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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon

Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and


Physiology

3. T I S S U E S

LECTURE OUTLINE

A. Types of Tissue

1. A TISSUE is a group of similar cells, usually with a common embryonic


origin, that function together to carry out specialised activities.
2. HISTOLOGY is the science that deals with the study of tissues.
3. The major tissue types are EPITHELIAL, CONNECTIVE, MUSCULAR, and NERVOUS.

B. EPITHELIAL TISSUE

1. EPITHELIAL tissue covers body surfaces; lines body cavities, hollow


organs, and ducts (tubes) and forms glands.
2. The two types of epithelium are COVERING AND LINING EPITHELIUM and
GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM. Epithelial tissue contains very little extracellular
material and is avascular (no blood supply).

C. General Feature of Epithelial Tissue

1. The numerous features of epithelial tissue are:


• Epithelium consists of closely packed cells with little extracellular
material.
• Epithelial cells have free (apical) surfaces, exposed to a body
cavity, lining of an internal organ, or exterior of body.
• Epithelial tissues are avascular.
• Epithelial tissues have a nerve supply.
• Epithelial tissues have a high capacity for renewal by cell
division.

Epithelial tissues function in protection, secretion, absorption,


excretion, sensory reception and generation of gametes (sperm
and oocytes).

D. Covering and Lining Epithelium

1. Epithelial tissue can be classified by SHAPE being squamous (flat),


cuboidal (as tall as they are wide or hexagons), columnar (taller
than they are wide) or transitional (vary from flat to cudoidal).

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

2. Epithelium can also be classified by the ARRANGEMENT OF LAYERS, being


simple (single-layered), stratified (multi-layered), or
pseudostratified (one layer of cells but appears to have several
layers). Certain cells can also contain cilia and/or secrete mucous.
3. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM functions in the diffusion, osmosis, filtration,
absorption, and secretion in serous membranes.
4. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM functions to secrete tears and saliva and
absorb water in the kidney tubules.
5. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM may have modifications such as microvilli,
which serve to increase the surface area or goblet cells which
secrete mucus. Its functions involve secretion and absorption.
6. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM usually contains a protein called keratin
and serves as a protective barrier against microbes, heat, and
chemicals.
7. STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM is rare but functions in protection, and
limited secretion and absorption.
8. STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM functions in protection and secretion.
9. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM allows for organ expansion and prevents organ
rupture.
10. PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM is not a true stratified tissue. All
cells are attached to the basement membrane, but not all reach the
surface. It provides for the movement of materials.

11. A SUMMARY OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES:

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

TYPES OF TISSUE LOCATION FUNCTION


LINES HEART, LYMPHATIC VESSELS AND FILTRATION,
simple squamous ABDOMINAL CAVITY, AND SEROUS SECRETIONS ABSORPTION, DIFFUSION,
OSMOSIS
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL COVERS OVARIES, LINES KIDNEY TUBULES AND SECRETION AND
PART OF THE EYE LENS, AND FORMS PART OF ABSORPTION
THE RETINA
SIMPLE COLUMNAR LINES GI TRACT FROM STOMACH, EXCRETORY SECRETION AND
DUCTS OF GLANDS, AND GALL BLADDER ABSORPTION
SIMPLE CILIATED LINES UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT, UTERINE MOVES MUCUS BY
COLUMNAR TUBES, AND UTERUS CILIARY ACTION
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS LINES THE MOUTH, TONGUE, ESOPHAGUS, PROTECTION
VAGINA, AND OUTER LAYER OF THE SKIN
STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL COMPRISES DUCTS OF SWEAT GLANDS AND PROTECTION AND LIMITED
MALE URETHRA SECRETION AND
ABSORPTION
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR LINES MALE URETHRA, PART OF THE CONJUCTIVA PROTECTION AND
OF THE EYE SECRETION
TRANSITIONAL LINES URINARY BLADDER AND PARTS OF URETER PREVENTS DISTENTION
AND URETHRA
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED LINES LARGE EXCRETORY DUCTS, EPIDIDYMIS, SECRETION AND
COLUMNAR MALE URETHRA, AND EUSTACHIAN TUBES, UPPER MOVEMENT OF MUCUS
SPERM RESPIRATORY TRACT AND MALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

E. Glandular Epithelium

1. The function of glandular epithelium is SECRETION.


2. A gland consists of one cell or a group of highly specialised
epithelial cells secreting substances into ducts, onto a surface, or
into the blood.
3. EXOCRINE GLANDS secrete products into ducts (tubes) that empty at the
surface of covering and lining epithelium or directly onto a free
surface. Examples are sweat glands, salivary glands, and digestive
tract glands.
4. ENDOCRINE GLANDS are ductless, release their secretions called
hormones, directly into the bloodstream. Some examples are the
pituitary and adrenal glands.

F. Connective Tissue

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE is one of the most abundant tissues in the body and
is highly vascular. It also contains a varied number of cells with a
large quantity of extra-cellular matrix.
2. The general functions of connective tissue are protection, support,
binding, and storage.

G. General Features of Connective Tissue

1. The following are general features of connective tissue:

• Consists of two basic elements: cells and matrix (ground


substance and protein fibres).
• Connective tissues do not generally occur on free surfaces.
• Connective tissue has a nerve supply, except for cartilage, which
does not.
• Connective tissue is highly vascular, except for cartilage, which
is avascular.
• The matrix can be fluid, semi fluid, gelatinous, fibrous, or
calcified.

H. Connective Tissue Cells

1. Various types of cells are found in connective tissue. These include:

• Fibroblasts
• Macrophages
• Plasma Cells (B lymphocytes)
• Mast Cells
• Adipocytes

I. Connective Tissue Matrix

1. Each type of connective tissue has unique properties due to its


matrix between the cells. The matrix contains protein fibres
embedded in the fluid, gel, or solid GROUND SUBSTANCE. The ground
substance also contains several other substances.
2. The matrix also contains FIBRES, which provide strength and support
for the tissue. The major type of fibres include:

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

• COLLAGEN which is very strong and resistant to pulling forces.


These fibers occur in bundles and afford great strength. Collagen
is the most abundant protein in the human body representing
about 25% of all protein.
• ELASTIC FIBRES are usually smaller than collagen. They are
comprised of the protein ELASTIN which provides both strength and
elasticity.
• RETICULAR FIBRES are comprised of collagen and glycoprotein, and
provide strength and support in the walls of blood vessels.
Reticular fibres also form the stroma (supporting framework) of
many soft organs.

J. Classification of Connective Tissues

1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE includes LOOSE and DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CARTILAGE, BONE,
BLOOD AND LYMPH.
2. A SUMMARY OF MATURE CONNECTIVE TISSUES:

DESCRIPTION LOCATION FUNCTION


TYPE
fibres of collagen, around organs, Strength,
AREOLAR elastic and reticular; dermis of skin elasticity, and
fibroblasts, and tissue with support
macrophages, plasma fibroblasts,
cells, mast cells, and subcutaneous
adipocytes in a matrix layer
Adipose adipocytes used for fat subcutaneous Heat loss
storage tissue around reduction,
heart and support,
kidneys, marrow protection, and
of long bones, energy reserve
joints
Dense regular collagen fibres with tendons, Support and
and irregular fibroblasts ligaments attachment,
protection, heart, provides
bone, liver, strength
testes and lymph
nodes
Elastic elastic fibres with few lungs, arteries, Stretching
fibroblasts trachea, bronchi,
and true vocal
cords

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

Reticular reticular fibres with liver, spleen, Forms stroma


cells wrapped around lymph nodes of organs
Hyaline Bluish-white shiny end of long Movements at
cartilage ground substance with bones, parts of joints, support
chondrocytes the larynx, and flexibility
bronchi and
embryonic
skeleton
Fibrocartilage chondrocytes in joints between support and
bundles of collagenous hip bones, fusion
fibers intervertebral
discs and knees
Elastic chondrocytes in a epiglottis, support and
cartilage network of elastic external ear and shape
fibres auditory tubes

3. Connective tissue may contain a variety of CELL TYPES such as


fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, and adipocytes.
4. BONE TISSUE is a specialised connective tissue comprised of bone-
forming cells (osteocytes), and can exist either as compact or
spongy bone.
5. The OSTEON or HAVERSIAN SYSTEM is the basic unit of compact bone
consisting of lamellae (matrix system), lacunae (small spaces
between the lamellae with osteocytes), canaliculi (minute canals
projecting from lacunae), and the Central (Haversian) canal
(containing the principal blood vessel).
6. BLOOD TISSUE is a specialized liquid connective tissue of plasma and
formed elements. The formed elements are Red Blood Cells
(RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), and Platelets.
7. LYMPH is a fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels.

K. Muscular Tissue

1. MUSCULAR TISSUE is a highly specialised tissue generates force, motion,


the maintenance of posture, and the production of heat.
2. SKELETAL MUSCLE is usually attached to bones of the skeleton.
3. CARDIAC MUSCLE forms the bulk of the wall of the heart.
4. SMOOTH MUSCLE is located in the walls of hollow internal structures,
such as blood vessels, stomach, and urinary bladder.

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Modules: HS1042/AS2097 – Dr A Gordon
Structure and Function of the Human Body/Human Anatomy and
Physiology

L. Nervous Tissue

1. NERVOUS TISSUE contains two principal cells types: NEURONS and


NEUROGLIA.
2. NEURONS are sensitive to stimuli, conduct impulses other neurons,
muscle fibres, and glands.
3. NEUROGLIA are the cellular support for nervous tissue, which do not
generate or conduct nerve impulses.