internet Properties window. [Internet
Options]

4. Being allowed to set up an account is an example of a . [User Options]

5. The hidden file feature on a Windows device is found under the tab in the Folder Options
window. [Folder Options]

6. is borrowed from the physical hard drive. [System Options]

7. Three settings that are managed inside the System applet include virtual memory, remote settings, and

. [Remote Settings]

8. is used to quickly return a computer to full power. [Power States]

9. Programs and Features is a service used to and turn Windows features on and off. [Programs and
Features]

10. A HomeGroup on a Windows device is used to share user . [HomeGroup]

11. Inside of the Troubleshooting window, users can address program, , sound, network, Internet,
system, and security issues. [Troubleshooting]

Windows Networking
12. Workgroups and HomeGroups are used for networks. [HomeGroups, Workgroups, and
Domains]

13. On a device, the user needs to be on a Home network in order to join a HomeGroup.
[HomeGroups, Workgroups, and Domains]

14. The versions of Windows 7 and 8 need to be installed in order for a user to join a domain.
[HomeGroups, Workgroups, and Domains]

15. is the default permission a user receives when sharing a file on a Windows device. [Network
Shares and Mapping Drives]

86| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


16. A uses a public network to create a private connection to a remote location. [Establish Network
Connections]

17. A and a connection to a phone line are required for a dial-up network connection. [Establish
Network Connections]

18. A is used to control network traffic. [Proxy Settings]

19. Proxy servers often use port or 8080. [Proxy Settings]

20. Remote desktop connections are used to connect a home computer to a machine. [Remote
Desktop Connection]

21. Users cannot connect directly to other devices using a network. [Home, Work, and Public
Network Settings]

22. A Windows 8 device can connect to a or public network. [Home, Work, and Public Network
Settings]

23. A computer which accesses more than one network should use for both connections. [Alternate
IP Addresses]

24. settings on a network card refer to speed and direction. [Network Card Properties]

25. A router is responsible for duties. [Power Management]

Windows Maintenance Procedures


26. Hard drive backups should be performed to an or a network drive. [Best Practices]

27. Hard drive disk defragmentation is set up in the . [Best Practices]

28. is the built-in antimalware software for a Windows device. [Best Practices]

29. is the backup service in Windows 8. [Maintenance Tools]

30. System restores only affect . [Maintenance Tools]

87 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Internet Options
Description:
A commonly used Control Panel utility (also known as applet) is the Internet Options utility. This utility allows one to set options
for Internet Explorer. In addition, one can set options for a default mail application and default HTML editor. The Internet Options
utility has several areas of configuration, known as tabs. Here is each tab, along with each tab’s description:

Options Tab Description


General On this tab, the home page (the first page that loads when Internet Explorer loads) can be configured. The browsing history can
be viewed from here. A default search engine can be set. The overall appearance can be configured as well. If a website does not
control its display through style sheets, a user can set a preferred color scheme for webpages.
Security This tab controls how active (scripted) content is rendered from websites. Content deemed potentially malicious should not be
allowed. The settings for websites are:
Restricted Sites: Active content is not run.
Trusted Sites: Sites in this list are trusted to not cause damage to a computer. Many intranet sites will be
placed here so that custom coded content will run without warning.
Privacy This tab configures how cookies are used. Cookies are text files which store information on how a user visits a website with the
intent of helping the user’s next visit to that website. For example, a user could shop for products and then return to the website
later with the website using a stored cookie to retrieve those products and recommend them for purchase. Other privacy areas
which can be controlled include:
Location: Controls whether a website can obtain a user’s location.
Pop-up blocker: Controls pop-up windows.
InPrivate: Browsing session is not stored in a user’s browser history but is still stored on a web server.
Content This tab shows certificates obtained for connections to encrypted websites. AutoComplete settings (for filling out forms) and
Feeds and Web Slices settings are also set here.
Connections Shows possible Internet connections, including dial-up and VPN connections. This tab also shows possible LAN settings.
Programs This tab sets the default browser, manages add-ons (enhancements) for Internet Explorer, sets the default HTML editor, and
has a link to setting default programs for files.
Advanced This tab is used for specific Internet Explorer settings, including multimedia settings, security settings, and script settings.

Upon completing this project, you will know which browser options can be set using the Internet Options utility.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to the Large icons or Small
icons view.
2. Click Internet Options.
3. To change the home page for Internet Explorer, click in the text box in the Home page section, erase the existing text, and type:
http://www.learnkey.com.
4. Click the Security tab.
5. Click through each of the four Internet zones to see the
security levels for those zones.
6. Click the Privacy tab. You will see the image on the right:
7. To disallow websites from requesting your physical location,
select the Never allow websites to request your physical
location check box.
8. Click the Content tab. On this tab, you will see areas to control family safety settings, certificates, AutoComplete settings, and
feeds and web slices.
9. Click the Connections tab. You will see the image on the
right of the page:

10. To see if a proxy server is in use, click the LAN settings button. When you are finished viewing the LAN Settings window, click
the Cancel button.

88| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


11. Click the Programs tab. You will see the screen on the right:
12. To choose an HTML editor, click the drop-down arrow on
the HTML editor field and click an option.
13. To set programs to use for Internet services, click the Set
programs button. The Default Programs area in the Control
Panel will open.
14. Close the Control Panel window.
15. Click the Advanced tab. Take the time to scroll through the
available options in the Settings area.
16. Click the OK button to save changes made to your settings.
17. Open Internet Explorer. Your new home page should load.
18. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Through Internet Options, one can set general, connection,
and security settings for Internet Explorer.
• Default web-related programs, such as an HTML editor, can
be set through Internet Options.
• From Internet Options, a link is available to the default
programs area on the Control Panel.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems
Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Internet Options
Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.a Internet options
1.5.a.i Connections
1.5.a.ii Security
1.5.a.iii General
1.5.a.iv Privacy
1.5.a.v Programs
1.5.a.vi Advanced

89 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Controlling Display Settings
Description:
One area of performance on a computer is that of the display. Specifically, having the correct screen resolution, color depth, and refresh
rate will ensure optimal display performance. The specifics on these three settings are:

Resolution: The amount of pixels for width and height on the screen. As an example, a resolution of 1366 x 768 is 1366 pixels
wide by 768 pixels high. The native resolution is the recommended resolution for the display. Any time the screen resolution is set
to something other than the native resolution, the picture can appear distorted.
Color Depth: The amount of colors a screen can show. 16-bit colors can show 216, or 65,536 colors, while 24-bit colors can show
224, or over 16 million colors.
Refresh Rate: The number of times a screen redraws per second. A higher refresh rate makes for a clearer picture but too high of a
refresh rate and the video card will cease functioning until the refresh rate is lowered to one the video card can handle.
At the completion of this project, you will know how to adjust the resolution, color depth, and refresh rate for a display.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista,
7, 8, or 8.1 computer,
open the Control
Panel. If necessary,
change the view to the
Large icons or Small
icons view.
2. Click Display. The
Display window will
appear.
3. Click Adjust
resolution. You will see
a screen similar to the
image on the right:

4. To change the screen resolution, click the drop-down arrow on the Resolution field and click a different resolution.
5. Click the Apply button.
6. If you wish to keep the new resolution, click the Keep Changes button. If not, click the Revert button or let the time run out, at
which point your original screen resolution will return.
7. Click Advanced Settings. The adapter settings will appear.
8. If necessary, click the Adapter tab. To see color
depth possibilities for your display, click the
List All Modes button. A list of modes will
appear.
9. If you need to change the color depth, click
a color depth and click the OK button.
Otherwise, click the Cancel button.
10. Click the Monitor tab. You will see a screen
resembling the screen on the right:
11. Click the drop-down arrow on the Screen
refresh rate field to see if any other screen
refresh rates are available. Leave the refresh
rate on the current setting.
12. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Screen resolution defines the amount of pixels
which will display on the screen.
• Color depth defines the amount of colors the
display will use.
90| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
• Refresh rate defines the number of times a screen will redraw per second.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Doman 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Display Settings

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.b Display/Display Settings
1.5.b.i Resolution
1.5.b.ii Color Depth
1.5.b.iii Refresh Rate

91 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Configuring User Accounts
Description:
On a Windows machine, there are two basic types of user accounts:

Standard user: These accounts can install software and change system settings as long as what they do does not affect other users
on a computer.
Administrator: These accounts have complete control over the computer and can change files, folders, and any system settings.
Often, a single computer will have multiple accounts as multiple people will share a computer. In those cases, each user should have a
separate user profile, which includes folders for documents, pictures, videos, and music. In addition, each user has a separate desktop
and separate app settings, such as Internet Explorer settings. When a Standard user account is created, it is not password-protected by
default. All accounts on a computer should be password-protected. As a best practice, a technician should set a password on an account
as soon as the account is created. Upon completing this project, you will know how to add a local user account to a computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
computer, open the Control Panel. If
necessary, switch the view to Large
icons or Small icons.
2. Click User Accounts. You will see a
screen similar to the one on the right:
3. Click Manage another account. You
will see a screen with the current
list of accounts and their settings
(administrator or standard user).
4. Click Create a new account.
5. Click in the New account name text box and type: TekkieVetsTest.
6. Make sure the Standard user option is selected and then click the Create Account button.
7. To set a password, click the TekkieVetsTest account.
8. Click Create a password.
9. Click in the New password text box and type: Aplu$2016.
10. Click in the Confirm new password text box and type: Aplu$2016.
11. Click in the Type a password hint text box and type: Course.
12. Click the Create password button.
13. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Standard user accounts can run programs and change system settings which do not affect other users.
• Administrator accounts have complete autonomy on a computer.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: User Options

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.c User Accounts

92| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Folder Options
Description:
One aspect of a user’s experience in Windows is the way in which folders are controlled and displayed. Of particular interest is whether
to show extensions for files and whether one needs to see files which are typically hidden, such as system files and application data
files. Users also have some options as to how items open. While files usually open with a double-click, folders can be
configured to where files are opened with a single click, if one desires. After completing this project, you will be able to
control how folders are viewed, how files are opened, and whether to hide files and/or extensions.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open Windows Explorer (File Explorer in Windows 8/8.1).
2. Navigate to the C: drive, the Users folder, and then the folder with your username on it. You should see the folder
list on the right:
3. If you are using Windows Vista or Windows 7, click Organize and then Folder and search options. On Windows
8/8.1, click the View tab and then the Options button and Change folder and search options.
4. If you want to open each folder in a new window as you open folders, select the Open each folder in its own
window option.
5. If you want a single click to open a file or folder, select the Single-click to open an item (point to select) option.
6. In the Navigation pane area, select the Show all folders check
box to display all folders in the navigation pane.
7. Click the View tab. You will see the screen on the right:
8. To show hidden files and folders, click the Show hidden files,
folders, and drivers option.
9. To show all file extensions, make sure the Hide extensions for
known file types check box is cleared.
10. Click the OK button. Notice that the previously hidden
AppData folder is now showing, with a fainted icon,
indicating it is, by default, a hidden folder.
11. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Through Folder Options, files which are normally hidden can
be set to show in Windows Explorer.
• General folder options include controlling the number of
clicks it takes to open an item.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems
Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Folder Options

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.d Folder options
1.5.d.i View Hidden Files
1.5.d.ii Hide Extensions
1.5.d.iii General Options
1.5.d.iv View Options

93 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using the System Applet
Description:
From the Control Panel, the System applet is used to configure three distinct system settings:

Performance (Virtual Memory): System performance can be affected by the visual effects enabled on the machine. To improve
performance, some of these visual effects can be disabled. Virtual memory is a paging file used to store temporary RAM on a hard
drive. This goes into effect when the physical memory is running very low on RAM. Virtual memory is much slower than physical
memory, so it should only be used as a last resort. As a best practice, virtual memory should be set to 1.5 times that of the physical
RAM.
Remote settings: This area has Remote Assistance, which is used to provide assistance to another computer while that computer’s
user watches the session, and Remote Desktop, which is used to log into a machine as if the user was there in person.
System Protection: This area controls system restore points. System restore points are snapshots of the system settings and
installed apps. Should an installation take place which destabilizes the system, the system can be rolled back to a restore point and
act as if the app was never installed. System restore points do not affect files created since or edited since the last restore point.
Remote Assistance, Remote Desktop, and System Restore are all covered in detail in other projects in this domain. After completing
this project, you will see how controlling Visual Effects and setting the virtual memory paging file can affect overall system
performance.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to either the Large icons view or
the Small icons view.
2. Click System.
3. Click Advanced System Settings. The System Properties will appear and the Advanced tab will show.
4. In the Performance area, click the Settings button.
5. To improve performance, select the Adjust for best performance option. Notice that most if not all of the check boxes will be
selected.
6. Click the Advanced tab.
7. In the Virtual Memory area, click the Change button.
8. If the Automatically manage paging file size for all drives check box is selected, clear it.
9. Select the Custom size option.
10. Click in the Initial size (MB) text box and type the number which matches the recommended paging file size at the bottom of the
window.
11. Click in the Maximum size (MB) text box and type the number which matches the recommended paging file size at the bottom
of the window.
12. Click the Set button.
13. Click the OK button.
14. On the screen indicating a restart is needed, click the OK button.
15. On the Performance Options window, click the OK button.
16. On the System Properties window, click the OK button.
17. Restart your computer.

Points to Remember:
• The System applet in the Control Panel leads one to be able to control performance, remote settings, and system protection.
• Virtual memory is temporary memory which is stored on a page file on a hard disk.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Objectives:
Training, Session 3 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
Windows Control Panel Utilities: System Options; Remote Settings 1.5.e System
1.5.e.i Performance (Virtual Memory)
Difficulty: Intermediate 1.5.e.ii Remote Settings
1.5.e.iii System Protection
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes including the
restart
94| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Setting Power Options
Description:
With the increasing need for mobility in computers, and the increasing need to try to save energy costs through not keeping computers
fully powered at all times, technicians are often asked to help users find the right combination of performance and power options.

The Advanced Configuration Power Interface (ACPI) defines four power states:

G0: Everything is on and working.


G1: The system is in a low-power state.
G2: The system is off but power is available.
G3: The system is completely disconnected from power.
A system should only be worked on if the power state is G3, meaning completely disconnected from power.

In addition to the four power states, four sleep/low-power states are available:

S1: The CPU is in Power on Suspend. The CPU is not executing instructions.
S2: The CPU is powered off.
S3: The system is in Sleep/Suspend/Standby mode.
S4: The system is in a Hibernation state.
In between the G0 and G3 power states, there are three basic power settings available to most computers. Here they are, along with
the classifications they belong to for power states and low-power states:

Hibernate: A power state of S4/G1. A snapshot of the RAM is taken and stored on the hard drive and then the computer is shut
down. When the computer is powered back up, the RAM is restored.
Sleep/Suspend: A power state of S3/G1. This state allows the computer to quickly return to full power. Any user action wakes up
the computer.
Standby: A power state of S3/G1. This state is another name for the sleep/suspend state.
On Windows computers (especially mobile devices), power can be managed through a power plan. In this power plan, there are three
normal settings:

Balanced: No emphasis is given to the performance or the battery.


Power saver: Saves the battery but performance is lower. Some laptops switch to this by default when a battery reaches a low
percentage.
High performance: Performance is as fast as possible but the battery drains more quickly. Some systems have this hidden by
default.
Another setting, Advanced Power Settings, allows one to set up a customized power plan. Part of a customized power plan involves
setting a time limit a computer is inactive before it goes into a power-saving mode.
After completing this project, you will know how to set up a power plan on a Windows system.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, change the view to the Large icons view or the
Small icons view.
2. Click Power Options. You will see a screen similar to the following:

95 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


3. If a Show additional plans area is present, click the
drop-down arrow to the right of the section. A high
performance plan option should display.
4. Next to the Power saver plan, click the Change plan
settings option. You will see a screen similar to the one
on the right:
5. Click the drop-down arrow to the right of the Turn off
the display setting and click 10 minutes.
6. Click the Save changes button.
7. If you want to change the power plan to the Power
saver plan, select the Power saver option.
8. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The ACPI defines four power states and four sleep/low-power states.
• The three power plans typically available to Windows machines are Balanced, Power saver, and High performance.
• The basic power settings available to most computers for when the machine is in between fully on and fully off are hibernate,
sleep/suspend, and standby.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Power Options; Power States

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.g Power Options
1.5.g.i Hibernate
1.5.g.ii Power Plan
1.5.g.iii Sleep/Suspend
1.5.g.iv Standby

96| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Controlling Programs and Features
Description:
The Programs and Features applet in the Control Panel allows one to uninstall, change, and repair apps, view and uninstall Windows
updates, and enable or disable Windows features. Windows updates should only be uninstalled if the updates caused instability within
the system. After completing this project, you will know how to perform these administrative tasks using the Programs and Features
applet in the Control Panel.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel.
2. If you are in the Category view, click Programs.
3. Click Programs and Features.
4. To uninstall an app, click an app you wish to uninstall.
5. Click Uninstall.
6. When you are asked if you are sure you want to
uninstall the app, click the Yes button. If you get the
User Account Control screen, click the Yes button.
After several moments, your app will be uninstalled.
7. To see the recently installed Windows updates, click
View installed updates. If you need to uninstall an
update, you can click the update and click uninstall,
but for now, just view the updates.
8. To turn a Windows feature on or off, click Turn
Windows features on or off. You will see a screen
resembling the screen on the right:
9. To change the status of the Indexing Service feature,
select its check box (or clear its check box if it is
selected) and click the OK button. After several
moments, the status of the Indexing Service feature
will change.
10. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The Programs and Features applet allows you to uninstall or change apps, view and uninstall Windows updates, and turn
Windows features on or off.
• You should only uninstall a Windows update if you know for sure the update caused a problem with your system.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Programs and Features

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.h Programs and Features

97 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Devices and Printers
Description:
As part of supporting a Windows computer, a technician needs to know how to install printers and similar devices. This is often done
through the Control Panel. The printer does not necessarily need to be connected to the computer in order for it to be installed, but the
drivers for the printer need to be present. Some drivers are present in Windows and some need to be downloaded from the printer’s
support website.

For computers sharing multiple printers, the printers can be managed through the Print Management console. While this is more
commonly done on servers than workstations, a technician still needs to know how to support and configure printers through this
console. At the conclusion of this project, you will know how to install a printer through the Control Panel and you will know how to
view printers in the Print Management console.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, change the view to the Large icons view or the
Small icons view.
2. Click Devices and Printers.
A list of installed devices and
printers will display.
3. Click Add a Printer. You will
see the image on the right:
4. Click Add a local printer.
5. On the screen to choose a printer port, click the Next button. You will see the following:

6. Choose a manufacturer and a printer and click the Next button (or, if you have the drivers downloaded, click the Have Disk
button and browse to the disk location containing the drivers).
7. Click the Next button. If you wish to change the Printer name, click in the Printer name text box, erase the printer name, and type
a new printer name.
8. Click the Next button.
9. On the Printer Sharing screen, make sure the Share this printer so that others on your network can find and use it option is
selected and click the Next button.
10. Clear the Make this printer the default printer check box.

98| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


11. Click the Finish button. The printer will show in the Devices and Printers area.
12. Open Administrative Tools.
13. Double-click the Print Management shortcut. You will see a screen resembling the following:

14. Double-click the All Printers folder in the middle of the screen. You will see the printers installed on the computer and their
statuses.
15. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Printers and devices can be added and shared through the Control Panel.
• Printers can be administered through the Print Management console.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
Microsoft Operating System Tools: Print Management

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3


Windows Control Panel Utilities: Devices and Printers

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.a Administrative
1.4.a.xi Print management
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.j Devices and Printers

99 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Controlling Sound
Description:
A technician needs to know how to control sound and speaker settings (and for some users, microphone settings). A lot of this work
can be done through the Sound applet in the Control Panel. At the end of this project, you will know which sound options can be
controlled through the Control Panel.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to the Large icons view or Small
icons view.
2. Click the Sound link. The Sound applet will open.
3. To configure the speakers, click the speakers and click the Configure button.
4. If your computer is part of a surround sound system, click the matching surround option and click the Test button.
5. Click the Next button.
6. If your speaker set has full-range speakers, select the Front left and
right check box.
7. Click the Next button.
8. On the Configuration complete screen, click the Finish button.
9. Click the Recording tab. If there is a microphone present, it
will show on the Recording tab. To view its properties, click the
Properties button.
10. When you are done viewing the microphone properties, click the
Cancel button.
11. Click the Sounds tab. You will see the image on the right:
12. If you wish to change the sound scheme, click the drop-down
arrow on the Sound Scheme field and click a different scheme.
13. Click the Communications tab. You will see an opportunity to
adjust the volume if you are using your computer to place or
receive telephone calls.
14. Click the OK button.
15. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Sound settings can be controlled through the Control Panel.
• Sound settings can be configured for speakers, microphones, Windows sounds, and phone calls.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Sound

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.k Sound

100| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Troubleshooting
Description:
Most troubleshooting in Windows is specific to an app, a known hardware issue, or some kind of network connectivity. Occasionally,
a Windows problem is not easy to find even though the system may not be running at optimal capacity and efficiency. For
these situations, the Troubleshooting tool, located in the Control Panel, can sometimes help diagnose a Windows problem. The
Troubleshooting tool has many categories available to choose from. A technician can run one or more troubleshooting tasks from the
tool. After completing this project, you will know how to access and run the troubleshooting wizard.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to Large icons or Small icons.
2. Click Troubleshooting.
3. In the System and Security group, click Improve power usage.
4. On the introductory screen of
the wizard, click the Next button.
When the wizard is done, you
will see the results. They will look
similar to these results on the
right:
5. Close all open windows.
Points to Remember:
• The Troubleshooting tool can help a technician hone in on a problem with Windows.
• The Troubleshooting tool has many tasks which can be run. Most tasks are wizards that identify and then fix problems in
Windows.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Troubleshooting

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.l Troubleshooting

101 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Device Manager
Description:
When a hardware device inside of a computer is not functioning properly, the first place a technician should check for clues as to
what may be causing the issue is Device Manager. Device Manager has a complete list of hardware devices on a computer. If Device
Manager opens and, within the list of the devices, none of the devices are expanded, then all of the recognized hardware devices are
functioning. If there is a hardware issue, the hardware device will be expanded and one of these three symbols will show:

A blue question mark: Windows knows a device is there, but it cannot determine what the device is. One should reinstall the
device with the correct drivers for the device.
A yellow exclamation point: Windows recognizes the device, but it is not functioning properly, usually due to an incorrect driver.
The device should be reinstalled using the latest correct drivers.
A black arrow: This indicates a device has been disabled. In the case of a virtual network adapter such as a VPN adapter, it should
be disabled unless the VPN connection is on. Otherwise, right-clicking the device and clicking the Enable option should solve the
problem.
Upon completing this project, you will know how to access Device Manager and be able to investigate possible hardware problems.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary,
switch the view to Large icons or Small icons.
2. Click Device Manager. You will see a list resembling the list on the right:
3. If any devices have a yellow exclamation point on them, right-click the device and
click Properties. In the Device status area, a message will display suggesting a solution
(usually updating the Driver, which can be done on the Driver tab).
4. If any devices have a black arrow and the device should be enabled, right-click the
device and click Enable.
5. Close the Device Manager.

Points to Remember:
• Device Manager shows a list of hardware on a system.
• If no devices are expanded with any symbols showing, all recognized hardware is
functioning normally.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Device Manager

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.n Device Manager

102| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Peer-to-Peer Networks
Description:
Peer-to-peer networks are networks which usually contain 10 or fewer devices and are best suited for homes and small businesses. In
a peer-to-peer network, there is no central authority controlling accounts and permissions. Thus, every computer has its own set of
usernames, passwords, and shared resources, such as folders and printers. Windows peer-to-peer networks are known as workgroups.
When Windows is installed on a computer, at the point it joins a network it joins a workgroup unless a technician specifically joins the
computer to a domain (a client/server network with a central point of authority).

In Windows 7, a new type of workgroup, called a HomeGroup, became a standard for peer-to-peer networks. A HomeGroup makes
it easier for computers to share resources in two ways. First, a user does not have to share a resource through setting up a share, which
is a task the average home user will not know how to do. With a HomeGroup, a wizard helps a user decide which resources are to
be shared. Secondly, a HomeGroup has a single password. This is in contrast to a traditional peer-to-peer network in that for those
networks, each computer will have a different password. For another user to join a HomeGroup, the user just has to have a computer
on the same network as the computer which started the HomeGroup and know the password to the HomeGroup. Any computer with
Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 can join a HomeGroup so long as the computer’s network settings are set to Private (as opposed to Public or
Domain). Computers with Windows 7 Starter or Home Basic editions cannot initiate a HomeGroup. Upon completing this project,
you will know how to identify the type of network a computer is on, you will know how to start a HomeGroup, and you will know
how to join another computer to a HomeGroup. For this project, you will need two Windows 7 or newer computers on the same
network.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate, or Enterprise computer, or, a Windows 8 or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If
necessary, switch the view to Large icons or Small icons.
2. Click HomeGroup.
3. Click the Create a homegroup button. You will be asked which libraries you wish to share.
4. Select the check boxes for the folders you wish to share and clear the check boxes for the folders you do not wish to share.
5. Click the Next button.
6. Write down the password you see as you will need this to connect any other computers to the HomeGroup.
7. Click the Finish button.
8. On a second Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 computer on the same network, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to Large
icons or Small icons.
9. Click HomeGroup. If you
get a message saying that
the computer needs to be
on a private network, click
the link and then click Yes
to the message on finding
other computers. You
should a screen similar to
the screen on the right:
10. Click the Join Now button.
11. Click the Next button. You
will see a screen asking which folders you wish to share.
12. Make any desired changes to the folders you wish to share or not share and click the Next button.
13. Click in the Type the password text box and type the password you were given earlier in this project.
14. Click the Next button. You should see a message indicating you’ve joined the HomeGroup.
15. Click the Finish button.
16. Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer for Windows 8/8.1).
17. Look for the HomeGroup section on the left side of the screen. You should see at least two computers in the HomeGroup area.
18. Click each computer in the HomeGroup area to see the libraries each computer has shared.
19. Close all open windows on both computers.

103 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Points to Remember:
• Workgroups are the default peer-to-peer networks computers join when Windows is installed.
• HomeGroups allow a user to share libraries through a wizard.
• HomeGroups can be created on Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, and Ultimate editions and on Windows 8/8.1.
• Any Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 computer on a network with a HomeGroup can join that HomeGroup.
• All that is needed to join a HomeGroup is the password for the HomeGroup.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: HomeGroup
Windows Networking: HomeGroups, Workgroups, and Domains

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Two Windows 7, 8, or 8.1 computers, with the computer initiating the HomeGroup not having Windows 7
Starter or Home Basic

Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.i HomeGroup
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.a HomeGroup vs. Workgroup

104| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Joining a Computer to a Domain
Description:
Whereas most networks in homes and small businesses are peer-to-peer networks, most corporate networks are client/server networks.
A client/server network is a domain network in which accounts, resources, and permissions are centrally controlled in a database
residing on a server. For Windows, that database is Active Directory and it resides on Windows Server.

An A+ technician is not expected to manage all of the nuances of Active Directory. What a technician is expected to be able to do
is join a computer to a domain. To join a domain, the edition of Windows on a machine must be the Professional edition (Business
edition for Vista) or higher and an account with permissions to join computers to a domain must be available. At the end of this
project, you will know how to join a computer to a domain.
Steps for Completion:
1. On a Windows Vista Business (or higher) or a Windows 7, 8,
or 8.1 computer with the Professional or higher edition and
not joined to a domain, open the Control Panel. If the Control
Panel is in Category view, click System and Security.
2. Click System. The System window will appear.
3. In the Computer name, domain, and workgroup settings,
click Change settings. You will see the a screen resembling the
screen on the right:
4. Click the Change button. The Computer Name/Domain
Changes dialog box will appear.
5. Select the Domain option.
6. Click in the text box below the Domain option and type the
name of the domain you wish to join.
7. Click the OK button. You will see the Windows Security login window.
8. In the login window, click in the User name text box and type a username of an account with permissions to join the domain.
9. Click in the Password text box and type the password for the account
you are using to join the domain.
10. Click the OK button. You will see the image on the right:
11. Click the OK button.
12. On the window telling you to restart the computer, click the OK
button.
13. On the System Properties window, click the Close button.
14. Click the Restart Now button.
15. When the computer restarts, log in to the computer using a domain
account.
Points to Remember:
• A domain is a client/server network in which a single database controls user accounts, passwords, resources, and permissions.
• To join a domain, the edition of Windows cannot be a Starter or Home Basic edition.
• To join a domain, an account with permissions to join the domain is needed.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: HomeGroups; Workgroups; and Domains

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A professional or higher edition of Windows Vista, 7, 8, and 8.1, a domain to join, and credentials to join the
domain

Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.b Domain Setup

105 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Setting Up and Mapping to Shares
Description:
When a computer user has files to share with others on a network, the easiest way to accomplish this is through setting up a network
share with permissions to users and groups which need access to those files. Once the network share is set up, other computers on the
network can access the share and, if desired, create a connection to that share through creating a map to that folder. A map involves
assigning a drive letter to the folder.

Another type of share, and one which does not need to be created, is an administrative share. Those with administrative permissions
on a computer can access that computer (as long as it is on the same network) through preset administrative shares. Some examples of
administrative shares include:

\\computername\c$: Accesses the C: drive on another computer (substitute computername with the computer’s name).
\\computername\print$: Locates printer drivers on another computer.
\\computername\admin$: Locates the Windows folder on another computer.
After completing this project, you will know how to set up a network share and then create a map to that share. For this project, you
will need two devices on the same network.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, create a folder on the C: drive and name the folder Proposals.
2. Inside of the Proposals folder, add a text file and name it First Draft.
3. Navigate back to the C: drive.
4. Right-click the Proposals
folder and click Share with
and then click Specific
people. You will see a screen
resembling the one on the
right:
5. To share this folder with the
Users group, click in the Type
a name and then click Add,
or click the arrow to find
someone text box and type:
Users.
6. Click the Add button. Notice
that the Users group is added with a permission level of Read, meaning they can read what is in this folder but they cannot edit
the contents of the folder.
7. Click the Share button. After a few moments, you will see the screen on the right:
8. Make note of the computer
name as you will need it later
in this project and click the
Done button.
9. Log on to another computer
in the same network as the
computer on which you just
created the share.
10. Open Windows Explorer
(File Explorer in Windows
8/8.1).
11. Click in the address bar, erase the existing text, and type: \\COMPUTERNAME (where the computer name is the one you used
to create the share).
12. Press the Enter key. You should see the screen on the right:
13. Right-click the Proposals folder and click Map network drive. You will see the image on the right:

106| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


14. Click the Finish button. The folder will
open as a mapped drive and you should
see the First Draft file.
15. Click Computer (This PC in Windows
8/8.1). Notice the mapped drive to the
Proposals folder.
16. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Network shares allow for easy access
to files and folders from a neighboring
computer on a network.
• Administrative shares allow one with
administrator permissions to access
drives and printers on another machine.
• Mapped drives use drive letters as connections to folders on other computers.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Network Shares and Mapping Drives; Administrative Shares

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Two computers on the same network with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.c Network Shares/Administrative Shares/Mapping Drives

107 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Printer Sharing and Mapping
Description:
In addition to network shares and administrative shares on computers, printers can be shared and then connected to over a network.
The only difference between printer shares and folder shares is that in printer shares, one can access a printer and also install it. This is
possible because when a printer is shared, its drivers are made available for use for installation.

After completing this project, you will know how to share a printer and then connect to it and install it on another computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer with a printer installed, open the Control Panel.
2. Click View Devices and Printers (Devices and Printers if the Control Panel is in Large icons or Small icons view).
3. Right-click the printer you wish to share and click
Printer Properties.
4. Click the Sharing tab. You will see the image on the
right:
5. Select the Share this printer check box.
6. Click the OK button.
7. Before continuing, make sure you know the
computer name on which you just shared the
printer.
8. On another Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer
on the same network, open Windows Explorer (File
Explorer for Windows 8/8.1).
9. Click in the Address bar, erase the text in the
address bar, and type: \\computername where computername is the name of the computer on which you shared the printer.
10. Press the Enter key. You should see a shortcut to the printer you just shared.
11. Right-click the printer and click Open. A screen will appear indicating the printer is looking for and then downloading the driver.
When the printer status box appears, the installation is complete.
12. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Printers, like folders, can be shared.
• When a printer is shared, its installation files are also made available so that computers connecting to the shared printer can install
the printer automatically.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Printer Sharing and Mapping

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.d Printer Sharing vs. Network Printer Mapping

108| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Establishing Network Connections
Description:
Though an A+ technician is not expected to perform all of the duties of a network administrator, a technician does need to know how
to connect a client computer to a network. There are several different types of network connections, each with its own set of steps to
establish a connection:

Connection Type Steps for Setting Up a Connection


Dial-up Needed in areas where high-speed Internet is unavailable. This can be the case in remote areas. A connection is estab-
lished through the Network and Sharing Center.
Wireless To connect to a wireless access point, one needs to know the wireless standards available (802.11a, b, g, n, or ac), the
Service Set Identifier (SSID), the security method, and the passphrase.
Wired Plug a network cable into the client machine and then plug the other end into a wall unit, or, in the case of a home
network, a switch or router.
WWAN A wireless wide area network connection is an Internet connection using a cellular card, such as a wireless air card. The
air card will usually have accompanying software used to configure the connection.

Through one of these network connections, a computer may need to set up a secure connection to a corporate network, as in the case
of a company employee working remotely. The most common type of connection for this situation is that of a virtual private network
(VPN) connection. A VPN is a private connection using public means, such as the Internet.

Upon establishing a VPN connection, a private tunnel is created using one of the following protocols:

• Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)


• Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
Data should be encrypted when transmitting over a VPN. The most common means for encryption is Internet Protocol Security
(IPsec). IPsec encrypts both the authentication information and the data being transferred through the VPN tunnel.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the type of network connection needed:

a. A user in a remote location does not have any high-speed network capabilities:
b. A user needs to use a cellular connection to reach the Internet as there in no wireless access point nearby:

c. A user needs a private, secure connection to a workplace from a remote location:


2. To set up a VPN connection, on a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine open the Control Panel. If you are in the Category view,
click Network and Internet.
3. Click Network and Sharing Center.
4. In the Network and Sharing Center window, click Set up a new connection or network.
5. Click Connect to a workplace.
6. Click the Next button.
7. Click Use my Internet connection (VPN).
8. Click in the Internet address text box and type an address for the VPN connection.
9. Click in the Destination name text box, erase the text in the box, and type: Test VPN.
10. Click the Create button. If this is a real connection and you wish to test it, click the connection and enter the credentials you use
to get onto the network.
11. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Dial-up connections are used when no high-speed connections are available
• Internal network connections are wired or wireless.

109 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


• A WWAN connection uses a cellular connection.
• A VPN is a private network tunnel created through a public network.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Establish Network Connections

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.e Establish Networking Connections
1.6.e.i VPN
1.6.e.ii Dial-up
1.6.e.iii Wireless
1.6.e.iv Wired
1.6.e.v WWAN (Cellular)

110| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Controlling Proxy Settings
Description:
A proxy server is a server which is used to control network traffic for client computers, mainly through controlling Internet requests
made by computers on a network. Proxy servers provide a number of protection services on a network, including:

Network Address Translation (NAT): A proxy server can act as a NAT server in that it can provide an IP address to add to any
packet requesting data over the Internet. This protects the IP addresses of computers inside of the network.
Content caching: Proxy servers can store content from frequently visited websites. This prevents computers from having to
download content from a website each time a website is visited. In content caching, the proxy server checks on behalf of a
requesting computer to see if there is any new content from a website. Otherwise, the client computer receives the cached content.
Content filtering: Some proxy servers can also act as content filters. Administrators can place filters on proxy servers to deny
requests for websites administrators feel are inappropriate to a business environment.
Proxy servers can work in conjunction with firewalls. Firewalls, in some cases, can be set to block all Internet traffic except that which
is allowed by a proxy server.

After completing this project, you will know how to set proxy server settings in Internet Explorer. This is a skill a technician needs to
have in order to set client machines to use a proxy server set up by a network administrator.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control
Panel. If necessary, change the view to Large icons or Small icons.
2. Click Internet Options. The Internet Properties window will
appear.
3. Click the Connections tab.
4. Click the Settings button. You will see the screen on the right:
5. To set a proxy server, select the Use a proxy server for this
connection check box.
6. Click in the Address text box and enter the address for the proxy
server.
7. To not use the proxy server for local websites, select the Bypass
proxy server for local addresses check box.
8. Click the OK button.
9. Click the OK button to close the Internet Properties window.

Points to Remember:
• Proxy servers can cache and filter Internet content.
• Proxy servers have NAT capabilities, thus protecting the IP
addresses of machines on the network which use the proxy server.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Proxy Settings

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.f Proxy Settings

111 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Remote Desktop Connections
Description:
One tool a technician can use to help troubleshoot a system is to remotely access the system. This allows one to work on the computer
as if the person is physically sitting at the computer. For Windows computers, there are two types of remote access:

Remote Assistance: In this remote access setup, a user can request remote assistance from a designated user, such as a technician
or administrator. This is often used when a user is requesting technical support but wants to watch what the technician is doing
on the computer. A user can then use Windows Remote Assistance to initiate a request to another computer for help. This request
can be saved as an invitation file and emailed to the technician, who can then open it, connect to the user’s computer, and assist
the user.
Remote Desktop: A person logs into another computer and completely takes it over. The original user computer cannot see what
the remote user is doing. This is typically set up when a user needs to access a work machine from a remote location, or, when
an administrator needs to log into a server in a remote location. The actual system utility used for Remote Desktop is Microsoft
Terminal Services Client (MSTSC). A computer can receive remote connections for Remote Desktop if the edition of Windows
is the Professional edition or higher.

For either of these remote connections to work, the features must be enabled on the computer needing remote access. An access list
then needs to be created for users and groups which will be allowed to access the computer via Remote Desktop. Upon completing
this project, you will know how to set up both Remote Assistance and Remote Desktop. You will also know how to access another
computer using Remote Desktop. For this project, you will need two computers, with both computers belonging to the same network.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine which is not a Home edition of Windows, open a command prompt.
2. Type: IPCONFIG, and then press the Enter key.
3. Note the IP address of the computer as you will need this address later in this project.
4. Close the Command Prompt window.
5. Open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to either Large icons or Small icons.
6. Click the System link. The System window will open.
7. Click Remote Settings. You will see the System Properties dialog box.
8. To enable Remote Assistance, make sure the Allow Remote Assistance connections to this computer check box is selected.
9. To enable Remote Desktop, make sure the Allow connections from computers running any version of Remote Desktop (less
secure) option is selected.
10. Click the Select Users button.
11. Note that your user account already has access to
this computer. If you wish to add any other users or
groups for remote access, click the Add button, type in
a username or group you wish to grant access to this
computer, and click the OK button twice.
12. On another computer running Windows Vista, 7, 8, or
8.1, and, on the same network as the computer you just
configured for remote access, click the Start button (press
the Windows logo key if using Windows 8).
13. Type: mstsc. When the mstsc shortcut appears (it may
say Remote Desktop Connection instead of mstsc), click
it. You will see the screen on the right:
14. Click in the Computer text box and type the IP address
of the machine on which you configured remote access.
15. Click the Connect button.
16. Click Use another account.
17. Click in the User name text box and type your username.
18. Click in the Password text box and type your password.
19. Click the OK button. If you get a message about an identity of the remote computer, click the Yes button. You will then be logged
in remotely to the computer on which you configured remote access.
20. Click the X in the blue bar at the top of the screen to close the remote connection.
112| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Points to Remember:
• Remote Desktop allows one to remotely control a computer.
• Remote Access allows one to request another person take control of the computer and the requestor can watch what the remote
user is doing.
• A computer can cannot enable Remote Desktop if it is running a Home version of Windows.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
System Utilities: MSTSC

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3


Windows Networking: Remote Desktop Connection; Remote Assistance

Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: Two Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computers. One of the two cannot be running the Home edition of
Windows

Estimated Time to Complete: 20 minutes


Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.v MSTSC
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.g Remote Desktop Connection
1.6.h Remote Assistance

113 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Network and Sharing Center
Description:
Part of a technician’s role in supporting systems is to identify, configure, and, when needed, troubleshoot their network connections.
The Network and Sharing Center, accessible from the notification area of the desktop and from the Control Panel, allows a technician
to identify and troubleshoot network connections, create network connections, and connect to existing networks. There is also a
shortcut to change settings for the network adapter(s) on a computer. Any time a computer joins a workgroup-based network (as
opposed to a domain), the computer is in one of three types of network locations:

Home: Network discovery is enabled, meaning the device can be seen by others in the network. Devices using the home network
setting can join a HomeGroup.
Work: Discovery settings are the same as for the Home type of network. A computer on a Work network cannot join a
HomeGroup.
Public: In this network type, network discovery is disabled, meaning the device will not be seen by other devices on the network.
This setting should be used any time a device is on a public network, such as a wireless network in a store, coffee shop, or airport.
Unless the device is in a home or small business network, this should be the network setting.

Upon completion of this project, you will be familiar with available settings in the Network and Sharing center and you will know how
to set a network location through the Network and Sharing center.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer which is not joined to a domain, open the Control Panel.
2. If you are in Category view, click View network status and tasks. If you are the Large icons or Small icons view, click Network and
Sharing Center.
3. Take a few moments to go through the Change your networking settings area to see which network settings can be affected
through this tool. When you are done, look for the Network location in the View your active networks area. It will say Home
network, Public network, or Work network. Click the setting.
4. If your computer is in a Home network,
click Work network. If it is in a Work or
Public network, click Home network. You
will see a screen similar to this (the screen
will depend upon the network location
chosen):
5. On the screen indicating your new network
location, click the Close button.
6. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The Network and Sharing Center allows for a technician to view, create, and troubleshoot network connections.
• In the Network and Sharing Center, one can also connect to an existing network connection.
• The three types of network locations are Home, Work, and Public.
• The Public network location should be used if a device is outside of a home or business network.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Control Panel Utilities: Network and Sharing Center
Windows Networking: Home, Work, and Public Network Settings

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate Objectives:


1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer 1.5.m Network and Sharing Center
which is not joined to a domain 1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.i Home vs. Work vs. Public Network Settings

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes

114| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Windows Firewall
Description:
Windows Firewall is a software app used to help protect systems from unwanted traffic. Firewalls are set to allow or deny traffic based
on ports, protocols, and programs. On a computer, the firewall can be turned on or off and settings can be made for the following
networks:

Public: A network a computer is connected to in an area such as a coffee shop, airport, or other place with public Wi-Fi networks.
Private: A workgroup or homegroup network, usually present in a home or small business environment.
Domain: A network controlled by a Windows Server hosting Active Directory.
Every system should have a firewall turned on, even if is not Windows Firewall. This project focuses on configuring Windows Firewall.

As part of Windows Firewall, a technician may need to allow a program which is ordinarily blocked by the firewall through the
firewall. This is known as an exception. Technically, an exception is a detour from the normal rules. For example, if all ports from 55000
to 55100 are blocked, unblocking port 55010 would be an exception. At the end of this project, you will know how to allow or deny
traffic based on a port in Windows Firewall, which is a task a technician will need to do in a situation in which a custom app runs on a
custom port and the port needs to be opened in order for traffic to flow from the app to the computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, change the Control Panel view to either the
Large icons or Small icons view.
2. Click Windows Firewall.
3. Click the Turn Windows Firewall on or off link on the left side of the screen.
4. Make sure Turn on Windows Firewall is the option selected for each location and click the OK button.
5. Click the Allow program or feature
through Windows Firewall link.
6. To allow an exception for Windows
Remote Management on a private
network, scroll down to the
Windows Remote Management
setting and select the check box for
that role under the Home/Work
(Private) column.
7. Click the OK button.
8. Click the Advanced Settings link on
the left side of the screen. You will be
taken to the Windows Firewall with
Advanced Security screen.
9. On the left side of the screen, click
Inbound Rules. A list of inbound
rules will appear.
10. On the right side of the screen, click
New Rule. You will see the screen on
the right:
11. To set a rule to open a port, select the
Port option. Click the Next button.
12. To open a specific port (we will use port 81 in this example), click in the Specific local ports box and type: 81.
13. Click the Next button.
14. On the Action screen, make sure the Allow the connection option is selected and click the Next button. You will see the Profile
screen.
15. Make sure all three check boxes are selected. Click the Next button and the Name box will appear.
16. Click in the Name box and type: Open port 81 for custom app.
17. Click the Finish button. Your new rule will be at the top of the inbound rules list.
18. Close all open windows.

115 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Points to Remember:
• A firewall is set up to control network traffic based on ports, protocols, and programs.
• Windows Firewall has separate settings for public, private, and domain networks.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: Windows Defender and Firewall

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3


Windows Control Panel Utilities: Windows Firewall
Windows Networking; Firewall Settings

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
1.5.f Windows Firewall
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.j Firewall Settings
1.6.j.i Exceptions
1.6.j.ii Configuration
1.6.j.iii Enabling/Disabling Windows Firewall

116| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Configuring an Alternative IP Address
Description:
Most devices, when joining a network, obtain an IP address through a DHCP server. For the vast majority of home networks and
small business networks, this is the only configuration a network adapter will need. However, in larger businesses, an alternative IP
address will occasionally need to be configured. This is especially the case when a device frequently switches back and forth between
networks and one network uses DHCP to manage IP addresses and the other network has devices set to use static IP addresses. If an
alternative IP address is not configured, the device will usually resort to having an automatic private IP address (APIPA) and not be
able to communicate with other devices except for those which also have an APIPA.

In order to configure an alternative IP address, a technician needs to know the following information:

• IP address
• Subnet mask
• DNS server address
• Default gateway address
After completing this project, you will know how to configure a device with an alternative IP address.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If the Control Panel is in the Category view, click Network
and Internet.
2. Click Network and Sharing Center.
3. Click Change Adapter settings.
4. Right-click the network adapter for which you wish to set an
alternative IP address and click Properties.
5. Click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4).
6. Click the Properties button.
7. Click the Alternate Configuration tab.
8. Select the User configured option.
9. Click in the IP address text box and enter an IP address.
10. Click in the Subnet mask text box and enter an IP address to
represent the subnet mask.
11. Click in the Default gateway text box and enter an IP address for
the default gateway.
12. Click in the Preferred DNS server text box and enter an IP
address for the DNS server. A finished set of entries will look
similar to the example on the right:
13. Click the OK button.
14. Click the Close button.

Points to Remember:
• Alternative IP addresses are necessary when a device needs a static IP address for situations in which it cannot obtain an IP
address through DHCP.
• Alternative IP addresses are generally only needed in larger corporate networks.
• To configure an alternative IP address, the IP address, subnet mask, DNS server, and default gateway are needed.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Alternate IP Addresses
Difficulty: Intermediate Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 1.6.k Configuring an alternative IP address in Windows
1.6.k.i IP Addressing
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes 1.6.k.ii Subnet Mask
1.6.k.iii DNS
1.6.k.iv Gateway

117 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Network Card Properties
Description:
As part of setting up and troubleshooting networks, technicians need to be aware of network card properties. Normally, network
card properties are not the cause of a device’s inability to connect to a network. However, a technician still needs to know about the
following network card properties and their characteristics:

Property Characteristics
Duplex Simplex: One-way network traffic. This is a very uncommon setting.
settings Half-duplex: Network traffic is allowed in both directions, but in only one direction at a time. This often shows as an amber
colored light on a network interface.
Full-duplex: Data can be sent and received as the same time. This often shows as a green blinking light on a network interface.
Autonegotiation: The network card automatically sets the speed and duplex settings as needed.
Speed Speed can be set on a network card. When two network interfaces with differing speeds wish to exchange data, the data will only
transfer at the speed of the slower of the two interfaces.
Wake on A network card can receive a signal from a server to turn on a machine when the machine is off or in sleep or hibernation mode.
LAN This feature is used when an administrator needs to send updates to machines during non-business hours. This feature needs to be
enabled both on the network card and in the BIOS.
QoS Quality of Service (QoS) controls network traffic through type prioritization. For example, a higher or lower priority can be given to
an app using a specific port.
BIOS The most common BIOS setting for a network card is the enable/disable setting. For example, if a network card is
settings installed on a computer with an on-board network card, a technician will often disable the on-board network card.

After completing this project, you will know where in a network card’s properties to go to in order to find these features and, if
necessary, configure them.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If the Control Panel is in Category view, click Network and
Internet.
2. Click Network and Sharing Center.
3. Click Change adapter settings.
4. Find the network card you wish to use to view network card
properties, right-click the network card, and click Properties.
5. On the Local Area Connection Properties window, click the
Configure button. You will see the image on the right:
6. Click the Link Speed & Duplex property.
7. Click the drop-down arrow on the value field. You will see
several half-duplex and full-duplex settings, all categorized by
speed.
8. Click Auto Negotiation to choose to let the network card
figure out the speed and duplex mode it needs for its network
connections.
9. Click the Power Management tab. You will see the image below:

10. If you wish to change any Power Management settings,


select or clear any check box for the setting you wish to
change.
11. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Common network card properties to configure include
duplex settings, speed, wake on LAN, QoS, and BIOS
settings.
• The speed in which two network devices communicate is no
higher than the speed of the slower of the two devices.

118| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Networking: Network Card Properties; Power Management

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.6 Given a Scenario, Install and Configure Windows Networking on a Client/Desktop
1.6.l Network Card Properties
1.6.l.i Half Duplex/Full Duplex/Auto
1.6.l.ii Speed
1.6.l.iii Wake on LAN
1.6.l.iv QoS
1.6.l.v BIOS (on-board NIC)

119 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Keeping Computers Updated
Description:
It is important for operating systems and apps to stay updated with the latest fixes and patches for any possible security vulnerabilities.
A technician needs to know how to find these updates and then configure computers to have as automatic of a process as possible
for getting these updates. Many of these updates are known as patches. Patches have many definitions but for the purpose of the
CompTIA definition, a patch is a code fix which fixes a problem with existing software. One of the most important updates to
configure is Windows Update. Windows Update keeps an operating system updated with the latest fixes for functionality and security.
With Windows Update, there are four possible settings:

Always install: Installs are downloaded and installed automatically.


Download but let me choose to install: Updates are downloaded but it is up to the user to decide which installs will run.
Let me choose what to download and install: The user selects which updates to obtain.
Never check for updates: Updates are neither downloaded nor installed.
In addition, updates are classified as important, recommended, or optional. The Microsoft best practice is to always install updates
but a company best practice is defined by company policy. For instance, a company may want to download the updates but test them
against company apps before releasing these updates through a tool such as Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), System Center
Configuration Manager (SCCM), or Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA). This process of testing updates before deploying
them is known as patch management.

For hardware, the most common updates are driver updates, also known as firmware updates. For example, driver updates are
frequently available for printers, video cards, and sound cards. Firmware is code embedded in hardware. Firmware updates are usually
found for devices such as switches and routers. Many of these updates will present themselves automatically. With that said, hardware
should be checked for updates from the hardware manufacturer on a regular basis.
For antivirus and antimalware programs, the most important item to keep up to date is the definition files (sometimes known as
signature files). These files contain the latest fixes for the latest malware. If a system is infected with malware preventing these updates,
boot the computer into Safe Mode with Networking and then attempt to get the definition files. After completing this project,
you will know how to configure Windows Update to get updates when needed. You will also know how to view update history for
Windows.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista,
7, 8, or 8.1 computer,
open the Control Panel.
If necessary, change the
view to the Large icons or
Small icons view.
2. Click Windows Update.
3. On the left side of the
screen, click Change
Settings. Your screen will
look like the image on the
right of the screen:
4. To make sure updates are
received as needed, click
the drop-down arrow on
the field in the Important
updates section and click
Install updates automatically (recommended).
5. To receive recommended updates in addition to important updates, select the Give me recommended updates the same way I
receive important updates check box.
6. To receive updates for Microsoft products (such as Office) when Windows Update runs, select the Give me updates for other
Microsoft products when I update Windows check box.
7. Click the OK button to save your settings changes.
8. To see recent Windows updates, click View update history. A list of recent updates will display.

120| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


9. Close all open Windows.

Points to Remember:
• Windows Update keeps an operating system updated on the latest patches and fixes.
• A patch is a code fix for existing software.
• Hardware needs to be checked for driver or firmware updates on a regular basis.
• Antivirus/antimalware programs need to have their definition files kept up-to-date.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2
System Utilities: Windows Update

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3


Windows Maintenance Procedures: Best Practices

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4. Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.xii Windows Update
1.7 Perform Common Preventive Maintenance Procedures Using the Appropriate Windows OS Tools
1.7.a Best practices
1.7.a.iii Windows Updates
1.7.a.iv Patch Management
1.7.a.v Driver/Firmware Updates
1.7.a.vi Antivirus/Antimalware Updates

121 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Scheduling and Running Backups and Recovery
Description:
A computer’s data needs to be backed up on a regular basis. Backup methods can include the occasional copying of data to an external
drive or network drive or synchronizing data with the cloud. Backups can also be scheduled to run on a regular basis, such as daily or
weekly. The important concept is that the data be backed up on a regular basis. Besides the manual copying of data to an external or
network drive, Windows has a number of backup methods:

Full Image: This is a backup of the entire hard drive. Then, the image can be part of a recovery process should the data need to be
restored. In Windows Vista, the tool is called Complete Backup and Restore. In Windows 7, 8, and 8.1, the System Image tool
creates a full image backup. Windows 7 Professional and later editions of Windows allow for image backups to network locations.
Backup and Restore Center: In Windows Vista and Windows 7, this mechanism allows a user to choose which files and folders
to back up. Windows 7 supports backing up to an external drive (Windows Vista does not).
File History: The backup and restore tool for Windows 8/8.1. This tool functions in a similar way to the Backup and Restore
Center in Windows Vista and Windows 7.
After completing this project, you will have some familiarity with backup tools in Windows operating systems. Note that there are
separate exercises for Windows Vista or 7 computers and for Windows 8 or 8.1 computers.

Steps for Completion


(Windows Vista or 7):
1. On a Windows Vista or 7
computer, open the Control Panel.
2. If the Control Panel is in Category
View, click Back up your computer.
Otherwise, click Backup and
Restore. You will see the image on
the right of the page:
3. Click Set up backup.
4. If you have an external drive to use for backup purposes, click on it and click the Next button. If you are using a network location
for your backup, click the Save on a network button.
5. Click in the Network Location text box and type the location of a network share.
6. Click in the Username text box and type a username with permissions to the network share.
7. Click in the Password text box and type the password for the username you entered in the previous step.
8. Click the OK button.
9. Click the Next button.
10. To choose which items to back up, click the Let me choose option and then click the Next button.
11. To make sure only files are
backed up and not a system
image, clear the Include a system
image of drives check box.
12. Click the Next button. You
will see the following summary
screen on the right:
13. To change the backup schedule,
click the Change schedule link
and set a different schedule.
14. Click the Save settings and run
backup button. After several
moments, the backup will
complete.
15. Close all open windows.

122| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Steps for Completion (Windows 8/8.1):
1. On a Windows 8 or
8.1 computer, open the
Control Panel.
2. If you are in Category
view, click Save backup
copies of your files with
File History. Otherwise,
click File History. You will
see a screen similar to the
one on the right:
3. Click Select a network
location.
4. On the File History drive
screen, click Add network
location.
5. From the list of available computers, double-click the computer on which a share is designated for backups.
6. Click the share to use for the backup location.
7. Click the Select Folder button.
8. Click the OK button.
9. Click the Turn on button. Your files from the Libraries, Desktop, Contacts, and Favorites folders will be backed up on a regular
basis.
10. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• A full image backup is a backup of the entire drive and can be used to do a complete Windows recovery.
• In Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Backup and Restore Center controls the backing up of files and folders.
• In Windows 8/8.1, the File History tool controls the backing up of files and folders.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3
Windows Maintenance Procedures: Best Practices; Maintenance Tools

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and an external drive or network drive to serve as a backup location
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes for each exercise
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.7 Perform Common Preventive Maintenance Procedures Using the Appropriate Windows OS Tools
1.7.a Best practices
1.7.a.i Scheduled Backups
1.7.b Tools
1.7.b.i Backup
1.7.b.iii Recovery

123 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using System Restore
Description:
System Restore is a tool used in Windows to revert a system’s settings to a previous point in time. These settings include installed apps,
updates, and configuration settings. System Restore does not affect files such as Word files, Excel files, or other files created within
apps.

System Restore works off of restore points, which can either be created manually or are automatically created when either a major app
is installed, such as Microsoft Office, or, a Windows update takes place. Should one need to install an app that could cause instability
in a system, a system restore point should be created before the app is installed. This way, the system can be brought back to the state it
was in before the app was installed, if necessary. At the completion of this project, you will know how to create a system restore point
and restore a system using a system restore point.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine, open the Control Panel.
2. If necessary, change the view to either Large icons or Small icons.
3. Click System.
4. In the System window, click System Protection, located on the left
side of the window.
5. Click the Create button.
6. Type a name for the restore point and click the Create button.
Creating a restore point could take several minutes.
7. When a message appears indicating the successful creation of the
restore point, click the Close button.
8. From the System Properties, click the System Restore button. You
will see the introductory System Restore screen.
9. Click the Next button.
10. Choose a restore point (you should at least see the one you created)
and click the Next button. You will see the screen on the right:
11. Click the Finish button. You will see a screen indicating that the
System Restore cannot be interrupted. Click the Yes button to
continue.
12. The restore process can take several minutes. When it is complete, the system will automatically restart.

Points to Remember:
• System Restore allows one to restore the state of a system to a point in time prior to an installation of a major app or a Windows
update.
• System Restore does not affect files created from apps.
• System Restore points can be created manually.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features: System Restore

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 2


System Utilities: System Restore

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Training, Session 3


Windows Maintenance Procedures: Maintenance Tools
Difficulty: Intermediate 1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System
Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer,
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, Administrative Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File
or 8.1 Structure and Paths, Category View vs Classic View
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
Estimated Time to Complete: 20-30 minutes 1.4.f.xi System Restore
Objectives: 1.7 Perform Common Preventive Maintenance Procedures Using the Appropriate Windows
1.0 Windows Operating Systems OS Tools
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems 1.7.b Tools
(Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1) 1.7.b.ii System Restore

124| Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Scheduling and Running Disk Maintenance Tasks
Description:
Just like the inside of a computer needs to be maintained, disks need to be maintained as well. For Windows computers, there are two
main disk maintenance tasks which need to be run on a regular basis:

Disk Defragmenter: As data is written to sectors on magnetic hard disk drives, fragments of data are scattered throughout those
sectors. The more fragmented the drive becomes, the slower the drive performance. Defragmentation rearranges the data on the
drive to where fragments of files are closer together on the hard drive. Defragmentation is not needed on solid-state drives as data
is not written across disk sectors on solid-state drives.
Disk Cleanup: To reclaim some disk space, temporary Internet files, setup log files, and temporary files should all be deleted. The
Recycle Bin should be emptied. The Disk Cleanup tool performs these tasks, thus allowing a computer to regain some disk space.
Disk Defragmentation is scheduled, by default, to run on a weekly basis. The defragmentation schedule can be changed in the Disk
Defragmenter tool settings or in Task Scheduler. Disk Defragmenter is covered in detail in another project in this workbook. After
completing this project, you will know how to run the Disk Cleanup tool on a hard drive.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open Windows
Explorer (File Explorer on Windows 8/8.1).
2. Right-click the C: drive and click Properties.
3. If necessary, click the General tab. Click the Disk Cleanup
button. You will see a screen similar to the one on the right:
4. In the Files to delete list, select any check box not currently
selected.
5. Click the OK button. When you are asked if you are sure
you wish to delete these files, click the Delete Files button.
6. After several moments, the disk cleanup will complete.
7. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Disk Defragmenter moves fragments of files closer to each
other on magnetic hard disk drives.
• Disk Cleanup deletes temporary files, empties the Recycle
Bin, and deletes setup log files.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems
Training, Session 3
Windows Maintenance Procedures: Best Practices; Maintenance
Tools

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.7 Perform Common Preventive Maintenance Procedures Using the Appropriate Windows OS Tools
1.7.a Best practices
1.7.a.ii Scheduled Disk Maintenance
1.7.b Tools
1.7.b.iv Disk Maintenance Utilities

125 | Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies, fill in the missing words
according to the information presented by the instructor. [References are found in the brackets.]

Mac and Linux Operating Systems


1. is used to back up data on iOS devices. [Mac Best Practices]

2. The feature is used to verify, repair, and back up iOS hard drive disks. [Disk Maintenance]

3. Firmware updates for iOS devices can be downloaded from the area of the Apple website.
[System Updates]

4. The keyboard combination is used to display the recovery hard drive on an iOS device. [Mac
Tools]

5. is used to view a computer remotely using an iOS device. [Screen Sharing]

6. The iCloud service synchronizes file, photo, mail, , and calendar data. [iCloud]

7. A gesture is used to go backward and forward in Safari. [Gestures]

8. The iOS Finder tool is used to locate files, , and folders. [Finder and Remote Disk]

9. Boot Camp is an iOS feature used to install a operating system on an Apple device. [Boot Camp]

10. The command shows what a Linux command can do inside of the terminal. [Linux Commands]

Client-Side Virtualization
11. Virtual machines are used for and training purposes. [Purpose of Virtual Machines]

12. In order to operate virtual machines, a computer will need enough RAM, a powerful , a fast
network connection, and a large enough hard drive. [Resource Requirements]

13. An emulator is a piece of which allows a host machine to act as a guest machine. [Emulator
Requirements]

14. need to be stored in a secure location. [Security Requirements]

Basic Cloud Concepts


15. IaaS is used to provide storage capacity and management tools to users through . [Infrastructure
as a Service]

16. Public, private, , and community are cloud types. [Cloud Types]

127 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


17. The three categories of resource pooling are compute, , and storage. [Resource Pooling]

Network Services
18. , mail, and authentication are network server types. [Server Types]

19. One example of is the combination of antimalware software and a firewall. [Internet Appliances]

20. A legacy system or application is anything related to . [Legacy and Embedded Systems]

Mobile Operating System Features


21. Android is an example of an operating system. [Android, iOS, and Windows]

22. Apps are purchased and installed on Android devices using the . [App Sources]

23. The of a mobile device is often used in video games. [Screen Orientation and Calibration]

24. iOS applications are written in C, Objective-C, and programming languages. [Software
Development Kits]

Mobile Device Connectivity and Email


25. The ensures email is always kept on a corporation’s server. [Corporate Email
Configuration]

26. All that is needed to set up an outlook.com account is a . [PRI Updates]

27. An is a unique number every mobile phone has. [Radio Firmware]

Mobile Device Synchronization


28. Third-party programs like Google Drive, , and OneDrive are often used to synchronize
documents. [Types of Data to Synchronize]

29. Two-way authentication is simply when a authenticates to a and a

authenticates to a . [Mutual Authentication]

30. Any synchronization to a PC is typically performed using a . [Connection Types for


Synchronization]

128 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Mac Best Practices
Description:
Macs are considered to be fairly self-reliant with maintenance and update tasks. However, there are still some best practices to follow
with maintenance and update tasks on a Mac. Maintenance and update best practices can fall into several categories. Here are those
categories, along with a description and best practices for each category:

Category Best Practices


Scheduled backups Many Mac items can be exported to an archive. Two possible ways to back up files are to synchronize them with iCloud or a
third-party cloud storage tool. The best practice for using a scheduled backup is to use Time Machine, since Time Machine
runs an hourly backup by default.
Scheduled disk Disk maintenance typically happens automatically on a Mac, but the Disk Utility can be run if a disk problem is suspected.
maintenance
System updates System updates can be automatically turned on through System Preferences. Apps can be set to automatically download to
other Macs belonging to the same Apple ID. The Last Check shows the time of the last automatic updates. Password saving
and re-entry policies can be controlled for both free apps and purchased apps.
Patch management Most Mac apps have automatic updates, so long as automatic updates are enabled. Third-party tools can help manage system
patches.
Driver/Firmware Firmware update notifications are usually automatic but can be downloaded from the support area of Apple’s website. If a gray
updates screen appears and freezes the system, detach and disable non-Mac add-ons and run a disk check. Driver updates come from
the respective device manufacturers.
Antivirus/Antimal- Third-party antivirus/antimalware tools are available. Keep the definitions on these tools updated.
ware updates

After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of best practices for maintenance and updates on a Mac.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each best practice situation, identify the tool one can use to fulfill the listed need:

a. A cloud-based storage tool to which to back up files:

b. A disk maintenance problem is suspected:


2. If you have a Mac available, to look at the configuration for system updates, click the Apple logo near the top-left corner of the
screen.
3. Click System Preferences. You will see the following:

129 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


4. Click the App Store icon. You will
see a screen similar to the screen on
the right:
5. Make sure the first four check boxes
are selected.
6. Close the App Store window.

Points to Remember:
• A Mac has several best practices for
maintenance and updates.
• Updates can be controlled through
System Preferences.
• For suspected disk problems, launch
the Disk Utility.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2:
Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mac and Linux Operating Systems: Mac Best Practices; Create a Backup; Disk Maintenance; System Updates

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A Mac with OS X
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.1 Identify Common Features and Functionality of the Mac OS and Linux Operating Systems.
2.1.a Best Practices
2.1.a.i Scheduled Backups
2.1.a.ii Scheduled Disk Maintenance
2.1.a.iii System Updates/App Store
2.1.a.iv Patch Management
2.1.a.v Driver/Firmware Updates
2.1.a.vi Antivirus/ Antimalware Updates

130 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Mac Tools
Description:
Macs have several maintenance tools technicians can use to make sure a user’s Mac is performing at its optimum level, and that the
data is backed up on a regular basis to protect the data from destruction due to a hardware failure or accidental deletion. In addition,
Macs have unique tools used for allowing remote access and for terminating an app which is open but has stopped working. Here are
some common tools used on Macs, along with a description of each:

Tool Description
Time Machine Used to set up automatic backups for a Mac. A second hard drive or network location is needed. Backups take place every hour.
Hourly backups are consolidated into a daily backup once a day. Daily backups are consolidated into weekly backups once a
week. Weekly backups are kept until disk space runs out. When disk space is needed, the oldest backups are removed.
Restore/Snapshot If a file or folder needs to be restored, it can be restored from Time Machine. MacBooks will take a snapshot of a hard drive
while the drive using Time Machine is disconnected from the MacBook. Then, when the drive using Time Machine is recon-
nected, the backups move to that drive.
Image Recovery Disk images can be created using the Disk Utility tool. These images can be created from a disk or a folder on the disk. These
images can be used to recover files and folders in case files or folders need to be restored.
Disk Utility Similar to Disk Management in Windows, Disk Utility can create, expand, and shrink partitions. Disks can be mounted, un-
mounted, and formatted.
Shell/Terminal A command prompt app used to run commands and scripts and can be used to access other machines through Secure Shell
(SSH). Terminal is a UNIX-based app used to run commands, many of which are similar to Linux commands.
Screen Sharing An app which allows others to remotely access a Mac, similar to Remote Desktop Connection in Windows. Permissions need to
be given to any user or group needing access to the machine (or they can be given globally). Screen Sharing can use the Virtual
Network Computing (VNC) protocol to allow a Windows or Linux machine to remotely access a Mac.
Force Quit Allows a user to terminate an app at any time. This becomes necessary when an app stops responding. The Force Quit feature is
available from the Apple menu.

On the rare occasion that a system disk needs to be recovered, there are three methods one can use to recover OS X. All of these
methods involve the use of a recovery hard drive (Recovery HD), which contains installation files used to restore OS X (OS X does
not come on a DVD):

Starting up: Hold down the Option key and the letter R as the Mac starts up. From startup manager, the choices for using the
Recovery HD are to restore the hard drive from a Time Machine backup, reinstall OS X, or use the Disk Utility to fix, erase, or
partition a hard drive.
Internet recovery: Hold down the Option key and the letter R as the Mac starts up. When presented with a choice of Wi-Fi
networks, choose a Wi-Fi network and the recovery will begin with the installation coming over the Wi-Fi connection.
Physical recovery disks: A bootable OS X flash drive needs to be created. To start the process, download the OS X Installer from
the Mac App Store. Mount a USB drive and then, using Terminal, use the createinstallmedia command to create the bootable
disk. Then, with the flash drive in the Mac hold down the Option key during startup and choose a Wi-Fi connection. The script
needed for creating a bootable disk is found at https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201372.
After completing this project, you will be able to determine which tool should be used on a Mac given a situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the Mac tool to use:

a. A technician needs to connect to another machine through SSH:

b. A user wants to make sure files are backed up on a regular basis:

c. A user has an app which is no longer responding:


2. If you have a Mac with OS X, take the time to explore some of the tools covered in this project.

Points to Remember:
• Automated backups can be set up through Time Machine while manual backups can be done through creating disk images.
• Terminal is the command prompt app used to run commands. Many commands are similar to Linux commands.
• Screen Sharing allows others to access a user’s Mac.
• Force Quit allows one to terminate an app which is no longer responding.
131 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mac and Linux Operating Systems: Mac Tools; Screen Sharing

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None but having a Mac to use to practice these features would help
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes (add 5-15 minutes if practicing these features)
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.1 Identify Common Features and Functionality of the Mac OS and Linux Operating Systems
2.1.b Tools
2.1.b.i Backup/Time Machine
2.1.b.ii Restore/Snapshot
2.1.b.iii Image Recovery
2.1.b.iv Disk Maintenance Utilities
2.1.b.v Shell/Terminal
2.1.b.vi Screen Sharing
2.1.b.vii Force Quit

132 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Mac Features
Description:
In addition to knowing the best practices for maintaining a Mac, and tools used to manage and configure a Mac, a technician needs to
know how to support some of the basic features of a Mac. Here are several key features of Macs, along with a description of each:

Mac Feature Description


Multiple Also known as Mission Control, this allows for multiple desktops to be present, with each desktop acting as its own set of short-
Desktops cuts and open apps.
Keychain A central place for storing passwords while logged onto the machine. The keychain can be customized to control which pass-
words are stored and which ones are not stored.
Spotlight A search feature which allows for searching within apps, folders, the web, and Wikipedia.
iCloud The online cloud storage space for Macs and iOS devices. Through iCloud, users can synchronize documents, music, videos,
pictures, and other files across all of their devices, using an Apple ID as the central point for synchronization.
Gestures Finger movements which can be made on a trackpad to navigate around a Mac. These are similar to navigating directly on an
iPhone or iPad. These gestures work primarily on the Safari web browser but can work on other apps. Examples of gestures
include:
• Pinch and spread: Zooms in and out on the screen.
• Two-finger double tap: Magnifies a block.
• Two-finger swipe: A left two-finger swipe moves back a screen while a right two-finger swipe moves to the next
page (if there is one).
• Three or four-finger swipe: Swipes between full-screen apps.
• Two-finger swipe from right edge of trackpad: Show the notification area.
• Up or down swipe with three fingers: Displays Mission Control.
• Three-finger swipe downward: Shows One-App Expose.
• Pinching with three fingers and thumb: Displays the Launchpad.
• Spreading three fingers and thumb: Shows the Desktop.
• Three fingers on word or map area: Shows the definition of the word or other data feature.
• Tap once in lower-right corner of track pad: right-click
Finder Shows and helps to organize files, folders, and drives.
Remote Disk Disk shared from another machine. Disks can be shared through System Preferences and accessed through the Finder.
Dock Area at the bottom of the screen which stores shortcuts to apps, files and folders. The left side of the dock holds shortcuts to ap-
plications while the right side of the dock holds shortcuts to files and folders.
Bootcamp A feature which allows a Mac to run Windows and allows for an easy restart to Windows from a Mac or OS X from Windows.

Many of these features can be configured through System Preferences, which is accessible from the Apple menu in the top-left corner
of the desktop. At the conclusion of this project, you will know which Mac features apply to user situations and you will have some
familiarity with these features.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each user situation, identify the Mac feature the user is working with:

a. User is accessing a DVD drive from another machine:

b. User is running Windows 8 on a Mac:

c. User is storing passwords from frequently-visited websites:


2. If you have a Mac, to access the Finder, click the Finder icon, located on the left side of the dock. The Finder icon looks
like the icon on the right:

133 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


3. Double-click the Applications folder to see the apps installed on your particular Mac.
4. Click and drag the calculator app down to the left side of the dock.
5. Click and drag the iBooks app down to left side of the dock.
6. To remove an app from the dock, click the iBooks app and drag it off of the dock.
7. To configure how the dock appears, click
the Apple icon near the top-left corner of
the screen and click System Preferences. The
System Preferences window will appear.
8. Click the Dock icon. You will see the image
on the right:
9. If you wish to change the position of the dock
on the screen, select a different option than
the option selected.
10. To make sure the dock does not automatically
hide when the mouse is not focused on it,
make sure the Automatically hide and show
the dock check box is cleared.
11. To show indicator lights on open
applications, make sure the Show indicator
lights for open applications check box is
selected.
12. Click the red dot in the top-left corner of the
Dock window to close it.
13. Move your mouse over the dock location. The dock will appear.
14. On the dock, click the Calculator app. The Calculator app will open and an
indicator light will show below the app on the dock.
15. To search for a term using Spotlight, click the magnifying glass near the
top-right corner of the screen.
16. Click in the Spotlight text box and type: icloud. You will see the results on
the right:
17. If you wish to see the web search results or Wikipedia search results for
iCloud, click the respective links.
18. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Macs have many features technicians need to have a basic knowledge of in
order to support these features.
• The Finder shows folders, files, and applications installed on a Mac.
• The Spotlight allows for a simultaneous machine, web, and Wikipedia
search.
• The Dock stores shortcuts to apps, files, and folders.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mac and Linux Operating Systems: Multiple Desktops; Keychain; Spotlight; iCloud; Gestures; Finder and Remote Disk; Boot Camp; Dock

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 15-20 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies 2.1.c.v Gestures
2.1 Identify Common Features and Functionality of the Mac OS and Linux Operating 2.1.c.vi Finder
Systems 2.1.c.vii Remote Disk
2.1.c Features 2.1.c.viii Dock
2.1.c.i Multiple Desktops/Mission Controls 2.1.c.ix Boot Camp
2.1.c.ii Keychain
2.1.c.iii Spotlight
2.1.c.iv iCloud

134 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Linux Commands
Description:
Not all commands run on computers are Windows commands. A technician may occasionally need to support a computer with
Linux as its operating system. To help support a Linux machine, there are a number of commands which can be run. Many of these
are similar to the command-line tools one sees on a Windows machine. Here is a list of common Linux commands, along with a
description of each one:

Command Description
ls Lists directory contents. This is similar to the dir command in Windows.
grep Used to find text or a pattern of text within files and folders.
cd Changes directories. Unlike Windows, directory names in Linux are case-sensitive. For example, “Documents” and “documents” are
two separate directories.
shutdown Shuts down a Linux machine. Similar to Windows, the shutdown –r command shuts down and restarts Windows.
pwd Displays the name of the current working directory on the screen.
passwd Used to change a user’s password.
mv Moves files from one directory to another directory.
cp Copies files and directories from one location to another.
rm Removes files or directories.
chown Changes ownership of a file or directory. For example, the chown tekkievets1 test command changes the ownership of the test file
to the tekkievets user. One needs administrative permissions in order to run this command.
ifconfig Similar to ipconfig in Windows as it displays the IP address of a computer and related information, such as the subnet mask. The
ifconfig command can also be used to configure a network interface controller (NIC).
iwconfig Similar to ifconfig but works for wireless interfaces.
ps Shows a report of all processes. This is similar to the tasklist command in Windows.
q Used to run a query, which is a specific search for files and folders.
su Used to change a user ID or become a superuser, the Linux equivalent of an administrator.
sudo Used to run a command as a superuser. This is similar to running an elevated command prompt in Windows.
apt-get A command line tool for installing packages. Often, this needs to be run with a superuser account. For example, sudo apt-get
install emacs installs the emacs text application.
vi Used as a text editor. The newer version of this is the vim command.
dd Converts and copies files. This is often used to copy a hard drive image from one partition to another.
One more Linux command to be familiar with is the chmod command. The chmod command changes the mode (permissions) on files
and folders. There are three entity types on which permissions can be changed:
u: user
g: group
o: others
There are three permission types which can be assigned on files and folders in Linux:

r: read
w: write
e: execute
Mode bits (permissions on entities) are changed with a + or – designation. For example, the command chmod u+r test adds read
permissions (r) to the users group (u) on the test file.

To get information on any Linux command, in a Terminal window type the word man and then the command. The word man is short
for manual. This is the equivalent of the /? command in Windows. For example, typing man ls in a Linux command prompt and then
pressing the Enter key will show the different ways in which the ls command is used.

After completing this project, you will know which Linux commands to use given a user situation.

135 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Steps for Completion:
1. For each situation, identify the Linux command to be used:

a. A user needs to move files from one directory to another:

b. An administrator needs to install the latest version of the vim package:

c. An administrator needs to find out what the IP address is on a machine:

d. A user wants to find the text “fox” inside of the files in a folder:

e. An administrator needs to find out the full path of the current working directory:

f. An administrator needs to change permissions on a directory:


2. If you have a Linux installation, launch the Shell/Terminal app and obtain the manual for each command covered in this project.
For example, use man cp to see how the cp command is used.

Points to Remember:
• Many Linux commands are similar to Windows commands.
• The man command shows help on a command for usage, attributes, and other characteristics.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mac and Linux Operating Systems: Linux Commands; Linux File Commands; Linux Administrative Commands

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None, but a Linux installation is necessary in order to practice these commands
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes (add 15-20 more minutes if practicing these commands)
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.1 Identify Common Features and Functionality of the Mac OS and Linux Operating Systems
2.1.d Basic Linux Commands
2.1.d.i ls
2.1.d.ii grep
2.1.d.iii cd
2.1.d.iv shutdown
2.1.d.v pwd vs. passwd
2.1.d.vi mv
2.1.d.vii cp
2.1.d.viii rm
2.1.d.ix chmod
2.1.d.x cd
2.1.d.xi chown
2.1.d.xii iwconfig/ifconfig
2.1.d.xiii ps
2.1.d.xiv q
2.1.d.xv su/sudo
2.1.d.xvi apt-get
2.1.d.xvii vi
2.1.d.xviii dd

136 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Client-Side Virtualization
Description:
Virtual machines have gained in popularity over the last several years. A virtual machine is a software-run complete operating system
which resides inside of an operating system on a physical machine. For example, a computer with Windows 8.1 installed could have
virtual machines for older versions of Windows, Linux, and even Windows Server. This allows a computer user several additional
computing options, including:

Learning: With multiple operating systems installed, a computer user can train on multiple operating systems.
Testing: A user or technician can test applications in different operating systems and test patches and fixes for existing operating
systems.
Legacy applications: Having a virtual machine allows an app which is incompatible with the user’s current operating system
to run on a different operating system. For example, a computer with Windows 8.1 installed can run, through virtualization,
Windows 7 and apps that only run in Windows 7.
Virtual machines are managed by hypervisors. Hypervisors are software apps which manage the virtual machines and the hardware
they are allocated. Examples of hypervisors include Hyper-V (Microsoft’s hypervisor), VMware, and VirtualBox. With virtualization
comes requirements. Here are some of those requirements, along with a description of each requirement:

Requirement Description
Resources Processors: Multi-core processors are needed so that virtual machines can be set to use one or more cores.
RAM: To run virtual machines effectively, at least 8 GB of RAM is needed on the physical computer. The more RAM, the
better.
NIC: A NIC should be Gigabit Ethernet as virtual machines will share the network card resources.
Disk Space: Though virtual machines can be set to dynamically use disk space (meaning use disk space as needed), virtual
machines will still take a large amount of disk space.
Emulator Hardware or software which enables a hypervisor to use host features, such as a DVD drive or USB port. Whatever a virtual
machine wants to use has to be available and supported by the physical machine. For example, in order to run a 64-bit operating
system on a virtual machine, the physical machine has to support 64-bit virtual machines.
Security The same security requirements one would enforce on physical machines needs to be enforced on virtual machines, especially if
those virtual machines will be on any network. The folder hosting the virtual hard disks needs to be secure as well.
Network Virtual machines will usually use a virtual network card created by the hypervisor on the host machine. One administering
virtual machines needs to make sure the machines have different MAC addresses as to avoid conflict on a network.

At the completion of this project, you will have a better understanding of how client-side virtualization works.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what is needed for a solid client-side virtualization environment.
a. Which are factors that determine the viability of a physical machine hosting virtual machines?

b. What are examples of hypervisors?

c. Which NIC will a virtual machine most likely use?


d. Which folder on a host machine needs to be secure when the host machine hosts virtual machines?

2. To try out a hypervisor, download VMware Player from https://my.vmware.com/en/web/vmware/free#desktop_end_user_


computing/vmware_workstation_player/12_0 or VirtualBox from https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads. You will also need
installation media for an operating system to install an operating system on a virtual machine.

Points to Remember:
• The purpose of client-side virtualization is to be able to run multiple operating systems on a single physical machine.
• A hypervisor is a software tool which manages virtual machines. Examples include Hyper-V, VMware, and VirtualBox.
137 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
• Resource, emulator, security, and network requirements all need to be taken into consideration when considering client-side
virtualization.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Client-Side Virtualization: Purpose of Virtual Machines; Resource Requirements; Emulator Requirements; Security Requirements; Network
Requirements; Hypervisor

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None unless you want to work with a hypervisor
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes (add at least an hour if you are going to get a hypervisor and then create a virtual
machine)
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.2 Given a Scenario, Setup and use Client-Side Virtualization
2.2.a Purpose of Virtual Machines
2.2.b Resource Requirements
2.2.c Emulator Requirements
2.2.d Security Requirements
2.2.e Network Requirements
2.2.f Hypervisor

138 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Types of Cloud Infrastructures
Description:
Cloud computing is a type of computing in which at least part of a company’s infrastructure moves from physical, on-premises
computing to hosted computing from a centrally managed location. The advantages of cloud computing include easier scalability
(expansion) and the lack of a need to physically administer equipment. Disadvantages include the need to rely on a stable and fast
Internet connection for most cloud services and the knowledge that a different entity is managing company data. There are three main
types of cloud services:

Software as a Service (SaaS): Instead of software being purchased and installed, software is licensed via a subscription and is
centrally hosted. Examples of this include Office 365 (a subscription-based model for Office) and Office Online.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): A cloud service which provides storage capacity and management tools. Examples include
System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) and Hyper-V Cloud Server.
Platform as a Service (PaaS): A cloud service which hosts development, service hosting, and service environments. Examples
include Azure and SQL Server with a database that can be accessed.
In addition to determining which types of cloud services best suit a company, choosing the correct cloud type is very important. There
are four main cloud types:

Public: Cloud computing hosted through a service provider. Examples include: Amazon Web Services, Office 365, and Google
Apps.
Private: Cloud computing hosted and controlled solely within an organization. One example of this is System Center VMM.
Hybrid: Cloud computing with both public and private aspects. This combines the scalability of a public cloud and the security of
a private cloud. For example, a company can use a public development platform (like Amazon Web Services) but can then send
the data from that environment to a private data center.
Community: Similar to a private cloud but is accessible by two or more organizations. A community cloud could also use a
public cloud while still having the security and privacy of a private cloud. An example of this would be a dedicated Amazon Web
Services platform with a healthcare app which has the security of a private cloud.
After completing this project, you will be able to identify which types of cloud infrastructures are needed given a customer situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each customer situation, identify the type of cloud service (SaaS, IaaS, or PaaS) and cloud type (Public, Private, Hybrid, or
Community):

Situation Service Type


A business wants to transfer its secure data storage to the cloud:
a. b.
A company wants to subscribe to Adobe Creative Cloud:
c. d.
A financial services company wants to develop its major business app
and make it public but keep the data private: e. f.
Points to Remember:
• Cloud services have three main types: Software as a Service (SaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), or Platform as a Service
(PaaS).
• The four main cloud types are: Public, Private, Hybrid, and Community.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Basic Cloud Concepts: Software as a Service; Infrastructure as a Service; Platform as a Service; Cloud Types

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives: 2.3.b IaaS
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies 2.3.c PaaS
2.3 Identify Basic Cloud Concepts 2.3.d Public vs. Private vs. Hybrid vs. Community
2.3.a SaaS

139 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Other Basic Cloud Concepts
Description:
In addition to understanding cloud services and cloud types, a technician also needs to know about cloud concepts involving scalability,
resources, and reporting. Here are those basic cloud concepts, along with a description of each:

Concept Description
Rapid This is also known a scalable provisioning. Scalability is the ability to quickly expand an infrastructure. Rapid elasticity, then, involves
elasticity the ease in which a cloud infrastructure can be scaled up or down. An example of rapid elasticity is the ability to immediately provi-
sion additional servers in a cloud infrastructure such as Azure or Amazon Web Services.
On-demand A concept in which users have access to cloud resources as needed. For example, a test server may be provisioned, but it is only on
and in use when it is needed. Many cloud providers charge by uptime. Thus, if a resource is not needed, it should be turned off.
Resource The ability to combine resources in a cloud computing infrastructure. Three categories of resource pooling are:
pooling Compute: A collection of all of the CPU capabilities in servers.
Networks: These can be set up and configured in such a way as to allow anytime, anywhere access for data.
Storage: With elasticity, storage can be increased easily. Often, this is done through storage pools.
Measured Measuring and monitoring from a cloud provider. This will usually include reports for billing and resource use. In some cases, a cloud
service provider will suggest an infrastructure plan on a report.

At the end of this project, you will better understand how basic cloud computing concepts are applied in cloud computing situations.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the cloud computing concept in use:
a. A database server is provisioned for testing purposes. When the testing is done, the server is deleted:

b. A 3 TB storage pool is created for a large data warehouse:


c. A report is generated showing the number of hours each cloud server was up for in the last month:

d. Four servers which will serve as a server farm for SharePoint are up and running in a matter of an hour:

Points to Remember:
• Rapid elasticity defines the ease in which a cloud computing infrastructure can be scaled up or down.
• On-demand resources are only on when they need to be on.
• Resource pooling combines computing, networking, and storage resources for maximum cloud performance.
• Measured services involves the monitoring and reporting aspects of cloud computing.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Basic Cloud Concepts: Rapid Elasticity; On-Demand Computing; Resource Pooling; Measured Service

Difficulty: Intermediate

Required Materials: None


Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.3 Identify Basic Cloud Concepts
2.3.e Rapid Elasticity
2.3.f On-demand
2.3.g Resource Pooling
2.3.h Measured Service

140 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Server Roles
Description:
Though an A+ technician is not usually called upon to perform major server administrator tasks, a technician still needs to be aware
of the most common types of servers and the roles they play in a network infrastructure. Here are those server roles, along with an
explanation of each role:

Role Explanation
Web server A server which hosts websites and web services. Two prominent web servers are Internet Information Server (IIS) and Apache.
File server A server which serves as a central access point for files of all types.
Print server A server which hosts printers. Devices can then connect to the print server, download drivers, and install printers.
DHCP server A server which allows for the setup of IP address pools for the purpose of using DHCP to distribute IP addresses to clients join-
ing the network.
DNS server A server which maps hostnames to IP addresses. DNS servers use Host entries (known as A files) to store matching hostnames
and IP addresses. 13 root DNS servers worldwide store the vast majority of host entries.
Proxy server Used to control Internet traffic. When a client machine in a private network goes through a proxy server to get to the Internet, the
data packets have the IP address of the proxy server, not the client machines. Some proxy servers can also serve as content filters.
Mail server A server which hosts email. This can be either an on-premises server or a server in the cloud. Microsoft Exchange is an example of
a mail server.
Authentication A server which validates a user and device claim to a network. An example of this is a RADIUS server which authenticates some-
server one trying to connect to a network through a VPN.

Upon completion of this project, you will know which server role fulfills a given customer need.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the server role which is either in use or needs to be implemented:
a. An administrator creates an entry to map a server named SharePoint to an IP address of 10.1.1.4:

b. A user needs to install a printer without having to navigate through a manufacturer’s website:

c. A server which will block some social media sites from company employees needs to be set up:
d. A server needs to validate an attempt from a user to get into a corporate network through a VPN:

Points to Remember:
• A+ technicians need to be aware of the most common roles servers play in a network infrastructure.
• Many servers can be hosted either on-premises or in the cloud.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Network Services: Server Roles; Server Types

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies 2.4.a.vi Proxy Server
2.4 Summarize the Properties and Purpose of Services Provided by Networked Hosts 2.4.a.vii Mail Server
2.4.a Server roles 2.4.a.viii Authentication Server
2.4.a.i Web Server
2.4.a.ii File Server
2.4.a.iii Print Server
2.4.a.iv DHCP Server
2.4.a.v DNS Server

141 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Other Network Host Services
Description:
In addition to understanding server roles, a technician needs to have a basic understanding of software and devices which help protect
a network from threats. Three tools used to protect networks from threats are:

Unified Threat Management (UTM): A security appliance and/or software tool which contains a combination of any of the
following: antivirus/antimalware, firewall, proxy server, content filtering, spam filtering, intrusion detection system, intrusion
prevention system, and network access control. The more robust the tool, the higher the number of features available.
Intrusion Detection System (IDS): A hardware and/or software device which monitors network traffic and detects attacks. It can
then notify an administrator of a possible attack. Most IDS devices are pre-configured to look for abnormalities in network traffic.
An administrator can customize an IDS configuration to suit a company network’s protection needs.
Intrusion Prevention System (IPS): A device which is similar to an IDS but can actually prevent an attack. For example, an IPS
can restart a router if the router has a spike in overall traffic or a spike in traffic for a given protocol.
A technician also needs to be aware of legacy systems and/or embedded systems present in a company infrastructure. Here is a
definition of each of these systems:

Legacy: A system and/or application which has aged to the point to where it is no longer supported by the manufacturer. For
example, Windows XP is no longer supported by Microsoft. Thus, there are no more available security updates. For this and other
legacy systems, this is a large risk in that when support is dropped, there is no more protection against malicious attacks.
Embedded: Hardware and/or software designed for a particular function. Examples include Smart TV and Industrial Control
Systems (ICS).
After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of network protection devices, legacy systems, and embedded
systems.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the type of network protection device in use:

a. Software which detects a high number of ICMP packets and notifies an administrator:

b. A hardware device which detects a high number of TCP requests and resets the affected router:
2. For each description, identify whether a legacy or embedded system is in use:

a. Windows Server 2003:

b. A device which controls temperature gauges:

Points to Remember:
• Network protection devices (UTM, IDS, IPS) watch for, detect, and prevent network intrusions.
• Legacy systems are systems which are no longer supported by the manufacturer.
• Embedded systems are designed to perform specific functions.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Network Services: Internet Appliances; Legacy and Embedded Systems

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.4 Summarize the Properties and Purpose of Services Provided by Networked Hosts
2.4.b Internet Appliance
2.4.b.i UTM
2.4.b.ii IDS
2.4.b.iii IPS
2.4.c Legacy/Embedded Systems

142 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Overview of Mobile Operating Systems
Description:
There are three major mobile operating systems an A+ technician needs some familiarity with: Android, iOS, and Windows. While
these three operating systems have a lot of similarities in that they all host apps and they all have basic settings which can be
configured on mobile devices, how the operating systems do these tasks is what separates these systems. Here are some common
characteristics for mobile operating systems, including a description of each characteristic along with, where applicable, differences
among the three major mobile operating systems:

Characteristic Description
Open source An operating system or app which has its code available to anyone for the purpose of enhancing and redistributing the system
or app. Linux and Android (a derivative of Linux) are examples of an open source operating system. This is the reason differ-
ing Android devices have slightly differing versions of the Android operating systems.
Closed source An operating system or app which does not make its code available. iOS and Windows are closed source operating systems.
App source For mobile devices, the majority of apps are obtained from a specific location. The locations for each operating system are as
follows:
Android: Play Store
iOS: App Store
Windows: Store (sometimes called the Windows Store)
With Android devices running an open source operating system, apps do not need to necessarily reside in the Play Store in
order to be obtainable.
Screen On tablets, phablets, and smartphones, screens will change orientation as a user holding the device changes the angle of the
orientation device. Two important terms:
Accelerometer: The part of the mobile device which detects movement on the device.
Gyroscope: The part of the device which maintains orientation through the amount of tilt in the mobile device.
Screen Most Android devices have a calibration app (or one can be downloaded from the Play Store). A calibration app is used to
calibration make sure when a spot on the screen is tapped, the device reacts correctly.
GPS A Global Positioning System (GPS) is a standalone device or an app on a mobile device which helps to determine the exact
location of a device.
Geotracking Geotracking records the location of a mobile device and tracks the movement of the device. An example of this is map soft-
ware on a smartphone or software which indicates where one parked a car.
Wi-Fi calling Allows for one to make phone calls over a Wi-Fi network instead of a cellular network. This is a good feature to have when
one cannot get a cellular connection due to being in a basement or similar area. However, the call quality will become chop-
pier the further one is from a wireless access point.
Launcher A screen app for an Android device which allows for customizing the home screen. In some cases, the home screen can be
dynamic based on most frequently used apps or most frequently accessed calls.
Virtual assistant Voice-activated help on a mobile device. For Android devices, the help varies depending upon the device. For iOS devices, the
virtual assistant is known as Siri. For newer Windows devices, Cortana is the virtual assistant.
SDK A Software Development Kit (SDK) has software development tools for an operating system. Android apps are written in
Java, iOS apps are written in C, Objective C, and Swift, and Windows apps are written primarily in C# and Visual Basic.
APK Android Application Package (APK) is an Android file format for distribution and installation of app software.
Emergency A service which exists on most smartphones for items such as weather alerts or Amber alerts. Many devices also have a fea-
notification ture which allows one to bypass the usual screen unlock and make an emergency phone call.
Mobile payment Allows one to store a debit or credit card on a mobile device and then use the device as a payment method in places which
service support mobile payments. Apple Pay and Android Pay are two mobile payment apps.

At the end of this project, you will be able to determine which mobile operating system characteristic is being used given a user
situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the mobile operating system characteristic being used:

a. A developer get tools to help develop apps on the Android platform:

143 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


b. A mobile device shows an alert letting a user know of traffic problems from home to work or work to home:

c. A user verbalizes a wish to find a local restaurant into a mobile device:


d. A user has a custom home screen on an Android device. The screen changes shortcuts depending upon the frequency in which

apps are used:

e. A user needs an app to fine-tune touch responses on a mobile device.

2. Where will a user go to download apps on an iOS device?

3. Where will a user go to download apps on a Windows device?


4. What makes it possible for apps to be obtainable on Androids from places other than the App Store?

Points to Remember:
• The three main mobile operating systems a technician needs to know about are Android, iOS, and Windows.
• Android is an open source operating system while iOS and Windows are closed source operating systems.
• Screen orientation is controlled through an accelerometer and a gyroscope.
• Geotracking records the location of a mobile device and tracks the movement of the mobile device.
• Many devices have virtual assistants, which allow one to verbally search for information on the device.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Operating System Features: Android, iOS, and Windows; App Sources; Screen Orientation and Calibration; GPS and Geotracking; Wi-Fi
Calling; Launcher; Virtual Assistant; Software Development Kits; Emergency Notification

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None but having a mobile device to use to explore some of these concepts would help retain the material
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.5 Identify Basic Features of Mobile Operating Systems
2.5.a Android vs. iOS vs. Windows
2.5.a.i Open Source vs. Closed Source/Vendor Specific
2.5.a.ii App Source (Play Store, App Store and Store)
2.5.a.iii Screen Orientation (Accelerometer/Gyroscope)
2.5.a.iv Screen Calibration
2.5.a.v GPS and Geotracking
2.5.a.vi Wi-Fi Calling
2.5.a.vii Launcher/GUI
2.5.a.viii Virtual Assistant
2.5.a.ix SDK/APK
2.5.a.x Emergency Notification
2.5.a.xi Mobile Payment Service

144 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Enabling and Disabling Cellular Network Features
Description:
Cellular devices, such as smartphones and some tablets, can often share their cellular connections with other devices to give other
devices Internet access. The two main ways this happens are:

Mobile hotspot: A mobile hotspot is configured on the mobile device. Then, other devices such as laptops and desktops can find
the mobile hotspot and use the credentials configured on the mobile hotspot to use the hotspot to access the Internet. A secure
password should be set for the mobile hotspot. In addition, hotspots can restrict which devices can use it through MAC address
filtering.
Tethering: A USB cable is connected from the mobile device to another device, such as a laptop. The laptop can then directly use
the mobile device’s cellular network for an Internet connection.
Sometimes, a mobile device needs to be completely isolated from any networks, as is often the case when one is traveling on an
airplane. For this, the device can be set to Airplane mode. In Airplane mode, the device will have no network connectivity.

After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of how to enable and disable cellular network features.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify which cellular network feature should
be enabled or disabled:
a. A user needs to isolate a device from the network:

b. A user wants to allow several other devices to use the user’s

cellular network connection:


c. A user has a laptop and needs Internet access but there are no
wireless access points around. However, the user’s smartphone is

getting a strong cellular signal:


2. If you have an Android or iOS device, look in the Settings area for
the ability to turn Airplane mode on or off, set up a hotspot, and, if
you have a USB cable, set up tethering. The screen for enabling or
disabling Airplane mode on an Android device will often look like
the example above and to the right:
3. The screen for setting up a mobile hotspot or tethering will look
like the example on the right:

Points to Remember:
• A mobile hotspot allows for several devices to share a mobile device’s cellular connection.
• Tethering uses a USB cable to connect a device to a mobile device and use the mobile device’s cellular connection:
• Airplane mode is a mode in which a device is completely isolated from all networks.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Connectivity and Email: Hotspots; Tethering; Airplane Mode

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None but having an Android and iOS devices to practice these concepts will help solidify the concepts
covered in this project

Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes plus 5 minutes for each device on which one practices
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email
2.6.a Wireless/Cellular Data Network (Enable/Disable)
2.6.a.i Hotspot
2.6.a.ii Tethering
2.6.a.iii Airplane mode
145 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Pairing Devices using Bluetooth
Description:
With the increase in use of mobile devices, the need for mobile device accessories has increased as well. People need to be able to get
music on their smartphones to play over speakers. People with tablets sometimes want to use wireless keyboards with those tablets. For
many of these accessories, a Bluetooth connection is needed in order for a device to pair with an accessory. With Bluetooth, devices
can see each other from up to about 30 feet apart for a Class 2 Bluetooth connection and about 300 feet apart for a Class 3 Bluetooth
connection.

Pairing devices using Bluetooth involves a five-step process:

Enable Bluetooth: To pair two devices, Bluetooth needs to be enabled on both devices. On mobile devices, this is usually found in
the settings area.
Enable pairing: A device will have a setting to make it discoverable. This scans the area for other Bluetooth devices.
Find device for pairing: Once scanning has taken place, a list of devices which can be paired will appear.
Enter appropriate PIN: For most pairing situations, a four-digit PIN needs to be entered. If a PIN is not needed, a simple
acknowledgement of wanting to pair devices is all that is needed.
Test connectivity: Once the devices are paired, test the pairing to make sure it works.
After completing this project, you will know how to go through the five steps needed to pair two devices using Bluetooth. For this
project, the steps pair a Bluetooth keyboard with an iPad. Steps for pairing an accessory with an Android device will be similar.

Steps for Completion:


1. On the two devices you wish to pair, make sure Bluetooth is
enabled and the devices are discoverable.
2. Look for a list of devices to pair with the mobile device. Your
device should show as available.
3. Tap the device you wish to pair with your current device. You will
see a message similar to the one on the right of the page:
4. Follow the instructions given to pair the devices. When the pairing has completed, you should see a confirmation message, similar
to this:

5. Test the connection to make sure it works.

Points to Remember:
• Bluetooth is used to pair mobile devices with accessories.
• To pair two devices using Bluetooth, Bluetooth must be enabled on both devices and the devices need to be discoverable.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Connectivity and Email: Enable Bluetooth and Pair Devices; Test Bluetooth

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Two Bluetooth devices
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies 2.6.b.iv Enter Appropriate PIN Code
2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email 2.6.b.v Test Connectivity
2.6.b Bluetooth
2.6.b.i Enable Bluetooth
2.6.b.ii Enable Pairing
2.6.b.iii Find Device for Pairing

146 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Configuring Corporate Email on Mobile Devices
Description:
A skill a technician must have to support users and their mobile devices is to be able to configure email for corporate accounts, Internet
Service Providers (ISPs), and commercial email accounts. Configuring these email accounts used to be a manual, laborious process.
Most of the time, the process is now at least somewhat automated. A technician should be able to find instructions from an ISP, for
example, on what to enter for information when configuring an ISP email account on a mobile device. When configuring these email
accounts, some incoming and outgoing email server information needs to be known just in case the information needs to be entered
manually. These terms are:

Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3): POP3 is one of two protocols used to receive email. Users have the option of
downloading email messages directly to their devices or to keep a copy of email messages on the email server. A technician needs
to check this setting while configuring POP3. Most devices default to keeping email messages on the email server.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP): IMAP is the other, and now more common protocol used to receive email. Unlike
POP3, IMAP always keeps a copy of email messages on their hosting email servers.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): SMTP is used to send outgoing email.
When configuring a corporate or ISP email account on a mobile device, a technician may need to enter POP3 or IMAP and SMTP
servers manually. In addition to entering email server information, port numbers may need to be entered manually as well. A
technician needs to know if the email account is using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption or Transport Layer Security (TLS) as
that will affect the port numbers entered when configuring the email account. The port numbers for email protocols are as follows:
• SMTP: 25 • IMAP: 143 • POP3S (POP3 over SSL): 995
• POP3: 110 • SMTPS (SMTP over SSL): 465 • IMAPS (IMAP over SSL): 993
Many corporate email accounts use Microsoft Exchange as an email server. For this information, the username and password
information to access one’s email may be enough to get the account configured. If not, a technician will need to manually enter some
of the information mentioned earlier in this project. Exchange server uses Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME)
as a standard for public key encryption of email data. After completing this project, you will have a better understanding as to how to
set up a corporate email account on a mobile device. This project uses an Android tablet. Steps for a smartphone or iOS device will be
similar to the steps in this project.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a mobile device, open the email program.
2. Find the settings area and then tap the option to add an email account. You will see a screen similar to the one on
the right:
3. Tap Microsoft Exchange (or, if this is an ISP email account, tap Other).
4. Enter the username and password information used to log into the email account.
5. Tap the Next button.
6. When you see the server settings screen, check to make sure the information is accurate, change any information
necessary, and tap the Next button.
7. After several moments, your connection to your email account should be complete and email should start to
appear in the email app.

Points to Remember:
• For connecting a device to a corporate or ISP email account, the email address and password are the minimum amount of
information needed.
• In addition to the email address and password, a technician may need to manually add incoming and outgoing email servers and
port numbers.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Other Operating Systems and Technologies Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Training, Session 1
Objectives:
Mobile Device Connectivity and Email: Corporate Email
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
Configuration 2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email
2.6.c Corporate and ISP Email Configuration
Difficulty: Advanced 2.6.c.i POP3
2.6.c.ii IMAP
2.6.c.iii Port and SSL Settings
Required Materials: A mobile device and a corporate or ISP 2.6.c.iv Exchange, S/MIME
email account to use for the project
147 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Commercial Email Configuration
Description:
In addition to knowing how to configure a mobile device to receive email from a corporate or ISP account, a technician also needs
to know how to configure a mobile device to receive email from a commercial email provider, such as Gmail, Yahoo, outlook.com, or
iCloud. Here are the specifics for what a technician typically needs to do to configure each of these commercial email accounts:

Account Specifics
Gmail The username and password of the Gmail account is needed. If one has to enter the SMTP server manually, the address is smtp.gmail.
com.
Yahoo The username and password of the Yahoo account is needed. If one has to enter email server information manually, the server addresses
are as follows:
POP3: pop.mail.yahoo.com
IMAP: imap.mail.yahoo.com
SMTP: smtp.mail.yahoo.com
Outlook.com A Microsoft account with a password is needed.
iCloud Turning on mail in iCloud settings gets a user an iCloud email account (if the user does not already have one). Email will then be
synchronized with iCloud.

Note that for some of these commercial email providers (especially Gmail), some mobile email programs will not be considered
secure enough for the providers and thus an attempt to use the email program could be rejected. If this happens, the user will get an
email notification from the commercial email provider, notifying the user that the app they attempted to use to configure email has
substandard security.

When configuring these email accounts on an iOS device, all of these providers can be found under the Add Account setting in
the Mail, Contacts, and Calendars settings area. For Android devices, email apps and settings will vary from brand to brand. After
completing this project, you will have a better understanding as to how to configure a mobile device to receive email from a commercial
email provider. This project is done using an Android smartphone. For iOS devices, the steps will vary slightly.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a mobile device, open the native email app.
2. Tap Add Account.
3. From the list of email providers, choose an email provider. You will see a
screen resembling the screen on the right:
4. Enter the username and password for the email account.
5. Tap the Next button. If the information has been entered correctly, you
will see a confirmation message that the email account has been added and
incoming mail will start to arrive in the email app.

Points to Remember:
• Four major commercial email providers are Gmail, Yahoo, outlook.com, and iCloud.
• Each of the major commercial email providers have slightly different steps for configuring email for a mobile device but they all
require the correct username and password.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Connectivity and Email: Commercial Provider Email Configuration

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: An Android or iOS device and a commercial email account to which to connect
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies 2.6.d.ii Yahoo
2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email 2.6.d.iii Outlook.com
2.6.d Integrated Commercial Provider Email Configuration 2.6.d.iv iCloud
2.6.d.i Google/Inbox

148 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Other Mobile Device Network Concepts
Description:
To successfully work with users and their mobile devices, A+ technicians need to know how to set up hotspots, connect accessories via
Bluetooth, and set up corporate and commercial email accounts. There are some other basic underlying network concepts for mobile
devices a technician needs to know in order to best understand how mobile devices interact with networks. These concepts, along with
a description of each concept, are listed here:

Concept Description
PRI, PRL, Primary Rate Interface (PRI) line: A type of ISDN line in which each channel provides 64 Kbps for data transmission.
and baseband Telecommunications providers may have occasional updates for these lines.
updates Preferred Roaming List (PRL): A list of radio frequencies for phone use in geographic areas. A PRL update can update phone
coverage. This is not used in all cellular networks.
Baseband updates: These update the chip which controls the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and radio
firmware. These updates are often packaged with system updates.
Radio Hardware in a smartphone or tablet which controls network connectivity such as Wi-Fi and GPS. This is usually updated as part of
firmware a regular firmware update.
IMEI vs. IMSI International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI): A unique number for every mobile phone. This number is usually located behind
the battery.
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI): A unique identifier for a wireless subscriber. This identifier consists of a mobile
country code + a mobile network code + a sequential serial number and is stored on a SIM card.
VPN A virtual private network (VPN) is a private tunnel connection using a public network. To set up a VPN, the name of the server and
authentication information is needed. Common protocols used for VPN tunnels include:
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP): L2TP uses IPsec to encrypt data in the tunnel.
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP): PPTP is commonly used with Microsoft VPN connections. It is not considered
as secure as L2TP.

After completing this project, you will have furthered your understanding of these basic mobile device network concepts.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the mobile device network concept being described:

a. A SIM card stores a unique identifier for a wireless subscriber:

b. A user wants to use a mobile device to get a secure connection to the workplace:

c. A list of radio frequencies for use in geographical areas:

Points to Remember:
• Mobile devices occasionally receive PRI, PRL, baseband, and radio firmware updates.
• IMEI is a unique identifier for every mobile phone while IMSI is a unique identifier for a wireless subscriber.
• VPN connections on mobile devices are very similar to VPN connections from desktop computers.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Connectivity and Email: PRI Updates; Radio Firmware; VPN

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None, unless you are setting up a VPN connection on a mobile device
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email
2.6.e PRI Updates/PRL Updates/Baseband Updates
2.6.f Radio Firmware
2.6.g IMEI vs. IMSI
2.6.h VPN

149 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Synchronization Data Types and Methods
Description:
It is very important that data on a mobile device be synchronized either with a storage app in the cloud or with a regular desktop
computer through a desktop synchronization app. The exact types of data which synchronize from a device to the cloud or a desktop
app will vary. Here are the most common types of data to synchronize, along with a description of the data which synchronizes for
each data type:

Data Type Description


Contacts Email and phone contacts are synchronized.
Programs Data from programs can synchronize across devices. An example of this is visited websites in a web browser such as Safari or
Google Chrome.
Email Email, when synchronized, is available both on mobile devices and desktop computers. With IMAP, email is always kept on the
email server. With POP3, email could download to a device.
Pictures Pictures from a device can be easily sent to a desktop with a USB cable.
Music Music is often selected through a desktop app and then downloaded to mobile devices.
Videos Videos are synchronized in the same fashion as for pictures and music. One caution to take is that video synchronization can use a
large amount of mobile bandwidth.
Calendar Appointments can be made using a desktop application and then synchronize to mobile devices, or, they can be made on mobile
devices and synchronize to a desktop application.
Bookmarks Favorites on websites can be synchronized across devices.
Documents The most common apps for document synchronization are OneDrive, Google Drive, and Dropbox.
Location data Location data is often synchronized across devices to make each device more user-friendly regarding anything location-dependent.
For example, Google Maps often saves searched locations, so one can search on a desktop but then be able to pull up the location
easily in the maps app on a device.
Social media This data can be synchronized but data is usually simply stored in a social media app and then viewed from a mobile device.
data
eBooks Purchases are usually synchronized to devices but often the eBooks still need to be downloaded on each device.

To synchronize this data, two main synchronization methods are used:

Synchronization to the cloud: Data on the mobile device is synchronized with a cloud app. Examples include iCloud for iOS and
OneDrive for Windows. Synchronization apps for Android devices will vary depending upon the device. Google Drive is a cloud
storage app which is commonly used with Android devices.
Synchronization to the desktop: Data on the mobile device is synchronized with a desktop app. Examples of desktop apps
include iTunes for iOS, Google Drive for Android devices, and OneDrive for Windows. Another common app used across
multiple platforms is Dropbox. The requirements for these desktop apps usually include enough disk space to hold the data being
synchronized and at least 1 GB of RAM.
The advantage of synchronizing data to the desktop is that most desktop versions of apps are more robust than the mobile device
versions of these apps. For example, Microsoft Office for the desktop is far more robust than Microsoft Office for iOS or Android
devices. When synchronizing data with the desktop, the mobile device will usually connect to the desktop through a cable with
a USB-A connector on one end and either a mini-USB or proprietary connector on the other end. While not as likely as a USB
connection, a mobile device can, under some circumstances, synchronize with a desktop through Bluetooth or an infrared connection.
Some synchronization services use mutual authentication, also known as two-way authentication. In this authentication process,
a client authenticates with the synchronization app and the app authenticates with the client, thus ensuring that data is being
synchronized with the correct device. After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of how to control data which
synchronizes from a mobile device to a cloud application. This project uses iCloud as the synchronization app.

Steps for Completion:


1. Which are important system requirements to note when installing a desktop app for the purpose of synchronizing data with

mobile devices?

150 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


2. Which type of cable is most commonly used for synchronizing mobile

device data with a desktop computer?


3. If you have an iOS device, open the Settings app.
4. Navigate to and tap the iCloud settings. If you have an iCloud account,
you will see the synchronization choices on the right:
5. Make any adjustments necessary to the data types you wish to
synchronize or not synchronize.
6. To see synchronized data in iCloud, open a web browser and navigate to
http://icloud.com.
7. Log into the iCloud site with your Apple ID.
8. Click on an app to see the data which has synchronized with your iOS
device.
9. Close the web browser.

Points to Remember:
• Many different types of data can be synchronized between a mobile device
and the cloud and/or a desktop app.
• Disk space is the most important requirement when considering desktop
synchronization.
• The most common way to connect a mobile device to a desktop computer
is to use a USB cable.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Other Operating Systems and Technologies Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Synchronization: Types of Data to Synchronize; Synchronization Methods; Mutual Authentication; Software Requirements on a PC;
Connection Types for Synchronization

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: An iOS device and an iCloud account for the hands-on portion of the project
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
2.7 Summarize Methods and Data Related to Mobile Device Synchronization
2.7.a Types of Data to Synchronize
2.7.a.i Contacts
2.7.a.ii Programs
2.7.a.iii Email
2.7.a.iv Pictures
2.7.a.v Music
2.7.a.vi Videos
2.7.a.vii Calendar
2.7.a.viii Bookmarks
2.7.a.ix Documents
2.7.a.x Location Data
2.7.a.xi Social Media Data
2.7.a.xii eBooks
2.7.b Synchronization Methods
2.7.b.i Synchronize to the Cloud
2.7.b.ii Synchronize to the Desktop
2.7.c Mutual Authentication for Multiple Services
2.7.d Software Requirements to Install the Application on the PC
2.7.e Connection Types to Enable Synchronization

151 | Domain 2: Other Operating Systems A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security, fill in the missing words according to the information presented
by the instructor. [References where answers are found are in brackets.]
Common Threats and Vulnerabilities
1. Spyware uses the on websites to share a user’s browsing history to advertising agencies. [Malware]

2. A is designed to take over the administrative areas on a computer. [Malware]

3. Phishing attacks come in the form of . [Phishing]

4. A spear phishing attack targets a specific or individual. [Spear Phishing]

5. Spoofing is the act of a legitimate entity in an attempt to obtain sensitive data. [Spoofing]

6. is an example of social engineering. [Social Engineering]

7. If an attack takes place before a is aware of it, it is known as a zero day attack. [Zero Day Attack]

8. The is the attacker in charge of a botnet. [Zombie/Botnet]

9. Brute-force and attacks are common types of passwords attacks. [Password Attacks]

10. is used to teach users about security best practices. [Security Violations]

11. Tailgating is the act of following an individual into a secure area. [Tailgating]

Prevention Methods
12. is a part of who you are authentication. [Physical and Document Security]

13. An is a list of people who can access a secure area. [Physical and Document Security]

14. The three factors of authentication are , something you have, and something you are.
[Authentication]

15. software is used to detect data breaches and protect sensitive data no matter its state. [Other
Digital Security Factors]

Windows Security Settings


16. Administrators, , and standard users are common Microsoft user types. [Users and Groups]

17. The three levels of share permissions are Read, Read/Write, and . [NTFS vs. Share Permissions]

18. BitLocker is used to encrypt entire . [BitLocker]

153 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Workstation Security
19. Any computer device or system should have a . [Password Best Practices]

20. are often used by hotels. [Account Management]

21. SSH, , and AES are encryption standards used for data in motion. [Data Encryption]

Mobile Device Security


22. Screen locks include face, swipe, passcode, and locks. [Screen Locks]

23. A is an example of an authenticator application. [Authenticator Applications]

24. A trusted application source for iOS devices is the . [Trusted and Untrusted Sources]

25. A policy is often set in place by corporations who allow employees to use personal devices at
work. [Policies and Procedures]

Data Destruction and Disposal


26. A shredder can be used to destroy paper, CDs, , and credit cards. [Physical Destruction]

27. A is an item that proves a physical item was destroyed. [Recycling and Repurposing Best
Practices]

Securing SOHO and Wireless Networks


28. Decreasing the RF power level decreases the distance of a signal and its speed. [Securing
Wireless Networks]

29. MAC filtering ensures only specified can access a wireless network. [MAC Filtering]

30. When it comes to physical security, if it can be , it should be secured. [Physical Security]

154 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Types of Malware
Description:
Malware, a word which originates from the term malicious software, is malicious software with the intent to disrupt functionality on a
computer. Many people think all malware are viruses, but a virus is only one type of malware. Here are the different types of malware,
along with a definition of each type:

Malware Definition
Spyware Used to snoop computers for information. Sometimes, this is covertly included with software installed on a system. An example of
this is a user’s web cookies being spied on and then the information is turned over to advertisers with the intent of flooding the user
with advertisements.
Virus Malicious code needing a carrier in order to carry out an attack on programs, files, and/or boot sectors. Virus types include:
Polymorphic: A virus which morphs to avoid antivirus software
Stealth: A virus which hides from antivirus software
Multipartite: A virus which affects multiple components (files and boot sectors, for example)
Worms Malicious code needing no carrier in order to propagate itself.
Trojans Known as Trojan horses. An imposter program which claims to be a helpful program but is actually malicious in nature.
Rootkits Software which is masked and has the purpose of damaging root/administrative areas on a computer, such as the Master Boot Record
(MBR).
Ransomware Code which compromises data (usually through encryption). The initiator then demands money for the fix (usually a decryption key).

After completing this project, you will be able to better identify malware by its type.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the type of malware taking place:
a. A user installs software which ends up encrypting the user’s data folders and a message appears stating it will send a

decryption key when the user pays $500:


b. A program claims to be an antivirus program but when installed it turns out to be a multipartite virus:

c. An Excel macro is run on a machine and ends up, unbeknownst to the user, renaming several system files:

d. A system is infected with malware which damages the MBR:

Points to Remember:
• Malware, known as malicious software, comes in several different forms. Malware is not just a single virus or set of viruses.
• Viruses need a carrier in order to propagate while worms do not need a carrier in order to propagate.
• Viruses come in many forms, including polymorphic, stealth, and multipartite.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Security Training, Session 1
Common Threats and Vulnerabilities: Malware

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.1 Identify Common Security Threats and Vulnerabilities
3.1.a Malware
3.1.a.i Spyware
3.1.a.ii Viruses
3.1.a.iii Worms
3.1.a.iv Trojans
3.1.a.v Rootkits
3.1.a.vi Ransomware

155 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Common Security Threats and Vulnerabilities
Description:
In addition to malware, covered in the previous project, there are many other types of security threats and vulnerabilities a technician
needs to be aware of. While an A+ technician is not necessarily in charge of trying to mitigate these threats and vulnerabilities, a
technician needs to be aware of these threats and vulnerabilities. A vulnerability is a possible weakness in a computer setup, the
weakness being a source for a possible attack. A threat is a possible action to an asset (such a computer) which often preys upon
vulnerabilities. For example, a weak password on a computer is a vulnerability. The possibility of an attacker obtaining that weak
password and using it for malicious purposes is a threat. Here are some common threats and vulnerabilities, along with a description of
each:

Threat/Vulnerability Description
Phishing An attack in which an email looks like it is from a legitimate company but is asking for personal
information, such as usernames, password, or account numbers.
Spear phishing A phishing attack with a specific target in mind, such as a specific organization or specific individual, usually with a
prominent title.
Spoofing An attack in which someone or something impersonates a legitimate entity and obtains data through that imperson-
ation. For example, an attacker can steal a MAC address and then spoof a device with that MAC address, allowing that
device to get onto the network and steal data and/or launch an attack.
Social engineering The act of getting people to give up information, usually through some type of impersonation. For example, a help desk
imposter could call a user while posing as a help desk technician and solicit username and password information from
the user.
Shoulder surfing The act of looking over someone’s shoulder (usually through an inconspicuous camera) to view and/or record what is
being typed. This information can then be used to launch an attack at a later point in time.
Zero-day attack An attack in which a software vulnerability is taken advantage of. The attack is called a zero-day attack because software
vendors have zero days of notice before the attack takes place.
Zombie/Botnet A zombie is a computer used to carry out an attack on a network. A network of zombies is a botnet,
controlled by a host computer known as a command and control server.
Brute forcing An attack in which all possible guesses are made to break into data. This includes guessing on decrypting data and
guesses are made on passwords.
Dictionary attacks An attack in which one uses dictionary words to attempt to guess a password or part of a password.
Tailgating The act of a person illegitimately following someone into a building after that person enters legitimately.
Man-in-the-Middle An attack in which one intercepts data going from a source to a destination. This can range from a network transmission
to intercepting a conversation between two people over instant messaging.
Companies should have rules which govern what systems need to have for an operating system, antivirus and antimalware software,
and other rules to limit vulnerabilities. Systems which do not meet this criteria are usually partially or completely quarantined from
the network until they are brought into compliance. For example, a company policy can state that no machines with Windows XP are
allowed and such machines will be in quarantine until they are upgraded to a newer operating system.

Companies should also make sure all users know what the best practices are for security. The two main ways to accomplish this are
through setting and enforcing an acceptable use policy (AUP) and, simple training of end-users for what is acceptable and what is not
acceptable. Users should also clearly know the consequences of violating these policies.

Should a security violation be detected, the following steps, where applicable, should be followed:
• Notify the security team • Restore security
• Restrict access where needed • Implement prevention measures, including an emphasis on
• Shut down any device where needed further end-user training.
• Record the event

Upon completing this project, you will be better equipped to recognize common security threats and vulnerabilities.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the threat or vulnerability taking place:
a. An individual claiming to be a plumber states that access is needed to pipes near the secure documents area:

b. An attacker is using phrases like “pass” and “word” to try to guess someone’s password:
156 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
c. An attacker takes over a network of computers and uses them to launch an attack on the rest of the network:

d. An email is sent to a company CFO asking for bank information in order to fix a problem with the bank account:

e. An employee swipes a smart card to enter a building and is followed in by someone who did not swipe a smart card to enter

the building:

Points to Remember:
• Threats and vulnerabilities come in many forms.
• Non-compliant systems are systems more vulnerable to an attack due to a lack of a proper operating system, proper antivirus or
antimalware software, or proper security.
• Users should know and follow a company’s acceptable use policy and should know the consequences of not following said policy.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Common Threats and Vulnerabilities: Malware; Phishing; Spear Phishing; Spoofing; Social Engineering; Shoulder Surfing; Zero Day Attack;
Zombie/Botnet; Password Attacks; Non-Compliant Systems; Security Violations; Tailgating; Man-in-the-Middle

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.1 Identify Common Security Threats and Vulnerabilities
3.1.b Phishing
3.1.c Spear Phishing
3.1.d Spoofing
3.1.e Social Engineering
3.1.f Shoulder Surfing
3.1.g Zero Day Attack
3.1.h Zombie/Botnet
3.1.i Brute Forcing
3.1.j Dictionary Attacks
3.1.k Non-Compliant Systems
3.1.l Violations of Security Best Practices
3.1.m Tailgating
3.1.n Man-in-the-Middle

157 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Physical Security
Description:
An aspect of security which is often overlooked is that of physical security. Technicians and administrators can spend many hours
making sure servers, workstations, and mobile devices are secure, but if someone can walk into a building without authorization and
take those items, all the work done to secure these items will be for naught. Here are some aspects to consider for physical security,
along with a description of each:

Physical Security Aspect Description


Lock doors Keep doors to secure areas locked. Make sure only those who need a key have a key.
Securing physical documents Desks should be clear of any documents which contain sensitive information, including passwords. This is often
known as a clean desk policy.
Shredder Any physical documents which are no longer needed should be shredded. This helps combat dumpster diving,
the act of going through trash to find personal and/or confidential information.
Mantrap A room between two security doors. The purpose of a mantrap is to trap someone who came in through the
first door when not authorized to do so.
Cable lock Similar to a bike lock, a cable lock can help secure items such as laptops to desks.
Biometrics A form of authentication in which a part of a person is used, such as fingerprints, a retina scan, or facial recog-
nition.
ID badges A card with a picture, usually used to authenticate one to physical areas of a building.
Key fobs A device which displays a number which changes on a regular basis. One needs to enter that number to au-
thenticate into a system. This device often attaches to a keychain. These devices are also known as tokens.
Radio Frequency Identification A badge which is waved toward a badge reader to trigger an action, such as open a door.
(RFID) badge
Smart card A credit-card like device with a chip which stores authentication information. Some devices, such as laptops,
have smart card readers.
Privacy filters A shield which dims a monitor screen and cuts off the angles of people trying to see what is on a screen. These
help guard against shoulder surfing.
Entry control roster Roster which lists who can access an area. Often, IDs need to be verified and escorts provided for people on
the entry control roster.

At the completion of this project, you will have a better understanding of what to recommend for a physical security device given a
security situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, indicate the device needed to ensure better physical security:

a. An employee needs to have a fingerprint read in order to enter a high-security area of a building:

b. Drafts of contracts which have been printed are no longer needed:


c. A person tailgates behind an employee into an entry way, with a second secure door to go through:

d. An employee waves a badge at a reader and a door opens:

e. A card with a chip is used to pay for supplies at a supply store:

f. An employee wants to minimize the risk of shoulder surfing:

Points to Remember:
• Physical security is a very important part of overall security in any area in which there are computers and sensitive data.
• Data (especially on paper) should never be left out to where others can easily see it.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Prevention Methods: Door Locks and Mantraps; Physical and Document Security

158 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.2 Compare and contrast common prevention methods
3.2.a Physical security
3.2.a.i Lock Doors
3.2.a.ii Mantrap
3.2.a.iii Cable Locks
3.2.a.iv Securing Physical Documents/Passwords/Shredding
3.2.a.v Biometrics
3.2.a.vi ID Badges
3.2.a.vii Key Fobs
3.2.a.viii RFID Badge
3.2.a.ix Smart Card
3.2.a.x Tokens
3.2.a.xi Privacy Filters
3.2.a.xii Entry Control Roster

159 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Digital Security
Description:
Physical security is just one aspect of securing a work environment. Digital security, the securing of the data in a computing
environment, is of utmost importance. While an A+ technician is not likely to be in charge of digital security, a technician should know
about the following digital security concepts and details:

Digital Security Concept Details


Antivirus/Antimalware Always have at least one antivirus/antimalware program available and keep the definitions updated. Antivirus/
antimalware programs should scan on a regular schedule and definition files must be kept up to date.

Firewall Firewalls control network traffic through allowing or blocking traffic based mainly on ports, protocols, and
programs. Network-based firewalls control traffic for an entire network while host-based firewalls run on
individual workstations.

Strong passwords All passwords should have the following characteristics: At least eight characters long, with at least three of the
four character types: uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and special characters.
Virtual private networks (VPN) A VPN is a private connection over a public network. Authentication information and data need to be en-
crypted as to keep the data from being intercepted and read.
Disabling ports Any port which is not legitimate for handling traffic should be disabled. This includes ports used for apps a
company deems inappropriate for the workplace.
Access control lists Used in firewalls to allow or block types of traffic. This can also refer to a list of users and groups which have
permissions to a resource, such as drives, folders, or files.
Email filtering App or email server service which blocks spam email and malware in email. In many cases, junk mail filtering
can be done on a client machine.
User authentication The act of proving an identity. This is usually done with a username and password. The three factors of authen-
tication are:
What you know (username, password, PIN)
What you have (smartcard, badge)
Who you are (biometrics)
When two or more factors of authentication are used, multifactor authentication is taking place.
Data Loss Prevention (DLP) Software used to detect potential data breaches. DLP works to block sensitive data while in use, in motion, and
at rest.
Smart card A card with a chip which holds authentication information. This is usually about the size of a credit card.
Trusted/Untrusted software sources Trusted software sources have been verified by Microsoft, Apple, Google, or other OS sources.
Untrusted software has not been verified.

One more aspect of digital security, directly related to Linux systems, is that of directory permissions. When listing permissions on
files and folders, the permission line shows what file owners, group members, and individuals can do with files with respect to read (r),
execute (x), and write (w) permissions.. Here is an example: -rxwrw-r--

In this permission line, the first character is a - for file and d for directory. The second three letters indicate what the file owner can do
(rxw). The next three letters signify permissions for group members (rw). The last three letters show permissions for all other users (r).
At the end of this project, you will be better equipped to identify which digital security concept is being used or needs to be used given
a digital security situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each digital security situation, identify what should be done, given the concepts covered in this project:
a. What should be employed to minimize the risk of email containing malware arriving in an inbox?

b. How can a technician best block a file-sharing app which does not belong in the workplace?

c. Is 54Ready an example of a strong password (yes/no)?


d. A company needs to use multifactor authentication for server logins. Besides a password, what else would fulfill this need?

Points to Remember:
• Digital security is of great importance just as physical security is of great importance.
160 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
• Digital security starts with having strong passwords on all accounts.
• Access to data should be controlled as tightly as possible.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Prevention Methods: Digital Security; Password Security; Directory Permissions; Ports and Connections; Authentication; Other Digital Security
Factors

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.2 Compare and contrast common prevention methods
3.2.b Digital Security
3.2.b.i Antivirus/Antimalware
3.2.b.ii Firewalls
3.2.b.iii User Authentication/Strong Passwords
3.2.b.iv Multifactor Authentication
3.2.b.v Directory Permissions
3.2.b.vi VPN
3.2.b.vii DLP
3.2.b.viii Disabling Ports
3.2.b.ix Access Control Lists
3.2.b.x Smart Card
3.2.b.xi Email Filtering
3.2.b.xii Trusted/Untrusted Software Sources

161 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


User Policies and Privileges
Description:
In addition to physical security and digital security, user security is also very important in the overall security structure of a company.
With users, there are three main areas of focus for user security:

User education: Users should be trained and occasionally retrained to follow basic security principles. Examples of these principles
include:
• Never giving out a password
• Being careful as to where one goes on the Internet
• Keeping antivirus software definitions updated
• Locking the machine when walking away from it
Acceptable use policy (AUP): Every company should have an AUP. An AUP governs what users can and cannot do with the
company computers. It should also include what the consequences are for violating these policies. Users should read and sign the
policy.
Principle of Least Privilege: Users should have the permissions they need to do their work but only the permissions they need.
It is best to start users with no permissions to resources and then add permissions as needed. A system should be in place to
get approval of permission requests. For example, just because a salesperson thinks permissions should be granted on a human
resources folder does not mean the salesperson should get permissions on that folder. A manager should be the one approving or
rejecting the permission request.
Upon completing this project, you will be familiar with the principle of least privilege. You will also be familiar with an acceptable use
policy.

Steps for Completion:


1. There are three available permissions for folders: Read, Read/Write, and Full Control. Indicate which of the three each user group
should have in the following scenarios:

a. A sales group needs to update sales files:

b. A human resources group needs to view sales files:

c. A marketing group needs to view sales files:


2. Using an online search engine, search for and find an example of an AUP. If time permits, customize the AUP to fit a business you
know of.

Points to Remember:
• Users need to be educated on what is acceptable and what is not acceptable for computer use.
• An AUP defines what is acceptable and not acceptable and the consequences of violating the AUP.
• Users should be given permissions to resources based upon the principle of least privilege.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Prevention Methods: User Education; Principle of Least Privilege

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A web browser
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.2 Compare and contrast common prevention methods
3.2.c User Education/AUP
3.2.d Principle of Least Privilege

162 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Standard Windows Users and Groups
Description:
Though users and groups for most users in a corporate environment are centrally controlled through Active Directory, an A+
technician needs to know how to set up proper permissions for local machines should a need arise to share files and folders locally, as is
often the case with a small business. There are two built-in accounts with Windows:

Administrator: Has complete permissions on the computer to install, configure, and change anything necessary.
Guest: Has standard access on the computer but cannot install software. The account does not have a password associated with it.
Built-in accounts are easy targets for attackers, mostly due to their common name. These accounts are disabled by default in Windows
and should continue to be disabled due to their vulnerability of being used in an attack.

There are several built-in groups for Windows accounts. Three prominent groups are:

Users: Can run applications and work with files but cannot install apps which will affect system-wide settings without having
their permissions elevated.
Administrators: Have complete control over files, apps, installations, and controlling permissions.
Power Users: Can install programs but do not have the same permissions as administrators do. For example, they do not have
access to all users’ files on a computer. The Power Users group is not relevant with the advent of User Account Control (UAC)
and its ability to elevate an account to administrative-level permissions when installing apps. It is merely included for backward
compatibility with Windows XP.
At the conclusion of this project, you will have a further understanding of local users and groups on a Windows system, including the
ability to add a user and then add that user to a group.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine, open Administrative Tools via the Control Panel.
2. Double-click Computer Management to open the Computer Management window.
3. On the left side of the screen, click Local Users and Groups. You will see two folders: Users, and Groups.
4. Click the Users folder.
You will see a list of users,
similar to this:
5. Look for a black arrow
on the icons for the
Administrator and Guest
accounts. This indicated the
accounts are disabled. If either account does not have a black arrow on the icon, right-click the account and click Properties and
then select the Account is disabled check box and click OK
to set the account to be disabled.
6. Right-click in the blank space and click New User. You will
see the screen on the right:
7. Click in the User name box and type a username of your
choice.
8. Click in the Password text box and type: APlus2016.
9. Click in the Confirm Password text box and type:
APlus2016.
10. Clear the User must change password at next logon check
box.
11. Click the Create button. The account will be created.
12. Click the Close button.
13. Right-click the new account you just created and click
Properties.
14. To see which groups this new account is a part of, click the

Member Of tab. The new account should be a part of the Users group.
15. Click the Cancel button to close the Properties window.

163 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


16. Under Local Users and Groups, click
the Groups folder. A list of groups
similar to the image on the right will
appear:
17. Right-click the Administrators
group and click Properties. The
built-in administrator plus at least
one other account (maybe yours)
should appear. Notice that you
can add another account to the
Administrators group if you desire to do so.
18. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• The two main types of users in a local Windows account setting are standard users (the Users group) and Administrators.
• Administrators have complete control over all aspects of a computer.
• Users can manage their own files and perform some installations but not those that change system-wide settings.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Windows Security Settings: Users and Groups

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.a User and Groups
3.3.a.i Administrator
3.3.a.ii Power User
3.3.a.iii Guest
3.3.a.iv Standard User

164 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


NTFS vs. Share Permissions
Description:
For any NTFS-formatted drive, permissions on a file or folder can be granted through a share or through specific NTFS permissions
given on the Security tab of the file or folder’s properties. Share permissions, which are available (and the only permissions available to
grant) on a FAT32-formatted drive as well as an NTFS drive, come in three categories:

Read: Users with this permission can view but not change files and folders.
Change (also known as Read/Write): Users with this permission can view and change files and folders.
Full Control (also known as Owner): Users with this permission can view and change files and control permissions on files and
folders.
By comparison, NTFS has a more granular set of permission choices. In addition to read and full control, NTFS also has the following
available permissions:

Write: Users with this permission can add files.


List folder contents: Users with this permission can see folder contents but, if this is the only permission they have, they cannot
read or change files in these folders.
Read & execute: Users with this permission can read files and run executable programs.
Modify: Users with this permission can modify files. This is the same as the Change permission in shares.
If a user has a permission via both a share and through NTFS permissions, the more restrictive permission is granted. For example, if
user A is in both group A and group B and group A has an NTFS permission of read and group B has a share permission of change,
user A will have read permissions as it is the most restrictive. However, if both permissions are either NTFS or share permissions,
the least restrictive permission wins. In this example, if group A were to have an NTFS permission of read and group B were to have
an NTFS permission of modify, user A would have modify permissions. When NTFS permissions are granted, users and groups can
either be specifically allowed a permission or denied a permission. By default, users are denied permission to resources. This is known as
an implicit deny and should be the basis for controlling permissions on files and folders.
One other area to pay attention to with regard to permissions is what happens to a file or folder’s NTFS
permissions if those files or folders are moved or copied. By default, permissions are inherited from a parent file
or folder. Look at the example on the right:

In this example, for NTFS drives, if a file is moved from the Sales folder to any other folder on that drive, the
permissions will stay with the file. If the file is moved to a different drive, the file will inherit the permissions
of its new folder on its new drive. If a file is copied to another folder, the copy of the file (technically a different file) will inherit the
permissions of the folder it is copied to. For FAT32 drives or any share permissions, files lose their permissions when they are either
moved or copied.
After completing this project, you will know how to set NTFS permissions
on folders and you will see what happens to those permissions when the
files are copied from one folder to another.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, create a folder named Files
inside of the C: drive.
2. Inside of the Files folder, create a folder and name it Sales.
3. Inside of the Files folder, create a folder and name it Marketing. Your
folder structure should look like image in the instructions.
4. Navigate to the Sales folder.
5. Right-click inside of the Sales folder and click New and then Text
Document. Name the document Copy Example.
6. To set NTFS permissions on the Sales folder, right-click the Sales
folder and then click Properties.
7. Click the Security tab.
8. Click the Users group. You will see the the image on the right:
9. To add the Modify permissions for the Sales folder (and the two files
inside of it) to the Users group, select the Allow check box in the
Modify row.
10. Click the OK button to set the permissions on the folder.

165 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


11. Click the OK button on the Sales properties window to close the window.
12. Right-click the Marketing folder and click Properties.
13. Click the Security tab.
14. Click the Users group. Notice that the group does not have Modify permissions on the folder.
15. Close the Marketing properties window.
16. Copy the Copy Example file from the Sales folder to the Marketing folder.
17. Before checking the permissions on the files within the Marketing folder, indicate with a Yes or No whether you think the Users

group has Modify permissions on the Copy Example file within the Marketing folder:
18. Navigate to the Marketing folder.
19. Right-click the Copy Example file and click Properties.
20. Click the Security tab.
21. Click the Users group. Notice that because the file was copied, the custom permission set was not retained and thus, members of
the Users group cannot modify this document.
22. Close all open windows but leave the file and folder structure in place for the next project.

Points to Remember:
• By default, users are denied permissions to resources. This is known as an implicit deny.
• NTFS permissions are more granular than that of FAT32 permissions and permissions given out via a share.
• Files retain original NTFS permissions if they are moved from one folder to another within the same volume.
• For all other instances of moving or copying files, the files, when in the new location, will inherit permissions from their parent
object.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Windows Security Settings: NTFS vs. Share Permissions

Difficulty: Intermediate/Advanced
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.b NTFS vs. Share permissions
3.3.b.i Allow vs. Deny
3.3.b.ii Moving vs. Copying Folders and Files

166 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


File Attributes
Description:
File attributes (and folder attributes) describe the file’s (or folder’s) characteristics. These attributes can either be viewed and/or
changed in a file or folder’s properties, or, they can be viewed and/or changed using the ATTRIB command in a command prompt.
Here are the different attributes which can be controlled on files and folders:

Name Command Description


Prompt Letter
Archive A If checked, the file has not been backed up. If cleared, a file has been backed up.
Hidden H Indicates a file is hidden by default.
Indexed I Indexed files show more quickly in Windows searches than non-indexed files.
Read-Only R File cannot be changed.
System S System file, which by default is protected from change.

In a command prompt setting, running the ATTRIB command with the file name, the attribute letter (as indicated in the table above)
and a + or – will turn on or turn off the attribute. Technicians will occasionally need to change an attribute, such as make a file or
folder read-only or indexed, or, make a file or folder not read-only nor indexed. At the end of this project, you will know how to use
either method to change a file’s attributes.

Steps for Completion:


1. If you created the folders and files in the previous project, open Windows Explorer (File Explorer if on Windows 8/8.1) and
navigate to C:\Files\Sales. If necessary, perform steps 1 through 5 on the previous project before continuing with this project.
2. Inside the Sales folder, right-click the Copy Example file and click Properties. Notice the Read-Only and Hidden attributes near
the bottom of the General tab.
3. Click the Advanced button. The Advanced Attributes window will show with the Archive and Indexed attributes.
4. Close the Advanced Attributes dialog box.
5. On the Properties screen for the Copy Example file, select the Read-only check box to make the Copy Example file a Read-only
file.
6. Click the OK button.
7. Open a command prompt.
8. Navigate to the C:\Files\Sales folder.
9. Type: ATTRIB.
10. Press the Enter key. The Copy Example file will show its attributes: A for Archive and R: for Read-Only.
11. To turn off the Read-only attribute for the file, type: ATTRIB “Copy Example.txt” –R.
12. Press the Enter key.
13. Press the Up arrow twice to bring back the ATTRIB command.
14. Press the Enter key. Notice that the Copy Example file no longer has the Read-only attribute.
15. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Attributes determine whether files and folders are read-only, indexed, archived, hidden, and whether they are system files.
• Attributes can be changed either in a file’s or folder’s properties or via the ATTRIB command in the command prompt.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1 Objectives:
3.0 Security
Windows Security Settings: NTFS vs. Share Permissions
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.b NTFS vs. Share permissions
Difficulty: Intermediate 3.3.b.iii File Attributes

Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and the file


structure from the previous project

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes


167 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Shared Files and Folders
Description:
While giving out NTFS permissions is one way to give users and groups permissions on files and folders, another method of giving
permissions is to create shares on folders. The advantage of creating shares is that users can then find the shared folder more easily than
they can if just NTFS permissions were granted. The disadvantage is that permissions given via shares (Read and Read/Write) are not
as granular as that of NTFS permissions (Read, Write, Read & execute, Modify, and Full control). Shares are created through either
the Computer Management window or through a folder’s properties. These shares are known as local shares.

An administrative share is one which does not need to be created. Those with administrative permissions on a computer can access the
computer’s drives, printers, and Windows admin folder. Administrative shares all have a $ associated with them. Some examples of
administrative shares are:

\\computername\c$: Accesses the C: drive on another computer (substitute computername with the computer’s name).
\\computername\print$: Locates printer drivers on another computer.
\\computername\admin$: Locates the Windows folder on another computer.
By default, permissions on a folder inherit themselves from their parent folder or drive. For example, if a Users group has Read
permissions on a C: drive, the Users group will then have the same permission on all folders, subfolders, and files on a C: drive unless
the permissions are explicitly changed on those folders. This is known as either inheritance (permissions on files and folders receiving
permissions from their parent folders) or propagation (permissions transferring from a parent folder down to a child folder).

On a Windows folder, gray check marks in the permissions area indicate an inherited permission from a parent folder or drive. Black
check marks on a folder indicate granted permissions instead of inherited permissions. These permissions will propagate, by default,
to files and subfolders inside of the selected folder. At the end of this project, you will know how to create a share on a folder. You will
also have gained an understanding of inheritance and propagation.

Steps for Completion:


1. If you have not completed the NTFS vs. Share Permissions project, go back and complete the first 10 steps of that project. Once
that is done, open Windows Explorer (File Explorer on Windows 8) and navigate to the C:\Files folder. You should see both a
Sales folder and a Marketing folder present.
2. Right-click the Files folder and click Properties.
3. Click the Security tab.
4. Click the Users group. Notice the permissions the Users group has on the Files folder (Read & execute, List folder contents, and
Read). Close the Properties window.
5. Right-click the Sales folder and click Properties.
6. Click the Security tab.
7. Click the Users group.
8. Note that the three permissions seen in the files folder are indicated with gray checkmarks, indicating inherited permissions. The
Modify and Write permissions have a black check mark, indicating that those permissions were directly granted on that folder.
9. Close the Sales Properties window.
10. To set up a share on the Marketing
folder, right-click the Marketing
folder, click Share with, and then
click Specific people. You will see
the image on the right:
11. Click in the Type a name and then
click Add.. text box and type: Users.
12. Click the Add button. The Users
group will be added to the share
with Read permissions.
13. To change the permission level to
Read/Write, click the drop-down
arrow next to Read and click Read/
Write.

168 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


14. Click the Share button.
You will see the screen on
the right:
15. Click the Done button.

Points to Remember:
• Permissions on a drive
will propagate down
to folders which then
propagate down to
subfolders and files.
• Looking at it from the
standpoint of a file,
permissions for a file are inherited from a parent folder.
• Individual permission changes can be made on files and folders. Black check marks indicate granted permissions while gray check
marks indicate inherited permissions.
• Shares allow users to find folders on other computers more easily than that of NTFS permissions.
• Permissions on shares are not as granular as they are for NTFS permissions.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Windows Security Settings: Shared Files and Folders

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and the completion of the first 10 steps of the NTFS vs. Share Permissions
project

Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes


Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.c Shared Files and Folders
3.3.c.i Administrative Shares vs. Local Shares
3.3.c.ii Permission Propagation
3.3.c.iii Inheritance

169 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Other Basic Windows OS Security Settings
Description:
In addition to permissions and shares, there are several other basic Windows OS security settings an A+ technician needs to be aware
of. One of these settings, encryption, is covered in the next two projects. Here are three security settings a technician needs to be
familiar with, along with their descriptions:

Security Setting Description


System Files and The two common system folder locations are:
Folders
• C:\Windows\System32 for 32-bit system files
• C:\Windows\SysWOW64 for 64-bit system files
Unless there is a need for administrators to work with these files, they should be kept hidden.
Single Sign-on In this concept, a user should theoretically be able to sign on to a system once and then access every needed file, folder,
and app. For example, a user signing on to a Windows network should be able to access network folders and a company
SharePoint site without having to log in again.
Running apps as an Sometimes, apps need elevated privileges in order to run with full functionality. Most apps have this capability through
administrator vs. a right-clicking the app and clicking Run as Administrator. If the user does not have administrator privileges, a username
standard user and password will be needed. As an example, certain command prompt commands need to be run as an administrator.
The User Account Control (UAC) feature aids in elevating a user to administrative mode in an app if necessary. When one is running
an app in standard mode and administrator mode is needed, UAC runs admin approval mode, prompting the user to approve the
action. At the end of this project, you will know how to open an app in administrator mode.

Steps for Completion:


1. In which folder would one find Windows 64-bit system files?
2. What should be implemented so a user can sign on to a Windows network and access a web app without having to log in again?

3. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine,


click the Start button (press the Windows key
if in Windows 8) and type: cmd.
4. When the Command Prompt shortcut
appears, right-click Command Prompt and
click Run as administrator. A User Account
Control box will appear, as seen on the right:
5. Click the Yes button. The Command Prompt
window will open in elevated mode.
6. Close the Command Prompt window.

Points to Remember:
• System files should be kept hidden unless an administrator needs to work with them.
• Single sign-on, when implemented, allows a user to sign into a network once and access files, folders, and most apps without
having to sign in again.
• Most apps can be run in administrator mode. This is necessary when apps require elevated privileges in order to be fully
functional.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1 Objectives:
3.0 Security
Windows Security Settings: System Files and Folders; User
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
Authentication; Running Programs as Administrator 3.3.d System Files and Folders
3.3.e User Authentication
Difficulty: Intermediate 3.3.e.i Single Sign-on
3.3.f Run as Administrator vs. Standard User
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes

170 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


BitLocker and BitLocker To Go
Description:
BitLocker is an encryption tool used to encrypt the contents of an entire hard drive. BitLocker is used to protect data on a hard drive
from being seen by unauthorized users, especially in case the hard drive is lost or stolen. BitLocker makes the data on the hard drive
inaccessible without a password or decryption key. Thus, whoever sets up BitLocker must make sure that the password or decryption
key is kept in a safe place. If both are lost, the data will not be accessible at all. In cases where a smart card can be used in the device
containing the data, a smart card can be used to unlock the drive as well as a password or decryption key. BitLocker is a feature which
can be used in the following Windows editions:

Windows Vista and Windows 7: Ultimate or Enterprise


Windows 8/8.1: Professional or Enterprise
BitLocker To Go is BitLocker for external hard drives. Again, a password or decryption key is needed to access the data once it has
been encrypted on an external hard drive. At the completion of this project, you will know how to use BitLocker and BitLocker To
Go.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a computer with an
operating system eligible for
BitLocker, open the Control
Panel.
2. If the Control Panel is in
Category view, switch the view
to either Large icons or Small
icons.
3. Click the BitLocker Drive
Encryption link.
4. Next to the drive for which
you want to turn on BitLocker, click Turn on BitLocker. You will see the image above:
5. Select the Use a password to unlock the drive check box.
6. Click in the Enter your password text box and type: Password.
7. Click in the Reenter your password text box and type: Password.
8. Click the Next button.
9. Click the Save to a file link. A
Save as dialog box will appear.
10. Navigate to your Documents
folder and click the Save
button. Click the Yes button
if you get a question about
saving the recovery key on your
computer.
11. Click the Next button.
12. Leave the setting on Encrypt
used disk space only and click
the Next button.
13. Click the Start encrypting
button. Depending upon the
amount of data to encrypt, this
could take several minutes.
14. When the BitLocker process
is complete, plug an external
drive into your computer.
Your BitLocker window will
resemble the image on the
right:
171 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
15. To begin the BitLocker To Go process, click the expansion arrow to the right of the external drive.
16. Click Turn on Bit Locker.
17. Select the Use a password to unlock the drive check box.
18. Click in the Enter your password text box and type: Password.
19. Click in the Reenter your password text box and type: Password.
20. Click the Next button. The BitLocker Drive Encryption screen will appear.
21. Click Save to a file.
22. Save the recovery key to your Documents folder.
23. Click the Next button.
24. Leave the setting on Encrypt used disk space only and click the Next button.
25. Click Start Encrypting. When the encryption process is complete, close all open windows. If you wish to turn off BitLocker
for either the hard drive or external drive you encrypted in this project, click the Turn off BitLocker link next to the respective
drive(s).

Points to Remember:
• BitLocker encrypts hard drives while BitLocker To Go encrypts external drives.
• Once BitLocker encrypts a hard drive, a password or smart card is needed to unlock the drive.
• BitLocker and BitLocker To Go store a recovery key which can be used to decrypt the drive when needed. Without it (or the
password or smart card used to encrypt the drive), the data is irretrievable.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems, Session 1
Windows 7 and Vista Features: BitLocker

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1


Windows Security Settings: BitLocker, BitLocker To Go

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A hard drive which can be encrypted and an external hard drive which can be encrypted
Estimated Time to Complete: 30 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
3.0 Security
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.g BitLocker
3.3.h BitLocker-to-Go

172 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Encrypting File System (EFS)
Description:
Encrypting File System (EFS) (also known as Encrypted File System) is a means by which one can encrypt files and/or folders on
a computer and thus prevent anyone else who logs into the system from seeing the contents of those files. This is an effective way to
protect folders on computers with multiple users. After completing this project, you will know how to implement EFS on a folder
and test the encryption to make sure another user cannot access the data in an encrypted folder. When using EFS, it is important to
back up the encryption key so that if the key is needed to decrypt the data later, one has the encryption key. If the folder is moved to
another device, the encryption key will be needed. Encryption keys can be found in the Manage Your File Encryption Certificates area
under User Accounts.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, create a folder on the C: drive and name the folder Private.
2. Inside the Private folder, create a text file and name it Top Secret. The file does not have to have any text in it.
3. Right-click the Private folder and click Properties.
4. From the General tab, click the Advanced button.
5. On the Advanced Attributes screen, select the Encrypt contents
to secure data check box, as shown on the right:
6. Click the OK button.
7. Click the OK button on the Properties box.
8. Click OK to confirm the Attribute changes. You will get a message indicating that you should back up your encryption key. In a
real-life situation, you would want to back up the encryption key to an external drive. You can skip that step for now. Notice that
the folder text is now green, indicating that the folder is encrypted.
9. To test the encryption, log on to the computer with a different user account.
10. Open Windows Explorer (File Explorer in Windows 8/8.1) and navigate to the C:\Private folder.
11. Try to open the Top Secret file. You should get a message indicating Access is denied.
12. Log off the computer and log back on as the original user you used for this project.
13. Navigate to the C:\Private folder.
14. Right-click the Private folder and click Properties.
15. Click the Advanced button.
16. clear the Encrypt contents to secure data check box.
17. Click the OK button.
18. Click the OK button on the Properties window.
19. Click OK to decrypt the folder. Note that the folder is no longer green.

Points to Remember:
• EFS encrypts files and folders to prevent others from accessing the files in the encrypted folders.
• When implementing EFS, the encryption key should be backed up just in case it is needed to decrypt the data.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Windows Security Settings: Encrypted File System

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and two user accounts
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.3 Compare and Contrast Differences of Basic Windows OS Security Settings
3.3.i EFS

173 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Password Best Practices
Description:
Part of securing a computer is making sure all accounts have passwords which are hard for attackers to steal. Mobile devices, including
tablets, phablets, and smartphones, should also have a password or PIN so that one cannot just pick up a device and start to work
with it. In addition to requiring passwords on devices, here are some guides for how to set passwords and specifically, where to set
passwords:

Setting strong passwords: Strong passwords are defined as passwords which have at least three out of the four characteristics:
uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. In addition, passwords should not have words one can find in a
dictionary. This helps strengthen passwords against dictionary attacks, which are attacks in which an attacker tries to use dictionary
words to help guess a password.
Password expiration: Passwords should not have a permanent life. They should be set to expire on a regular basis, usually
somewhere between 42 and 90 days, at which point one needs to change a password.
Changing default usernames/passwords: Anything with a default password should have the password changed. For example,
wireless routers all come with default passwords and many times those passwords are easily found on web searches.
Screensaver required password: If a screensaver is being used, a screensaver password should be implemented so one cannot just
walk by, move the mouse to turn off the screensaver, and see what is on the screen.
BIOS/UEFI passwords: For computers needing an extra layer of security, a password can be set in the BIOS or UEFI to force
users to enter a password when the computer is turned on. A supervisory password can be set to force one to enter a password
before changing anything in the BIOS or UEFI.
After completing this project, you will know how to set a password policy on a local computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer which is not joined to a domain, open Administrative Tools.
2. Double-click the Local Security Policy shortcut. The Local Security Policy will open.
3. Double-click the Account Policies folder in the middle of the window.
4. Double-click Password Policy. You will see the password policy characteristics.
5. Double-click the Minimum password length setting.
6. Click in the characters text box and change the number to 8.
7. Click the OK button.
8. To change the amount of time before a password needs to be changed, double-click the Maximum password age setting.
9. Click in the Password will expire in text box and change the number to 60.
10. Click the OK button.
11. To force passwords to be strong passwords, double-click the Password must meet complexity requirements setting.
12. Select the Enabled option.
13. Click the OK button.
14. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Passwords should be required on any device people access, including desktops, laptops, and other mobile devices.
• Strong passwords should be used.
• Default usernames and passwords on hardware devices such as routers should be changed.
• Screensavers should have passwords required in order for the screensavers to be unlocked.
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1 Objectives:
3.0 Security
Workstation Security: Password Best Practices
3.4 Given A Scenario, Deploy And Enforce Security Best Practices To Secure A Workstation
3.4.a Password Best Practices
Difficulty: Intermediate 3.4.a.i Setting Strong Passwords
3.4.a.ii Password Expiration
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer 3.4.a.iii Changing Default User Names/Passwords
3.4.a.iv Screensaver Required Password
which is not joined to a domain 3.4.a.v BIOS/UEFI Passwords
3.4.a.vi Requiring Passwords
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes

174 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Account Management
Description:
In addition to having a strong password policy, a network infrastructure needs to have a strong account policy. Users should have just
the permissions they need to get their work done. A specific account policy which is a best practice is that of implicit deny. In an
implicit deny situation, users are implicitly denied permission to all files and folders. Permissions are then granted to users on an as-
needed basis. In addition to using implicit deny, here are some specific account policies which should be implemented:

Login time restrictions: If users should not be on the network at certain times, their accounts should not be allowed to log in at
those times. On local accounts, time restrictions can be set under an account’s parental controls. On a larger, corporate network,
time restrictions can be set in one’s account properties in Active Directory.
Disabling the Guest account: The Guest account is disabled by default. It should stay disabled unless it is really needed. Default
accounts such as the Guest account and Administrator are known by name to attackers and thus are targets for network attacks.
Failed attempts lockout: In this setting, an account is locked out after a set number of incorrect passwords are entered. This
prevents an attacker from having unlimited guesses on a password when trying to take over an account.
Timeout/Screen lock: In most business settings, a screen should not be left unattended for a long length of time. Setting either a
screen saver or setting the power options for a computer to make the screen go dark after a length of time will prevent the screen
from being unattended for too long of a time.
After completing this project, you will know how to accomplish account management tasks for local accounts on a computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer not joined to a domain, open the Administrative Tools window.
2. Double-click the Local Security Policy shortcut to open the Local Security Policy window.
3. In the middle of the Local Security Policy window, double-click the Account Policies folder.
4. Double-click the Account Lockout Policy folder.
5. To set the number of invalid logon attempts before an account is locked out, double-click the Account lockout threshold option.
6. Use the spin arrows to increase the invalid logon attempts to 3.
7. Click the OK button. You will see the
following suggested values for account
lockout duration should someone have too
many invalid logon attempts and for the
duration before one’s count of invalid logon
attempts is set back to 0.
8. Click the OK button to take the default
values for the lockout duration and lockout
counter duration.
9. Close all open windows.
Points to Remember:
• Accounts should be set to be locked out after a set number of incorrect logon attempts.
• Users should only have the permissions they need to do their work. This is known as the implicit deny concept.
• Screens should lock after being unattended for a length of time.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Workstation Security: Account Management; Screen Lockout

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer which is not joined to a domain
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives: 3.4.b.i Restricting User Permissions
3.0 Security 3.4.b.ii Login Time Restrictions
3.4 Given A Scenario, Deploy And Enforce Security Best 3.4.b.iii Disabling Guest Account
Practices To Secure A Workstation 3.4.b.iv. Failed Attempts Lockout
3.4.b Account Management 3.4.b.v. Timeout/Screen Lock

175 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Workstation Security Best Practices
Description:
In addition to making sure a company has a strong password policy and a strong account management policy, there are other factors to
take into consideration when trying to make computers in the workplace as secure as possible. Three of those factors are:

Disabling Autorun: When optical media is inserted into a computer, the autorun.inf file starts and triggers a program or
installation or instructions to view. On some media, the autorun.inf file could have instructions which cause malware issues on a
computer. Thus, unless autorun needs to be enabled, it should be disabled. Those using optical media should know which files they
wish to launch from the media, so they should be able to do it manually and thus minimize a malware risk.
Encrypting Data: For data being stored, users of computers hosting multiple accounts can use Encrypted File System (EFS) to
encrypt files and folders, thus preventing other accounts from viewing those files and folders. BitLocker is used to encrypt entire
hard drives. In both cases, one cannot decrypt data without a decryption key. For data being sent from one location to another,
one should use Secure Shell (SSH) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) to send the data as either protocol will encrypt the data
before it is sent over a network connection. The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) can be used both for data at rest and data
in motion.
Patching and Updating: Computers should be set to receive patches (fixes for programs) and updates (especially for security
updates) on a regular basis. Most home and small business devices will get their updates through Windows Update. Corporate
networks will often use Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) and/or System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) to
distribute patches and updates. The Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA) can check a system for security settings and
needed patches.
After completing this project, you will know how to disable autorun on an optical media drive.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open the Control Panel. If necessary, switch the view to Large icons or Small icons.
2. Click AutoPlay. You will
see the image on the right:
3. Clear the Use AutoPlay for
all media and devices check
box.
4. Click the Save button.
5. Close the Control Panel.

Points to Remember:
• Autorun for optical drives should be disabled in order to minimize the risk of an autorun.inf file causing malware on a system.
• One way to protect data is to encrypt it. Encryption is especially important as data moves from one location to another.
• Patches and updates can be obtained automatically through Windows Update.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Workstation Security: Disable AutoPlay; Data Encryption; Patch and Update Management

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.4 Given a Scenario, Deploy and Enforce Security Best Practices to Secure a Workstation
3.4.c Disable Autorun
3.4.d Data Encryption
3.4.e Patch/Update Management

176 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Setting Screen Locks on Mobile Devices
Description:
A mobile device should have a mechanism set by which a screen locks after it has been idle for an amount of time. Furthermore, a
mobile device should have some sort of authentication method for unlocking the device. Someone should not just be able to pick up a
mobile device, push the on button, and start using it.

Not every type of screen lock is available on every mobile device. Most devices will have at least some of these common screen lock
mechanisms:

Face lock: A device is set up to where it uses facial recognition to unlock the device. Another unlocking mechanism should be
present in case the facial recognition does not work (such as in lighting different than when the facial recognition was set).
Swipe lock: Swipe the device to unlock it. If this is a single swipe, it is not considered secure. If the swipe is a pattern (sometimes
called a knocking pattern), it is at least somewhat secure because the person needs to know the pattern to swipe or knock for
unlocking the device.
Passcode lock: A four-digit PIN or password is set and used to unlock the device.
Fingerprint lock: A fingerprint is taken and set to use to unlock the device.
The face lock and fingerprint lock are biometric means of authentication. Biometrics is the “who you are” form of authentication as
biometrics uses a personal trait, such as the face, fingerprints, retina scan, or even voice recognition.

After completing this project, you will have an idea of how to set up a screen lock on a mobile device. This project is done on an
Android smartphone but can be done on an iOS device. The steps to complete the project will vary for different devices.

Steps for Completion:


1. Which screen lock is considered the least secure screen lock?

2. When using a face lock, what else should be set up on the device?

3. On an iOS or Android device, access the settings area.


4. Look for a place to set the screen lock. The actual location will vary by device. An
example of a screen lock settings screen on an Android smartphone is on the right:
5. Practice setting the available screen locks (Face, Fingerprint, Passcode, and Swipe).

Points to Remember:
• The Swipe screen lock is not secure unless a sequence is required.
• When using a biometric screen lock, such as facial recognition or a fingerprint, make
sure to have another unlock mechanism set in case the biometric method does not
work.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Security: Screen Locks

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: An iOS or Android device
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes per device
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.5 Compare and Contrast Various Methods for Securing Mobile Devices
3.5.a Screen Locks
3.5.a.i Fingerprint Lock
3.5.a.ii Face Lock
3.5.a.iii Swipe Lock
3.5.a.iv Passcode Lock
3.5.h Biometric Authentication

177 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Remote Applications on Mobile Devices
Description:
One inherent problem with mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets is that they may be misplaced, or worse, stolen. To make
sure data is not accessed should a mobile device be lost or stolen, the data should be backed up on a regular basis so that if needed, the
device can have its data wiped before the data gets into unwanted hands. In addition, a mobile device should have a secure lock/unlock
mechanism such as a PIN, password, or some type of biometric authentication.

Most mobile devices have the following remote capabilities:

Remote wipe: Remotely removes all of the data from the device. This is done when the device is misplaced and the data is at risk.
Locator application: A mobile app used to locate a device through GPS. Devices usually need to be configured to be accessible
remotely. For Android devices, the website for locating a device is http://google.com/android/devicemanager. For iOS devices, the
website for locating a device is http://icloud.com/#find. For Android devices, devices are linked to one’s Gmail account. For iOS
devices, devices are linked to one’s Apple ID.
Remote backup applications: For iOS devices, iCloud, when enabled through an Apple ID, is the backup application used to back
up data on a device. Data can then be restored if needed. For Android devices, the backup location will vary depending upon the
device manufacturer. The best tool to use to back up files on Windows devices is OneDrive.
After completing this project, you will know how to find a device remotely. To complete this project, make sure the device you are
using has GPS on and, if needed, has been configured to be located through a remote locator application. This project is done on an
iOS device. For Android and Windows devices, the steps for using a remote locator application will vary.

Steps for Completion:


1. On the device you wish to be able to find remotely, make sure GPS is enabled.
2. If there is a setting to allow the device to be found remotely, make sure it is enabled. An
example of the setting on an iPad, located in the iCloud settings is found on the right:
3. Log into the website to where you will find your device.
4. Find the device and click on it.
5. If available, click Play Sound to play a sound on your mobile device.
6. Note that there is an option to remotely wipe the device (do not click on that at this time).
7. Close your web browser.

Points to Remember:
• A device should have its data backed up to a remote location to ensure the data can be retrieved if needed.
• Devices can be remotely wiped to protect the data if the data is at risk due to a device being lost or stolen.
• A remote locator app can remotely locate a device should it be lost or stolen.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Security: Remote Wipes; Locator Applications; Remote Backup Applications

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.5 Compare and Contrast Various Methods for Securing Mobile Devices
3.5.b Remote Wipes
3.5.c Locator Applications
3.5.d Remote Backup Applications

178 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Authentication Types and Restrictions
Description:
With mobile devices, one of the most important aspects of security is authentication. Authentication is the verification of a user
attempting to log into a system. When a user attempts to log into a mobile device, the mobile device should have mechanisms set up
to verity the authenticity of the user.

One way in which this is accomplished is to not allow an unlimited number of failed login attempts. Should a mobile device be lost or
stolen, a hacker could try a number of different passwords or PIN combinations in order to break into the device. Many mobile devices
can have a failed login attempts restrictions setting. If this is set, the device will actually wipe all of the data off of itself if the number
of allowed failed login attempts have been exceeded. A best practice when enabling this setting is to make sure the data on the device
is being backed up on a regular basis.

Common authentication methods for a mobile device include password, PIN codes, swipes, and knock patterns. This is known as the
“What you know” form of authentication.

The “What you have” forms of authentication do not really apply to mobile devices but can include items such as smart cards and
badges. Some more secure forms of authentication include:

Biometric authentication: Authentication using part of a human body. This is known as the “who you are” form of authentication.
Examples of biometric authentication include: fingerprints, retinal scans, facial recognition, and voice recognition.
Multifactor authentication: Authentication using two or more of the three authentication factors. For example, one may need
both a username/password combination (what you know) and a smartcard (what you have) in order to log into a laptop.
For very secure environments, an authenticator application can supplement a normal authentication factor. An authenticator
application is an app which provides a temporary login code which is valid for a short length of time. These are often found on RSA
tokens and similar devices.

After completing this project, you will know how to set up a more secure authentication mechanism on a device.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the form of authentication (what you know, what you have, who you are):

a. The use of facial recognition to unlock a mobile device:

b. A badge to enter a building:

c. A knock pattern to unlock a mobile device:


2. If you have an iOS device, open the Settings app.
3. Tap the Passcode setting. Enter a passcode if needed.
4. If you want, turn on the Erase data setting in the Passcode settings. Note that your device will erase itself after 10 failed passcode
attempts if you turn this feature on.

Points to Remember:
• Authentication is a mechanism by which a user is verified for access to a system.
• The three factors of authentication are what you know, what you have, and who you are (biometrics).
• Using two or more factors of authentication is known as multifactor authentication.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Security: Failed Login Attempt Restrictions; Biometric Authentication; Multifactor Authentication; Authenticator Applications

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: An iOS device to practice the failed login attempt restrictions portion of the project
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives: 3.5.j Multifactor Authentication
3.0 Security 3.5.k Authenticator Applications
3.5 Compare and Contrast Various Methods for Securing Mobile Devices
3.5.e Failed Login Attempts Restrictions
3.5.h Biometric Authentication

179 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Other Mobile Device Security Methods
Description:
Screen locks, remote backups, and authentication methods are all important in their roles of securing mobile devices. There are several
other methods for securing mobile devices technicians and administrators need to consider. Here are those security methods, along
with a description of each method’s role in securing mobile devices:

Security Method Role


Antivirus/antimalware Though malware is not as prevalent on mobile devices, especially on iOS devices where apps are heavily screened before
being allowed into the App Store, a mobile device should still have a reputable antivirus/antimalware app installed. The
app should screen apps as they are downloaded and installed.
Patching and OS Most app updates are automatic, with the exception of apps changing terms for their use on a device. Operating system
updates updates are usually presented in the form of a notification. A device should synchronize its data to the cloud or a desktop
before applying an operating system update.
Full device encryption This will encrypt all of the data on a mobile device and then require a PIN or password every time the device is turned on
in order to decrypt the data.
Sources There are two types of sources for apps on a mobile device:
Trusted: This involves apps which come from each platform’s default location (Play Store for Android, App Store for iOS,
and Store for Windows).
Untrusted: Apps which do not come from a platform’s default location. On Android and Windows devices, one can allow
apps from other sources. On many devices, a setting is available to disallow untrusted apps.
Firewalls Similar to desktops and laptops, firewalls can control traffic to a device though ports and protocols. On
mobile devices, the main role of a firewall is to control which apps are allowed on mobile devices.

In addition to these security methods, a business should have a policy which governs the use of mobile devices in a business
environment. This is especially important given that in many companies, employees will want to use personal mobile devices for
company business on company networks. This policy, known as a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy, governs the use of personal
mobile devices on company networks, and should include what the consequences are for breaking that policy. For example, in many
companies a personal device will be wiped if it violates a BYOD policy.

As part of a BYOD policy, a company should outline profile security requirements. These requirements govern specifics for security
requirements for both devices and groups of users using those devices. For example, a mobile device policy will most likely be far more
restrictive for executives than it will be for IT employees. After completing this project, you will be well-versed in security methods to
use on mobile devices.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the security method which should be used to satisfy a user or policy need for mobile devices:

a. A company wants to control which apps are allowed on a mobile device:

b. A device needs to have a password set in order to decrypt data:

2. What should a technician do with a phone before applying an operating system update?
3. If you have an Android device, look for the setting which allows or disallows apps from untrusted sources. This will most likely be
a security setting.

Points to Remember:
• Many measures used to protect mobile devices are similar to ones used to protect desktops. This includes antivirus/antimalware
apps and firewalls.
• Before applying an operating system update to a mobile device, make sure the data on the mobile device has been backed up.
• Before allowing personal mobile devices onto a corporate network, a BYOD policy should be constructed.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Mobile Device Security: Antivirus/Antimalware; Patching/OS Updates; Full Device Encryption; Trusted and Untrusted Sources; Firewalls; Policies
and Procedures

Difficulty: Intermediate
180 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Required Materials: None but having an Android device to practice app source settings, downloading and configuring an
antivirus/antimalware app, and downloading and configuring a firewall app will help solidify the concepts in this area

Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes


Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.5 Compare and Contrast Various Methods for Securing Mobile Devices
3.5.f Antivirus/Antimalware
3.5.g Patching/OS Updates
3.5.i Full Device Encryption
3.5.l Trusted Sources vs. Untrusted Sources
3.5.m Firewalls
3.5.n Policies and Procedures
3.5.n.i BYOD vs. Corporate Owned
3.5.n.ii Profile Security Requirements

181 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Physical Destruction
Description:
When data is no longer needed, it should be destroyed, to the point to where it cannot be reformed. Several types of tools may be used
depending upon the data and/or equipment needing destruction. Here are a list of physical destruction tools and situations in which
those tools are used to destroy data and, if needed, equipment:

Tool Uses for Destruction


Shredder Used to destroy paper documents, credit cards, and, if they can, smart cards.
Drill Used to drill holes in equipment. Useful for destroying magnetic hard disk drives.
Hammer Used to break equipment up. Again, it can help destroy magnetic hard disk drives.
Degaussing Uses electromagnetism to affect data on a hard drive to the point to where it is unreadable.
Incinerator Used to destroy larger hardware (such as desktops, laptops, and servers).

When using a drill or hammer, always wear safety goggles as to avoid injury from flying equipment parts or debris. Once data and/
or equipment have been destroyed, a company can produce a certificate of destruction as proof of the data being destroyed. In some
industries, certificates of destruction are required to prove old data has been destroyed. At the end of this project, you will know which
physical destruction tool to use given a need to destroy data or equipment.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the tool or tools used for physical destruction of the data or equipment involved:

a. Documents for drafts of contracts:

b. An old magnetic hard drive:

c. Debit cards for closed accounts:

d. A large, outdated server:


2. If you have a shredder and confidential documents which are no longer needed, turn the shredder on and shred those documents.

Points to Remember:
• Shredders are best used for destroying paper documents and credit or debit cards.
• Drills, hammers, and degaussing tools all have a role in wiping out data on hard drives and/or destroying them.
• Incinerators are used to destroy larger equipment.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Data Destruction and Disposal: Physical Destruction; Recycling and Repurposing Best Practices

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None, but having a shredder will help practice one physical destruction method
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes (10-15 minutes if a shredder is present)
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.6 Given a Scenario, use Appropriate Data Destruction and Disposal Methods
3.6.a Physical Destruction
3.6.a.i Shredder
3.6.a.ii Drill / Hammer
3.6.a.iii Electromagnetic (Degaussing)
3.6.a.i Incineration
3.6.a.v Certificate of Destruction

182 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Recycling or Repurposing Best Practices
Description:
Magnetic hard disk drives, when containing data that is no longer needed, do not necessarily need to be destroyed. The drives can be
repurposed for later data storage, especially if the drives are relatively new and have a high amount of storage capacity.

In these situations, hard drives could be in storage and not in use for weeks or even months. Thus, a technician should make sure these
hard drives are completely data-free so that sensitive information does not get into the wrong hands. There are four basic methods used
to wipe data off of a drive without destroying the drive. They are:

Data-erasing Method How it is done


Low level format Done at the disk manufacturer. This process defines positions for tracks and sectors. Often, a zero-fill program is
used to fill all data sectors with binary zeros.
Standard format The most common method to format the disk. This can be done by anyone with the proper permissions in Windows.
This does not completely sanitize the drive.
Overwrite A program is used to overwrite files with random binary ones and zeros to overwrite files and get rid of any rema-
nence of data.
Drive wipe In this process, multiple overwrites wipe out the drive. One example of such a tool is a UNIX tool called Shred.
Shred performs three overwrites on a hard drive.
An example of multiple overwrites is this: The first overwrite fills the hard disk with all binary numbers. The second overwrite writes
the disk with binary numbers which are the reverse of the first overwrite (ones where zeros were and zeros where ones were). The last
overwrite writes random bits to the hard drive.

At the end of this project, you will know how to perform a standard format on a hard drive using a graphical user interface (GUI).

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, open Windows Explorer (File Explorer if in
Windows 8 or 8.1).
2. Find the drive you wish to format, right-click on the drive, and click Format. You will see a
screen resembling the screen on the right:
3. If you wish to change the file format or volume label, do so. Otherwise, click the Start button
to start formatting the drive. When you get the message warning that all data will be erased,
click the OK button.
4. When the formatting is complete, click the OK button.
5. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Low level formatting is done at the disk manufacturer.
• Standard formatting is the most common formatting done to erase data on hard drives.
• Overwrites and drive wipes are more intricate methods for wiping out data on hard drives.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Data Destruction and Disposal: Recycling and Repurposing Best Practices

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A hard drive which can be formatted
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.6 Given a Scenario, use Appropriate Data Destruction and Disposal Methods
3.6.b Recycling or Repurposing Best Practices
3.6.b.i Low Level Format vs Standard Format
3.6.b.ii Overwrite
3.6.b.iii Drive Wipe

183 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Wireless Security in SOHO Networks
Description:
When setting up a small office home office (SOHO) network, a technician needs to be aware of specific security settings as they
pertain to wireless devices, specifically wireless access points. These settings should be addressed before allowing devices to join the
wireless network. Here are these wireless-specific settings, along with a description of each:

Setting Description
Changing Default Many default SSID names give away the type of router being used, thus making it vulnerable as default passwords are easily
SSID found online. The SSID name and password should be changed.
Setting Encryption When possible, use Wi-Fi Protected Access version 2 (WPA2) with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Avoid using
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) as it has been cracked.
Disabling SSID Disabling the SSID broadcast hides the network from some wireless devices. This way, only those who are given the SSID
Broadcast know what it is, though attackers can still obtain the SSID. CompTIA has this listed as the best way to secure a wireless
network. Some industry technicians disagree with this assessment.
Antenna and Access For a single room, the closer the access point is placed to the center of the room, the better. Vertically facing antennas are best
Point Placement for one-floor settings. Horizontally facing antennas are best for multi-floor settings as the signal will travel up and down.
Radio Power Levels Increasing the radio frequency (RF) signal increases the signal distance from the wireless access point. Decreasing the RF
signal decreases the signal distance from the wireless access point. Decreasing the RF signal may become necessary in order to
not allow a signal to reach the outside of a building. Decreasing the RF signal also decreases the speed of the network.
WPS Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) is used to make it easy for WPS-enabled devices to connect to a wireless network in one of
two ways (or both):
Push button: When attempting to connect a device to a wireless access point, a user is prompted to push the WPS
button on the wireless access point to initiate a connection. The device then scans for the wireless access point and, if it
finds the wireless access point, the device will join the wireless network.
PIN: A user is prompted to enter the PIN assigned to the wireless access point.
Enabling WPS is a risk as software exists that will discover a WPS PIN.
After completing this project, you will have the knowledge needed to address specific wireless security aspects of a SOHO network
before allowing clients to connect to the network.

Steps for Completion:


1. Name two things that should be done with the SSID before allowing clients to connect to a wireless access point:

2. Which is the strongest type of encryption one can use for a wireless access point?
3. If you have access to a wireless access point, open a web browser, log into the wireless access point, and look to change some of the
settings covered in this project. When you are done configuring the wireless access point, close the web browser.

Points to Remember:
• Several steps should be taken to secure a wireless access point before one allows client devices to connect to it.
• The SSID should be changed and should not be broadcast.
• Remember to place a wireless antenna as close to the center of a room as possible.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1 Objectives:
3.0 Security
Securing SOHO and Wireless Networks: Securing Wireless
3.7 Given a Scenario, Secure SOHO Wireless and Wired Networks
Networks 3.7.a Wireless Specific
3.7.a.i Changing Default SSID
Difficulty: Intermediate 3.7.a.ii Setting Encryption
3.7.a.iii Disabling SSID Broadcast
Required Materials: None but having a wireless access point 3.7.a.iv Antenna and Access Point Placement
3.7.a.v Radio Power Levels
to practice with will help solidify these concepts 3.7.a.vi WPS

Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes

184 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Securing SOHO Networks
Description:
Once specific wireless security issues have been addressed on SOHO networks, the rest of the security attention focuses on what to
allow and disallow regarding client devices and their connecting to the network, as well as what users and computers can do once they
are on the network. Here is a specific list of security settings to focus on when building a SOHO network. Not every setting will apply
to every network, but a technician should know about these settings and be able to judge which settings to configure given a network
situation:

Setting How to use it


Changing defaults Most wireless routers have default usernames and passwords (and IP addresses) which can easily be found online, so it is
important to change these.
MAC filtering This process limits the devices which can connect to a wireless network. A device’s MAC addresses must be added to a MAC
filtering list before it is allowed onto the network. This is a good method for controlling access on a very small network but
is not as efficient for larger networks as the MAC filtering list can be too long to manage effectively. One negative aspect of
MAC filtering is a user may forget MAC filtering is on and become frustrated at what should be an easy process to connect a
new device to the wireless network.
Static IP addresses While a wireless router can use DHCP to give out IP addresses, any device which multiple people will access (like a printer,
for example) should have a static IP address assigned as having a dynamic address will cause users to lose connectivity to the
device should its IP address change.
Firewall settings Every device on a network should be protected by a firewall. A firewall can be enabled (when one exists) on a wireless router.
Or, Windows Firewall can be used on all of the Windows devices in a network. A technician should know which firewall(s)
are enabled on a SOHO network.
Port forwarding/ Port forwarding (also known as port mapping) allows for Internet traffic to be forwarded to a specific system on an internal
mapping network. For example, a business owner may want to access a specific business machine from home. A SOHO router can be
configured to forward remote traffic (as in port 3389 for Remote Desktop for Microsoft) to that machine (so long as it has a
static IP address), thus enabling the business owner to use Remote Desktop Connection to access the machine through the
SOHO router.
Disabling ports Any port to where traffic should not be allowed through should be disabled. For example, if traffic from a known game should
not be allowed, the port the game uses should be disabled.
Content filtering/ This can be set to limit what a user can do on the SOHO. Some SOHO routers list known apps and games which can be
Parental controls disabled. Other SOHO routers can limit bandwidth by app. Some SOHO routers have proxy server capability, thus allowing
an administrator to filter web content.
Firmware updates Firmware updates help fix possible security holes and can enable features not previously available (such as WPA2 on older
SOHO routers). A SOHO router’s configuration should be backed up before applying a firmware update.
Physical security SOHO routers and other network equipment should be placed in a secure physical location. The larger the network, the more
important this becomes.
After completing this project, you will know how to apply these concepts to best secure a SOHO network.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what a technician should do to best secure a SOHO network:

a. A business owner does not want employees to have access to multi-player games while at work:

b. You are setting an IP address on a printer. Should the IP address be static or dynamic?

c. What should be changed on a SOHO router as soon as it is set up and visible?


d. What should every device on a SOHO network have as a means of protection from unwanted traffic?

e. What is an efficient way to control which devices are allowed on a SOHO network?

185 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


2. If you have access to a SOHO router (usually a wireless access point), log into the router and practice some of the concepts
covered in this project. As an example, here is what a parental control screen could look like on a SOHO router:

Points to Remember:
• A default username and password on a SOHO router should be changed right away.
• MAC filtering can help regulate which devices are allowed on a SOHO network.
• Static IP addresses should be assigned to devices which multiple users will access.
• One way to prevent unwanted traffic on a SOHO network is to disable ports for specific apps and traffic types.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Training, Session 1
Securing SOHO and Wireless Networks: Changing Default Settings; MAC Filtering; Assigning Static IP Addresses; Firewall Settings; Port
Forwarding and Mapping; Disabling Ports; Content Filtering; Updating Firmware; Physical Security

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: None but having a SOHO router to access to practice these concepts will help solidify these concepts
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
3.0 Security
3.7 Given a Scenario, Secure SOHO Wireless and Wired Networks
3.7.b Change Default Usernames and Passwords
3.7.c Enable MAC Filtering
3.7.d Assign Static IP Addresses
3.7.e Firewall Settings
3.7.f Port Forwarding/Mapping
3.7.g Disabling Ports
3.7.h Content Filtering/Parental Controls
3.7.i Update Firmware
3.7.j Physical Security

186 | Domain 3: Security A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting, fill in the missing words according to the
information presented by the instructor. [References where answers are found are in brackets.]
PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting
1. In the event a PC will not boot up at all, the technician should first check for any issues. [Boot
Failures]

2. Without the service, the machine will be unable to acquire an IP address. [Service Failures]

3. On a Windows 8 machine, the keyboard combination will boot the computer in Advanced Boot
Options. [Spontaneous Shutdowns]

4. Windows uses a and Apple uses a as computer crash


screens. [Other Operating System Issues]

5. A computer consistently booting into Safe Mode is a sign a . [Other Operating System Issues]

6. and are the Linux boot loaders. [Linux and Mac Issues]

7. The is the Windows tool used to show the current computer’s system output. [Slow System
Issues]

8. commands are implemented in the Command Prompt. [Recovery Tools]

9. The command is used to check the connection between a computer and a website. [Windows
Tools]

10. A boot log is enabled in the Advanced Boot Options menu inside of . [Logs and Recovery Tools]

PC Security Issues
11. are designed to deliver malware into a system. [Common Security Symptoms]

12. is also known as a rogue antivirus. [Common Security Symptoms]

13. Two signs of a hijacked email account are evidence of emails sent to everyone in the address book and receiving

messages. [Common Security Symptoms]

14. Malware will often change configurations to affect a machine’s Internet connection. [Common
Security Symptoms]

15. The Task Manager will show CPU, , disk, and network activity on a computer. [Security and
Performance Symptoms]

16. The Hidden files and folders feature is found in the menu. [Hidden Folders and Changed
Permissions]

188 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


17. Antivirus and antimalware software should be updated on a regular basis. [Security Tools]

18. The can be used to fix system file issues. [Security Tools]

19. A is used to set a system back to before issues began to arise. [System Restore]

20. The is found inside of the Event Viewer. [Event Viewer and MSCONFIG]

Mobile OS and Application Issues


21. Storage availability and background affect mobile device speed. [Common Mobile Device
Symptoms]

22. A may fix a mobile device system lockout. [Common Mobile Device Symptoms]

23. Mobile devices can have wireless and connectivity issues. [Connectivity Issues]

24. A or changes a mobile device back to its factory settings. [Mobile


Device Tools]

25. A setting can be used to help extend a mobile device’s battery life. [Adjust Configurations and
Settings]

Mobile Security Issues


26. A mobile device signal is often dropped when the user is in a bad location. [Application Issues]

27. In order to prevent unwanted pairing, do not set the device to discover

devices automatically. [Application Issues]

28. a device gives the user unrestricted access to the device’s file system. [Unauthorized Access Issues]

29. A app is used to check a wireless network integrity. [Mobile Security Tools]

30. A cell tower is used to locate cell towers in an area. [Mobile Security Tools]

189 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Troubleshooting System Performance
Description:
One of the areas of troubleshooting an A+ technician needs to be well-versed in is the performance of the operating system. Problems
here can range from slow performance to the system crashing on a regular basis.Though each troubleshooting situation is unique, there
are some common steps to take should a system start to perform slowly or spontaneously crash. Here are some common symptoms and
the first step one should take to try to solve these problems:

Problem First Step to Troubleshoot the Problem


Service fails to start Check to make sure the service is enabled and set to start automatically. You may also need to check the
dependencies of the service to make sure they are starting properly.
File fails to open A file may have the wrong file association. For example, a PDF file may be associated to open in a web browser instead of
Acrobat Reader. Or, a program used to open a file may have been uninstalled. Either way, the Default Programs applet in the
Control Panel associates file types with programs.
Missing DLL A dynamic link library (DLL), a file with reusable code, is missing. If a system .dll file is missing, run the sfc/scannow com-
message mand to attempt to fix this issue. If the error is application-specific, reinstall the app. You may need to run regsvr32 and the
.dll name to re-register the .dll file.
Compatibility error An app may be made for an older operating system. To fix a compatibility issues, either run the
compatibility wizard in the Control Panel or set the app’s properties to run as if it were running in an older operating system.
Blue Screen of If Windows crashes, a blue screen appears with an error message. Upon reboot, look to the Event Viewer for guidance on the
Death (BSoD) problem. Stop errors start with 0x and an error number can be used in an online search for research.
Spinning Pinwheel The Mac equivalent of a BSoD. Disconnect any external hardware, restart the system, and see if the behavior repeats itself. If
of Death (SPoD) it does, perform all system updates available and run an antimalware scan.
Slow system Besides a nearly full hard drive, an over-utilized CPU and/or RAM being utilized at a high percentage will slow down the
performance system. If virtual memory is being used, that too will slow down the system. Use the Task Manager to see if there are any
processes which need to be stopped.

A special warning regarding dll files. Always make sure to get the dll fiile for an application from the application’s installation source.
Never download the dll file from the Internet as many websites which claim to have dll files actually provide malware. At the end of
this project, you will have gained knowledge in identifying problems which cause system performance issues and the steps needed to
solve these issues, specifically in the areas of services and file associations.

Steps for Completion:


1. You get a help desk ticket explaining that a user’s computer is running more and more slowly. Which tool should you check first

for possible slowdown causes?


2. You are troubleshooting a machine which has had two BSoD incidents in the past 12 hours. Which tool should you use to

attempt to get more information on these errors?


3. On a Windows computer, open the Control Panel.
4. If necessary, change the view to either Large icons or Small icons.
5. Click Administrative Tools.
6. Double-click Services. The Services window will appear.
7. Scroll down and find the DHCP Client service. It should be running and the startup type should be set to automatic, as seen here:

8. Right-click the DHCP Client service and click Properties. The DHCP Client Properties dialog box will appear.
9. Make sure the Startup type field is set to Automatic (it should be for any service which needs to run at startup).
10. Click the Dependencies tab.
11. Note the components the service depends upon in order to start. They will look
like the screen on the right:
12. Close the DHCP Client Properties window.
13. Close the Services window.
14. Navigate back to the home page of the Control Panel.
15. To look at the different file associations for each file type, click the Default
Programs link.
190 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
16. Click the Associate a file type or protocol with a program link.
17. Scroll down until you see the .mp3 extension.
18. Click on the .mp3 extension.
19. Click the Change program button. You will see the screen on the right when
working on a Windows 8 machine and a similar screen on a Windows 7
machine:
20. From here, you can click More options if you want to see a larger list of
programs which can open mp3 files. From this screen, click the Keep using…
link to continue to use the current program to open mp3 files.
21. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• For overall system slowdowns, use the Task Manager as a guide to see if the
CPU or RAM are being over-utilized.
• If a service fails to start, check its settings and its dependencies for possible startup problems.
• If an app needs to run in a different Windows mode, change its compatibility settings.
• For files which are opening in the wrong app, use the Default Programs area in the Control Panel to change a file association.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: Service Failures; Files and Extensions; Compatibility Error; Other Operating System Issues; Slow System
Issues

Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: A Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer
Estimated Time to Complete: 20-30 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.a Common Symptoms
4.1.a.i Proprietary Crash Screens (BSoD/Pinwheel)
4.1.a.vi Missing dll Message
4.1.a.vii Services Fails to Start
4.1.a.viii Compatibility Error
4.1.a.ix Slow System Performance
4.1.a.xi File Fails to Open

191 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Troubleshooting Startup and Shutdown Problems
Description:
Many problems with the Windows operating system occur when trying to start Windows. Boot and/or system files can become
corrupt or be adversely affected by malware. Fortunately, many of these problems can be fixed in the Windows Recovery Environment
(WinRE). Fixing the problems here will prevent one from having to do a complete Windows reinstall.

If Windows will not boot up at all, there are a number of steps to take to attempt to diagnose and fix the problem. First, rule out any
potential hardware problems. Then, hold down F8 (Shift+F8 for Windows 8/8.1) when trying to restart and attempt to boot to the
last known good configuration. If that works, consider running a system restore as a change may have adversely affected the system.
One can also attempt to boot the computer into Safe Mode. If the computer will boot into Safe Mode but not normal mode, run an
antivirus/antimalware scan once the computer is in Safe Mode as a virus may very well have compromised the system.

Another possible solution is to run the startup repair, found in the WinRE. You can try to repair the startup files automatically through
WinRE, or, access a command prompt and run one of the following commands, depending upon the problem you are having:
sfc /scannow: Verifies and, if necessary, repairs system files. bootrec /fixmbr: Repairs the Master Boot Record.
bootrec /fixboot: Fixes the boot sector
Here are some other common Windows startup and shutdown problems, along with the best first steps in trying to troubleshoot the
problem.

Startup Problem First Step(s) to Fix the Problem


Improper shutdown If a system is not shutdown properly, an error message is likely to appear when Windows reboots. If Windows does not
reboot, follow the steps outlined earlier in this project to attempt to get Windows to boot properly.
Spontaneous shut- Probable causes:
down/restart Virus: Run antivirus software and sfc /scannow to check system files.
Memory: Run Windows Memory Diagnostics.
Power Supply: Check voltages to make sure they are within 5% of the prescribed voltages. Often, the BIOS will show
this information.
Overheating: Check to make sure all of the fans work well.
Boots to Safe Mode If a hardware or software change is made, this can happen if, on the initial reboot, the system does not boot up completely.
If this is a consistent problem, the two main causes are:
The system is set to boot to Safe Mode through the Boot options area in MSCONFIG.
Malware may have infected the system. Run the antivirus/antimalware program.
Missing NTLDR This error relates to Windows XP. The computer may be trying to boot to a non-bootable disk. If not, boot to Windows
RE with the Windows XP disc and run these two commands:
Copy d:\i386\ntldr c:\
Copy d:\i386\ntdetect.com c:\
Missing boot.ini A possibility in Windows Vista and 7. More than likely, the boot configuration data (BCD) file needs to be rebuilt. From a
Windows RE command prompt, run the following:
BCDEDIT /Export c:\backup_bcd (backs up current BCD file)
C:
CD Boot
ATTRIB bcd –s –h –r (removes system, hidden, and read-only attributes)
REN c:\boot\bcd bcd.old (renames current file)
BOOTREC /rebuildbcd (rebuilds bcd file)
Missing Operating The usual cause for this message is a missing boot sector or a bad Master Boot Record. From a command prompt in Win-
System dows RE, try running bootrec /fixmbr, especially if the error message indicates the bootmgr file is not found or missing.
Missing Graphical The operating system fails to load. Possible error messages include: Error loading operating system or Invalid Partition
Interface table. First, make sure the BIOS boot order is correct. If it is, boot into Windows RE, access the command prompt, and try
running these commands:
bootrec /rebuildbcd – to rebuild the boot configuration data file.
bootrec /fixboot – to fix the boot sector.
bootrec /fixmbr – to fix the Master Boot Record.
Graphical Interface Try the same fixes as indicated in the Missing Graphical Interface issue. Also, check the boot options in MSCONFIG to
fails to load make sure the NO GUI Boot option is not selected.
In addition, one could plug in a device, or, the device may be plugged into the machine when the computer starts up and the device
itself may not start. Examples of this include any USB device, such as an external hard drive which does not appear in Explorer or
a webcam which fails to start up. Should a device fail to start, launch Device Manager and look for any yellow icons on hardware
(indicating a driver problem) or any black arrow icons (indicating a device is disabled).

Not all startup issues are with Windows computers. Here are two common startup issues with non-Windows computers, specifically

192 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


one for Linux and one for Mac.

Startup Problem First Step(s) to Fix the Problem


Missing GRUB/ The major boot file on some Linux systems is Grand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) while on other Linux systems the file is
LILO the Linux Loader (LILO). This error is most likely the result of installing Linux and then Windows on a system, rather than
install Windows and then Linux. The fixes are as follows:
For GRUB: mount the partition Linux is on and then reinstall GRUB. The command line is (or similar to):
sudo apt-get install –reinstall grub-efi-amd64.
For LILO: Run the /sbin/lilo command to reinstall LILO.
Kernel Panic This is a problem on a Mac. The symptom is a dark gray screen with a message that the system must reboot. This is usually the
result of a hardware issue. Detach all external hardware and reboot. Update any necessary drivers. You may also need to check
the inside of the Mac to make sure hardware is seated properly.
At the end of this project, you will have a better idea of what to do given a startup or shutdown problem on a computer.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what is the best first step to take to attempt to remedy the situation:

a. A user plugs in a USB scanner and Windows does not recognize it:
b. A user claims a computer shuts down and restarts on its own several times a day:

c. A computer displays a message on startup stating the operating system is missing:

d. What is the best way to avoid a missing GRUB or missing LILO error?

Points to Remember:
• Many startup problems can be fixed using the command prompt in Windows RE.
• If a system experiences spontaneous shutdowns, the most likely cause is an overheating problem with the computer.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: Boot Failures; Spontaneous Shutdowns, Device Fails to Start, Other Operating System Issues

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None but a computer to troubleshoot will help the learning process
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1. Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems With Appropriate Tools
4.1.a Common Symptoms
4.1.a.ii Failure to Boot
4.1.a.iii Improper Shutdown
4.1.a.iv Spontaneous Shutdown/Restart
4.1.a.v Device Fails to Start/Detected
4.1.a.x Boots to Safe Mode
4.1.a.xii Missing NTLDR
4.1.a.xiii Missing Boot.ini
4.1.a.xiv Missing Operating System
4.1.a.xv Missing Graphical Interface
4.1.a.xvi Missing GRUB/LILO
4.1.a.xvii Kernel Panic
4.1.a.xviii Graphical Interface Fails to Load

193 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Aligning Multiple Monitors
Description:
When two monitors are used on a computer, the monitors may not always be the same size and/or resolution. This situation can also
happen when a laptop connects to an external monitor as laptops often have smaller resolution restrictions when compared to regular
monitors. This often causes a mouse to seem to stop as it moves from one screen to another, especially if the bottom edges of the two
monitors are not aligned. In addition to an alignment issue, monitors can be backward in the sense that dragging a mouse off of the
left edge of one monitor can make the mouse move to the right edge of the other monitor.

Though not as common as misalignment problems, screens can also be set to the incorrect orientation. Often, a Ctrl+Alt+ arrow
combination is accidentally pressed. Ctrl+Alt+ an arrow will change the screen orientation depending upon which arrow is pressed.
Pressing Ctrl+Alt+Up Arrow will restore the screen to its normal orientation. Upon completion of this project, you will know how to
fix these alignment and orientation problems. You will need two displays on your computer for this project.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer with two displays enabled, right-click the desktop and click Screen Resolution. You
will see a screen that resembles
the screen on the right:
2. If you wish to change the
alignment of the two displays,
drag the smaller display up
or down accordingly, making
sure either the top edges or the
bottom edges align.
3. If you need to move a display,
click and drag it to move it to
the correct spot in relation to
the other display.
4. If you need to change the
orientation of a display, click
the display and then click
the drop-down arrow on the
Orientation field and change
the orientation.
5. When you are done making
changes, click the OK button
to keep the changes or click
the Cancel button to cancel the
changes.
6. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• When a computer is using two
displays, the Screen Resolution
area helps to fix any alignment or orientation problems.
• The Ctrl+Alt+ arrow key combination changes the orientation of a display.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: Multiple Monitor Alignments

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: A computer with Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and two or more displays
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.a.xix Multiple Monitor Misalignment/Orientation

194 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Software Troubleshooting Tools
Description:
Once a technician has an idea of the symptoms causing an issue affecting a computer, there are a number of tools available for use in
confirming the diagnosis of the software problem and in attempting to fix the problems. Here is an overview of those tools and their
use in troubleshooting software problems:

Tool Role in Troubleshooting Software Problems


BIOS/UEFI The BIOS is used primarily to make sure boot disks are in the correct order and hardware such as RAM, disks, and other
hardware devices have the proper settings. On newer systems, a United Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is replacing the
BIOS as UEFI can boot on drives of up to 2 TB.
SFC The System File Checker (SFC) checks system files for integrity and, if asked, attempts to repair those files. SFC is a command
line tool with four common switches:
/scannow: Scans system files and attempts to repair them, if needed.
/verifyonly: Scans system files but does not attempt to repair them.
/scanfile: Scans a specified system file and attempts to repair it, if needed.
/verifyfile: Scans a specified system file but does not try to repair it.
Logs If a system has trouble starting up, the boot log should be examined. It is found at C:\Windows\ntblog.txt. To see this from a
command prompt, run the NOTEPAD C:\Windows\ntblog.txt command.
Recovery Console Knows as the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE). Its sections include:
Startup Repair: Tries to repair startup problems automatically.
System Restore: Moves the system back to a system restore point.
System Image Recovery: Known as Windows Complete PC Restore in Windows Vista. This tool allows one to replace
the current image with a saved system image.
Repair Disks In Windows Vista and 7, a System Repair Disc can be created. For Windows 8/8.1, a recovery drive is a bootable external drive
which stores boot and system files. Both of these tools are used to attempt to repair Windows installation.
Pre-Installation If a boot sector has been affected and a technician suspects malware, this area is a good place to run an antivirus check.
Environments
MSCONFIG Used to troubleshoot boot settings, services, and startup settings (only in Windows Vista and Windows 7).
DEFRAG Used to defragment a magnetic hard disk drive, thus increasing performance. This can be run through a GUI or the DEFRAG
command in the command prompt. If DEFRAG is run through a command prompt, two common switches are:
/a: Analyzes the drive.
/c: Defragments the drive.
REGSRV32 Used to register and unregister Dynamic Link Library (DLL) files. This can become necessary when an uninstallation unregis-
ters a DLL file belonging to another app.
REGEDIT Used to fix system settings. REGEDIT accesses the Windows Registry, the database which stores Windows settings and many
application settings. The registry should only be accessed when a technician knows exactly which changes should be made.
Event Viewer A log tracking feature which stores system logs, applications logs, and security logs. Several types of events are stored, including
information events, warnings, errors, critical events, and audit events.
Safe Mode Computers boot into this mode when Windows will not otherwise boot normally. Safe Mode is often used when trying to rid
the system of malware as Safe Mode boots with minimal drivers and typically without a network connection, thus making it
harder for malware to hide.
Command Prompt Used to troubleshoot system problems, network connections, and disk issues. For example, the BOOTREC command is often
used in a WinRE command prompt window to fix the boot sector or the Master Boot Record.
Emergency Repair In Windows Vista and 7, the Backup and Restore applet in the Control Panel can create a system repair disc. In Windows 8, a
Disk USB drive can be used as a recovery drive.
Automated System In Windows Vista and 7, use the Backup and Restore applet in the Control Panel to create a system image. In Windows 8, cre-
Recovery ate a recovery drive and then boot to that drive and use the automatic repair option in the Advanced Options area.
Uninstall/Reinstall/ Usual fix for a corrupt application. This is normally done through the Programs and Features area of the Control Panel.
Repair
The most important aspects of troubleshooting are to diagnose the problem and then select the best first step in trying to solve the
problem.

After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of tools used to troubleshoot software problems on a computer.

195 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Steps for Completion:
1. For each situation, identify the tool with which you would start the troubleshooting process:

a. A hard drive has been consistently running slower over the past two weeks:

b. A computer gets a boot error each time one starts up a system with a USB drive plugged in:

c. A technician suspects someone has been trying to log in to a machine without authorization:

d. A technician suspects a system file is corrupt:

e. An app keeps crashing:

Points to Remember:
• The key to using software troubleshooting tools is to know which tool to use after diagnosing a problem.
• Repair disks should be created in case they are needed.
• If an app is corrupt or keeps crashing, use the Programs and Features applet in the Control Panel to uninstall, reinstall, or repair it.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: Recovery Tools; Windows Tools; Create a Repair Disc; More Windows Repair Tools; Logs and Recovery
Tools

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.b Tools
4.1.b.i BIOS/UEFI
4.1.b.ii SFC
4.1.b.iii Logs
4.1.b.iv Recovery Console
4.1.b.v Repair Disks
4.1.b.vi Pre-Installation Environments
4.1.b.vii MSCONFIG
4.1.b.viii DEFRAG
4.1.b.ix REGSVR32
4.1.b.x REGEDIT
4.1.b.xi Event Viewer
4.1.b.xii Safe Mode
4.1.b.xiii Command Prompt
4.1.b.xiv Emergency Repair Disk
4.1.b.xv Automated System Recovery
4.1.b.xvi Uninstall/Reinstall/Repair

196 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using the Defrag Tool
Description:
As a magnetic hard disk drive has files written to it, file are broken up into fragments and the fragments are written on the first
available disk sectors as the hard drive spins while it is looking for available sectors. The more data written to the drive, the more these
fragments are scattered throughout the hard drive and the longer it takes for files to be retrieved, thus slowing down the performance
of the hard drive. Defragmenting the hard drive moves pieces of files closer to each other by sector, thus decreasing the write time and
improving disk performance.

Defragmentation is not needed on a solid-state drive because there are no spinning plates holding sectors. After completing this
project, you will know how to analyze a disk for fragmentation and then defragment the hard disk.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a computer with a magnetic hard disk drive and Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1, click the Start button (press the Windows logo
key if using Windows 8).
2. Type: defrag. When you see the Disk Defragmenter shortcut (called Defragment and optimize your drives in Windows 8/8.1),
click it.
3. Click the C: drive.
4. Click the Analyze Disk button. After several moments, the analysis will complete and the fragmentation percentage will show in
the Disk Defragmenter window.
5. To defragment the disk, click the Defragment disk button (Optimize disk in Windows 8/8.1). After several moments, the
fragmentation percentage should be lower.
6. When the process is finished, close the Disk Defragmenter window.

Points to Remember:
• The Disk Defragmenter can defragment a magnetic hard disk drive.
• Solid-state drives do not need defragmentation as data is not written to randomly available sectors (which cause fragmentation).

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating System Training, Session 2
System Utilities: Defrag

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1


PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: More Windows Repair Tools

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 and a magnetic hard disk drive
Estimated Time to Complete: 15-20 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.x DEFRAG
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.b Tools
4.1.b.viii DEFRAG

197 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Editing the Registry
Description:
The Windows Registry is the database in Windows that tracks every Windows setting and in many cases, application settings.
While it can be used as a tool to solve a Windows or software problem, it should only be accessed if the technician working with the
registry knows exactly where to go and what changes are to be made. Making an incorrect change in the registry could destabilize an
application or even Windows to the point to where it will not work. For that reason, the registry should be backed up before any work
is done on it. This way, should the registry need to be restored, one can do so. The registry has five hives. Hives are groups of settings.
The five hives for the registry are:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM): Stores settings for HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG (HKCC): Stores the
the local machine. Windows configuration when Windows starts.
HKEY_USERS (HKU): Stores settings specific to the user HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT (HKCR): Stores application and
accounts on the machine. file association data.
HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU): Stores the current
user settings on the machine.
The data stored in hives are values stored inside of keys. For example, the HKCR hive stores keys for every file format used on a user’s
machine. One of these keys, for Excel comma separated files, is called Excel.CSV. Inside the key is a value with the name Microsoft
Excel Comma Separated Values File. Again, registry hives (groups) store keys and these keys (fields) store values (data). The regedit (or
regedit32) command opens the registry. Upon completing this project, you will know how to back up the registry. You will also know
how to explore the registry.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 computer, click the Start button (press the Windows logo key if using Windows 8).
2. Type: regedit.
3. When the regedit shortcut appears, click it. If you see the User Account Control prompt, click the Yes button. The Registry Editor

will load and the top of the window will look like this:
4. If the five hives are not collapsed to match the example above, click the triangle arrow next to any of the expanded hives to
collapse each hive.
5. To back up the registry, click the File menu and then click Export.
6. Click in the File name box and type: Regbackup.
7. In the Export range section, select the All option. This will back up the entire registry.
8. Click the Save button.
9. From the Registry Editor window, click the triangle next to HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT to expand the hive. You will see a very
long list of file extension and association keys.
10. Scroll down the list of file extensions and click the
.html key. Several values which indicate the types of
files that should read as .html (webpage) files. The
value list will look similar to the image on the right:
11. Close the Registry Editor.

Points to Remember:
• The Windows Registry stores data for all Windows settings and for many application settings.

198 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


• The registry is divided into five hives (groups).
• Inside of the hives are keys (fields) which store values (data).
• It is very important to be accurate and precise when editing the registry as one wrong change can cause major instability within an
app or Windows as a whole.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ Domain 1: (220-902) Windows Operating Systems, Session 2
System Utilities: Regedit

LearnKey’s A+ Domain 4: (220-902) Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1


PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: More Windows Repair Tools

Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools
1.4.f System utilities
1.4.f.i REGEDIT
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.b Tools
4.1.b.x REGEDIT

199 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Event Viewer
Description:
Event Viewer is the Windows feature which logs information, error, and similar events for Windows, its security, and many of tis
applications. There are three major Event Viewer logs:
System log: Tracks Windows events Security log: Shows events such as audit successes and audit
Application log: Tracks application events. Not all apps have failures.
events but many do have events.
Within these and the other logs in Event Viewer, there are five main event types:
Information: This event usually indicates a mere activity and Critical: An error severe enough to cause a stop error
is no cause for concern. (program crash) or a system reboot.
Warning: This event indicates a problem will develop if action Audit: A security-related event such as a login success or
is not taken. failure.
Error: A problem has occurred and system functionality has
been compromised.
Given that log files continue to grow as they log events, eventually the size of the logs needs to be managed. Each log will have a
default maximum log size. When that size is met, one of three things happens depending upon the log settings:
• Older events are overwritten • Nothing happens and events need to be cleared manually. In
• The log is archived and a new one is started this situation, logging errors can occur if the log becomes full.
In addition, events may not be added to the full log.
At the end of this project, which will explore Event Viewer, you will know how to look through the Event Viewer and control settings
for log files.

Steps for Completion:


1. On a Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1 machine, open Administrative Tools.
2. Double-click Event Viewer. The Event Viewer will open.
3. In the Summary of Administrative Events group, click the plus sign next to the Error event type to see recent errors on the
system.
4. Double-click an error. You will see a summary page.
5. Click through some of the events and read the message for each event in the General tab.
6. On the left side of the screen, expand the Windows Logs folder.
7. Click the System log. You should see a large number of information events in the System window.
8. Click on one or two events and read the message for each event in the General tab.
9. To set what happens to the log file when it becomes full, right-click the System log and click Properties.
10. If you wish to increase the log size, click in the Maximum log size (KB) text box and type a number slightly larger than the
current size (probably 20480 KB).
11. To change what happens to the log file when it becomes full, select the Archive the log when full option.
12. Click OK to save your changes.
13. Close all open windows.

Points to Remember:
• Event Viewer stores logs which show Windows events.
• Types of events include warnings, errors, and critical messages.
• The main event logs are: system logs, application logs, and security logs.
• One available setting to change on logs is to change what happens to the log file when it becomes full.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems, Session 1
Windows Vista and 7 Features, Event Viewer

LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1


PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting: Logs and Recovery Tools
200 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Difficulty: Advanced
Required Materials: Windows Vista, 7, 8, or 8.1
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
1.0 Windows Operating Systems
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1)
1.1.a Features
1.1.a.ii Aero, Gadgets, User Account Control, BitLocker, Shadow Copy, System Restore, ReadyBoost, Sidebar, Compatibility Mode, Virtual XP Mode, Easy Transfer, Administrative
Tools, Defender, Windows Firewall, Security Center, Event Viewer, File Structure and Paths, Category View vs. Classic View
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.1 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot PC Operating System Problems with Appropriate Tools
4.1.b Tools
4.1.b.xi Event Viewer

201 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Common PC Security Issues
Description:
In addition to troubleshooting software, a technician needs to be able to troubleshoot security issues on a machine. Here is a list of
common symptoms of security issues on a computer and a description of each symptom:

Symptom Description
Pop-ups These appear to attempt to get a user to click a link to something which looks good but is a link to malware. Most web
browsers have a pop-up blocker activated so for a pop-up window to get past the blocker usually means it is a malicious pop-
up.
Browser redirection A user attempts to visit a website and gets redirected to a different site. This could be a sign of malware on the system. If
multiple users have the same redirection problem, the problem is most likely a bad DNS server entry.
Security alerts An antimalware program can pop up with a warning that a website or file is potentially harmful.
Slow performance This could be caused by malware but could also be caused by having too many resources in use. Check Task Manager and/
or Performance Monitor to see which apps are using a lot of the CPU and/or memory. A hard drive near capacity will also
cause slow system performance.
Internet connectivity Besides this being a hardware, network card, or configuration issue, malware can change the proxy settings of one’s Internet
issues browser settings, thus causing a connection to fail. This is especially true if one browser does not work but the rest of the
browsers work.
PC/OS locks up This could be caused by malware but more than likely this is caused by an overload in system resources, specifically CPU and
RAM. This could be a hardware issue, often caused by overheating.
Application crash If an application keeps crashing, check the Event Viewer application log for error messages and use those messages to re-
search the problem. Also, try uninstalling and reinstalling the application.
Windows Update If a Windows update fails, check the update history to see what is causing the failure. It could be a break in Internet con-
nectivity. It is unlikely to be malware-related, but that cause should not just be ruled out.
Rogue antivirus Malware which disables antivirus software. A system must be booted into Safe Mode in order to run the antivirus program.
Or, one may need to temporarily obtain a different antimalware program and run it in order to enable the original antivirus
software.
Spam Email which is unsolicited or unwarranted. Most email providers have a solid junk email filter. A sender’s email address can
be added to a junk email list. Clicking a link in a spam message can cause an infection known as a driveby download (an
unwarranted, unknown download).
Renamed system files Malware can rename system files and/or extensions. Check the modification date on these files if you are suspicious. One
may need to boot into the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE) and run the SFC /scannow command to identify bad
system files and replace them.
Files disappearing Before assuming malware, check to make sure the files are not hidden. Many system files and folders with user settings are
hidden by default. When in doubt, run an antimalware scan.
File permission If boot files cannot be accessed, a boot record fix needs to take place. If other files cannot be accessed, run the antivirus/anti-
changes malware program to see if malware is present on the machine.
Responses from users If an email account is hijacked, email will be sent to people in the account’s address book. If this happens, a user needs to
regarding email change all online passwords (especially the email password) and get a copy of the originating IP address of the email message
and report that address to the email provider.
Automated replies A sign that one’s email has been hacked is the email is receiving failed delivery notification messages from email addresses
from unknown sent one does not recognize. The user should change all online passwords, find out the originating IP address of the email, and
email report that address to the email provider.
Access denied Malware can be caught by the User Account Control (UAC) feature when trying to install itself. Or, a RunDLL access de-
nied message can appear if malware is trying to install itself. A user should always be suspicious of these messages when the
user did not purposely try to download a file or executable program.
Invalid certificate This appears on a website when the certificate issued by the certification authority (CA) for that website has not been veri-
fied to be trustworthy and current. Unless one knows the site is trustworthy, the site should be avoided. Certificates originate
from a root CA, the top-level certificate authority server on a network.

After completing this project, you will be better equipped to identify security symptoms on computers.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what the best first step would be to take to resolve the security symptom:
a. A user is getting complaints from co-workers about email the user sent when the user did not send it:

202 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


b. A website displays a “Certificate cannot be verified” message:

c. A technician runs the antivirus scan on a system with suspected malware. The user is still exhibiting malware symptoms:

d. A Windows update keeps failing:

e. After being on for a while, a computer starts to run very slowly:

f. A user tries to navigate to a website but keeps getting redirected to another site:

Points to Remember:
• Security symptoms come in many different forms. The key is to look for abnormal behavior on a machine.
• Malware on the machine does not need to be a first assumption when evaluating a potential security issue.
• When looking for a security issue, check machine settings, user permissions, and overall machine performance.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Security Issues: Common Security Symptoms; Security and Performance Symptoms; Configure Junk Mail Folder; Hidden Folders and Changed
Permissions

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.2 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot Common PC Security Issues With Appropriate Tools and Best Practices
4.2.a Common Symptoms
4.2.a.i Pop-Ups
4.2.a.ii Browser Redirection
4.2.a.iii Security Alerts
4.2.a.iv Slow Performance
4.2.a.v Internet Connectivity Issues
4.2.a.vi PC/OS Lock up
4.2.a.vii Application Crash
4.2.a.viii OS Updates Failures
4.2.a.ix Rogue Antivirus
4.2.a.x Spam
4.2.a.xi Renamed System Files
4.2.a.xii Files Disappearing
4.2.a.xiii File Permission Changes
4.2.a.xiv Hijacked Email
4.2.a.xiv.1 Responses from Users Regarding Email
4.2.a.xiv.2 Automated Replies from Unknown Sent Email
4.2.a.xv Access Denied
4.2.a.xvi Invalid Certificate (Trusted Root CA)

203 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Security Troubleshooting Tools
Description:
Part of working through security issues on computers is being able to identify what the issue is for any given situation. Another part
of working through security issues on computers is to know which tools to use to try to solve a security issues and how to use those
tools. Here is a list of tools a technician needs to know how to use and when to use in an effort to solving security issues, along with a
description of each tool:

Tool When to use


Antivirus software If a virus is suspected, update the definitions of the antivirus software on the system and run this immediately. This may
need to be run in Safe Mode. The tool will usually quarantine, repair, and/or remove infected files.
Antimalware software Usually more robust than antivirus software. Quarantine the system and run this tool. Disable System Restore before run-
ning this tool and enable System Restore and create a restore point after cleaning the malware off of the system.
Recovery Console Known as the Windows Recovery Environment (WinRE), under advanced boot options (through pressing F8 while boot-
ing or Shift+F8 while booting Windows 8/8.1). From here, you can run startup repair, Windows Memory Diagnostics, or
a command prompt which will allow for running commands such as SFC or BOOTREC. This is not installed by default
in Windows Vista.
Terminal Used in Linux to fix security issues. The chmod command changes permissions on files and folders while the chown com-
mand changes ownership on files and folders. To examine partitions, run the sudo parted /dev/sda ‘print’ command. Use
the sudo fsck /dev/sda# to check a partition (where # is a partition #).
System Restore/Snap- Moves a system back to a restore point, which can uninstall software and/or undo system changes which cause instability
shot in Windows. The System Image Recovery tool allows for replacing a possibly malware-infected system image with a saved
system image. The System Image Recovery tool is called Windows Complete PC Restore in Windows Vista.
Pre-Installation Used when running antivirus/antimalware in Safe Mode does not completely rid the system of malware. Now, it is safe to
environments suspect the boot sector or Master Boot Record contains malware. Boot into WinRE, access the command prompt, and run
bootrec /fixmbr to fix the Master Boot Record.
Event Viewer Has system, application, and security logs. These logs can reveal patterns of problems which technicians can then use to
search for and implement fixes to systems.
Refresh/Restore Besides using System Restore, Windows 8.1 has a refresh feature which allows for refreshing of Windows system files
without affecting one’s personal files. Installed apps from discs or websites will be removed.
MSCONFIG/Safe boot On the Boot tab of MSCONFIG, the following boot options can be configured:
Safe Boot Minimal: Boots into Safe Mode.
Safe Boot Alternate Shell: Boots into Safe Mode with Command Prompt.
Safe Boot Active Directory Repair: Boots into Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM).
NO GUI Boot: Boots without a Windows screen.
Boot Log: Enables boot logging.
Base Video: Enables Low-Resolution Video.
OS Boot information: Displays driver names as they are being loaded
After completing this project, you will have a better idea of which tool(s) to use should a computer security issue arise. You will also
know how to use the Refresh your PC feature in Windows 8.1.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the tool which should be used to attempt to resolve a security issue:

a. A technician suspects a memory issue and wants to run Windows Memory Diagnostics:

b. A permissions issue needs addressing in Linux:

c. A technician needs to see a log of successful and failed attempts to log into a machine:
2. If you have a Windows 8.1 machine to where you do not need to keep apps installed from discs or websites, access the Charms on
the right side of the screen.
3. Click Settings.
4. Click Change PC Settings.
5. Click Update and Recovery.
6. Click Recovery.
204 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
7. In the Refresh your PC without affecting your files
section, click the Get started button. After several
moments, you will see the screen on the right:
8. Click the Next button.
9. Click the Refresh button. The refresh will take several
minutes. At the end of the refresh, Windows 8.1
will restart and you will be able to log back into the
machine.

Points to Remember:
• Several security tools are available to attempt to fix
security issues on a computer.
• The Refresh your PC feature is available in Windows
8.1.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
PC Security Issues: Security Tools; System Restore; Event Viewer and MSCONFIG; Refresh the PC; Safe Boot Options

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: Windows 8.1 for the Refresh your PC feature
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes; 25 minutes if refreshing a PC with Windows 8.1
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.2 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot Common PC Security Issues With Appropriate Tools and Best Practices
4.2.b Tools
4.2.b.i Antivirus Software
4.2.b.ii Antimalware Software
4.2.b.iii Recovery Console
4.2.b.iv Terminal
4.2.b.v System Restore/Snapshot
4.2.b.vi Pre-Installation Environments
4.2.b.vii Event Viewer
4.2.b.viii Refresh/Restore
4.2.b.ix MSCONFIG/Safe Boot

205 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Best Practices for Malware Removal
Description:
Inevitably, a technician is going to need to detect and remove malware on a user’s computer. CompTIA has a specific seven-step
process as a list of best practices for malware removal. Here are the seven steps, along with a description of each step:

Malware Removal Step Description


Identify malware symptoms Observe the system for changes in system files. Use Task Manager to determine if any unfamiliar apps or process-
es are running. If an app was installed which was advertised as a virus removal tool but does not do so, it is a form
of malware.
Quarantine infected system As soon as a system is deemed to have malware, it should immediately be removed from the network so that it
does not affect other systems.
Disable System Restore In Windows, System Restore creates restore points for system settings on a regular basis or after a major installa-
tion. If left enabled, a system could revert to the state to where the virus was present. Thus, System Restore should
be disabled.
Remediate infected system In this step, make sure the antivirus/antimalware software has the current updates. This will best equip the soft-
ware to remove malware. Then, run the antivirus/antimalware software and scan the system so malware can be
identified and removed. If system files have been infected, the antivirus/antimalware tool may need to be run in
Safe Mode or the Windows Recovery Environment.
Schedule scans and run Make sure the antivirus/antimalware software is set to scan the system on a regular basis. The software should
updates also be set to update its definition files on a regular basis.
Enable System Restore and In Windows, once a system is cleaned from malware, a restore point should be created. Re-enable System Restore
create restore point and create a restore point.
Educate end-user If user actions caused the malware problem, educate the user on being careful about websites to visit and apps to
download. Users should be taught to not obtain anything which seems suspicious.
After completing this project, you will know which steps to take for malware removal given a user’s situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the step in the malware removal process a technician should perform:

a. A user reports a message is appearing which says Click here or your C: drive will be erased:

b. A user’s Mac has had all of its viruses removed:

c. A user’s Windows system, diagnosed with malware, has been quarantined:

d. A technician has concluded a user’s machine has a trojan horse:

Points to Remember:
• There is a specific seven-step process to follow for best practices for malware removal.
• On Windows systems, remember to disable the System Restore feature before remediating the system and enable the restore
feature after the machine is remediated and scans and updates have been scheduled.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Objectives:
Session 1 4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.2 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot Common PC Security Issues With Appropriate Tools
PC Security Issues: Malware Removal Best Practices and Best Practices
4.2.c Best practice procedure for malware removal
Difficulty: Beginner 4.2.c.i Identify Malware Symptoms
4.2.c.ii Quarantine Infected System
Required Materials: None 4.2.c.iii Disable System Restore (in Windows)
4.2.c.iv Remediate Infected Systems
4.2.c.iv.1 Update Antimalware Software
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes 4.2.c.iv.2 Scan and Removal Techniques (Safe Mode, Pre-Installation Environment)
4.2.c.v Schedule Scans and Run Updates
4.2.c.vi Enable System Restore and Create Restore Point (In Windows)
4.2.c.vii Educate End User

206 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Common Mobile Operating System Issues
Description:
Given the nature of the size of mobile devices, their relative newness compared to traditional computers, and their propensity to move
around a lot, operating system issues with these devices are bound to occur. It is up to an A+ technician to categorize and diagnose
these problems and then, in many cases, be able to take the first steps necessary to solve the problem. Here is a list of common
operating system problem symptoms with mobile devices, along with a description and, where applicable, possible first steps taken to
remedy the situation:

Symptom Description and Possible First Steps


Dim display Check the brightness settings. If they are set to auto, consider manually setting the brightness. When a device goes into battery
saver mode, the display is usually dimmed. On a laptop, the backlight could be failing or have failed.
Intermittent The usual cause is the device being too far from a wireless access point. Wireless access points should be placed in a central location
wireless in a room, high above the ground. Check also for interference from microwaves, large magnetic devices, and large water tanks.
No wireless Make sure the wireless on/off key or airplane key has not been pressed. Make sure the wireless adapter is enabled. Try connecting
connectivity another device to the wireless network to determine whether the problem is with the device itself or, as in the case where multiple
devices fail to connect, the wireless access point.
No Bluetooth Make sure Bluetooth is turned on. When a device goes into a battery saver mode, often Bluetooth will be turned off and will not
connectivity turn back on after the device is charged. If Bluetooth is on, try re-pairing it with a Bluetooth device it was previously paired with.
Cannot broad- Make sure any external displays are plugged in properly. Check the screen settings on the original device to make sure it recognizes
cast to external the second display and that projection settings are set to use both monitors. Try another external display to see if the problem is
monitor with the display or the device.
Touch screen First, restart the device. If the problem still exists, remove the covering on the screen (if there is one) and clean the screen. If the
non-responsive problem still exists, gently knock each corner of the screen. The last resort is to send the device to an authorized repair agent.
Apps not load- If an app will not load, take the following steps to try to fix the app:
ing • Force stop the app.
• Clear the cache for the app.
• Clear the data for the app.
• Update the app.
• Uninstall and reinstall the app.
• Restart the device.
• Check for overall system updates.
Slow perfor- Similar to desktop computers, mobile devices will slow down as apps are added and storage space is filled. Check storage availabil-
mance ity to see if it is low. Check background processes to see if one or more is using a high amount of processor percentage. Delete any
unneeded apps.
Unable to For many corporate email accounts, a certificate is needed in order to decrypt email. Check the email server to see if there is a
decrypt email certificate which needs to be imported into the device. If the device has full encryption, it may need to be decrypted.
Extremely short Make sure the device can hold a charge. To isolate the problem to a device or a charger, try a different charger. Check for cracks
battery life around the charging port as that can affect a device’s ability to charge. The following services, when enabled, will shorten battery
life: Brightness (the higher it is, the shorter the battery life); Constant searching for signals; Streaming data; GPS – the more apps
using location services, the faster the battery drains.
Overheating Overheating can ruin a battery and also the device itself. Avoid subjecting a device to extreme temperature change. The following
factors can prevent overheating:
• Avoid direct sunlight.
• Turn off unused apps.
• Avoid the automatic brightness setting.
• Disable unneeded network connections (like Bluetooth).
• Remove the case (on a phone) when it is not needed.
Frozen system Try a soft reset. If the battery is removable, pull it out for 10-15 seconds and then put it back in. Recent updates can cause instabil-
ity which can cause a frozen system. If an app is causing it, uninstall the app. The device itself may be defective.
No sound from Check to make sure volume is up and the speaker connector is plugged in all the way. Try a different pair of speakers or head-
speakers phones to rule out the sound card. If these are Bluetooth speakers, follow the same guidelines for troubleshooting Bluetooth con-
nectivity.
Inaccurate Run a calibration app to attempt to fix the problem.
touch screen
response
System lockout This occurs when one cannot log in to a device. The most likely solution is a factory reset unless the device supports a lock-dis-
abling mechanism remotely (like iCloud for iOS devices).

207 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Some of these mobile operating system problems can force a factory reset in order to fix the problem. Factory resets erase data
currently on the device. Thus, it is important that the data on devices be backed up on a regular basis.

After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of what to do when one of these symptoms appears.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation involving a mobile device operating system problem, explain the first steps you would take to try to solve the
problem:
a. A user can read personal email on a device but cannot read corporate email even though that aspect once worked:

b. A user cannot pair a tablet with a Bluetooth keyboard:

c. A user’s display on a tablet is dim:

d. A user’s smartphone takes longer to charge and does not hold the charge for as long as it did before:

e. A user’s app for a favorite restaurant freezes the device whenever the app is loaded:

f. A user connected a laptop to an external monitor but cannot project to that monitor.

Points to Remember:
• The key to fixing mobile operating system problems is to be able to identify the problem and take the correct first steps to attempt
to solve the problem.
• Mobile devices should have their data backed up frequently as operating system problems could force a factory reset on the device,
which would erase existing data on the device.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
Mobile OS and Application Issues: Common Mobile Device Symptoms; Connectivity Issues

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application issues with appropriate tools
4.3.a Common Symptoms
4.3.a.i Dim Display
4.3.a.ii Intermittent Wireless
4.3.a.iii No Wireless Connectivity
4.3.a.iv No Bluetooth Connectivity
4.3.a.v Cannot Broadcast to External Monitor
4.3.a.vi Touch Screen Non-Responsive
4.3.a.vii Apps not Loading
4.3.a.viii Slow Performance
4.3.a.ix Unable to Decrypt Email
4.3.a.x Extremely Short Battery Life
4.3.a.xi Overheating
4.3.a.xii Frozen System
4.3.a.xiii No Sound from Speakers
4.3.a.xiv Inaccurate Touch Screen Response
4.3.a.xv System Lockout

208 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Mobile OS and Application Troubleshooting Tools
Description:
Once a technician identifies an operating system or application issue with a mobile device, there are a number of tools a technician can
use to try to solve the issue. Here are some mobile operating system and application troubleshooting tools, along with an indication for
when each tool is used:

Tool When it is Used


Hard reset This is a last resort in troubleshooting as this task will restore a device to its factory settings, thus erasing the device. This is
usually done through a button combination, with one example for many devices being, with the power off, to hold down the
power and volume buttons until the device’s logo appears, then release the buttons and re-press and hold the power button.
Soft reset This involves turning off the device and turning it back on. No data is lost.
Close running On an iOS device, double-tap the Home button and then swipe the app off of the screen. On an Android device, the usual
applications process is to tap the square button and then swipe the app off of the device.
Reset to factory default On an Android device, use Backup and Reset in the Settings area. On an iOS device, use the Reset option, located in the
General area under Settings. Always back up the data on the device before doing a factory reset as a factory reset will wipe
the data off of the device.
Adjust configurations/ To improve performance, consider making the following configuration adjustments:
settings Use battery save mode whenever possible.
Transmit data over Wi-Fi as much as possible.
Make calls over Wi-Fi when possible.
Avoid too high of a brightness setting for the display.
Limit the amount of notifications received.
Uninstall/reinstall Apps If an app is running poorly, uninstall and reinstall it. Mobile apps are updated far more often than desktop apps.
Force stop Under Settings, find the app which is causing an issue and force the app to stop. This is especially important to do for apps
which cannot be uninstalled.
Upon completing this project, you will have a good idea as to which tool to use given an operating system or software issue on a mobile
device.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what you would do to try to solve the given mobile operating system or application issue:

a. An app is causing instability but the app is built-in and cannot be uninstalled:

b. A user reports a device is running sluggishly:

c. A new app continually crashes:

d. A mobile device continually freezes. The data was just recently backed up:

Points to Remember:
• When using troubleshooting tools on a mobile device’s operating systems and applications, start with closing apps and, if needed,
uninstalling and reinstalling apps.
• Use a reset to factory defaults and a hard reset as last resorts for troubleshooting tools.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
Mobile OS and Application Issues: Mobile Device Tools; Close Running Apps and Force Stop; Resetting to Factory Defaults; Uninstall and Reinstall
Apps; Adjust Configurations and Settings

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate 4.3.b Tools


4.3.b.i Hard Reset
4.3.b.ii Soft Reset
Required Materials: None 4.3.b.iii Close Running Applications
4.3.b.iv Reset to Factory Default
Estimated Time to Complete: 5-10 minutes 4.3.b.v Adjust Configurations/Settings
4.3.b.vi Uninstall/Reinstall Apps
Objectives: 4.3.b.vii Force Stop
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application issues with
appropriate tools
209 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Mobile OS and Application Security Issues
Description:
Compared to desktop computers, mobile devices have their own set of unique operating system and application security issues. Here
are some common symptoms of security issues a technician may find on mobile devices, and the first steps necessary to try to solve
these issues:

Symptom/Issue First Steps


Signal drop/weak signal Caused when device is in a bad geographic area or there is interference inside of a building (like very thick
walls). If this is an indoor problem, get and install a cellular repeater as this will boost cellular signals inside of a
building.
Power drain Check the battery settings on the device to see which apps and processes are using the highest battery percent-
age. Having Bluetooth and location services on all of the time will lower the battery life.
Slow data speeds If the device is on a Wi-Fi network, it is sharing bandwidth with other devices on the network. The user may be
in a remote area or a zone that doesn’t get a good connection. If a user goes over a data plan, the provider could
throttle the speed down for the remainder of the billing period.
Unintended Wi-Fi connection Make sure the device is not set to automatically connect to Wi-Fi networks as it moves from area to area. If a
device can connect to a Wi-Fi network in this manner and without any form of authentication, the network is
most likely an open network and thus is not secure.
Unintended Bluetooth pairing Make sure the device is not set to automatically discover other Bluetooth devices. If one suspects a device has
been paired without authorization, Bluetooth should be turned off immediately.
Leaked personal files/data The following steps can be taken to avoid having personal data leak into unwanted sources:
• Make it harder to shoulder surf by holding the device at an angle to where one cannot easily look over a
shoulder to see device activity.
• Avoid viewing confidential data while connected to public Wi-Fi networks.
• Use an antimalware program.
• Consider third-party encryption for sending data to and from the cloud.
• Change passwords frequently.
Data transmission over limit If a mobile device has a cellular plan with a data limit during a billing cycle, the cellular provider will often throt-
tle data for the remainder of the billing period and/or increase charges on the phone bill. To avoid this situation,
one should use Wi-Fi as much as possible and only use the mobile device as a hotspot when necessary.
Unauthorized account access On any suspicion of someone else accessing one’s account, the account password should be changed right away.
Many apps (such as Gmail) will show where and when a login took place.
Unauthorized root access When a device is rooted (known as jailbreaking in iOS), interfaces and apps which would not otherwise be al-
lowed are allowed. The problem caused with rooting a device is that a user has unrestricted access to the entire
file system. If a hacker accesses the device, the hacker will also have unrestricted file access to the device.
Unauthorized location tracking Possible with some apps on devices and more possible if the device has been rooted. Location tracking should
only be on when needed and can usually be controlled on an app-by-app basis.
Unauthorized camera/microphone Some malicious apps will take over a device’s camera and/or microphone. If this is suspected, run an antimalware
activation app to check for malware.
High resource utilization Look at device settings to see what is running to cause the high resource utilization. If the app or process is not
needed, turn it off, or, if necessary, do a force stop on the app or process.

To prevent problems caused by apps, always check an app to see what kind of access it will want on a device before installing the app.
For example, many apps need access to a device’s microphone. If one does not feel comfortable with that scenario, the app should not
be installed. After completing this project, you will have a better understanding of common symptoms for mobile operating system and
app security issues.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each of the following situations, indicate the best first steps to take to attempt to solve the potential security issue:
a. A user suspects someone has logged into the user’s email account:

b. A user complaints that 20 days into the billing cycle, data streaming gets much slower:

c. A user’s device keeps getting notifications that it is connecting to unfamiliar Wi-Fi networks:

210 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


d. A user calls to complain that the battery on the user’s device has been draining very quickly lately:

e. A user asks you what it takes to minimize the risk of personal files being leaked:

Points to Remember:
• Caution should be exercised when deciding what to allow an app to do on a device.
• Automatic Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connections should be turned off.
• Users should be trained on how to make it harder for people to shoulder surf while devices are being used.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
Mobile Security Issues: Application Issues; Unauthorized Access Issues

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
4.0 Software Troubleshooting
4.4 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot Common Mobile OS and Application Security Issues with Appropriate Tools
4.4.a Common Symptoms
4.4.a.i Signal Drop/Weak Signal
4.4.a.ii Power Drain
4.4.a.iii Slow Data Speeds
4.4.a.iv Unintended Wi-Fi Connection
4.4.a.v Unintended Bluetooth Pairing
4.4.a.vi Leaked Personal Files/Data
4.4.a.vii Data Transmission Overlimit
4.4.a.viii Unauthorized Account Access
4.4.a.ix Unauthorized Root Access
4.4.a.x Unauthorized Location Tracking
4.4.a.xi Unauthorized Camera/Microphone Activation
4.4.a.xii High Resource Utilization

211 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Mobile OS and Application Security Tools
Description:
Once a mobile operating system or application security issue is discovered, the key to solving the issue is to use the correct tool(s) on
the issue. Here are some tools used for mobile operating system and application security issues, along with a description of when each
tool should be used:

Tool When it Should be Used


Antimalware Use antimalware on a mobile device to scan both data and apps. Many antimalware apps will scan an app after it has been
downloaded. This is especially important for apps obtained from untrusted sources, as is allowed on Android and Windows
devices.
App scanner This tool will scan a mobile device to see which apps have not been recently used and then will offer to uninstall those apps.
Factory reset Make sure data is backed up before doing a factory reset as a factory reset will erase any data present on the device.
Uninstall/reinstall apps Often, uninstalling an app and then reinstalling it will fix any bugs apps may have.
Wi-Fi analyzer An app used to examine surrounding wireless networks. This will help a user locate a possible SSID for use to connect to a
wireless network. Many of these apps will also show signal strength of surrounding wireless access points.
Force stop This tool stops an app or process on a device. This is an effective way to stop an app or process utilizing a high amount of
resources on the device.
Cell tower analyzer A third-party app which scans for and locates cell towers near a location.
Backup/Restore Data should be backed up on a regular basis, especially given the possibility that a factory reset may be needed on a mobile
device. The following backup tools for each mobile operating system are as follows:
iOS: iCloud and iTunes (iTunes for desktop synchronization)
Android: Google Sync, which is used for synchronizing account data across multiple devices.
Windows: OneDrive

At the completion of this project, you will have a better understanding of which tools to use to combat specific mobile operating
system and security issues.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what you would do to answer common user questions as they relate to mobile device operating system
and application security issues.

a. What should be done with apps right after they are downloaded?

b. Which tool can help one locate nearby wireless networks?

c. What should be done with an app if it is causing stability issues on a mobile device?

d. What can you use to see which apps have not been run recently?

Points to Remember:
• Many of the tools used to troubleshoot mobile operating system and application security issues are the same tools as the ones used
to troubleshoot non-security issues.
• Remember that data from a mobile device should be backed up on a regular basis.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Training, Session 1
Mobile Security Issues: Mobile Security Tools

Difficulty: Beginner/Intermediate 4.4.b.ii App Scanner


4.4.b.iii Factory Reset/Clean Install
4.4.b.iv Uninstall/Reinstall Apps
Required Materials: None 4.4.b.v WiFi Analyzer
4.4.b.vi Force Stop
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes 4.4.b.vii Cell Tower Analyzer
4.4.b.viii Backup/Restore
Objectives: 4.4.b.viii.1 iTunes/iCloud/Apple Configurator
4.0 Software Troubleshooting 4.4.b.viii.2 Google Sync
4.4 Given a Scenario, Troubleshoot Common Mobile OS and Application Security Issues 4.4.b.viii.3 One Drive
with Appropriate Tools
4.4.b Tools
4.4.b.i Antimalware
212 | Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Fill-in-the-Blanks
Instructions: While watching A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures, fill in the missing words according to the
information presented by the instructor. [References where answers are found are in brackets.]
Safety Procedures
1. Earth, , and signal are types of equipment grounding. [Equipment Grounding]

2. Hard drives not installed in a machine should be stored in an . [Component Handling and
Storage]

3. Batteries, toner, and should be disposed of properly. [Toxic Waste Handling]

4. Loose and clothing should be avoided when working on a computer. [Personal Safety and Lifting
Techniques]

5. A fire extinguisher with a can be used to put out electrical fires. [Cable Management]

6. Local and federal government and safety regulations are important to follow when disposing of
hazardous material. [Regulation Compliance]

Environmental Impacts
7. The temperature of a CPU should never be above . [Temperature, Humidity, and Ventilation]

8. A is used provide power to essential equipment until they can be shut down properly in the event
of a blackout. [Power Surges, Brownouts, Blackouts]

9. A spike in power is a quick increase in . [Power Surges, Brownouts, Blackouts]

10. are used to keep airborne particles away from sensitive hardware. [Airborne Protection]

11. An vacuum is used to remove dust and other particles from a computer. [Dust and Debris]

12. An is used to help individuals dispose of hazardous materials. [Local Regulation Compliance]

Prohibited Content and Privacy


13. A is responsible for identifying the incident, reporting it through proper channels, and preserving
data and devices. [Incident Response]

14. that is not tracked properly will not be admissible in a court of law. [Incident Response]

15. , BSD, GNU, and Android are all open source licenses. [Licensing]

16. A is an example of sensitive personal information. [Personally Identifiable Information]

17. are responsible for reading log files and locating any potential security problems. [Corporate
Policies and Best Practices]
214 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Communication and Professionalism
18. Paying attention to titles, , and punctuality are a few examples of being culturally sensitive.
[Cultural Sensitivity]

19. In the event that a technician will be late, the technician should . [Be on Time]

20. , fellow employees, and text messages are examples of possible distractions when talking to a
customer. [Avoid Distractions]

21. Being judgmental, dismissing the customer’s problem, and with the customer are not proper ways
to handle a difficult customer. [Difficult Customers]

22. If confidential information is found while on a job, the technician should let the know and/or
their supervisor. [Customers and Confidential Material]

Troubleshooting Theory
23. There are total steps in the CompTIA troubleshooting theory. [Corporate Policies to Consider]

24. When identifying an issue, the technician should ask the user questions. [Identify the Problem]

25. While researching an issue’s probable cause, it is important to use and

sources. [Establish a Theory of Probable Cause]

26. If an issue cannot be fixed by the technician, the technician should the issue. [Test the Theory]

27. should be avoided when establishing a solution to an issue. [Establish and Implement a Solution]

28. Changing out equipment, training , and performing routine maintenance are a few preventative
measures. [Verify Full System Functionality]

29. During the documentation process, it is important to be . [Document Findings, Actions,


Outcomes]

215 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Equipment Grounding
Description:
In order for equipment to work well and not risk shorting electrical parts, equipment needs to be properly grounded. There are three
types of grounding to be aware of when working with equipment (and for the A+ 220-902 exam):

Earth: The path from the equipment into the Earth.


Chassis: The path to the equipment case (such as plugging a power cord into the back of a computer).
Signal: The return path for a signal. This part involves the connectors of an electrical component. An example of this is the screws
in a motherboard which connect the motherboard to a case. These screws provide a signal ground to the case.
In addition to the three types of equipment grounding, realize that some pieces of equipment conduct electricity even for a time
after they have been unplugged. For example, one should never try to repair a power supply or an old CRT monitor as they conduct
electricity even after being unplugged. Should a power supply break, replace it. Should a CRT monitor stop working, dispose of it
properly.

By the end of this project, you will be able to identify equipment grounding types given a situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the type of equipment grounding taking place, keeping in mind that more than one of the three
grounding types can be involved:

a. A power cord running from an equipment case into a ground plug:

b. Screws holding down a motherboard inside of a home theater PC:

2. Name a piece of equipment you should never attempt to repair:

Points to Remember:
• The three types of equipment grounding are Earth, chassis, and signal grounding.
• One should never try to repair a power supply or CRT monitor as they conduct electricity even after being unplugged.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1:
Safety Procedures: Equipment Grounding

Difficulty: Beginner

Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes


Required Materials: None
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures
5.1.a Equipment Grounding

216 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Proper Component Handling and Storage
Description:
The biggest concern technicians should have with storing and handling components is to avoid, as much as possible, electrostatic
discharge (ESD). ESD can cause irreparable harm to computer components such as expansion cards, hard drives, and even
motherboards. These components should be stored in an antistatic bag. An antistatic bag helps to protect components from ESD. For
handling components, two tools are essential for helping technicians avoid ESD:

ESD strap: This is a strap worn around a technician’s wrist while working on the inside of a computer.
ESD mat: A mat a technician should be standing on (if the technician is standing) while working on computer equipment. In
addition, computers should be placed on flat surfaces and never on carpets as carpets are a source of ESD.
If an ESD strap is not available, a technician should practice self-grounding. In self-grounding, a technician needs to touch the
metal part of the case once in a while to help offset any potential ESD build-up. Of course, the computer should be unplugged when
practicing self-grounding and, for that matter, when any work is going to be done inside a computer case.

In addition to protecting oneself from ESD, a technician needs to know how to properly dispose of materials, especially toxic materials.
Three types of toxic materials of note and their proper disposal methods are:
Batteries: In many jurisdictions, it is unlawful to throw out some or all types of batteries. Doing so can mean a major fine to the
offender. Find out and follow local and state regulations regarding proper battery disposal. When in doubt, take the batteries to a
battery recycling/disposal site.
Toner: Once a toner cartridge is empty, it should be taken to a place which recycles or disposes of toner cartridges. Some toner
manufacturers will include, when shipping toner, a paid return box for the purpose of sending back empty toner cartridges.
CRT Monitor: A CRT monitor contains cadmium and lead, two toxic chemicals. CRT monitors, when at the end of their life
cycle, should be taken to an eWaste site or similar site that knows how to properly dispose of these monitors.
With any components, whether toxic or non-toxic, the best and safest disposal method is to learn and comply with local government
regulations. Failing to do so can result in hefty fines for a business and/or individual.

In this project, you will identify the best way to handle components given a situation. At the end of this project, you will have the
knowledge needed to know how to confidently handle computer components and toxic materials.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify what is needed to best handle a computer component:

a. Two hard drives need to be stored for future use:

b. A technician needs to replace a hard drive but does not have an ESD strap:

c. What should a technician stand on when working on the inside of a computer?


d. A technician discovers five empty toner cartridges near a multi-function printer. Where should the toner be disposed?

e. All of the smoke detectors in a building have had new batteries placed in them. Where should the old batteries go?

2. If you have computer components such as hard drives and expansion cards and they are not being stored in antistatic bags, obtain
some antistatic bags and then put these components inside of those bags.
3. Take the time to research how batteries, toner, and CRT monitors should be properly disposed of in your jurisdiction.

Points to Remember:
• A technician should take the necessary measures to avoid ESD.
• If a technician does not have an ESD strap to use while working on the inside of a computer, the technician should practice
occasional self-grounding.
• Batteries, toner, and CRT monitors have materials which are toxic in nature. These materials need to be disposed of in accordance
with local and state government regulations.

217 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Safety Procedures: Component Handling and Storage; Toxic Waste Handling; Regulation Compliance

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: A web browser for research purposes
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes for the project questions; 5-10 minutes to put components in antistatic bags; 10-15
minutes to research how to dispose of batteries, toner, and CRT monitors
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.1 Given a scenario, apply safety procedures
5.1.b Proper Component Handling and Storage
5.1.b.i Antistatic Bags
5.1.b.ii ESD Straps
5.1.b.iii ESD Mats
5.1.b.iv Self-Grounding
5.1.c Toxic Waste Handling
5.1.c.i Batteries
5.1.c.ii Toner
5.1.c.iii CRT
5.1.e Compliance With Local Government Regulations

218 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Personal Safety
Description:
When working with computers and their components, personal safety is of utmost importance. No task is worth risk of injury. Before
removing the case of a desktop or laptop computer, a technician should do these two things:

Disconnect power: Always make sure a computer is unplugged before going to work on the inside of it. If a laptop is being
worked on, remove the battery as well.
Remove jewelry: No dangling jewelry should be on when working on a computer. This includes dangling earrings, dangling
bracelets, and dangling necklaces. Avoid the risk of getting a piece of jewelry caught on something on the inside of a computer.
For this reason, most technicians avoid wearing ties when working on a computer. In addition, long hair should be tied back and out of
the way. Again, minimize the risk of something getting caught on the inside of a computer.

When working on computers, one will want to avoid risk of bodily injury. Two processes to follow when working with equipment are
as follows:

Lifting techniques: When lifting equipment, lift with the legs, not with the back. Keep heavy items close to your body rather than
out in front of you.
Weight limitations: Simply put, avoid lifting more than you can handle. An attempt at heroism is not worth a back injury. If
equipment is too heavy to move, get a cart to help move the equipment.
When working in any building, one should always make sure to know where the fire extinguisher is located. The fire extinguisher
should have at least a class C rating, which will enable it to put out electrical fires. The four important class ratings on fire extinguishers
are as follows:

Class Fire
A Paper and wood
B Flammable liquids and gases
C Electrical fire
D Combustible metals
Another aspect of personal safety is that of cable management. If cables need to be run across floors, for example, they should be
taped down so that people do not trip over them. Avoid daisy-chaining electrical cords and power strips. Daisy-chaining is the act of
plugging one power strip into another.

Finally, in areas of dust and potentially hazardous materials, safety goggles should be worn to protect the eyes and air filter masks
should be worn to protect the nose and mouth areas. Upon completion of this project, you will be well-versed in knowing which
personal safety practices to employ and which tools are needed given a potential safety situation.

Steps for Completion:


1. You are about to begin working on the inside of a computer. What should you make sure of before opening the case?

2. What part of the body should be used to lift equipment?

3. Which class of a fire extinguisher should be nearby in case of an electrical fire?


4. A remodeling company is coming in and will be doing some woodworking near your work area. What should you wear to protect

from dust?

Points to Remember:
• Before working on the inside of a computer, make sure it is unplugged.
• Remove any loose jewelry before working on the inside of a computer.
• When lifting equipment, use your legs and avoid lifting anything heavier than what you can handle.
• Make sure to know where the nearest class C fire extinguisher is located in case of an electrical fire.
• Safety goggles and air mask filters help to protect against airborne particles.

219 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Safety Procedures: Personal Safety and Lifting Techniques; Cable Management; Safety Goggles and Air Masks

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None but if you can, find the nearest fire extinguisher
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes for the project. 5 minutes to find a fire extinguisher
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures
5.1.d Personal Safety
5.1.d.i Disconnect Power Before Repairing PC
5.1.d.ii Remove Jewelry
5.1.d.iii Lifting Techniques
5.1.d.iv Weight Limitations
5.1.d.v Electrical Fire Safety
5.1.d.vi Cable Management
5.1.d.vii Safety Goggles
5.1.d.viii Air Filter Mask

220 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Material Safety Data Sheet
Description:
The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document which shows details for handling, storing, and disposing of potentially
dangerous material. The MSDS also contains information for what to do in case first aid is needed due to improper exposure to the
material. Proper disposal of any dangerous materials is especially important as one must follow local government regulations when
disposing of these types of materials. Failing to do so can result in hefty fines, both for an individual and a business.

For every type of potentially dangerous material handled in a work environment, an MSDS should be present. For example, many
printer manufacturers will furnish an MSDS for any toner they produce. MSDSs should be kept in a well-known place in case they are
needed. At the end of this project, you will know how to find and store an MSDS.

Steps for Completion:


1. For your printer, go to the manufacturer’s website and search for the MSDS accompanying the toner for your printer.
2. Download a copy of the MSDS to your Downloads folder.
3. Open the MSDS and read through it.
4. Using the text box below, describe how to properly dispose of the toner:

5. Discussion question: Where is the best place to store MSDS documents?

Points to Remember
• An MSDS documents proper handling, storage, and first aid needs for hazardous materials.
• MSDS documents should be easily found in case they are needed.
• Make sure MSDS documents comply with local government regulations for proper disposal of materials.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Environmental Impacts: Material Safety Data Sheet

Difficulty: Beginner

Required Materials: A computer with an Internet connection and a printer to use for a reference point
Estimated Time to Complete: 15 minutes
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.2 Given a Scenario With Potential Environmental Impacts, Apply the Appropriate Controls
5.2.a MSDS Documentation for Handling and Disposal
5.2.f Compliance to Local Government Regulations

221 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Keeping a Solid Work Environment
Description:
Part of keeping a work environment productive is to keep the environmental aspect of it clean and at the right climate settings. This
includes climate control both inside of computers and in any room with computers, especially servers. Here is a guide for the ideal
temperature, humidity, and ventilation both for a computer and a computer room:

Climate Part Computer Computer Room


Temperature Keep under 40 degrees Celsius Keep around 65 degrees Fahrenheit
Humidity 50% 50%
Ventilation Keep air flowing through the system Keep cold air coming in and disperse warm air
Regarding humidity, too low of a humidity level and the area is subject to ESD. Higher humidity can cause condensation, which then
causes water damage.

For ventilation within a computer, adding components, such as an additional network card, can block the air flow within the computer
and cause the temperature to rise. In addition, having open spaces in the back of a computer allow cool air to escape, again causing a
temperature increase. In addition to keeping computers and work areas well ventilated, steps should be taken to protect computers and
keep work areas free from airborne particles. Cooling fans should be surrounded by enclosures to keep airborne particles away from
getting into and clogging fans. To help keep airborne particles out of a work area, use one or more air filters, and make sure to change
the filters on a schedule according to the air filter manufacturer’s instructions.

Computers and work areas should also be kept free of dust and debris. The most effective way to keep a computer dust-free is to use a
compressed air can to blow the dust out of the computer, paying particular attention to the computer’s fans. To clean out a work area, a
vacuum should be used. One can use a vacuum on a computer but great care should be taken to make sure the vacuum used is an ESD
vacuum as vacuums tend to cause ESD. At the end of this project, you will know how to keep a work area free from climate extremes,
airborne particles, and dust and debris.

Steps for Completion:


1. What is an ideal temperature in Fahrenheit to keep a computer at or below?

2. How can one keep the temperature of a computer from becoming too high?

3. What type of vacuum should be used to remove dirt and debris from computers or peripherals?
4. Take a computer and unplug it. Then, remove the outer case and use a compressed air can to blow dust off of the inside parts,
especially the fans.

Points to Remember:
• Temperature, humidity, and ventilation need to be kept at proper levels for both computers and computer rooms.
• Enclosures and air filters are used to help keep airborne particles out of fans and work areas.
• Compressed air cans and ESD vacuums are effective tools for keeping computers free of dust and debris.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Environmental Impact: Temperature, Humidity, and Ventilation; Airborne Protection; Dust and Debris

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: A computer and a compressed air can
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes for the exercise; 5-10 minutes to use a compressed air can to clean out a computer
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures 5.2.e Dust and Debris
5.2. Given a Scenario with Potential Environmental Impacts, Apply the Appropriate 5.2.e.i Compressed Air
Controls 5.2.e.ii Vacuums
5.2.b Temperature, Humidity Level Awareness and Proper Ventilation
5.2.d Protection from Airborne Particles
5.2.d.i Enclosures
5.2.d.ii Air Filters/Mask

222 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Power Surges, Brownouts, and Blackouts
Description:
Power Problem Characteristic
On occasion, there will be a dip or surge in the power supply for a
building. For example, an electrical storm could temporarily knock out Surge Short-term flood of power
power to an entire area. As an A+ technician, two major concepts to Spike Quick, sharp increase in voltage
understand are the different types of power abnormalities and the tools Sag A dip in power lasting a second or less
used to keep power running at a proper, consistent level. A list of three Brownout A dip in power lasting longer than a second
different types of power abnormalities and their characteristics can be
Blackout Total loss of power
found in the table on the right:
To help protect against these power problems, two main tools are used:

Battery backup: Protects against blackouts, with the idea that if there is a blackout, the device will keep everything on for around
15 minutes to give technicians time to gracefully shut down servers and workstations. The most common type of battery backup
is an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). The more devices plugged into the battery backup, the shorter amount of time the
battery backup will keep devices on.
Surge suppressor: Protects against surges or spikes. A surge suppressor turns off voltage when it detects a surge or spike.
A surge suppressor is more intelligent than that of a regular power strip in that power strips do not have the intelligence to detect
voltage.

At the end of this project, you be able to identify power abnormalities and you will know which tools to use to combat them.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify the type of power abnormality taking place:

a. The lights in a building dip for 60 seconds:

b. The lights in a building flicker for half a second:

c. The voltage in the building experiences a sharp increase for half a second:
2. For each power abnormality, indicate which tool you would use to combat the problem:

a. Bursts in voltage:

b. Making sure everything stays on in case of an outage:


3. If you have a UPS in your area, find the location of it and trace what is plugged into it in order to understand what should stay on
in case of a blackout.

Points to Remember:
• The types of power problems which exist are surges, spikes, sags, brownouts, and blackouts.
• Battery backups protect against blackouts.
• Surge suppressors protect against surges and spikes.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Environmental Impacts: Power Surges, Brownouts, Blackouts

Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes for the project; 10-15 minutes more if a UPS is available for demonstration
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.2. Given a Scenario with Potential Environmental Impacts, Apply the Appropriate Controls
5.2.c. Power Surges, Brownouts, Blackouts
5.2.c.i. Battery Backup
5.2.c.ii. Surge Suppressor

223 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Incident Response
Description:
Whenever there is a security incident, especially a serious one, an incident response process needs to be followed. Any evidence
needs to be handled properly in order to be admissible in a court of law. What defines an incident may vary among companies, so
documentation defining what an incident is and methods used to handle an incident is important. For example, in some companies,
installing unauthorized applications is considered a security incident. In other companies, the act is not considered a security incident.
Here are some other examples of potential security incidents:
Unauthorized drives: Many companies prohibit the use of Online activities: Websites, chats, and social media can all be
external drives (flash drives or external hard drives). denied access or be against company policy. This could even
Unauthorized access: This can apply to data one is not include personal email.
supposed to have permissions to read or change. This can also Illegal pictures/video: Content which can be deemed illegal
apply to a physical location one is not supposed to be able to or, if not illegal, offensive. This is often known as content not
access. suitable for work (NSFW).
Attacks: Malware which can come from a disgruntled current
or former employee or from an outside source.
If there is a potential security incident, a process called the first response process needs to be followed. In this process, a first responder,
usually someone from IT, is notified. The first responder needs to initiate the following three-step process:

Identify: The first responder should know enough about the company security policies to determine whether this is indeed a
security incident. If it is, the next step should be followed.
Report through proper channels: Once it has been determined that an incident has indeed taken place, the incident needs to be
reported to the proper authorities as outlined in the security policy. This can include the manager, head of security, or in some
cases, law enforcement. Not reporting an incident can make one an accessory to the incident.
Data/Device preservation: Anything seen or touched needs to be preserved as evidence. This includes physical documents, images
on computer screens, pictures, and video.
While the first responder needs to document the evidence at an incident scene, it is important that the first responder not touch any
evidence until the proper security authorities have arrived at the scene. For example, a computer with an illegal image on the screen
should not be shut down, because that and any other data in the RAM will be lost. Files should not be saved because doing so would
change the modification date.

This evidence documentation process is known as the chain of custody. The chain of custody logs who has seen and touched evidence
and when the evidence was seen and touched. The chain of custody must be kept in order for evidence to be admissible in a court of
law. At the completion of this project, which involves tracing a path through a potential security incident, you will know the proper
methods for handling a security incident and the evidence contained within a security incident.

Steps for Completion:


1. A user mistakenly opens a folder containing sensitive financial records. What should the user do?

2. A member of IT arrives at the computer and realizes that indeed the user saw these records. What should the IT member do?

3. The IT member has determined that this indeed is a security incident. What should the IT member do next?

4. What should be used to determine the exact steps to follow for each type of security incident?

Points to Remember:
• Documentation should be kept outlining what constitutes a security incident and the steps taken to respond to the incident.
• A first responder has three responsibilities: Identify whether an incident has taken place, report the incident, and preserve
evidence.
• The process of logging who has seen and touched evidence and when is known as the chain of custody.
224 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Prohibited Content and Privacy: Incident Response

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes for the project; 10-15 minutes for any staged incidents
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.3 Summarize the Process of Addressing Prohibited Content/Activity, and Explain Privacy, Licensing, and Policy Concepts
5.3.a Incident Response
5.3.a.i First Response
5.3.a.i.1 Identify
5.3.a.i.2 Report Through Proper Channels
5.3.a.i.3 Data/Device Preservation
5.3.a.ii Use of Documentation/Documentation Changes
5.3.a.iii Chain of Custody
5.3.a.iii.1 Tracking of Evidence/Documenting Process

225 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Software Licensing
Description:
One of the many responsibilities of a technician is to make sure all software installations are properly licensed. Licenses have one of
two types and cater to either a single user or to multiple users at once. The two types of licenses are:

Open source: An open source license may have a few restrictions but is freely available to use. The source code for these apps is
usually made freely available to modify and distribute.
Commercial license: A license with strict rules as to what can and cannot be done with the license. In many cases, the user must
agree to not sell the license or use the app for financial gain.
Having either an open or commercial license is one software licensing characteristic. The other characteristic is a volume-based
characteristic. Licenses have two types of volumes:

Personal: A single-user license. Sometimes the terms of the license dictate the software can only be installed on one machine.
Sometimes, multiple machines are allowed but the license often is tied to a single user account.
Enterprise: A site-wide license, subject to restrictions. The license limitations usually dictate what users can do with the software.
Whenever software is installed, one of two types of licensing agreements may appear. These agreements will dictate the number of
machines the software can be installed on and any other license restrictions. The agreement usually has one of these two names:

DRM: Digital Rights Management


EULA: End-User License Agreement
At the end of this project, you will know what type of software license and the volume of the software license given a situation in
which a user needs software.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each software situation, identify the type of license (open or commercial) and the volume restrictions (personal or enterprise):

License Type Volume


A user installs Linux and the EULA states it is a
single-user license but the source code is on the dis- a. b.
tributor’s website:
A user installs Office but cannot resell the license.
However, the user can install Office on as many devices c. d.
as needed.
A company purchases a single copy of a custom ac-
counting app and can install it on as many machines as e. f.
needed.
Points to Remember:
• Open licenses are licenses which can be freely installed and often the source code is made available to modify and redistribute.
• Commercial licenses come with restrictions as to what one can do with the software.
• Personal licenses are single-user licenses while enterprise licenses are site-wide licenses.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Prohibited Content and Privacy: Licensing

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes for the project; 5 more minutes for each time one reads a licensing agreement
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.3 Summarize the Process of Addressing Prohibited Content/Activity, and Explain Privacy, Licensing, and Policy Concepts
5.3.b. Licensing / DRM / EULA
5.3.b.i Open Source vs. Commercial License
5.3.b.ii Personal License vs. Enterprise Licenses

226 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


PII, Corporate Policies, and Best Practices
Description:
Technicians should always be aware of personal identifiable information (PII) and do everything they can to protect PII, also known as
sensitive personal information (SPI). Here are some examples of PII, according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology:
• Full name (if not common) • Face, fingerprints, or handwriting
• Home address • Credit card numbers
• Email address (if private from an association/club • Digital identity
membership, etc.) • Date of birth
• National identification number • Birthplace
• Passport number • Genetic information
• IP address (in some cases) • Telephone number
• Vehicle registration plate number • Login name, screen name, nickname, or handle
• Driver license number
Seeing someone’s PII without proper authorization could construe a security incident, in which case a first responder needs to be
dispatched to the location of the potential incident in order to follow proper incident handling procedures.

It is up to a technician to know these policies prior to beginning work in any corporate environment. Technicians and users alike
should know the acceptable use policy (AUP) of a company and use it to determine information users should have access to and the
licensing for the software they should have on their computers. Best practices should also be followed for PII. Users should take every
step necessary to make sure PII is not left out where it can easily be seen.

At the end of this project, you will have a clear understanding as to what constitutes PII.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each item, indicate whether or not the item represents PII:

a. A user’s laptop:

b. A user’s signature on an AUP:

c. A user’s date of obtaining a certification:

d. A user’s date of birth:

e. A user’s face on a badge:

Points to Remember:
• PII should be kept confidential at all times.
• Use company policy to dictate what should be done in case PII is compromised.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Prohibited Content and Privacy: Personally Identifiable Information; Corporate Policies and Best Practices

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 5 minutes for the project plus any time spent researching PII policies online
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.3 Summarize the Process of Addressing Prohibited Content/Activity, and Explain Privacy, Licensing, and Policy Concepts
5.3.c Personally Identifiable Information
5.3.d Follow Corporate End-User Policies and Security Best Practices

227 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Using Proper Communication Techniques
Description:
When communicating with customers, technicians need to ensure customers understand what is being done work-wise and how that
work will affect the customer. There are four basic principles a technician needs to follow for communication techniques for when
technicians interact with customers:

Use proper language: Avoid jargon, acronyms, and slang whenever possible. Use the proper terms and definitions for hardware and
software.
Maintain a positive and confident attitude: A technician should always project confidence with a customer, no matter what the
situation. Even if you cannot solve the problem yourself, project confidence that the problem will be solved.
Use active listening: Let a customer finish a thought, no matter how long it takes. Take notes if necessary while a customer is
explaining a situation. Restate the issue to make sure the customer knows you understand the issue.
Be culturally sensitive: Use appropriate professional titles (like Dr.) when dealing with customers. Also, be aware that certain hand
gestures may be innocent in your culture but could be vulgar in other cultures.
One key component of communication is to ask a customer open-ended questions without accusing the customer of wrong-doing. For
example, asking a customer, “What happened since the computer last worked?” is far more effective than asking a customer, “What did
you change on the computer since it last worked?” After completing this project, you will be well-equipped to handle communication
situations with customers.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, identify how you would best interact with a customer:
a. Explain the concept of a solid-state drive vs. a magnetic hard disk drive.

b. Explain to a customer how you will solve an error message you have not seen before.

c. A customer brings in a computer and explains that it started to spontaneously shut down and restart. What would be a good
open-ended question to ask the customer?

Points to Remember:
• Use proper language when explaining a concept to a customer.
• Maintain a positive and confident attitude when dealing with a customer.
• Use active listening and be culturally sensitive when dealing with a customer.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Communication and Professionalism: Proper Language; Positive and Confident Attitude; Active Listening; Cultural Sensitivity

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.4 Demonstrate Proper Communication Techniques and Professionalism
5.4.a Use Proper Language – Avoid Jargon, Acronyms, Slang When Applicable
5.4.b Maintain a Positive Attitude/Project Confidence
5.4.c Actively Listen (Taking Notes) and Avoid Interrupting the Customer
5.4.d Be Culturally Sensitive
5.4.d.i Use Appropriate Professional Titles, When Applicable

228 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Showing Professionalism
Description:
In addition to possessing good communication skills, a technician needs to have a strong sense of professionalism when dealing with
internal users and/or external customers. There are five categories of professionalism to follow as a technician:

Be on time: It is very important to be on time for all appointments. Contact the customer right away if it looks like you will not
arrive to the appointment on time.
Avoid distractions: When dealing with a customer, avoid all personal interruptions. This includes personal calls, texting, and
visiting social media sites. When talking to a customer and the smartphone rings, ignore it, even if it is a call from a co-worker.
Dealing with difficult customers or situations: In these situations, avoid becoming argumentative or defensive, dismissing the
customer’s problem, or becoming judgmental. Instead of arguing with a customer, clarify the customer’s situation through asking
open-ended questions. Never disclose any bad customer experience on social media. If the customer gets angry, lower your voice
instead of raising it.
Customer expectations and status: Sometimes, customers expect too much. For example, they may want Windows 8 to run on a
computer that is 10-15 years old and has 1 GB of RAM on it. Make sure customer expectations are realistic and offer different
options if needed. Provide documentation on the services provided. A good idea after any work done is to call the customer a few
days later to make sure the repair or replacement is working.
Customers and confidential or private materials: Avoid eye contact, whenever possible, with confidential customer information,
such as PII or financial information. If a customer has this information in plain view near a computer or printer, notify the
customer.
Upon completing this project, you will have increased your skills for dealing with customers in a professional matter.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each situation, describe what you would do as a technician in response to the situation:
a. You are scheduled to arrive at a customer’s business at 3 p.m. but due to another call taking longer, you won’t arrive until 4
p.m.

b. A customer starts blaming you for a game running slowly.

c. A customer wants to be able to run Photoshop on a computer with a single dual-core processor, 2 GB of RAM, and an
integrated 512 MB video card.

d. You see a customer’s debit card lying around on a desk.

e. There is some exciting news at work and your phone keeps buzzing with the news.

Points to Remember:
• Punctuality is very important when dealing with customers.
• Avoid personal distractions when working with customers and especially while dealing with customers face-to-face.
• If a customer becomes argumentative, avoid becoming part of the argument.
• Expectations and timelines with customers should be reasonably set. Offer alternatives if needed.
• If you spot any personal customer information in plain view, notify the customer right away.

229 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Communication and Professionalism: Be on Time; Avoid Distractions; Difficult Customers; Expectations and Communication; Customers and
Confidential Material

Difficulty: Beginner
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10 minutes
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.4 Demonstrate Proper Communication Techniques and Professionalism
5.4.e Be on Time (if Late Contact the Customer)
5.4.f Avoid Distractions
5.4.f.i Personal Calls
5.4.f.ii Texting/Social Media Sites
5.4.f.iii Talking to Co-Workers While Interacting with Customers
5.4.f.iv Personal Interruptions
5.4.g Dealing With Difficult Customer or Situation
5.4.g.i Do not Argue with Customers and/or be Defensive
5.4.g.ii Avoid Dismissing Customer Problems
5.4.g.iii Avoid Being Judgmental
5.4.g.iv Clarify Customer Statements (Ask Open Ended Questions to Narrow the Scope of the Problem, Restate the Issue or Question to Verify Understanding)
5.4.g.v Do not Disclose Experiences via Social Media Outlets
5.4.h Set and Meet Expectations/Timeline and Communicate Status with the Customer
5.4.h.i Offer Different Repair/Replacement Options if Applicable
5.4.h.ii Provide Proper Documentation on the Services Provided
5.4.h.iii Follow up with Customer/User at a Later Date to Verify Satisfaction
5.4.i Deal Appropriately With Customers Confidential and Private Materials
5.4.i.i Located on a Computer, Desktop, Printer, Etc.

230 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


The Troubleshooting Theory
Description:
With troubleshooting taking a large percentage of a technician’s work time, and troubleshooting being a prominent feature on the
A+ 220-902 exam (and the 220-901 exam, for that matter), it is important to know and be able to put into practice the CompTIA
Troubleshooting Theory. This troubleshooting theory has six distinct steps:

Identify the problem: When faced with a troubleshooting situation, a problem needs to be identified. Ask questions of users to
narrow down the problem. Use open-ended questions to identify any changes made to a computer. If data is involved, perform
backups before making any changes.
Establish a theory of probable cause: If necessary, conduct research (look at previous trouble tickets, do online searches) to narrow
down the problem based on the symptoms given.
Test the theory to determine the cause: This is the point at which you confirm the problem and determine the steps to solve it, or,
you re-establish a new theory. In some cases, you will want to escalate the problem to a higher-level technician. This is a far better
alternative than spending precious time trying to figure something out when a co-worker already has the answer.
Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement a solution: At this point, you know exactly what the problem is
and you have determined the steps necessary to solve the problem. When solving the problem, always consider corporate policies,
procedures, and impacts before implementing changes. For example, when resetting a password, make sure to follow company
policies regarding password requirements.
Verify full system functionality: Part of solving a problem is making sure one’s system has full functionality. When applicable, test
the solution with the user to make sure everything works. If applicable, implement preventative measures to avoid the problem in
the future.
Document findings, actions, and outcomes: Most troubleshooting situations in the workplace will involve a trouble ticket or help
desk ticket with the original problem and the user(s) with the problem. Take the time to document what you have done to solve
the problem. Even documenting something as small as “Reset user’s password” is far more beneficial than indicating “Done” or
“Closed” when a troubleshooting problem is solved.
In this project, you will identify which troubleshooting step should be taken given a customer situation. At the completion of this
project, you will have sharpened your skills as they relate to the CompTIA troubleshooting theory.

Steps for Completion:


1. For each troubleshooting situation, identify which of the six CompTIA troubleshooting theory steps should be taken:

a. A user calls, complaining that the Internet is not working:


b. A user could not access files on a shared drive. You determined this was a permissions issue, verified with the manager that the
user needs those permissions, and added the user to a group which has those permissions:

c. A user needed a password reset. You have reset the password:


d. A user cannot get on the Internet. You have verified that the user is the only one with this issue:

e. A user is getting error messages when trying to install an application. You look at the Event Viewer and see messages but

cannot figure out what the problem is by looking at the messages:

Points to Remember:
• The CompTIA troubleshooting theory is a specific, six-step theory.
• Always follow corporate policies and procedures in regard to making changes to computers.

Reference:
LearnKey’s A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Training, Session 1
Troubleshooting Theory: Corporate Policies to Consider; Identify the Problem; Establish a Theory of Probable Cause; Test the Theory; Establish and
Implement a Solution; Verify Full System Functionality; Document Findings, Actions, Outcomes
231 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
Difficulty: Intermediate
Required Materials: None
Estimated Time to Complete: 10-15 minutes
Objectives:
5.0 Operational Procedures
5.5 Given a Scenario, Explain the Troubleshooting Theory
5.5 a Always Consider Corporate Policies, Procedures and Impacts before Implementing Changes
5.5 b Identify the Problem
5.5.b.i Question the User and Identify User Changes to Computer and Perform Backups before Making Changes
5.5.c Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (Question the Obvious)
5.5.c.i If Necessary, Conduct External or Internal Research Based on Symptoms
5.5.d Test the Theory to Determine Cause
5.5.d.i Once Theory is Confirmed Determine Next Steps to Resolve Problem
5.5.d.ii If Theory is not Confirmed Re-Establish New Theory or Escalate
5.5.e Establish a Plan of Action to Resolve the Problem and Implement the Solution
5.5.f Verify Full System Functionality and if Applicable Implement Preventive Measures
5.5.g Document Findings, Actions and Outcomes

232 | Domain 5: Operational Procedures A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Introduction to A+ Part How to Take This Course
Two

Windows Vista and 7 32-Bit vs. 64-Bit 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Processor Requirements
Features Aero
1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft
Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows
Gadgets Feature 8.1).
User Account Control 1.1.a Features:
BitLocker
1.1.a.i 32-bit vs. 64-bit
Shadow Copy
File History 1.1.a.ii Aero, gadgets, user account control, bit-locker, shadow copy, system
restore, ready boost, sidebar, compatibility mode, virtual XP mode, easy
System Restore transfer, administrative tools, defender, Windows firewall, security center,
ReadyBoost event viewer, file structure and paths, category view vs. classic view.
Compatibility Mode
Easy Transfer
Administrative Tools
Windows Defender and
Firewall
Action Center
Event Viewer
Control Panel Views
File Structure and Paths
Virtual XP Mode

Windows 8 Features Side-by-Side Apps 1.0 Windows Operating Systems


Metro UI 1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft
Pinning Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows
OneDrive 8.1)
Windows Store
1.1.a Features
Multi-Monitor Taskbars
1.1.a.iii Side by side apps, Metro UI, Pinning, One Drive, Windows store,
Charms
Multimonitor task bars, Charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live sign in,
Start Screen Action Center
PowerShell
1.1.a Upgrade paths – differences between in place upgrades, compatibility tools,
Live Sign In and Action Windows upgrade OS advisor
Center
Upgrade Paths
Windows Anytime Upgrades
Compatibility Tool

Operating System Boot Methods 1.0 Windows Operating Systems


Upgrading Windows 1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using
Installations Clean Windows Installation appropriate methods
Finishing an Upgrade 1.2.a Boot methodss
Finishing a Clean
1.2.a.i USB
Installation
1.2.a.ii CD-ROM
Installation Types
Basic and Dynamic 1.2.a.iii DVD
Partitions 1.2.a.iv PXE
Primary and Extended 1.2.a.v Solid state/flash drives
Partitions 1.2.a.vi Netboot
File System Types 1.2.a.vii External/hot swappable drive
Third-Party Drivers 1.2.a.viii Internal hard drive (partition)
Workgroup vs. Domain 1.2.b Type of installations
Setup
1.2.b.i Unattended installation
Time, Date, Region,
1.2.b.ii Upgrade
Language Settings
Driver Installation 1.2.b.iii Clean install
Windows Update 1.2.b.iv Repair installation
Factory Recovery Partition 1.2.b.v Multiboot
Boot Drives and the Correct 1.2.b.vi Remote network installation
Partitions 1.2.b.vii Image deployment
1.2.b.viii Recovery partition
1.2.b.ix Refresh/restore
1.2.c Partitioning
1.2.c.i Dynamic
1.2.c.ii Basic
1.2.c.iii Primary
1.2.c.iv Extended
1.2.c.v Logical
1.2.c.vi GPT

234 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Operating System Boot Methods 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Upgrading Windows 1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using
Installations Clean Windows Installation appropriate methods
(Continued) Finishing an Upgrade 1.2.d File system types/formatting
Finishing a Clean
1.2.d.i ExFAT
Installation
1.2.d.ii FAT32
Installation Types
Basic and Dynamic 1.2.d.iii NTFS
Partitions 1.2.d.iv CDFS
Primary and Extended 1.2.d.v NFS
Partitions 1.2.d.vi ext3, ext4
File System Types 1.2.d.vii Quick format vs. full format
Third-Party Drivers 1.2.e Load alternate third party drivers when necessary
Workgroup vs. Domain 1.2.f Workgroup vs. Domain setup
Setup
1.2.g Time/date/region/language settings
Time, Date, Region,
1.2.h Driver installation, software and windows updates
Language Settings
Driver Installation 1.2.i Factory recovery partition
Windows Update 1.2.j Properly formatted boot drive with the correct partitions/format
Factory Recovery Partition
Boot Drives and the Correct
Partitions

235 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Command Line Tools IPCONFIG 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
IPCONFIG vs. IPCONFIG 1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools
/ALL 1.3.a TASKKILL
CLS and CD
1.3.b BOOTREC
ECHO
1.3.c SHUTDOWN
PING
Wildcards 1.3.d TASKLIST
TASKLIST and TASKKILL 1.3.e MD
SHUTDOWN 1.3.f RD
BOOTREC 1.3.g CD
File and Folder Commands 1.3.h DEL
COPY Commands 1.3.i FORMAT
XCOPY 1.3.j COPY
ROBOCOPY
1.3.k XCOPY
Disk Commands
1.3.l ROBOCOPY
Group Policy
DIR Command 1.3.m DISKPART
EXIT and HELP 1.3.n SFC
Commands 1.3.o CHKDSK
EXTRACT Command 1.3.p GPUPDATE
Administrative Command 1.3.q GPRESULT
Prompt 1.3.r DIR
1.3.s EXIT
1.3.t HELP
1.3.u EXPAND
1.3.v [command name] /?
1.3.w Commands available with standard privileges vs. administrative privileges

Microsoft Operating Administrative Tools 1.0 Windows Operating Systems


Local Users and Groups 1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features
System Tools Local Security Policy and tools
Performance Monitor 1.4.a Administrative
Services
1.4.a.i Computer management
System Configuration
1.4.a.ii Device manager
Task Scheduler
Component Services 1.4.a.iii Local Users and Groups
Data Sources 1.4.a.iv Local security policy
Print Management 1.4.a.v Performance monitor
Windows Memory 1.4.a.vi Services
Diagnostic 1.4.a.vii System configuration
Windows Firewall with 1.4.a.viii Task scheduler
Advanced Security 1.4.a.ix Component services
MSCONFIG
1.4.a.x Data sources
Task Manager
1.4.a.xi Print management
Disk Management
Mount a Drive to a Folder 1.4.a.xii Windows memory diagnostics
Extend a Partition 1.4.a.xiii Windows firewall
Split and Shrink a Partition 1.4.a.xiv Advanced security
Change a Hard Drive Letter 1.4.b MSCONFIG
Add Drives 1.4.b.i General
Initialize a Drive and 1.4.b.ii Boot
Allocation 1.4.b.iii Services
Create a Storage Space
1.4.b.iv Startup
1.4.b.v Tools
1.4.c Task Manager
1.4.c.i Applications
1.4.c.ii Processes
1.4.c.iii Performance
1.4.c.iv Networking
1.4.c.v Users
1.4.d Disk management
1.4.d.i Drive status
1.4.d.ii Mounting
1.4.d.iii Initializing
1.4.d.iv Extending partitions
1.4.d.v Splitting partitions
1.4.d.vi Shrink partitions
1.4.d.vii Assigning/changing drive letters
1.4.d.viii Adding drives
1.4.d.ix Adding arrays
1.4.a.x Storage spaces

236 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Microsoft Operating Data Migration Tools 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Windows Easy Transfer 1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features
System Tools
and tools
(Continued) 1.4.e Other
1.4.e.i User State Migration tool (USMT)
1.4.e.ii Windows Easy Transfer
1.4.e.iii Windows Upgrade Advisor

System Utilities Regedit 1.0 Windows Operating Systems


Command 1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features
Services and tools
MMC 1.4.f System utilities
MSTSC
1.4.f. i REGEDIT
Notepad
1.4.f.ii COMMAND
Explorer
MSINFO32 1.4.f.iii SERVICES.MSC
DXDIAG 1.4.f.iv MMC
Defrag 1.4.f.v MSTSC
System Restore 1.4.f.vi NOTEPAD
Windows Update 1.4.f.vii EXPLORER
1.4.f.viii MSINFO32
1.4.f.ix DXDIAG
1.4.f.x DEFRAG
1.4.f.xi System restore
1.4.f.xii Windows Update

237 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Windows Control Internet Options 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Display Settings 1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities
Panel Utilities User Options 1.5.a Internet options
Folder Options
1.5.a.i Connections
System Options
1.5.a.ii Security
Remote Settings
Windows Firewall 1.5.a.iii General
Power Options 1.5.a.iv Privacy
Power States 1.5.a.v Programs
Programs and Features 1.5.a.vi Advanced
HomeGroup 1.5.b Display/Display Settings
Devices and Printers 1.5.b.i Resolution
Sound 1.5.b.ii Color depth
Troubleshooting
1.5.b.iii Refresh rate
Network and Sharing Center
1.5.c User accounts
Device Manager
1.5.d Folder options
1.5.d.i View hidden files
1.5.d.ii Hide extensions
1.5.d.iii General options
1.5.d.iv View options
1.5.e System
1.5.e.i Performance (virtual memory)
1.5.e.ii Remote settings
1.5.e.iii System protection
1.5.f Windows firewall
1.5.g Power options
1.5.g.i Hibernate
1.5.g.ii Power plans
1.5.g.iii Sleep/suspend
1.5.g.iv Standby

Windows Networking HomeGroups, Workgroups, 1.0 Windows Operating Systems


and Domains 1.6 Given a scenario, install and configure Windows networking on a
Network Shares and client/desktop
Mapping Drives 1.6.a HomeGroup vs. WorkGroup
Administrative Shares
1.6.b Domain setup
Printer Sharing and
1.6.c Network shares/administrative shares/mapping drives
Mapping
Establish Network 1.6.d Printer sharing vs. network printer mapping
Connections 1.6.e Establish networking connections
Proxy Settings 1.6.e.i VPN
Remote Desktop Connection 1.6.e.ii Dialups
Remote Assistance 1.6.e.iii Wireless
Home, Work, and Public 1.6.e.iv Wired
Network Settings 1.6.e.v WWAN (Cellular)
Firewall Settings
1.6.f Proxy settings
Alternate IP Addresses
1.6.g Remote Desktop Connection
Network Card Properties
Power Management 1.6.h Remote Assistance
1.6.i Home vs. Work vs. Public network settings
1.6.j Firewall settings
1.6.j.i Exceptions
1.6.j.ii Configuration
1.6.j.iii Enabling/disabling Windows firewall
1.6.k Configuring an alternative IP address in Windows
1.6.k.i IP addressing
1.6.k.ii Subnet mask
1.6.k.iii DNS
1.6.k.iv Gateway
1.6.l Network card properties
1.6.l.i Half duplex/full duplex/auto
1.6.l.ii Speed
1.6.l.iii Wake-on-LAN
1.6.l.iv QoS
1.6.l.v BIOS (on-board NIC)

238 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Windows Maintenance Best Practices 1.0 Windows Operating Systems
Maintenance Tools 1.7 Perform common preventive maintenance procedures using the
Procedures
appropriate Windows OS tools
1.7.a Best practices
1.7.a.i Scheduled backups
1.7.a.ii Scheduled disk maintenance
1.7.a.iii Windows updates
1.7.a.iv Patch management
1.7.a.v Driver/firmware updates
1.7.a.vi Antivirus/ Antimalware updates
1.7.b Tools
1.7.b.i Backup
1.7.b.ii System restore
1.7.b.iii Recovery image
1.7.b.iv Disk maintenance utilities

239 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Other Operating Introduction
Systems and
Technologies
Mac and Linux Mac Best Practices 2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
Create a Backup
Operating Systems Disk Maintenance
2.1 Identify common features and functionality of the Mac OS and Linux
operating systems
System Updates 2.1.a Best practices
Mac Tools
2.1.a.i Scheduled backups
Screen Sharing
Multiple Desktops 2.1.a.ii Scheduled disk maintenance
Keychain 2.1.a.iii System updates/App store
Spotlight 2.1.a.iv Patch management
iCloud 2.1.a.v Driver/firmware updates
Gestures 2.1.a.vi Antivirus/ Antimalware updates
Finder and Remote Disk 2.1.b Tools
Boot Camp 2.1.b.i Backup/Time Machine
Dock 2.1.b.ii Restore/snapshot
Linux Commands
2.1.b.iii Image recovery
Linux File Commands
Linux Administrative 2.1.b.iv Disk maintenance utilities
Commands 2.1.b.v Shell/Terminal
2.1.b.vi Screen sharing
2.1.b.vii Force Quit
2.1.c Features
2.1.c.i Multiple desktops/Mission Control
2.1.c.ii Key Chain
2.1.c.iii Spot Light
2.1.c.iv iCloud
2.1.c.v Gestures
2.1.c.vi Finder
2.1.c.vii Remote Disc
2.1.c.viii Dock
2.1.c.ix Boot Camp
2.1.d Basic Linux commands
2.1.d.i ls
2.1.d.ii grep
2.1.d.iii cd
2.1.d.iv shutdown
2.1.d.v pwd vs. passwd
2.1.d.vi mv
2.1.d.vii cp
2.1.d.viii rm
2.1.d.ix chmod
2.1.d.x cd
2.1.d.xi chown
2.1.d.xii iwconfig/ifconfig
2.1.d.xiii ps
2.1.d.xiv q
2.1.d.xv su/sudo
2.1.d.xvi apt-get
2.1.d.xvii vi
2.1.d.xviii dd

Client-Side Purpose of Virtual Machines 2.0 Other Operating Systems and Technologies
Resource Requirements 2.1 Given a scenario, setup and use client-side virtualization
Virtualization Emulator Requirements 2.1.a Purpose of virtual machines
Security Requirements
2.1.b Resource requirements
Network Requirements
2.1.c Emulator requirements
Hypervisor
2.1.d Security requirements
2.1.e Network requirements
2.1.f Hypervisor

240 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Basic Cloud Concepts Software as a Service 2.0 Networking
Infrastructure as a Service 2.3 Identify basic cloud concepts
Platform as a Service 2.3.a SaaS
Cloud Types
2.3.b IaaS
Rapid Elasticity
2.3.c Paas
On-Demand Computing
Resource Pooling 2.3.d Public vs. Private vs. Hybrid vs. Community
Measured Service 2.3.e Rapid Elasticity
2.3.f On-demand
2.3.g Resource pooling
2.3.h Measured service

Network Services Server Roles 2.0 Networking


Server Types 2.4 Summarize the properties and purpose of services provided by
Internet Appliances networked hosts
Legacy and Embedded 2.4.a Server roles
Systems
2.4.a.i Web server
2.4.a.ii File server
2.4.a.iii Print server
2.4.a.iv DHCP server
2.4.a.v DNS server
2.4.a.vi Proxy server
2.4.a.vii Mail server
2.4.a.viii Authentication server
2.4.b Internet appliance
2.4.a.i UTM
2.4.a.ii IDS
2.4.a.iii IPS
2.4.c Legacy/embedded systems

Mobile Operating Android, iOS, and Windows 2.0 Networking


System Features App Sources 2.5 Identify basic features of mobile operating systems.
Screen Orientation and 2.5.a Android vs. iOS vs. Windows
Calibration
2.5.a.i Open source vs. closed source/vendor specific
GPS and Geotracking
2.5.a.ii App source (Play Store, App Store and Store)
Wi-Fi Calling
Launcher 2.5.a.iii Screen orientation (accelerometer/gyroscope)
Virtual Assistant 2.5.a.iv Screen calibration
Software Development Kits 2.5.a.v GPS and geotracking
Emergency Notification 2.5.a.vi WiFi calling
2.5.a.vii Launcher/GUI
2.5.a.viii Virtual assistant
2.5.a.ix SDK/APK
2.5.a.x Emergency notification
2.5.a.xi Mobile payment service

Mobile Device Hotspots 2.0 Networking


Connectivity and Tethering 2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and
Airplane Mode email
Email Enable Bluetooth and Pair 2.6.a Wireless/cellular data network (enable/disable)
Devices
2.6.a.i Hotspot
Test Bluetooth
2.6.a.ii Tethering
Corporate Email
Configuration 2.6.a.iii Airplane mode
Commercial Provider Email 2.6.b Bluetooth
Configuration 2.6.b.i Enable Bluetooth
PRI Updates 2.6.b.ii Enable pairing
Radio Firmware 2.6.b.iii Find device for pairing
VPN 2.6.b.iv Enter appropriate pin code
2.6.b.v Test connectivity
2.6.c Corporate and ISP email configurationr
2.6.c.i POP3
2.6.c.ii IMAP
2.6.c.iii Port and SSL settings
2.6.c.iv Exchange, S/MIME
2.6.d Integrated commercial provider email configuration
2.6.d.i Google/Inbox
2.6.d.ii Yahoo
2.6.d.iii Outlook.com
2.6.d.iv iCloud
2.6.e PRI updates/PRL updates/Baseband updates
2.6.f Radio firmware
2.6.g IMEI vs. IMSI
2.6.h VPN

241 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Mobile Device Types of Data to 2.0 Networking
Synchronize 2.7 Summarize methods and data related to mobile device synchronization
Synchronization Synchronization Methods 2.7.a Types of data to synchronize
Mutual Authentication
2.7.a.i Contacts
Software Requirements on
2.7.a.ii Programs
a PC
Connection Types for 2.7.a.iii Email
Synchronization 2.7.a.iv Pictures
2.7.a.v Music
2.7.a.vi Videos
2.7.a.vii Calendar
2.7.a.viii Bookmarks
2.7.a.ix Documents
2.7.a.x Location data
2.7.a.xi Social media data
2.7.a.xii eBooks
2.7.b Synchronization methods
2.7.b.i Synchronize to the Cloud
2.7.b.ii Synchronize to the Desktop
2.7.c Mutual authentication for multiple services (SSO)
2.7.d Software requirements to install the application on the PC
2.7.e Connection types to enable synchronization

242 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Security Introduction

Common Threats and Malware 3.0 Security


Phishing
Vulnerabilities Spear Phishing
3.1 Identify common security threats and vulnerabilities
3.1.a Malware
Spoofing
3.1.a.i Spyware
Social Engineering
Shoulder Surfing 3.1.a.ii Viruses
Zero Day Attack 3.1.a.iii Worms
Zombie/Botnet 3.1.a.iv Trojans
Password Attacks 3.1.a.v Rootkits
Non-Compliant Systems 3.1.a.vi Ransomware
Security Violations 3.1.b Phishing
Tailgating 3.1.c Spear phishing
Man-in-the-Middle 3.1.d Spoofing
3.1.e Social engineering
3.1.f Shoulder surfing
3.1.g Zero day attack
3.1.h Zombie/botnet
3.1.i Brute forcing
3.1.j Dictionary attacks
3.1.k Non-compliant systems
3.1.l Violations of security best practices
3.1.m Tailgating
3.1.n Man-in-the-middle

Prevention Methods Door Locks and Mantraps 3.0 Mobile Devices


Physical and Document 3.2 Compare and contrast common prevention methods
Security 3.2.a Physical security
Digital Security 3.2.a.i Lock doors
Password Security
3.2.a.ii Mantrap
Directory Permissions
3.2.a.iii Cable locks
Ports and Connections
Authentication 3.2.a.iv Securing physical documents/passwords/shredding
Other Digital Security 3.2.a.v Biometrics
Factors 3.2.a.vi ID badges
User Education 3.2.a.vii Key fobs
Principle of Least Privilege 3.2.a.viii RFID badge
3.2.a.ix Smart card
3.2.a.x Tokens
3.2.a.xi Privacy filters
3.2.a.xii Entry control roster
3.2.b Digital security
3.2.a.i Antivirus/Antimalware
3.2.a.ii Firewalls
3.2.a.iii User authentication/strong passwords
3.2.a.iv Multifactor authentication
3.2.a.v Directory permissions
3.2.a.vi VPN
3.2.a.vii DLP
3.2.a.viii Disabling ports
3.2.a.ix Access control lists
3.2.a.x Smart card
3.2.a.xi Email filtering
3.2.a.xii Trusted/untrusted software sources
3.2.c User education/AUP
3.2.d Principle of least privilege

243 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Windows Security Users and Groups 3.0 Mobile Devices
NTFS vs. Share Permissions 3.3 Compare and contrast differences of basic Windows OS security
Settings Shared Files and Folders settings
System Files and Folders 3.3.a User and groups
User Authentication
3.3.a.i Administrator
Running Programs as
3.3.a.ii Power user
Administrator
BitLocker 3.3.a.iii Guest
BitLocker To Go 3.3.a.iv Standard user
Encrypted File System 3.3.b NTFS vs. Share permissions
3.3.b.i Allow vs. deny
3.3.b.ii Moving vs. copying folders and files
3.3.b.iii File attributes
3.3.c Shared files and folders
3.3.c.i Administrative shares vs. local shares
3.3.c.ii Permission propagation
3.3.c.iii Inheritance
3.3.d System files and folders
3.3.e User authentication
3.3.e.i Single sign-on
3.3.f Run as administrator vs. standard user
3.3.g Bitlocker
3.3.h Bitlocker-To-Go
3.3.i EFS

Workstation Security Password Best Practices 3.0 Mobile Devices


Account Management 3.4 Given a scenario, deploy and enforce security best practices to secure a
Screen Lockout workstation
Disable AutoPlay 3.4.a Password best practices
Data Encryption
3.4.a.i Setting strong passwords
Patch and Update
3.4.a.ii Password expiration
Management
3.4.a.iii Changing default user names/passwords
3.4.a.iv Screensaver required password
3.4.a.v BIOS/UEFI passwords
3.4.a.vi Requiring passwords
3.4.b Account management
3.4.b.i Restricting user permissions
3.4.b.ii Login time restrictions
3.4.b.iii Disabling guest account
3.4.b.iv Failed attempts lockout
3.4.b.v Timeout/screen lock
3.4.c Disable autorun
3.4.d Data encryption
3.4.e Patch/update management

Mobile Device Screen Locks 3.0 Mobile Devices


Security Remote Wipes 3.5 Compare and contrast various methods for securing mobile devices
Locator Applications 3.5.a Screen locks
Remote Backup Applications 3.5.a.i Fingerprint lock
Failed Login Attempts 3.5.a.ii Face lock
Restrictions
3.5.a.iii Swipe lock
Antivirus/Antimalware
3.5.a.iv Passcode lock
Patching/OS Updates
Biometric Authentication 3.5.c Disable autorun
Full Device Encryption 3.5.d Data encryption
Multifactor Authentication 3.5.e Patch/update management
Authenticator Applications 3.5.f Biometric authentication
Trusted and Untrusted 3.5.g Full device encryption
Sources 3.5.h Multifactor authentication
Firewalls 3.5.i Authenticator applications
Policies and Procedures
3.5.j Trusted sources vs. untrusted sources
3.5.k Firewalls
3.5.l Policies and procedures
3.5.l.i BYOD vs. corporate owned
3.5.l.ii Profile security requirements

Data Destruction and Physical Destruction 3.0 Mobile Devices


Recycling and Repurposing 3.6 Given a scenario, use appropriate data destruction and disposal
Disposal Best Practices methods
3.6.a Screen locks
3.6.b Disable autorun

244 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Data Destruction and Physical Destruction 3.0 Mobile Devices
Recycling and Repurposing 3.6 Given a scenario, use appropriate data destruction and disposal
Disposal Best Practices methods
3.6.a Screen locks
3.6.a.i Shredder
3.6.a.ii Drill/Hammer
3.6.a.iii Electromagnetic (Degaussing)
3.6.a.iv Incineration
3.6.a.v Certificate of destruction
3.6.b Recycling or repurposing best practices
3.6.a.i Low level format vs. standard format
3.6.a.ii Overwrite
3.6.a.iii Drive wipe

Securing SOHO and Securing Wireless Networks 3.0 Mobile Devices


Wireless Networks Changing Default Settings 3.7 Given a scenario, secure SOHO wireless and wired networks.
MAC Filtering 3.7.a Wireless specific
Assigning Static IP
3.7.a.i Changing default SSID
Addresses
3.7.a.ii Setting encryption
Firewall Settings
Port Forwarding and 3.7.a.iii Disabling SSID broadcast
Mapping 3.7.a.iv Antenna and access point placement
Disabling Ports 3.7.a.v Radio power levels
Content Filtering 3.7.a.vi WPS
Updating Firmware 3.7.b Change default user-names and passwords
Physical Security 3.7.c Enable MAC filtering
3.7.d Assign static IP addresses
3.7.e Firewall settings
3.7.f Port forwarding/mapping
3.7.g Disabling ports
3.7.h Content filtering/parental controls
3.7.i Update firmware
3.7.j Physical security

245 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Software Software
Troubleshooting

PC Operating Boot Failures 4.0 Software Troubleshooting


Service Failures
Systems Files and Extensions
4.1 Given a scenario, troubleshoot PC operating system problems with
appropriate tools
Troubleshooting Multiple Monitor 4.1.a Common symptoms
Alignments
4.1.a.i Proprietary crash screens (BSoD/pinwheel)
Spontaneous Shutdowns
Missing DLL Message 4.1.a.ii Failure to boot
Device Fails to Start 4.1.a.iii Improper shutdown
Compatibility Error 4.1.a.iv Spontaneous shutdown/restart
Other Operating System 4.1.a.v Device fails to start/detected
Issues 4.1.a.vi Missing dll message
Linux and Mac Issues 4.1.a.vii Services fails to start
Slow System Issues 4.1.a.viii Compatibility error
Recovery Tools 4.1.a.ix Slow system performance
Windows Tools
4.1.a.x Boots to safe mode
Create a Repair Disc
More Windows Repair Tools 4.1.a.xi File fails to open
Logs and Recovery Tools 4.1.a.xii Missing NTLDR
4.1.a.xiii Missing Boot Configuration Data
4.1.a.xiv Missing operating system
4.1.a.xv Missing Graphical Interface
4.1.a.xvi Missing GRUB/LILO
4.1.a.xvii Kernel panic
4.1.a.xviii Graphical Interface fails to load
4.1.a.xix Multiple monitor misalignment/orientation
4.1.b Tools
4.1.b.i BIOS/UEFI
4.1.b.ii SFC
4.1.b.iii Logs
4.1.b.iv System Recovery Options
4.1.b.v Repair disks
4.1.b.vi Pre-installation environments
4.1.b.vii MSCONFIG
4.1.b.viii DEFRAG
4.1.b.ix REGSRV32
4.1.b.x REGEDIT
4.1.b.xi Event viewer
4.1.b.xii Safe mode
4.1.b.xiii Command prompt
4.1.b.xiv Uninstall/reinstall/repair
PC Security Issues Common Security 4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting
Symptoms 4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common PC security issues with
Security and Performance appropriate tools and best practices
Symptoms 4.2.a Common symptoms
Configure Junk Mail Folder 4.2.a.i Pop-ups
Hidden Folders and
4.2.a.ii Browser redirection
Changed Permissions
4.2.a.iii Security alerts
4.2.a.iv Slow performance
4.2.a.v Internet connectivity issues
4.2.a.vi PC/OS lock up
4.2.a.vii Application crash
4.2.a.viii OS updates failures
4.2.a.ix Rogue antivirus
4.2.a.x Spam
4.2.a.xi Renamed system files
4.2.a.xii Files disappearing
4.2.a.xiii File permission changes
4.2.a.xiv Hijacked email
4.2.a.xiv.1 Responses from users regarding email
4.2.a.xiv.2 Automated replies from unknown sent email
4.2.a.xv Access denied
4.2.a.xvi Invalid certificate (trusted root CA)

246 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
PC Security Issues Security Tools 4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting
System Restore 4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common PC security issues with
(Continued) Event Viewer and appropriate tools and best practices
MSCONFIG 4.2.b Tools
Refresh the PC
4.2.b.i Antivirus software
Safe Boot Options
4.2.b.ii Antimalware software
Malware Removal Best
Practices 4.2.b.iii Recovery console
4.2.b.iv Terminal
4.2.b.v System restore/Snapshot
4.2.b.vi Pre-installation environments
4.2.b.vii Event viewer
4.2.b.viii Refresh/restore
4.2.b.ix MSCONFIG/Safe boot
4.2.c Best practice procedure for malware removal
4.2.c.i Identify malware symptoms
4.2.c.ii Quarantine infected system
4.2.c.iii Disable system restore (in Windows)
4.2.c.iv Remediate infected systems
4.2.c.iv.1 Update antimalware software
4.2.c.iv.2 Scan and removal techniques (safe mode, pre-installation
environment)
4.2.c.v Schedule scans and run updates
4.2.c.vi Enable system restore and create restore point (in Windows)
4.2.c.vii Educate end user
Mobile OS and Common Mobile Device 4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting
Symptoms
Application Issues Connectivity Issues
4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application
issues with appropriate tools.
Mobile Device Tools 4.3.a Common symptoms
Close Running Apps and
4.3.a.i Dim display
Force Stop
Resetting to Factory Defaults 4.3.a.ii Intermittent wireless
Uninstall and Reinstall Apps 4.3.a.iii No wireless connectivity
Adjust Configurations and 4.3.a.iv No bluetooth connectivity
Settings 4.3.a.v Cannot broadcast to external monitor
4.3.a.vi Touchscreen non-responsive
4.3.a.vii Apps not loading
4.3.a.viii Slow performance
4.3.a.ix Unable to decrypt email
4.3.a.x Extremely short battery life
4.3.a.xi Overheating
4.3.a.xii Frozen system
4.3.a.xiii No sound from speakers
4.3.a.xiv Inaccurate touch screen response
4.3.a.xv System lockout
4.3.b Tools
4.3.b.i Hard reset
4.3.b.ii Soft reset
4.3.b.iii Close running applications
4.3.b.iv Reset to factory default
4.3.b.v Adjust configurations/settings
4.3.b.vi Uninstall/reinstall apps
4.3.b.vii Force stop

Mobile Security Application Issues 4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting


Unauthorized Access Issues 4.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application
Issues
security issues with appropriate tools
4.5.a Common symptoms
4.4.a.i Signal drop/weak signal
4.4.a.ii Power drain
4.4.a.iii Slow data speeds
4.4.a.iv Unintended WiFi connection
4.4.a.v Unintended Bluetooth pairing
4.4.a.vi Leaked personal files/data
4.4.a.vii Data transmission overlimit
4.4.a.viii Unauthorized account access
4.4.a.ix Unauthorized root access
4.4.a.x Unauthorized location tracking
4.4.a.xi Unauthorized camera/microphone activation
4.4.a.xii High resource utilization

247 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Mobile Security Mobile Security Tools 4.0 Hardware and Network Troubleshooting
Issues (Continued) 4.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application
security issues with appropriate tools
4.4.b Tools
4.4.b.i Antimalware
4.4.b.ii App scanner
4.4.b.iii Factory reset/Clean install
4.4.b.iv Uninstall/reinstall apps
4.4.b.v WiFi Analyzer
4.4.b.vi Force stop
4.4.b.vii Cell tower analyzer
4.4.b.viii Backup/restore
4.4.b.viii.1 iTunes/iCloud/Apple Configurator
4.4.b.viii.2 Google sync
4.4.b.viii.3 One Drive

248 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 5: Operational Procedures Course Map
Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Operational Introduction
Procedures

Safety Procedures Equipment Grounding 5.0 Operational Procedures


Component Handling and 5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures
Storage 5.1.a Equipment grounding
Toxic Waste Handling
5.1.b Proper component handling and storage
Personal Safety and Lifting
Techniques 5.1.b.i Antistatic bags
Cable Management 5.1.b.ii ESD straps
Safety Goggles and Air 5.1.b.iii ESD mats
Masks 5.1.b.iv Self-grounding
Regulation Compliance 5.1.c Toxic waste handling
5.1.c.i Batteries
5.1.c.ii Toner
5.1.c.iii CRT
5.1.d Personal safety
5.1.d.i Disconnect power before repairing PC
5.1.d.ii Remove jewelry
5.1.d.iii Lifting techniques
5.1.d.iv Weight limitations
5.1.d.v Electrical fire safety
5.1.d.vi Cable management
5.1.d.vii Safety goggles
5.1.d.viii Air filter mask
5.1.e Compliance with local government regulations

Environmental Material Safety Data Sheet 5.0 Operational Procedures


Impacts Temperature, Humidity, and 5.2 Given a scenario with potential environmental impacts, apply the
Ventilation appropriate controls
Power Surges, Brownouts, 5.2.a MSDS documentation for handling and disposal
Blackouts 5.2.b Temperature, humidity level awareness and proper ventilation
Airborne Protection
5.2.c Power surges, brownouts, blackouts
Dust and Debris
5.2.c.i Battery backup
Local Regulation
Compliance 5.2.c.ii Surge suppressor
5.2.d Protection from airborne particles
5.2.d.i Enclosures
5.2.d.ii Air filters/Mask
5.2.e Dust and debris
5.2.e.i Compressed air
5.2.e.ii Vacuums
5.2.f Compliance to local government regulations

Prohibited Content Incident Response 5.0 Operational Procedures


and Privacy Licensing 5.3 Summarize the process of addressing prohibited content/activity, and
Personally Identifiable explain privacy, licensing, and policy concepts
Information 5.3.a Incident Response
Corporate Policies and Best
5.3.a.i First response
Practices
5.3.a.i.1 Identify
5.3.a.i.2 Report through proper channels
5.3.a.i.3 Data/device preservation
5.3.a.ii Use of documentation/documentation changes
5.3.a.iii Chain of custody
5.3.a.iii.1 Tracking of evidence/documenting process
5.3.b Licensing/DRM/EULA
5.3.b.i Open source vs. commercial license
5.3.b.ii Personal license vs. enterprise licenses
5.3.c Personally Identifiable Information
5.3.d Follow corporate end-user policies and security best practices

249 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


Topic Subtopic Objectives Files
Communication and Proper Language 5.0 Operational Procedures
Positive and Confident 5.4 Demonstrate proper communication techniques and professionalism
Professionalism Attitude 5.4.a Use proper language – avoid jargon, acronyms, slang when applicable
Active Listening
5.4.b Maintain a positive attitude/Project confidence
Cultural Sensitivity
5.4.c Actively listen (taking notes) and avoid interrupting the customer
Be on Time
Avoid Distractions 5.4.d Be culturally sensitive
Difficult Customers 5.4.d.i Use appropriate professional titles, when applicable
Expectations and 5.1.e Be on time (if late contact the customer)
Communication 5.4.f Avoid distractions
Customers and Confidential 5.4.f.i Personal calls
Material 5.4.f.ii Texting/Social media sites
5.4.f.iii Talking to co-workers while interacting with customers
5.4.f.iv Personal interruptions
5.4.g Dealing with difficult customer or situation
5.4.g.i Do not argue with customers and/or be defensive
5.4.gii Avoid dismissing customer problems
5.4.g.iii Avoid being judgmental
5.4.g.iv Clarify customer statements (ask open ended questions to narrow the
scope of the problem, restate the issue or question to verify understanding)
5.4.g.v Do not disclose experiences via social media outlets
5.4.h Set and meet expectations/timeline and communicate status with the
customer
5.4.h.i Offer different repair/replacement options if applicable
5.4.h.ii Provide proper documentation on the services provided
5.4.h.iii Follow up with customer/user at a later date to verify satisfaction
5.4.i Deal appropriately with customers confidential and private materials
5.4.i.i Located on a computer, desktop, printer, etc

Troubleshooting Corporate Policies to 5.0 Operational Procedures


Consider 5.5 Given a scenario, explain the troubleshooting theory
Theory Identify the Problem 5.5.a Always consider corporate policies, procedures and impacts before
Establish a Theory of implementing changes
Probable Cause 5.5.a.i Question the user and identify user changes to computer and perform
Test the Theory backups before making changes
Establish and Implement a 5.5.b Identify the problem
Solution
5.5.b.i If necessary, conduct external or internal research based on symptoms
Verify Full System
5.5.c Establish a theory of probable cause (question the obvious)
Functionality
Document Findings, Actions, 5.5.c.i Once theory is confirmed determine next steps to resolve problem
Outcomes 5.5.c.i If theory is not confirmed re-establish new theory or escalate
5.5.d Test the theory to determine cause
5.5.e Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the
solution
5.5.f Verify full system functionality and if applicable implement preventive
measures
5.5.g Document findings, actions and outcomes

Exam Preparation Test Tips


Practice Test Questions

250 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 1 Outline
Introduction to A+ Part Two Operating System Installations
How to Take This Course Boot Methods

Windows Vista and 7 Features Upgrading Windows


32-Bit vs. 64-Bit Clean Windows Installation
Processor Requirements Finishing an Upgrade
Aero Finishing a Clean Installation
Gadgets Feature Installation Types
User Account Control Basic and Dynamic Partitions
BitLocker Primary and Extended Partitions
Shadow Copy File System Types
File History Third-Party Drivers
System Restore Workgroup vs. Domain Setup
ReadyBoost Time, Date, Region, Language Settings
Compatibility Mode Driver Installation
Easy Transfer Windows Update
Administrative Tools Factory Recovery Partition
Windows Defender and Firewall Boot Drives and the Correct Partitions
Action Center

Event Viewer

Control Panel Views

File Structure and Paths

Virtual XP Mode

Windows 8 Features
Side-by-Side Apps

Metro UI

Pinning

OneDrive

Windows Store

Multi-Monitor Taskbars

Charms

Start Screen

PowerShell

Live Sign In and Action Center

Upgrade Paths

Windows Anytime Upgrades

Compatibility Tool

251 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 2 Outline
Command Line Tools Create a Storage Space
IPCONFIG Data Migration Tools
IPCONFIG vs. IPCONFIG /ALL Windows Easy Transfer
CLS and CD
System Utilities
ECHO Regedit

PING Command

Wildcards Services

TASKLIST and TASKKILL MMC

SHUTDOWN MSTSC

BOOTREC Notepad

File and Folder Commands Explorer

COPY Commands MSINFO32

XCOPY DXDIAG

ROBOCOPY Defrag

Disk Commands System Restore

Group Policy Windows Update

DIR Command

EXIT and HELP Commands

EXTRACT Command

Administrative Command Prompt

Microsoft Operating System Tools


Administrative Tools

Local Users and Groups

Local Security Policy

Performance Monitor

Services

System Configuration

Task Scheduler

Component Services

Data Sources

Print Management

Windows Memory Diagnostic

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

MSCONFIG

Task Manager

Disk Management

Mount a Drive to a Folder

Extend a Partition

Split and Shrink a Partition

Change a Hard Drive Letter

Add Drives

Initialize a Drive and Allocation

252 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 1: Windows Operating Systems Session 3 Outline
Windows Control Panel Utilities
Internet Options

Display Settings

User Options

Folder Options

System Options

Remote Settings

Windows Firewall

Power Options

Power States

Programs and Features

HomeGroup

Devices and Printers

Sound

Troubleshooting

Network and Sharing Center

Device Manager

Windows Networking
HomeGroups, Workgroups, and Domains

Network Shares and Mapping Drives

Administrative Shares

Printer Sharing and Mapping

Establish Network Connections

Proxy Settings

Remote Desktop Connection

Remote Assistance

Home, Work, and Public Network Settings

Firewall Settings

Alternate IP Addresses

Network Card Properties

Power Management

Windows Maintenance Procedures


Best Practices

Maintenance Tools

253 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 2: Other Operating Systems and Technologies Outline
Other Operating Systems and Technologies Mobile Operating System Features
Introduction Android, iOS, and Windows

App Sources
Mac and Linux Operating Systems
Mac Best Practices Screen Orientation and Calibration
Create a Backup GPS and Geotracking
Disk Maintenance Wi-Fi Calling
System Updates Launcher
Mac Tools Virtual Assistant
Screen Sharing Software Development Kits
Multiple Desktops Emergency Notification
Keychain Mobile Device Connectivity and Email
Spotlight Hotspots

iCloud Tethering

Gestures Airplane Mode

Finder and Remote Disk Enable Bluetooth and Pair Devices

Boot Camp Test Bluetooth

Dock Corporate Email Configuration

Linux Commands Commercial Provider Email Configuration

Linux File Commands PRI Updates

Linux Administrative Commands Radio Firmware

VPN
Client-Side Virtualization
Purpose of Virtual Machines Mobile Device Synchronization
Resource Requirements Types of Data to Synchronize

Emulator Requirements Synchronization Methods

Security Requirements Mutual Authentication

Network Requirements Software Requirements on a PC

Hypervisor Connection Types for Synchronization

Basic Cloud Concepts


Software as a Service

Infrastructure as a Service

Platform as a Service

Cloud Types

Rapid Elasticity

On-Demand Computing

Resource Pooling

Measured Service

Network Services
Server Roles

Server Types

Internet Appliances

Legacy and Embedded Systems

254 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook


A+ (220-902) Domain 3: Security Outline
Security
Introduction Mobile Device Security
Screen Locks
Common Threats and Vulnerabilities
Malware Remote Wipes

Phishing Locator Applications

Spear Phishing Remote Backup Applications

Spoofing Failed Login Attempts Restrictions

Social Engineering Antivirus/Antimalware

Shoulder Surfing Patching/OS Updates

Zero Day Attack Biometric Authentication

Zombie/Botnet Full Device Encryption

Password Attacks Multifactor Authentication

Non-Compliant Systems Authenticator Applications

Security Violations Trusted and Untrusted Sources

Tailgating Firewalls

Man-in-the-Middle Policies and Procedures

Prevention Methods Data Destruction and Disposal


Door Locks and Mantraps Physical Destruction

Physical and Document Security Recycling and Repurposing Best Practices

Digital Security Securing SOHO and Wireless Networks


Password Security Securing Wireless Networks

Directory Permissions Changing Default Settings

Ports and Connections MAC Filtering

Authentication Assigning Static IP Addresses

Other Digital Security Factors Firewall Settings

User Education Port Forwarding and Mapping

Principle of Least Privilege Disabling Ports

Content Filtering
Windows Security Settings
Users and Groups Updating Firmware

NTFS vs. Share Permissions Physical Security

Shared Files and Folders

System Files and Folders

User Authentication

Running Programs as Administrator

BitLocker

BitLocker To Go

Encrypted File System

Workstation Security
Password Best Practices

Account Management

Screen Lockout

Disable AutoPlay

Data Encryption

Patch and Update Management


255 | Appendix A+ (220-902) Project Workbook
A+ (220-902) Domain 4: Software Troubleshooting Outline
Software Troubleshooting
Software

PC Operating Systems Troubleshooting


Boot Failures

Service Failures

Files and Extensions

Multiple Monitor Alignments

Spontaneous Shutdowns

Missing DLL Message

Device Fails to Start

Compatibility Error

Other