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Практические упражнения к онлайн курсу по изучению английского

языка http://urikor.net/eng_course/
Автор курса: Лайдж Ки

Упражнения к урокам 2..13 доступны в онлайн режиме –


http://urikor.net/eng_course/soft.html

По вопросам приобретения ответов к практическим заданиям пишите на


электропочту urikor@list.ru или urikor@urikor.net Обязательно укажите тему письма:
«Приобретение ответов к практическим заданиям курса по изучению английского
языка». В противном случае нет никакой гарантии, что письмо не попадет в СПАМ!

Буду благодарен за указанные ошибки, опечатки и прочие неточности,


встречающиеся в текстах упражнений.

Урок 2

Тема: Существительные: единственное/множественное число,


определённый/неопределённый/нулевой артикль

Упражнения:
Упражнение 1: Напишите формы множественного числа следующих существительных
flower _________________
man _________________
boat _________________
language_________________
watch_________________
country _________________
knife _________________
woman _________________
address_________________
sheep _________________
tooth _________________
leaf _________________
сhild_________________
foot_________________
umbrella_________________
person_________________
family_________________
holiday_________________
sandwich_________________
city_________________
mouse_________________

Упражнение 2. Поставьте следующие существительные во мн. при этом особое внимание обращайте на
артикли.
Образец: a test — (любое) испытание, tests — испытания (вообще); the test— данное испытание, the tests— эти
испытания.
Risk, the risk, a hint, the hint, a net, the net, the lens, a lens, a hill, the hill, the end, a dress, a step, the step, a lift, a
dog, the dog, an oak, the oak, an ode, the ode, a desk, the desk, the theme, a theme.

Упражнение 3. Поставьте перед словами a/an или нулевой артикль. Посмотрите перевод слова в словаре, если
необходимо.
Water, rice, oak, tree, bee, sugar, monitor, keyboard, angel, button, bed, ice, tea, address, flower, ode, apple.

Упражнение 4. Поставьте перед словами определённый артикль the или неопределённый артикль a/an.
Посмотрите перевод слова в словаре, если необходимо.
Don, apple, Volga, tree, Metropol, palace, place, God, opposition, box, angle, ace, truth, cube, monitor, videocard,
motherboard, Alps, Lena (река), Hague, Moscow, Queen Mary (корабль), fan, eel, elf.

Урок 3

Глагол: общие сведения. Инфинитив


Упражнения:

Упражнение 1. Образуйте из приведенных слов существительные и глаголы в инфинитиве. Поставьте


существительные во множественном числе (где возможно!). Переведите на русский язык. Будьте особо
внимательны при переводе!
О б р а з е ц : fish: a fish – рыбина: to fish – ловить рыбу.
Check, plan, help, test, lift, stress, hint, risk, belt, step, end, trend, mill, spark, block, shift, present, control,
book, clone, print, water, cry, paint, plant, watch, call, slip, key, smoke, love, study, list, flow, film, act, blame,
distance, stub, suck, sugar, rain, snow, reek, rock, meal, beat, ribbon, gaze, laugh, exhibit, knock

Упражнение 2. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на артикли.


О б р а з е ц : to shift the block – передвинуть (этот) блок.
To check the text, to miss a hint, to test the net, to test a net, to fix a tent, to fix tents, to end the test, to mill
shells, to check the plan, to shift the block, to block progress, to block the test, to hint, to stress the hint, to place
the exhibit, to write a poem, to risk love, to state the fact, to shift a desk, to question love, to ribbon a dog, to
book a ticket, to suck a lollipop, to call the cops, to clone a sheep, to print a text, to film the party, to key the door,
to present flowers, to control the process, to water a tree, to battle a lion, to catch a bird, to help friends.

Урок 4

Члены предложения. Порядок слов в английском предложении


Упражнения:

Упражнение 1. Пользуясь правилом твердого порядка слов, определите подлежащее, сказуемое и


дополнение в следующих предложениях. Попытайтесь перевести на русский язык (сказуемые в этих
предложениях имеют форму настоящего времени). Обращайте внимание на артикли или их отсутствие.
Образец: Students solve problems Студенты решают (разные) проблемы.
Plans help.
The plans help.
They fix the shelf.
The belts fix shelves.
The men lift boxes.
The architects test the plans.
Chiefs plan the help.
The chemists test the scheme.
People plant flowers.
Drivers fix problems (компьют).
Monitors show images.
The phone rings.
A scanner scans documents.
A director controls a process.
A reporter states the fact.
A king rules a state.
A man drives a car.
Modems transmit the signals.
A poet writes a poem.
The pen writes.
Tourists book tickets.
A woman locks the door.
The teacher explains.
Students check mistakes.
Fingers press buttons.
The students finish the test.
Sportsmen lift weights.
Bakers make cakes.
The key starts the engine.
The stereo makes noise.
A horseman rides a horse.
The fridge contains products.
A child sucks the lollipop.
Christmas gives pleasure.

Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык. Выбор артикля покамест остаётся за Вами.


Обращайте внимание на образование множественного числа существительных как в функции
подлежащего, так и в функции дополнения..
Ремни закрепляют полку.
Спортсмены поднимают тяжести.
Пальцы нажимают кнопки.
Мониторы показывают изображения.
Сканеры сканируют документы.
Драйвера устраняют проблемы.
Туристы заказывают билеты.
Дети сосут леденцы.
Студенты проверяют ошибки.
Люди садят деревья.
Новый Год дарит радость.
Студенты заканчивают тесты.
В холодильниках лежат продукты (холодильники содержат продукты).
Пекари пекут торты.
Продавцы продают товары.
Собаки лают.
Младенцы ползают.
Ключи заводят двигатели.
Учёные проверяют схемы.
Парни устанавливают палатки и проверяют сети.
Карандаши чертят.
Девочки поют песни.
Программисты создаёт программы.
Звонят телефоны.
Студенты закрывают окна.

Урок 5.

Глагол в функции сказуемого. Изъявительное и повелительное


наклонение. Личные местоимения в дательном и объектном
падеже.
Практические задания:
Задание 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Обращайте внимание на артикли.

1. Test the net. 2. Let us test the nets. 3. Let them test nets! 4. Shift the desk! 5. Let me shift the
desk. 6. Let her fix the tent! 7. Let me help you! 8. Let us help her!

Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык.


ОБРАЗЕЦ: Check the plans of the students – Проверьте планы (этих) студентов.

Check the test!


Fix the tent!
Let us fix the tent!
Shift the block!
Let him shift the block!
Lift the box!
Let us risk!
Plan tests!
Test plans!
Check the test!
Help the chemist!
Let us help to lift the block!
Let him help to plan the test!
Let us help him to shift the boxes!
Let us help him to shift boxes!
Plan the help!
Check the plan!
Let him (to) plan the test!

Задание 3. Соедините предложения со сказуемым в повелительном наклонении на английском


языке в первой колонке с их русскими эквивалентами во второй колонке. Обратите внимание
на некоторые нюансы перевода!

1. Let them go! a) Давайте не будем заходить туда!


2. Let the man listen! b) Расскажи же мне об этом!
3. Do tell me about that! c) Пусть этот мужчина слушает!
4. Let’s go to the cinema! d) Отпустите меня!
5. Do read that aloud! e) Работайте же!
6. Don’t let’s go in there! f) Пусть они идут!
7. Do speak! g) Разрешите же мне идти!
8. Do work! h) Ну же, говори!
9. Let me go! i) Пойдём в кино!
10. Do let me go! j) Читай же это вслух!

Задание 4. Дайте в письменном виде английские эквиваленты предложений со сказуемым в


повелительном наклонении. Помните о правилах использования артиклей.

1. Проверьте (эту) программу. 2. Проверяйте (всегда) программы. 3. Давайте проверим


(эти) программы. 4. Пусть он проверит (эту) программу. 5. Помогите мне поднять (этот)
блок. 6. Пусть она поможет ему. 7. Пусть они помогут нам. 8. Давайте проверим этот
текст. 9. Пусть он проверит его. 10. Разрешите мне помочь вам.

Урок 6.

The Present Indefinite Active


Практические упражнения.
Задание 1. Вставьте данные слова в нужной форме в пропущенные в предложениях
места. Используйте словарь.
boil, close, cost, cost, go, have, like, meet, open, smoke, speak, teach, wash
1 .She's very clever. She speaks four languages.
2 . Steve __________ ten cigarettes a day
3 . We usually dinner at 7 o'clock
4. I _________ films I often ________ to the cinema.
5 . Water ____________ at 100 degrees Celsius.
6 . In Britain the banks ____________ at 9 in the morning.
7 . The City Museum at 5 o'clock every evening.
8 . Food is expensive It _____________ a lot of money.
9 . Shoes are expensive. They ___________ a lot of
money.
10 . Tina is a teacher. She ___________________
mathematics to young children.
11. Your job is very interesting. You ______________ a lot of people.
12. Peter ________ his hair twice a week.

Задание 2. Напишите отрицания к данным предложениям.


1. I play the piano very well. I don’t play the piano very well.
2.......................................................................................................................... Jack plays the
piano very well.
3.......................................................................................................................................... You
know the answer.
4.......................................................................................................................................... She
works very hard.
5.......................................................................................................................................... They do
the same thing every day.
Задание 3. Напишите противоположное данному (утверждение или отрицание).
1................... I understand. I don’t understand
2............................................................. He doesn't smoke. He smokes
3............................................................. They know.
4............................................................. She loves him.
5. They speak English.
6. I don't want it.
7. She doesn't want them.
8. He lives in Rome.

Задание 4. Напишите короткие ответы на вопросы. (Yes, he does; No, she doesn’t и т. д.)
1 Do you smoke? No, I don't
2 Do you live in a big city?
3 Do you drink a lot of coffee?
4 Does your mother speak English?
5 Do you play a musical instrument?
6 Does it rain a lot where you live?

Урок 7-8.

Неправильные глаголы
Практическое задание 1: Выберите, к какой из групп относятся следующие глаголы:
a) правильные (regular)
b) неправильные (irregular)
с) неправильные глаголы, которые могут образовывать формы прошедшего времени и
причастия II стандартным способом

To file, to light, to understand, to dwell, to put, to win, to hit, to cancel, to learn, to sleep, to
find, to spread, to tread, to hide, to be, to shrink, to sit, to bear, to begin, to meet, to teach, to
bite, to blow, to look, to break, to do, to wear, to split, to wake, to draw, to say, to seek, to sell,
to drink, to drive, to eat, to fall, to fly, to hold, to forbid, to spell, to sink, to hear, to catch, to
come, to freeze, to give, to lie, to ride, to ring, to tell, to swear, to think, to rise, to become, to
remove, to leave, to see, to watch, to shake, to relate, to shave, to show, to fling, to get, to
grind, to sow, to speak, to wind, to spin, to steal, to cut, to swim, to swing, to tear, to bind, to
slide, to bring, to cost, to need, to shed, to go, to cancel, to pay, to grow, to know, to shut, to
burn, to buy, to dig, to feed, to fight, to flee, to build, to swell, to hang, to have, to sing, to shoot,
to set, to keep, to hurt, to run, to leap, to lay, to spring, to design, to lead, to write, to let, to
read, to beat, to lend, to creep, to burst, to spoil, to forget, to deal, to lose, to smell, to
broadcast, to saw, to reach, to spill, to forgive, to make, to send, to react, to take, to shine, to
spit, to program, to stand, to arise, to stick, to spend, to breed, to sting, to cast, to strike, to
sweep, to bleed, to weep, to strive, to dream, to lean, to mean, to cling, to feel, to awake, to
speed, to move, to choose, to stop, to throw, to kneel, to bend, to divide.

Практические задание 2: Выберите, к какой из групп относятся следующие неправильные


глаголы:
a) глаголы, все три формы которых одинаковы;
b) глаголы, все три формы которых разные;
c) глаголы, у которых две формы одинаковые, но отличаются от третьей;
d) глаголы, которые могут образовывать формы прошедшего времени и причастия II
стандартным способом

To burst, to hit, to find, to spread, to arise, to be, to shoot, to shrink, to sit, to bear, to begin, to
bite, to blow, to break, to choose, to do, to smell, to wake, to draw, to say, to seek, to sell, to
drink, to drive, to eat, to fall, to fly, to forbid, to spell, to spill, to forgive, to catch, to come, to
freeze, to give, to lie, to ride, to ring, to rise, to saw, to become, to leave, to see, to shake, to
shave, to show, to fling, to get, to grind, to sow, to speak, to wind, to awake, to spin, to spring,
to steal, to strive, to swear, to cut, to swim, to take, to tear, to throw, to bind, to bleed, to slide to
bring, to cost, to bend, to shed, to go, to grow, to know, to shut, to burn, to buy, to dig, to
dwell, to feed, to fight, to flee, to build, to swell, to hang, to have, to sing, to sink, to hear, to
hold, to broadcast, to set, to keep, to hurt, to split, to run, to leap, to kneel, to lay, to lead, to
write, to let, to put, to read, to beat, to lend, to creep, to spoil, to forget, to deal, to lose, to
make, to send, to shine, to sleep, to spit, to stand, to stick, to spend, to breed, to sting, to cast, to
strike, to sweep, to tell, to think, to understand, to weep, to win, to tread, to wear, to dream, to
lean, to mean, to meet, to pay, to learn, to light, to swing, to teach, to cling, to feel, to speed.

Практические задание 3: Образуйте форму прошедшего времени (Past Indefinite) следующих


неправильных глаголов:

To stick, to leap, to forget, to spoil, to think, to deal, to lose, to sing, to win, to dwell, to spill, to
lend, to sweep, to hit, to find, to spread, to sit, to grow, to shrink, to do, to shoot, to be, to arise,
to wake,, to smell, to lay, to sell, to seek, to say, to draw, to choose, to break, to blow, to bite, to
begin, to bear, to give, to freeze, to forgive, to forbid, to fly, to drink, to drive, to eat, to fall, to
come, to catch, to lie, to ride, to ring, to rise, to saw, to become, to leave, to speed, to see, to
feel, to shake, to shave, to show, to fling, to sow, to get, to grind, to speak, to wind, to awake, to
spin, to spring, to steal, to strive, to swear, to cut, to swim, to take, to spell, to tear, to bind, to
bleed, to slide, to bring, to cost, to bend, to shed, to go, to know, to shut, to burn, to throw, to
buy, to dig, to feed, to fight, to flee, to build, to swell, to hang, to have, to sink, to hear, to hold,
to broadcast, to set, to sleep, to spit, to stand, to send, to shine, to put, to read, to beat, to
make, to let, to kneel, to lead, to write, to keep, to hurt, to split, to run, to creep, to breed, to
sting, to cast, to strike, to tell, to understand, to weep, to burst, to tread, to wear, to spend, to
dream, to lean, to mean, to meet, to pay, to learn, to light, to swing, to teach, to cling.

Практические задание 4: Переведите неправильные глаголы, указав все три формы.


писать
стрелять
писать или произносить слово по буквам
бросать
покупать
резать
плавать
брать
учиться
понимать
терять
красть
показывать
закрывать
гнать, везти, ехать
прислоняться
приходить
строить
подниматься
ударять; бастовать
звонить; звенеть
стоить
рождать
ломать
держать, хранить
видеть сны; мечтать
замерзать, замораживать
ударять; поражать
начинать, -ся
видеть
забывать
класть
носить
приносить
говорить
пахнуть; нюхать
копать
падать
забывать
идти, ехать
лежать
истекать кровью
бороться, сражаться
плавать
повредить, ушибить.
Урок 9.

Past Indefinite Active и Future Indefinite Active.


Упражнения
Упражнение 1. Вставьте один из следующих глаголов в прошлом неопределённом времени в
пропущенные в предложениях места.
clean, die, enjoy, finish, happen, live, open, play, rain, smoke, start, stay, want, watch

1 Yesterday evening I watched television


2 I ________my teeth three times yesterday.
3 Bernard _______ 20 cigarettes yesterday evening.
4 The concert last night __________ at 7.30 and _______ at 10.
5 The accident _______ last Sunday afternoon.
6 When I was a child, I _______ to be a doctor.
7 Mozart _______ from 1756 to 1791.
8 We _______ our holiday last year. We _______ at a very good hotel.
9 Today the weather is nice, but yesterday it _______ .
10 It was hot in the room, so I _______ the window.
11 The weather was good yesterday afternoon, so we _______ football.
12 William Shakespeare _______ in 1616.

Упражнение 2. Продублируйте предложения, преобразовав их в прошлом неопределённом


времени (yesterday/last week etc.)
1 He always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.
2 They always get up early. This morning they __________.
3 Bill often loses his keys. He __________ last Saturday.
4 I write a letter to Jane every week. Last week __________.
5 She meets her friends every evening. She __________ yesterday evening.
6 I usually read two newspapers every day.____________ yesterday.
7 They come to my house every Friday. Last Friday_____________.
8 We usually go to the cinema on Sunday.______________ last Sunday.
9 Tom always has a shower m the morning._____________ this morning.
10 They buy a new car every year. Last year_______________.
11 I eat an orange every day. Yesterday______________.
12 We usually do our shopping on Monday.______________ last Monday.
13 Ann often takes photographs. Last weekend_____________.
14 We leave home at 8.30 every morning_____________ this morning.

Упражнение 3. Вставьте один из следующих глаголов в прошлом неопределённом


времени в пропущенные в предложениях места.
Buy, catch, cost, drink, fall, hurt, sell, spend, teach, throw, win, write

1 . Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music.


2 . “How did you learn to drive?” “My father _________ me.”
3 . We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we _________ it.
4 . I was very thirsty. I _________ the water very quickly.
5 . Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He’s much better than me, so he ________ easily.
6 . Don ________ down the stairs this morning and _________ his leg.
7 . Jim ________ the ball to Sue, who ___________ it.
8 . Ann ________ a lot of money yesterday. She __________ a dress which _________ $100.

Упражнение 4. Продублируйте глаголы в пропущенных местах, поставив их в


отрицательной форме.
1 . I saw John but I didn't see Mary.
2 . They worked on Monday but they ___________ on
Tuesday.
3 . We went to the shop but we _____________ to the
bank.
4 . She had a pen but she ____________ any paper.
5 . Jack did French at school but he ___________
German.

Упражнение 5. Что Вы делали/не делали вчера? (Предложения будут утвердительными


или отрицательными).
1 . (watch TV) I watched TV yesterday. или I didn't
watch TV yesterday.
2 . (get up before 7.30) I______________________
3 . (have a shower) I______________________
4 . (buy a magazine)
_____________________
5 . (speak English)
_____________________
6 . (do an examination)
_____________________
7 . (eat meat)
_____________________
8 . (go to bed before 10.30)
_____________________

Упражнение 6. Вставьте глаголы, данных в скобках, в прошлом неопределённом времени


в пропущенные в предложениях места. Обращайте внимание на контекст ситуаций
(предложения будут утвердительными или отрицательными).

1. It was warm, so I took off my coat. (take)


2. The film wasn’t good. I didn’t enjoy it very much. (enjoy)
3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I ______________ her. (disturb)
4. I was very tired, so I __________ to bed early. (go)
5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I ______________ very well. (sleep)
6. Sue wasn’t hungry, so she _______________ anything. (eat)
7. We went to Kate’s house but she ____________ at home. (be)
8. It was a funny situation but nobody ______________. (laugh)
9. The window was open and a bird ____________ into the room. (fly)
10. The hotel wasn’t very expensive. It ______________ very much. (cost)
11. I was in a hurry, so I ________________ time to phone you. (have)
12. It was hard work carrying the bags. They ______________ very heavy. (be)

Упражнение 7. Вы задаёте кому-либо вопросы. Напишите общие вопросы (Did ...?).


1 . I watched TV last night. And you? Did
you watch TV last night?
2 . I enjoyed the party. And you? _______
you____________?
3 . I had a good holiday. And you?
______________________?
4 . I got up early this morning. And you?
__________________?
5 . I slept well last night. And you?
______________________?

Упражнение 8. Напишите специальные вопросы (Who/What/How/Why ...?) к данным ниже


предложениям.
1 . I met somebody. Who did you meet ?
2 . Harry arrived. What time _______ Harry __________?
3 . I saw somebody . Who _______ you __________?
4 . They wanted something. What ________________?
5 . The meeting finished. What time __________________?
6 . Pat went home early. Why _____________________?
7 . We had dinner. What _____________________ for dinner?
8 . It cost a lot of money. How much ___________________?

Упражнение 9. Вставьте глаголы, данных в скобках, в прошлом неопределённом времени


в пропущенные в предложениях места в нужной форме (утверждение, отрицание или
вопрос).
1 . I played (play) tennis yesterday but I didn't win (not/win).
2 . We_____ (wait) a long time for the bus but it________ (not/come).
3 . That’s a nice shirt. Where____________ (you/buy) it?
4 . She_________ (see) me but she____________ (not/speak) to me.
5 . ____________ (it/rain) yesterday? “No, it was a nice day.”
6 . That was a stupid thing to do.
Why___________ (you/do) it?

Упражнение 10. Напишите отрицание к данным предложениям в будущем


неопределённом времени.
1. You’ll sleep. You won't sleep.
2. I’ll forget. I _______________________.
3. It will happen.__________________.
4. You’ll find it.___________________.

Упражнение 11. Напишите предложения, начиная словами I think . . . Все предложения в


будущем неопределённом времени.
1. (Diana/pass the exam). I think Diana will pass the exam.
2. (Jack/win the game). I think_________________________.
3. (Sue /like her present). _______________________________.
4. (the weather/ be nice tomorrow). _______________________________.
Now write two sentences with I don't think ...
5 (they/get married). I don't _______________________.
6 (I /be at home this evening). _____________________________.

Упражнение 12. Вставьте Shall/Will + один из следующих глаголов в пропущенные


места:
be, be, come, get, like, look, meet, pass

1. Don’t worry about your exam. I'm sure you I’ll pass.
2. Why don’t you try on this jacket? It _____________ nice on you.
3. You must meet George sometime. I think you ________________ him.
4. It’s raining. Don't go out. You _________ wet.
5. They’ve invited me to their house. They ___________ offended if I don’t go.
6. Goodbye. I expect we _______________ again before long.
7. I’ve invited Sue to the party but I don’t think she _____________.
8. I wonder where I ___________ 20 years from now.

Упражнение 13. Вставьте Will или Won't.


1. Can you wait for me? I won't be very long.
2. There’s no need to take an umbrella with you. It _____ rain.
3. If you don’t eat anything now, you ______ be hungry later.
4. I’m sorry about what happened yesterday. It ________ happen again.
5. I've got some incredible news! You _________ never believe what's happened.
6. Don’t ask Margaret for advice. She _________know what to do.

Упражнение 14. Напишите вопросы, используя Will...? + один из следующих глаголов:


be back, cost, finish, get married, happen, like

1 I’ve bought Mary a present. Will she like it?


2 The meeting is still going on. When _________________?
3 My car needs to be repaired. How much ______________________?
4 Sally and David are in love. _______________________?
5 “I’m going out now.” “OK. What time ______________________?

Урок 10.

Времена группы Continuous. Past Continuous and Present Continuous.


The Present Continuous

1. Напишите следующие глаголы в форме Present Continuous, распределив их по данным группам.

Become, begin, change, come, cut, expand, get, grow, start, leave, win, sell, spend, write, give, talk, forget, run.

a) “look-ing”: expanding, __________, __________, __________, __________, __________.


b) “tak(e)-ing”: becoming __________, __________, __________, __________, __________.
c) “travel-l-ing”: beginning __________, __________, __________, __________, __________.

2. Вставьте am/is/are + один из следующих глаголов в пропущенные в предложениях места.


building, coming, having, playing, cooking, standing, swimming

1. Listen! Jack is playing the piano.


2. They __________ a new cinema in the city at the moment.
3. Look! A dog __________ in the river.
4. “You __________ on my foot!” “Oh, I’m sorry.”
5. Hurry! The bus __________!
6. “Where are you, George?” “In the kitchen. I __________ dinner.”
7. (on the telephone) “Hello. Can I speak to Alice, please?” “She __________ a shower right now. Can you phone
again later?”

3. Что происходит или не происходит в данный момент? Напишите правдивые предложения, вставив в нужных
местах am/is/are и поставив основные глаголы в -ing
форме.

1. (I/wash/my hair) I am not washing my hair.


2. (The wind/blow) The wind is blowing.
3. (I/sit/on a chair) _____________________.
4. (I/eat) _____________________________.
5. (It/rain) ___________________________.
6. (I/learn/English) ____________________.
7. (I/listen/to the radio) __________________.
8. (The sun/shine) _____________________.
9. (I/wear/shoes) ______________________.
10. (I/smoke/a cigarette) __________________.
11. (I/read/a newspaper) __________________.

4. Напишите вопросы, вставив в нужных местах am/is/are и поставив основные глаголы в –ing форме.

1. (you/watch/TV?) Are you watching TV?


2. (the children/play?) _________________?
3. (What/you/do?) ____________________?
4. (What/Rod/do?) ____________________?
5. (it/rain?) _________________________?
6. (that clock/work?) ___________________?
7. (you/write/a letter?) ___________________?
8. (Why/you/run?) _____________________?
5. Напишите вопросы, как в предыдущем упражнении. Во всех предложениях речь будет идти о будущем.

1. (you/go out/tonight?) Are you going out tonight?


2. (you/work/next week?) ____________________?
3. (What/you/do/tomorrow evening?) ____________________?
4. (What time/Mike and Leo/come?) ____________________?
5. (When/Fred/go/on holiday?) ____________________?

6. Вставьте … am/is/are + going to + один из следующих глаголов в пропущенные места.

Eat, give, lie, rain, study, walk, wash

1. My hair is dirty. I am going to wash it.


2. I don’t want to go home by bus. I __________________.
3. Brandon’s university course begins in October. He __________________ engineering.
4. Take an umbrella with you. It __________________.
5. I’m hungry. I __________________ this sandwich.
6. It’s Kim’s birthday next week. We __________________ her a present.
7. I feel tired. I __________________ down for an hour.

7. Напишите правдивые (утвердительные или отрицательные) короткие ответы на вопросы.

1. Are you watching TV now? No , I’m not.


2. Are you wearing shoes? ____________.
3. Are you wearing a hat? ____________.
4. Is it raining? _______________.
5. Are you eating anything? ______________.
6. Are you feeling well? ______________.
7. Is the sun shining? _______________.
8. Is anyone watching you? ______________.

The Past Continuous

8. Что делали люди вчера в 14.30? Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форме Past Continuous. В последнем
предложении напишите про себя.

1. Joey was at home. He was watching TV (to watch TV).


2. Bill and Sue _________ (to watch) a movie at the cinema.
3. Josh _________ (to drive) his car.
4. Caroline _________ (to wait) for a bus at the bus stop.
5. Mr. and Mrs. Mason _________ (to walk) in the park.
6. And you? I ___________.

9. Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в Past Continuous.

1. The retail industry is changing very fast. - The retail industry was changing very fast.
2. Shoppers are not changing from cash to plastic money.
3. The costs of mobile phones are decreasing constantly.
4. The Internet shopping is becoming more and more popular.
5. The population is growing very fast.
6. Shopping by TV is not happening so often anymore.
7. Big retailers are expanding internationally.
8. I am tasting this wine and I am enjoying it.
10. Напишите вопросы, вставив в нужных местах was/were и поставив основные глаголы в –ing форме.

1. (What/Ted/do/when you saw him?) What was Ted doing when you saw him?
2. (What/you/do/at 9 o’clock?) ___________________________?
3. (What/she/wear/yesterday?) ___________________________?
4. (it/rain/when you came out?) ___________________________?
5. (Where/you/live/in 1990?) ____________________________?

Урок 11.

Future Continuous Tense. Continuous vs Indefinite.


The Future Continuous

1. Вставьте в пропущенные места will be/shall be + один из следующих глаголов в -ing форме.

Drive, do, fly, pack, take, make, have

1. Mike will be driving a car at this time tomorrow.


2. We ___________ our bags for the voyage at 5 tomorrow.
3. I think, she ___________ dinner when you come.
4. I _____ not __ ______ bath at that time.
5. My parents ___________ to Rome at this time on Friday.
6. My father ___________ a report from 6 till 8 in the evening.
7. As far as I remember, you ___________ some shopping at about 2 o’clock tomorrow.

2. Поставьте глаголы в следующих предложениях в Future Continuous.

1. They were having dinner at 3. - They will be having dinner at 3.


2. I am doing my morning exercises.
3. The children will ski in the afternoon.
4. The girl was reciting a poem.
5. I shall wait for you at the bus stop.
6. The boys will play hockey.
7. The students will discuss it on Friday.

3. Сделайте из следующих предложений вопросы.

1. John will be coming soon. – Will John be coming soon?


2. We shall be flying to Munich at this time tomorrow.
3. You will be meeting him every day.
4. We shall be packing our things, when you come.
5. He’ll be going to school soon.
6. Jack will be looking for you all afternoon.
7. The mother will be cooking all day tomorrow.
8. We’ll be walking in the park all day tomorrow.

Continuous vs. Indefinite


4. Вставьте в пропущенные места вспомогательные глаголы am/is/are или do/don’t/does/doesn’t.

1. Excuse me, do you speak English?


2. “Have a cigarette.” “No, thank you, I _______ smoke.”
3. Why _______ you laughing at me?
4. “What _______ she do?” “She is a dentist.”
5. I _______ want to go out. It _______ raining.
6. “Where _______ you come from?” “From Canada.”
7. How much _______ it cost to send a letter to Australia?
8. I can’t talk to you at the moment. I _______ working.
9. George is a good tennis player but he _______ play very often.

5. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форме Present Continuous или Present Simple.

1. Excuse me, do you speak (you/speak) English?


2. Tom is having (have) a shower at the moment.
3. They don’t watch (not/watch) TV very often.
4. Listen! Somebody ____________ (sing).
5. She’s tired. She ____________ (want) to go home now.
6. How often ____________ (you/read) a newspaper?
7. “Excuse me, but you ____________ (sit) on my place.” “Oh, I’m sorry.”
8. I’m sorry, I ____________ (not/understand). Please, speak more slowly.
9. “Where are you, Roy?” “I’m in the sitting-room. I ____________ (read).”
10. What time ____________ (she/finish) work every day?
11. You can turn off the radio. I ____________ (not/listen) to it.
12. He ___________________ (not/usually/drive) to work. He usually ____________ (walk).

6. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форме Past Continuous или Past Simple.

1. When we went (go) out, it was raining (rain).


2. I wasn’t hungry last night. I didn’t eat (not/eat) anything.
3. Were you watching (you/watch) TV when I phoned (phone) you?
4. Jane wasn’t at home when I went to see her. She ____________ (work).
5. I ____________ (get up) early this morning. I ____________ (wash), ____________ (dress) and then I
____________ (have) breakfast.
6. The postman ____________ (come) while I ____________ (have) breakfast.
7. We ____________ (meet) Joan at the party. She ______________ (wear) a red dress.
8. The boys ____________ (break) a window when they ____________ (play) football.
9. I was late but my friends ____________ (wait) for me when I ____________ (arrive) to the party.
10. I ____________ (get up) at 7 o’clock. The sun ____________ (shine), so I ____________ (go) for a walk.
11. He ____________ (not/drive) fast when the accident ____________ (happen).
12. Marge ____________ (not/go) to work yesterday. She was ill.
13. “What ____________ (you/do) on Saturday evening?” “I went to the cinema.”
14. “What ____________ (you/do) at 9.30 on Saturday evening?” “I ____________ (watch) a film in the cinema.”

Урок 12.

Времена группы Perfect. Present Perfect.


1. Вы пишите письмо другу. В нём Вы рассказываете о новостях про себя и других людей, которые
произошли за последнее время. С помощью данных слов составьте предложения. Все предложения в
Present Perfect.

Dear friend,
Lots of things have happened since I wrote to you last.

1. I / buy / a new car –I have bought a new car.


2. My father / start / a new job. _______________.
3. I / give up / smoking. _______________.
4. Charles and Sarah / go / to Brazil. _______________.
5. Suzanne / have / a baby. _______________.

2. Мэри 65 лет. Она прожила очень интересную жизнь. С помощью данных слов составьте предложения о том,
что она успела сделать за всю жизнь. Все предложения в Present Perfect.

1. She / do / many different jobs. – She has done many different jobs.
2. She / travel / to many places. She _______________.
3. She / do / a lot of interesting things. _______________.
4. She / write / ten books. _______________.
5. She / meet / a lot of interesting people. _______________.
6. She / be / married five times. _______________.

3. Вставьте have/has + один из следующих глаголов в третьей форме в пропущенные в предложениях места.

Break, buy, finish, do, go, go, lose, paint, read, take

1. “Are they still having dinner?” “No, they have finished.”


2. I _____________ some new shoes. Do you want to see them?
3. “Is Tom here?” “No, he _____________ to work.”
4. “__________ you __________ the shopping” “No, I’m going to do it later.”
5. “Where’s your key?” “I don’t know. I _____________ it.”
6. Look! Somebody _____________ that window.
7. Your house looks different. __________ you __________ it?
8. I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody _____________ it.
9. I’m looking for Sarah. Where __________ she __________?
10. “Do you want the newspaper?” “No, thanks. I _____________ it.”

4. Вы задаёте своему другу вопросы. С помощью следующих слов составьте вопросы, которые будут
начинаться словами Have you ever …?

1. (to be / to Paris?) Have you ever been to Paris?


2. (play / golf?) Have you ever played golf?
3. (to be / to Australia?) _______________?
4. (lose / your passport?) _______________?
5. (sleep / in the park?) _______________?
6. (eat / Chinese food?) _______________?
7. (to be / to New York?) _______________?
8. (win / a lot of money?) _______________?
9. (break / your leg?) _______________?
10. (run / a marathon?) _______________?
11. (speak / to famous people?) _______________?
12. (live / in another town) _______________?

5. Заполните пропущенные в предложениях места по примерам.

1. Jill is in London. She has been in London since Monday.


2. I know George. I have known him for a long time.
3. They are married. They _______________ married since 1983.
4. Brian is ill. He _______________ ill for a week.
5. We live in this house. We _______________ here for ten years.
6. I know Tom very well. I _______________ him for a long time already.
7. We are waiting for you. We _______________ waiting since 11 o’clock.
8. Alice works in a bank. She _______________ in a bank for 5 years.
9. I’m learning English. I _______________ learning English for six months.
10. She has a headache. She _______________ a headache since she got up.

6. Заполните пропущенные в предложениях места словами в скобках.

1. “Would you like something to eat?” “No, thanks. I have just had lunch.” (just/have)
2. “Do you know where Julia is?” “Yes, I _____________ her.” (just/see)
3. “What time is David leaving?” “He _____________.” (already/left)
4. “What’s in the newspaper today” “I don’t know. I _____________.” (not/read/yet)
5. “Is Ann coming to the cinema with us tonight?” “No, she _____________ the film” (already/see)
6. “Are your friends here yet?” “Yes, they _____________.” (just/arrive)
7. “What does Tim think about your plan?” “I _____________.” (not/tell/yet)

7. Прочтите ситуации и напишите вопросы с помощью слов в скобках.

1. John tells you, that his mother is in hospital. You ask him:
(How long / be / in hospital?) How long has your mother been in hospital?
2. You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her:
(How long / teach English?) _________________________?
3. You know that Jane is a good Carol’s friend. You ask Jane:
(How long / know / Carol?) _________________________?
4. Your friend’s brother went to Australia some time ago and he’s still there. You ask your friend: (How long / be /
in Australia?) ____________________________?
5. Tim always wears the same jacket. It’s a very old jacket. You ask him:
(How long / have / that jacket?) ____________________________?
6. You are talking to a friend about Alan. Alan now works at the airport. You ask your friend:
(How long / work / at the airport?) _______________________________?
7. A friend of yours is having driving lessons. You ask him:
(How long / have / driving lessons?) ______________________________?
8. You meet somebody on a train. She tells you that she lives in Glasgow. You ask her:
(always / live / in Glasgow?) ____________________________________?

Урок 13.

The Past Perfect and the Future Perfect Tenses.


Упражнения

The Past Perfect

Exercise 1. Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets as in the example.
1 . You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there, (she / go / out) She had gone out.
2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before, (it /
change / a lot) ____________________________________________.
3. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come, (she / arrange / to do something else)
________________________________________.
4. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late, (the film / already / begin)
____________________________________________.
5. I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years)
_________________________________________________.
6. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry, (she / just / have / breakfast)
__________________________________________.

Exercise 2. Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb in brackets.
1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight. (fly) He had
never flown before. or He hadn't flown before.
2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me. (see) I
___________________________________________________ before.
3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
(play) He ___________________________________________________.
4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there. (be) We
____________________________________________________.

Exercise 3. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form, Past Perfect (I had done etc.) or past simple
(I did etc.).
1. “Was Tom at the party when you arrived?” “No, he had gone (go) home”
2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I ____________ (go) straight to bed.
3. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ___________________ (go) to bed.
4. Sorry I'm late. The car _________________ (break) down on my way here.
5. We were driving along the road when we ________________ (see) a car which ___________
(break) down, so we __________________ (stop) to see if we could help.

Exercise 4. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect.
1. Yesterday we discussed (to discuss) the film which we had seen (to see) some days before.
2. When my sister ________ (to go) to the theatre, I ____________(to begin) to write the letter.
3. The children ____________ (to fall asleep) by ten o'clock.
4. He ____________ (to tell us) many interesting things he __________ (to see) in Lutsk.
5. Peter __________ (to show) us the bicycle his father __________ (to buy) for him.
6. Mother __________ (to cook) supper by the time they ___________ (to come) home.

Exercise 5. Choose the right form of the verb from the brackets.
1. Now she was glad she had not thrown his address away (did not throw/has not thrown/had not
thrown).
2. Rosemary ______ _______ in Paris three days before she called Jean-Jacques (was/were/has
been/had been).
3. I paid for what we _______ ______ (were drinking/have drunk/had drunk), and we made our way
to a cheap restaurant.
4. On their return they found that Davidson ______ just ________ (has... come/have... come/ had…
come).
5. Dr. McPhail told her what ______ _______ and asked her to break the news to Mrs. Davidson
(happened/happens/has happened/had happened).
6. "What's your butler's name? I ask because I had a fancy I ______ _______ him somewhere
before (saw/see/sees/have seen/has seen/had seen).
7. I realized immediately she ____ _____ ____ me whether they were her daughters, her sisters, her
nieces, or her friends (did not tell/hasn't told/hadn't told).
8. I was very much surprised when I heard he ______ _______ Wolfram&Heart Co. (has left/is
leaving/had left).
9. He felt as he ______ _______ when his father died (feels/felt/had felt).
10. A change came over my life after this. Before Thompson everything ___ _____ _____, he drove
my papers and clothes back to their proper places (is disorganized/was disorganized/ had been
disorganized).

The Future Perfect


Exercise 6. Turn the following into the Future Perfect.

1. I had done my homework by 9 о 'clock. I shall have done my homework by 9 о 'clock.


2. They had built the new school by the first of September. ___________________________.
3. The teacher had looked through our exercise-books by that time. _____________________.
4. We had discussed the report by four o'clock in the afternoon. __________________________.
5. The pupils had read three English books by the end of the year. _________________________.
6. I had written the composition by 9 o'clock. ____________________________.

Exercise 7. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the Future Indefinite or the Future Perfect.

1. He will receive (to receive) the telegram tomorrow.


2. He _____________ (to receive) the telegram by tomorrow.
3. I _____________ (to do) the exercises by seven o'clock.
4. I _____________ (to do) the exercises in the afternoon.
5. By this time you _____________ (to take your examination).
6. You _____________ (to take) your examination next week.
7. The teacher _____________ (to correct) our dictations in the evening.
8. The teacher _____________ (to correct) our dictations by the next lesson.

Exercise 8. Put the verb into the correct form, the Future Continuous or the Future Perfect (will be
(do)ing) or (will have (done)).
1. Don't phone me between 7 and 8. We'll be having (we/have) dinner then.
2. Phone me after 8 o'clock. _____________ (we/finish) dinner by then.
3. Tomorrow afternoon we're going to play tennis from 3 o'clock until 4.30. So at 4 o'clock,
_____________ (we/play) tennis.
4. A: Can we meet tomorrow afternoon?
B: Not in the afternoon. _____________ (I/work).
5. В has to go to a meeting which begins at 10 o'clock. It will last about an hour.
A: Will you be free at 11.30?
B: Yes, _____________ (the meeting/finish) by that time.
6. Tom is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues like this,
_____________ (he/spend) all his money before the end of his holiday.
7. Chuck came to Britain from the USA nearly three years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly
three years. So on Monday, _____________ (he/be) in Britain for exactly three years.
8. Do you think _____________ (you/still/do) the same job in ten years' time?
9. Jane is from New Zealand. She is travelling around Europe at the moment. So far she has travelled
about 1,000 miles. By the end of the trip, _____________ (she/travel) more than 3,000 miles.
10. If you need to contact me, _____________ (I/stay) at the Lion Hotel until Friday.
11. A: _____________ (you/see) Laura tomorrow?
B: Yes, probably. Why?
A: I borrowed this book from her. Can you give it back to her?

Урок 14.

Времена группы Perfect Continuous


Упражнения
Present Perfect Continuous

Exercise1. Write a question for each situation.


1. John looks sunburnt. You ask: (you / sit in the sun?) Have you been sitting in the sun?
2. You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you. You ask: (you / wait / long?)
___________________________________?
3. You meet a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty. You ask: (what / you / do?)
___________________________________?
4. A friend of yours is now living in Baker Street. You want to know “How long...?” You ask: (how
long / you / live / in Baker Street?) ___________________________________?
5. A friend tells you about his job - he sells computers. You want to know “How long...?” You ask:
(how long / you / sell / computers?) ___________________________________?

Exercise 2. Read the situations and complete the sentences as in the example.
1. The rain started two hours ago. It's still raining now. It has been raining for two hours.
2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We're still waiting now.
We ___________________________ for 20 minutes.
3. I started Spanish classes in December. I'm still learning Spanish now.
I ___________________________ since December.
4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She's still looking now.
___________________________ for six months.
5. Mary started working in London on 18 January. She's still working there now.
___________________________ since 18 January.
6. Years ago you started writing to a friend. You still write to each other regularly now. We
________________________________________________ for years.

Exercise 3. Put the verb in brackets into The Present Continuous (I am +V-ing etc.) or The Present
Perfect Continuous (I have been +V-ing etc.).
1. Maria has been learning (learn) English for two years.
2. Hello, Tom. I __________________ (look) for you all morning. Where have you been?
3. Why ________________________ (you/look) at me like that? Stop it!
4. We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We ________________ (go) there for years.
5. I ___________ (think) about what you said and I've decided to take your advice.
6. “Is Ann on holiday this week?” “No, she ______________________ (work).”
7. Sarah is very tired. She __________________ (work) very hard recently.

Past Perfect Continuous

Exercise 4. Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets.
1. I was very tired when I arrived home. (I / work / hard all day) I had been working hard all day.
2. The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired, (they /
play / football) _________________________________.
3. There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes, (somebody / smoke / in the
room) _________________________________.
4. Ann woke up m the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn't know where she was.
(she / dream) _________________________________.
5. When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off. (he / watch / TV)
_________________________________.

Exercise 5. Read the situations and complete the sentences as in the example.
1. We played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain.
We had been playing for half an hour when it started to rain.
2. I had arranged to meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I
suddenly realized that I was in the wrong restaurant.
I _____________________ for 20 minutes when I _____________________________.
3. Sarah got a job in a factory. Five years later the factory closed down. At the time the factory
________________________, Sarah __________________________ there for five years.
4. I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in
the audience suddenly began shouting.
The orchestra ______________________________________when ____________________.

Exercise 6. Put the verb into the most suitable form, Past Continuous (I was doing), Past Perfect (I
had done) or Past Perfect Continuous (I had been doing).
1. It was very noisy next door. Our neighbors were having (have) a party.
2. We were good friends. We had known (know) each other for a long time.
3. John and I went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he __________ (walk)
so fast.
4. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She ________________ (run).
5. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They
_______________ (eat).
6. When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths were
empty but their stomachs were full. They _______________________ (eat).
7. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He ____________________(look) for his contact
lens.
8. When I arrived, Kate _________________ (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with
me because I was late and she ______________________ (wait) for a very long time.
9. I was sad when I sold my car. I __________________ (have) it for a very long time.
10. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We ____________________ (travel) for
more than 24 hours.

Урок 15.

Passive Voice – страдательный залог (общие сведения)


1. Вставьте один из следующих глаголов в нужной форме в пропущенные места:
Cause, damage, hold, include, invite, make, overtake, show, translate, write

1 Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.


2 Cheese _____________________ from milk.
3 The roof of the building ___________________ in a storm a few days ago.
4 There’s no need to leave a tip. Service _________________ in the bill.
5 You _________________ to the wedding. Why didn't you go?
6 A cinema is a place where films _____________________ .
7 In the United States, elections for President ___________________ every four years.
8 Originally the book _________________ in Spanish and a few years ago it into English.
9 We were driving along quite fast but we _____________________ by lots of other cars.

2. Прочтите текст об изготовлении бокалов. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в форме


Present Simple Passive.

Champagne, the king of wines and wine of kings, tastes all the better when it 1. is drunk
(drink) from an elegant, fine-quality glass. That, however, is only one of thousands of ways glass
2__________________ (use) today. And for all those different uses, many different types of glass
3__________________ (produce).
Glass products 4__________________ (manufacture) in different ways. Today, glass
5__________________ (blow) by hand in the traditional way which the Romans first developed,
but now this work 6__________________ (do) by robots, too. Generally, in industry, much faster
methods of mass production 7_________________ (need). Often, for example, glass
8__________________ (press) into the necessary shape by machine. Glass
9__________________ (shape) in other ways too. For example, it 10_________________ (make)
into long, very thin fibres. Fibres like these 11__________________ (require) to make the fibre-
optic cables that help to build the Information Super-Highway round the world.

3. Напишите вопросы в страдательном залоге. Некоторые из них в настоящем времени,


некоторые – в прошлом.
1 Ask about the telephone. (when/invent?) When was the telephone invented?
2 Ask about glass. (how/make?) How _____________________?
3 Ask about Australia. (when/discover?) ________________________?
4 Ask about silver. (what/use for?) _________________________?
5 Ask about television. (when/invent?) __________________________?

4. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в нужном времени (present или past) и залоге.
1 It’s a big factory. Five hundred people are employed (employ) there.
2 Water __________ (cover) most of the Earth’s surface.
3 Most of the Earth’s surface ____________ (cover) by water.
4 The park gates __________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
5 The letter __________ (post) a week ago and it __________ (arrive) yesterday.
6 The boat __________ (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody __________ (rescue).
7 Ron’s parents __________ (die) when he was very young. He and his sister __________
(bring) up by their grandparents.
8 I was born in London but I __________ (grow) up in the north of England.
9 While I was on holiday, my camera __________ (steal) from my hotel room.
10 While I was on holiday, my camera __________ (disappear) from my hotel room.
11 Why __________ (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn’t she enjoy it?
12 Why __________ (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
13 The company is not independent. It __________ (own) by a much larger company.
14 I saw an accident last night. Somebody __________ (call) an ambulance but nobody
__________ (injure) so the ambulance __________ (not/need).
15 Where __________ (these photographs/take)? In London? __________ (you/take) them?

5.Перепишите предложения. Вместо “somebody/they/people” и т.д., напишите их в


страдательном залоге.
1 Somebody cleans the room every day. The room is cleaned every day.
2 They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ____________________.
3 People don’t use this road very often. __________________.
4 Somebody accused me of stealing money. I _____________________.
5 How do people learn languages? How _____________________.
6 People advised us not to go out alone. __________________________.

6. Что означают эти слова? Используйте it can... или it can't... как указано в примере. (При
необходимости воспользуйтесь словарём)
If something is
1. washable, it can be washed.
2. unbreakable, it _________________.
3. edible, it ___________________.
4. unusable, it __________________.
5. invisible, it ___________________.
6. portable, it ____________________.

7. Вставьте один из следующих глаголов в пропущенные места (в нужной форме):


carry, cause, do, make, repair, send, spend, wake up

Иногда вам нужно будет использовать (“might have”, “could have” и т.д.).

1 The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late.
2 I haven’t received the letter. It might have been sent to the wrong address.
3 A decision will not __________________ until the next meeting.
4 I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to __________________ at 6.30 the next morning.
5 Do you think that less money should __________________ on ornaments?
6 This road is in very bad condition. It should __________________ a long time ago.
7 The injured man couldn't walk and had to __________________.
8 It’s not certain how the fire started but it might __________________ by an electrical fault.

8. Сделайте из предложений в действительном залоге предложения в Present Perfect Passive.

1. They first made cognac in 1643. Cognac has been made since 1643.

2. People drank wine over 5,000 years ago. _____________________________for over 5,000
years.

3. They first brewed beer near Munich almost 1,000 years ago. _____________________________
for almost 1,000 years.
4. People first bought beer in cans in 1935. _____________________________ since 1935.

5. They first produced whisky more than 700 years ago. _____________________________ for
over 700 years.

6. People first sold Coca-Cola in 1886. _____________________________ since 1886.

Урок 16.

Образование и употребление времён страдательного залога


1. Перепишите предложения. Вместо “somebody” или “they” напишите предложения в
страдательном залоге.
1 Somebody has cleaned the room. The room has been cleaned.
2 They have postponed the concert. The ____________________.
3 Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer ____________________.
1 I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation.
I didn’t realize that ____________________.
2 When we got to the stadium we found that they had cancelled the game.
When we got to the stadium, we found that ____________________.
4 They are building a new ring road round the city. ____________________.
5 They have built a new hospital near the airport. ____________________.

2. Составьте предложения из слов в скобках. Некоторые из них будут в действительном


залоге, некоторые – в страдательном.
1 There’s somebody behind us. (I think / we / follow) I think we’re being followed.
2 This room looks different. (you / paint?) Have you painted it?
3 My car has disappeared. (it / steal!) It ____________________.
4 My umbrella has disappeared. (somebody / take) Somebody ____________________.
5 Tom gets a higher salary now. (he / promote) ____________________.
6 Ann can’t use her office at the moment. (it / redecorate) ____________________.
7 The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it's OK. (it / work / again; it / repair)
___________________________________________.
8 The police have found the people they were looking for. (two people / arrest / last night)
____________________.
9 A tree was lying across the road. (it / blow down / in the storm) ____________________.
10 The man next door disappeared six months ago. (nobody / see / since then)
____________________.
11 I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you / ever / mug?)
_________________________________________.

3. Перепишите по-другому предложения, как указано в примере.


1 They didn’t give me the money. I wasn't given the money.
2 They asked me some difficult questions at the interview.
I ____________________.
3 Janet’s colleagues gave her a present when she retired.
Janet ____________________.
4 Nobody told me that George was ill.
I wasn’t ____________________.
5 How much will they pay you?
How much will you ____________________?
6 I think they should have offered Tom the job.
I think Tom ____________________.
7 Has anybody shown you what to do?
Have you ____________________?

4. Закончите предложения, используя being + один из следующих глаголов:


ask, attack, give, invite, keep, pay

1 Mr. Miller doesn’t like being kept waiting.


2 They went to the party without ____________________.
3 Most people like ____________________ presents.
4 It’s a dangerous city. People won't go out after dark because they are afraid of
____________________.
5 I don't like ____________________ stupid questions.
6 Few people are prepared to work without ____________________.

5. Закончите предложения, используя get/got + один из следующих глаголов (в нужной


форме):
ask, break, damage, hurt, pay, steal, sting, stop, use

1 There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt.


2 Ted ____________________ by a bee while he was sitting in the garden.
3 How did that window ____________________?
4 These tennis courts don’t ____________________ very often. Not many people want to
play.
5 I used to have a bicycle but it ____________________.
6 Last night I ____________________ by the police as I was driving home.
7 How much did you ____________________ last month?
8 Please pack these things very carefully. I don’t want them to ____________________.
9 People often want to know what my job is. I often ____________________ that
question.

6. Почему вы сделали эти вещи? Ответьте, используя “have something done”. Используйте
один из следующих глаголов: clean, cut, repair, service
1 Why did you take your car to the garage? To have it serviced.
2 Why did you take your jacket to the cleaner’s? To ____________________.
3 Why did you take your watch to the jeweller’s? ____________________.
4 Why did you go to the hairdresser? ____________________.
7. Составьте предложения, как указано в примере.
1 Jill didn’t repair the roof herself. She had it repaired.
2 I didn’t cut my hair myself. I ____________________.
3 They didn’t paint the house themselves. They ____________________.
4 Sue didn’t make the curtains herself. ____________________.
8. Используйте слова в скобках. Чтоб закончить предложения. Используйте структуру “have
something done”.
1. We are having the house painted (the house / paint) at the moment.
2. I lost my key. I’ll have to ____________________ (another key / make).
3. When was the last time you ____________________ (your hair / cut)?
4. You look different. (you / your hair / cut)?
5. _________________________________ (you / a newspaper / deliver) to your house or do
you go to the shop to buy one?
6. A: What are those workmen doing in your garden?
B: Oh, we ____________________ (a swimming pool / build).
7. A: Can I see the photographs you took when you were on holiday?
B: I’m afraid I ____________________ (not / the film / develop) yet.
8. This coat is dirty. I must (it / clean).
9. If you want to wear earrings, why don’t you ____________________ (your ears / pierce)?

Урок 17.

Последовательность (согласование) времён - Sequence of Tenses


1. Вчера вы встретили друга Чарли. Вот кое-что, что он вам рассказал о себе.

1 I’m living in London now.


2 My father isn’t very well.
3 Sharon and Paul are getting married next month.
4 Margaret has had a baby.
5 I don’t know what Fred is doing.
6 I saw Helen at a party in June and she seemed fine.
7 I haven’t seen Diane recently.
8 I’m not enjoying my job very much.
9 You can come and stay at my flat if you are ever in London.
10 My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
11 I want to go on holiday but I can’t afford it.
12 I’ll tell Ann I saw you.

Позже, тем же днём вы рассказываете ещё кому-то, что сказал вам Чарли. Используйте
согласование времён.
1 Charlie said that he was living in London now.
2 He said that ____________________.
3 He ____________________.
4 ___________________________________.
5 ___________________________________.
6 ___________________________________.
7 ___________________________________.
8 ___________________________________.
9 ___________________________________.
10 ___________________________________.
11 ___________________________________.
12 ___________________________________.

2. Преобразуйте прямую речь в непрямую (согласование времён).


1. The students said, "We study English." The students said that they studied English.
2. The girl said, "I studied French at school." ____________________________________.
3. The man said, "I am an interpreter." _____________________________________.
4. My aunt said, "I’ll be at home at seven o’clock."__________________________________.
5. Mary said, "I was there with my parents." _____________________________________.
6. The boy said, "I have done my homework." ____________________________________.
7. His father said, "I don’t speak Spanish." _____________________________________.
8. The doctor said, "I’ll come again in the morning."__________________________________.
9. The woman said, "I did not see Helen there." ____________________________________.
10. The children said, "We had lunch at school." ____________________________________.
11. The woman said, "I have three children." _____________________________________.
12. Ann said, "I didn’t buy anything at that shop." ____________________________________.
13. The boy said, "I am not hungry at all." _____________________________________.
14. The teacher said, "Nick does not know the rule."___________________________________.
15. My friend said, "I didn’t recognize him." _____________________________________.
16. The boy said, "My name is Paul." _____________________________________.
17. The girl said, "I am doing my homework." ___________________________________.
18. He said, "I was there in 1945." _____________________________________.
19. She said, "I saw him at 5 o’clock." _____________________________________.
20. The teacher said, "London is the capital of England."________________________________.

3. Выберите правильную форму глагола в скобках. Помните о согласовании времён.


1. I said, "I know you, and can probably persuade you to come" (know/knows/knew;
can/could/will be able to).
2. Miss Garner asked her several times what ________ (happens/happen/is
happening/has happened/had happened).
3. I asked her what her name ____ and she said, "Roberta"
(am/is/are/was/were).
4. She said, she ______ happy on the farm (am not/isn’t/aren’t/wasn’t/weren’t).
5. My wife dragged me here. She said, It _____ good for the kids to get these lectures and
shows (is/are/was/were).
6. He asked her if she ________ to be in London for long (is going/was going/ were
going).
7. Mr. Smith expected that his subordinate __________ the first opportunity to apologize
for his rudeness (take/takes/will take/would take).
8. At last the boy came back and asked him if he ________ for dinner (dresses/will
dress/would dress).
9. I didn’t know you ______ here (is/was/are/were).
10. He inspected his program. It informed him that there __________ one interval
(is/will be/would be).
11. On Saturday morning, Simon decided that he __________ some gardening
(do/does/did/will do/would do).
12. She started asking if she ________ see me that evening (can/could/will be able to).

Урок 18.

Модальные глаголы, общие сведения. Глаголы can (could), may


(might), must, ought to, need.
Упражнение 1
Вставьте в пропущенные места can / can’t / could / couldn’t + один из следующих глаголов: come, eat,
hear, run, sleep, wait.
1. I’m afraid I can’t come to your party next week.
2. When Tim was 16, he was a fast runner. He ______________ 100 metres in 11 seconds.
3. “Are you in a hurry?” “No, I’ve got plenty of time. I ________________________ .”
4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I ____________ anything.
5. Can you speak up a bit? I _____________ you very well.
6. “You look tired.” “Yes, I last night.”

Упражнение 2.
Вставьте в пропущенные места must или can’t.
1 You’ve been travelling all day. You must be very tired.
2 That restaurant ____________ be very good. It's always full of people.
3 That restaurant ____________ be very good. It's always empty.
4 You’re going on holiday next week. You
____________ be looking forward to it.
5 It rained every day during their holiday,
so they ____________ have had a very nice time.
6 Congratulations on passing your exam. You
____________ be very pleased.
7 You got here very quickly. You ____________ have
walked very fast.
Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they ____________ be short of money

Упражнение 3.
Вставьте в пропущенные места must, mustn’t или needn’t.
1 We haven’t got much time. We must
hurry.
2 We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t
hurry.
3 We have enough food at home so we ________ go
shopping today.
4 Jim gave me a letter to post. I _________ remember to
post it.
5 Jim gave me a letter to post. I _________ forget to post it.
6 There’s plenty of time for you
to make up your mind. You ________ decide now.
7 You _________ wash those tomatoes. They’ve already been washed.
8 This is a valuable book. You __________ look after it
carefully and you lose it.
“What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?” “Well, it __________ be big - that’s not
important. But it _________ have a nice garden – that’s essential.”

Урок 19-20.

Употребление модальных глаголов. Эквиваленты модальных


глаголов
Упражнение 1.

Вставьте в пропущенные места can или (be) able to. Используйте can, если возможно; в противном
случае - (be) able to.
1. George has travelled a lot. He can speak four languages.
2. I haven’t been able to sleep very well recently.
3. Sandra _____________ drive but she hasn’t got a car.
4. I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never _________ understand him.
5. I used to ___________ stand on my head but I can’t do it now.
6. I can’t see you on Friday but I ______________ meet you on Saturday morning.
7. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might _______________ help you.

Упражнение 2.

Вставьте в пропущенные места could, couldn’t или was/were able to.


1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He could speak five languages.
2. I looked everywhere for the book but I couldn’t find it.
3. They didn’t want to come with us at first but we were able to persuade them.
4. Laura had hurt her leg and __________________ walk very well.
5. Sue wasn’t at home when I phoned but I _____________ contact her at her office.
6. I looked very carefully and I _________________ see a figure in the distance.
7. I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The first shop I went to didn’t have any but I ____________ get
some in the next shop.
8. My grandmother loved music. She ______________ play the piano very well.
9. A girl fell into the river but fortunately we ____________ rescue her.
I had forgotten to bring my camera so I ____________ take any photographs.

Упражнение 3.
Прочитайте ситуации и используйте слова в скобках, чтобы составить предложения с must
have и can’t.
1. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. (I / asleep) I must have been asleep.
2. Jane walked past me without speaking. (she / see / me) She can’t have seen me.
3. The jacket you bought is very good quality, (it / very expensive) ___________________________.
4. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages, (they / go away) ___________________________.
5. I can’t find my umbrella. (I / leave / it in the restaurant last night)
___________________________.
6. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (the exam / very difficult)
___________________________.
7. She knew everything about our plans, (she / listen / to our conversation)
___________________________.
8. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she / understand / what I said)
___________________________.
9. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I / forget / to turn it off)
___________________________.
10. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop, (the driver / see / the red light)
___________________________.
I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door, (the neighbours / have / a party)
___________________________.

Упражнение 4.

Напишите предложения другим способом, используя may или might.


1. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. She might be in her office.
2. Perhaps Margaret is busy. _______________________.
3. Perhaps she is working. _______________________.
4. Perhaps she wants to be alone. _______________________.
5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. _______________________.
6. Perhaps she went home early. _______________________.
7. Perhaps she had to go home early. _______________________.
8. Perhaps she was working yesterday. _______________________.
В предложениях 9-11 используйте may not или might not.
9. Perhaps she doesn't want to see me. _______________________.
10. Perhaps she isn't working today. _______________________.
11. Perhaps she wasn't feeling well yesterday. _______________________.

Упражнение 5.

Прочтите ситуации и составьте предложения из слов в скобках. Используйте may или might.
1. I can’t find George anywhere. I wonder where he is.
a) (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping.
b) (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis.
2. I’m looking for Helen. Do you know where she is?
a) (she / watch / TV / in her room) _______________________.
b) (she / go / out) _______________________.
3. I can’t find my umbrella. Have you seen it?
a) (it / be / in the car) _______________________.
b) (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) _______________________.
4. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time.
a) (he / be / in the bath) _______________________.
b) (he / not / hear / the bell) _______________________.

Упражнение 6.

Завершите ситуации, используя might not или couldn’t.


1. A: Do you think she saw you?
B: No, she was too far away. She couldn’t have seen me.
2. A: I wonder why she didn’t say hello. Perhaps she didn’t see me.
B: That’s possible. She might not have seen you.
3. A: I wonder why Ann didn’t come to the party. Perhaps she wasn’t invited,
В: Yes, it’s possible. She _______________________.
4. A: Tom loves parties. I’m sure he would have come to the party if he’d been invited.
B: I agree. He _______________________.
5. A: I wonder how the fire started. Do you think it was an accident?
B: No, the police say it _______________________.
6. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident.
B: Well, the police aren't sure. They say it ______________________.

Упражнение 7.

Вставьте в пропущенные места must или have to (в нужной форме). Иногда возможно использовать
оба, а иногда только have to.
1 It’s later than I thought. I must или have to go now.
2 Jack left before the end of the meeting. He had to go home early.
3 In Britain many children _____________ wear uniform when they go to school.
4 When you come to London again, you ____________ come and see us.
5 Last night Don became ill suddenly. We _____________ call a doctor.
6 You really __________ work harder if you want to pass the
examination.
7 I’m afraid I can’t come tomorrow. I
______________ work late.
8 I’m sorry I couldn’t come yesterday. I
______________ work late.
9 Paul doesn’t like his new job.
Sometimes he _______________ work at weekends.
10 Caroline may _____________ go away next week.
11 We couldn’t repair the car ourselves.
We _____________ take it to a garage.
12 Julia wears glasses. She _____________ wear glasses
since she was very young.

Упражнение 8.
Завершите предложения, используя don't / doesn't / didn't have to + один из следующих
глаголов: do, got up, go, go, pay, shave, wait, work
1 I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get up early.
2 The car park is free – you _________________ to park your car there.
3 I went to the bank this morning. There was no queue, so I ____________________.
4 Sally is extremely rich. She _______________________.
5 We’ve got plenty of time. We ________________________ yet.
6 Jack has got a beard, so he ________________________.
7 I’m not particularly busy. I've got a few things to do but I ___________________ them now.
8 A man was slightly injured in the accident but he _________________ hospital.

Упражнение 9.

Вставьте в пропущенные места mustn’t или don’t/doesn’t have to.


1 I don’t want anyone to know. You mustn’t tell anyone.
2 He doesn’t have to wear a suit to work but he usually does.
3 I can stay in bed tomorrow morning because I ____________ go to work.
4 Whatever you do, you _______________ touch that switch. It’s very dangerous.
5 There’s a lift in the building, so we ___________ climb the stairs.
6 You ________________ forget what I told you. It’s very important.
7 Sue __________________ get up early. She gets up early because she wants to.
8 Don’t make so much noise. We ____________ wake the baby.
9 I _____________ eat too much. I’m supposed to be on a diet.
10 You ______________ be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.

Упражнение 10.

Прочтите ситуации и составьте предложения с needn’t have.


1. George went out. He took an umbrella because he thought it was going to rain. But it didn’t
rain. He needn’t have taken an umbrella.
2. Ann bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she got home, she found that she
already had plenty of eggs. She _______________________________________.
3. A friend got angry with you and shouted at you. You think this was unnecessary. Later you
say to him/her: You _______________________________________.
4. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in a lottery.
He _______________________________________.
5. When we went on holiday, we took the camera with us but we didn’t use it in the end.
_______________________________________.
6. I thought I was going to miss my train so I rushed to the station. But the train was late and in the end I
had to wait 20 minutes. _______________________________________.

Урок 21.

Глаголы shall (should), will (would) как модальные. Выражение


долженствования при помощи сочетания модальных глаголов с
инфинитивом.
Упражнения:

1. Для каждой ситуации напишите предложения с should или shouldn’t + одно из


следующих:
go away for a few days; go to bed so late; look for another job;
put some pictures on the walls; take a photograph; use her car so much
1 (Liz needs a change.) She should go away for a few days .
2 (My salary is very low.) You ___________________________.
3 (Jack always has difficulty getting up.) He ___________________________.
4 (What a beautiful view!) You ___________________________.
5 (Sue drives everywhere. She never walks.) She ___________________________.
6 (Bill’s room isn’t very interesting.) ___________________________.

2. Прочтите ситуации и напишите предложения с I think / I don't think...should... .


1 Peter and Judy are planning to get married. You think it’s a bad idea.
(get married) I don’t think they should get married.
2 You don’t like smoking, especially in restaurants.
(be banned) I think ___________________________.
3 I have a very bad cold but I plan to go out this evening. You don’t think this is a good idea.
You say to me: (go out) ___________________________.
4 You are fed up with the government. You think they have made too many mistakes.
(resign) ___________________________.

3. Вставьте в пропущенные места should (have) + глагол в скобках.


1 Margaret should pass the exam. She’s been studying very hard. (pass)
2 You missed a great party last night. You should have come. (come)
1 We don’t see you enough. You _______________ and see us more often. (come)
2 I’m in a difficult position. What do you think I _______________ ? (do)
3 I’m sorry that I didn't take your advice. I ___________________ what you said. (do)
1 I’m playing tennis with Jill tomorrow. She ___________________ - she’s much better than
me. (win)
4 We lost the match but we ____________________. We were the better team. (win)
5 “Is John here yet?” “Not yet, but he ___________________ here soon.” (be)
6 I posted the letter three days ago, so it ___________________ by now. (arrive)

4. Переведите предложения на английский, обращая внимание на употребление


модальных глаголов. (Иногда возможны больше одного варианта перевода).
1. Моя сестра умеет играть на скрипке.
2. Можно мне взять твою тетрадь?
3. Они не смогли купить билеты на поезд.
4. Ты сможешь прийти к нам?
5. Вы не должны выносить книги из библиотеки.(must)
6. Ты, должно быть, замёрз. Одень куртку.(must)
7. Уже поздно. Я должен идти домой.(have)
8. Ей не следовало брать ребёнка в ресторан. (should)
9. Вам стоит достать эту книгу.
10. Ты заешь, что делать. Тебе не нужен мой совет.
Урок 22.

Неличные формы глагола (НФГ). Причастие I (Participle I). Роль


Participle I в предложении. Participle I в роли определения
Упражнение 1. Образуйте Participle I из следующих глаголов
To lead, to have, to laugh, to sit, to smile, to ride, to smell, to type, to delete, to escape, to rise, to
distort, to check, to plan, to stress, to call, to mill, to love, to beat.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание причастию I в роли


определения. Где возможно, дайте два варианта перевода: причастием и придаточным
определительным предложением.
Образец: Everybody taking part in the discussion agreed with the proposition – Все,
принимавшие участие в обсуждении (кто принимал участие в обсуждении), согласились с этим
предложением.
1. Smiling girls are nice. 2. The girl smiling is my sister. 3. Who is the fat man sitting in the corner?
4. Most of the people singing were students. 5. This is an interesting idea. 6. All children wishing to
compete may take part in the competition. 7. This is a new kind of self-winding watch. 8. We shall
consider all the changes resulting from our actions. 9. The resulting effect was of no importance. 10.
We shall refer to the articles dealing with the problem under consideration.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на причастие I в роли


определения (можно два варианта).
1. Pride, the never-failing vice of fools (A. Pope). 2. Coming events cast their shadows before
them. 3. What is a friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies (Aristotle). 4. Another factor
influencing the level of detail was the process requirements. 5. In this reaction we used common
oxidizing and reducing agents. 6. I like the girl sitting on the right. 7. They published conflicting
reports. 8. They did not consider factors not affecting the results. 9. We needed procedures not
involving this compound. 10. You should control the following parameters. 11. The events following
the war played an important role in the development of the firm.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Мы рассмотрим несколько проблем, имеющих отношение (to deal with) к этому явлению.
2. Мы учли все определяющие (to determine) факторы. 3. Он упомянул один из факторов,
определяющих скорость реакции. 4. Фильм, который последовал за лекцией (to follow), был
неинтересный. 5. Последовавшие за конференцией события не имели особого значения. 6.
Получившиеся (в результате этого) данные представляют некоторый интерес. 7. Данные,
которые получаются в результате этих изменений, будут неправильными. 8. Мы рассмотрели
факторы, приводящие к таким изменениям.
Урок 23.

Participle I в роли обстоятельства, вводного члена предложения и в


составе сказуемого
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание Participle I в роли обстоятельства.
Где это возможно, дайте два варианта перевода: деепричастием и обстоятельственным придаточным
предложением.
Образец: Reading we learn – Читая, мы учимся (познаем). Когда мы читаем, мы учимся.
1. While reading books I make notes. 2. Following their method we could obtain reliable data. 3. We
changed the plan, making it possible to take into consideration the new data concerning the problem under
investigation. 4. Making decisions one should consider all possible factors (one – неопределённое
местоимение, переводится местоимением кто-то или опускается. One should – кто-то (в первой части
предложения)… он должен (во второй части), one should – нужно. При переводе выберите подходящие
по смыслу варианты). 5. We presented all the determining factors, thus changing the resulting effect. 6.
These agents, affecting the resulting product, are of great importance. 7. Relying upon inadequate information
you will make a mistake. 8. The problem, being a complex one, will play the main role in the design.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на причастие I в роли


обстоятельства. Имейте в виду, что все примеры содержат зависимые причастные обороты, поэтому в
тех случаях, когда будете переводить их придаточными предложениями, не забывайте повторить
подлежащее (или его заместитель – местоимение).
Образец: This universal motor was adopted (as) being more economical – Этот универсальный мотор
был принят, потому что он был (является) более экономичным.
1. When being pure, water is a colorless liquid. 2. It is quite possible that goodness, being a property of a
man, is not conditioned by nature. 3. Temperature dropped, indicating that the reaction was over. 4.
Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logical operations, making it possible to control the process
under rather complicated conditions. 5 System design progresses through several stages, becoming more
detailed in each stage. 6. While considering one problem we found a solution of another problem. 7. While
differing in detail these programs involve similar problems.

Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык, используя причастные обороты в роли


обстоятельства.
1. Делая этот эксперимент, мы использовали два различных метода. 2. Когда они исправляли (to
correct) их план, они допустили (сделали) много ошибок. 3. Читая наш отчет (report), он будет проверять
(to check) все данные. 4. Мы приняли неправильное решение, что привело (to result in) к многим
ошибкам. 5. Мы решили эту проблему, используя все имеющиеся в наличии (available) данные. 6.
Рассматривая (to consider) эти проблемы, мы имеем дело (to deal with) с очень сложными системами.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, в которых причастие I играет роль вводного члена


предложения.
1. Strictly speaking, this hypothesis is not adequate. 2. Judging by this finding, the information is correct. 3.
Assuming that the experiment is a success, we may use the results. 4. Roughly speaking, the experiment was a
failure.

Упражнение 5. Прочитайте и переведите предложения, в которых используется прилагательное,


совпадающее по форме с Participle I, в роли определения и смысловой части сказуемого (повторите
материал Урока 20).
1. The book is rather amusing. 2. The decision was a turning point in the investigation. 3. It will be a leading
question in our discussion. 4. To love is no laughing matter. 5. He had the reputation of a walking
encyclopedia.

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Generally speaking, a liquid having a free surface is one on whose surface there is absolutely no
pressure. 2. A gram of water changes exactly to a gram of ice when freezing and to a gram of water vapor
when evaporating. 3. An algorithm is a list of instructions specifying a sequence of operations which will give
the answer to any problem of a given type. 4. This means that a space program must be flexible and diverse,
making it possible to explore completely new fields. 5. Strictly speaking, we may justify this somewhat
arbitrary division, taking into account an imperfect technique. 6. The lesson was quite interesting. 7. Country
embracing over four millions of square miles, being thus larger than the whole of Europe, contained but about
two million inhabitants. 8. Judging by the data, the first group of crustacean (ракообразные) consists of forms
that inhabit temporary waters resulting from rain storms.

Урок 24.

Неличные формы глагола. Participle II (причастие II): образование,


роль в предложении.
Практические задания
Упражнение 1. Образуйте причастие II следующих глаголов и дайте их русские
эквиваленты. Неправильные глаголы выделены курсивом.
To include – включать; to assume – допускать, предполагать; to depend on – зависеть от;
to begin – начинать; to acquire – приобретать, достигать; to teach – учить; to require – требовать;
to use – использовать; to catch – ловить; to remember – запоминать, помнить; to understand –
понимать; to build – строить, создавать; to take – брать; to design – проектировать,
конструировать, предназначать; to form – образовывать, формировать; to obtain – получать; to
find – находить; to do – делать; to get – получать; to give – давать; to know – знать; to make –
делать, производить; to write – писать.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание причастию II в роли


определения. Там, где возможно, дайте два варианта перевода: причастием и придаточным
определительным предложением, используя союзное слово который.
Образец; The information received was not correct. Информация, которая была получена,
оказалась неправильной. Или: Полученная информация была неправильной.
1. The work done by this research team is of great importance. 2. The experiment made by
the scientist proved a failure. 3. They discussed some involved problems. 4. The program corrected
may be of some interest. 5. A carefully planned work gives good results. 6. Books illustrated by the
painter are very popular. 7. The report presented by the laboratory is not of any importance. 8. The
information obtained recently is of no use. 9. The data received is of no interest. 10. I don't like
broken mirrors.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание причастию II в роли


определения. При переводе причастных оборотов придаточным предложением не забывайте
перед словом который поставить предлог, которого требует данный глагол.
Образец: The article referred to by the student is of no interest – Статья, на которую
ссылается этот студент, не представляет никакого интереса.
1. The question answered by the student was a difficult one. 2. The process affected by the
correction followed a different course. 3. The problem approached from another point of view
proved simple. 4. The technique followed by this research team is very complicated. 5. Definition of
the problem followed by its investigation was a difficult task. 6. Their actions influenced by the
decision were wiser. 7. The fact mentioned was of great importance. 8. The problem dealt with in this
article is very complex. 9. The information relied upon by the scientist proved incorrect. 10. The data
referred to by the author is false. 11. The program corrected proved useful. 12. The plan changed
helped us to complete the work. 13. The decision made facilitated the process.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на причастие II в


роли обстоятельства. Поскольку все причастные обороты в этих предложениях являются
зависимыми, не забывайте при переводе их придаточными предложениями повторять подле-
жащее.
О б р а з е ц: If invited, I shall go there – Если меня пригласят, я поеду туда
1. Made under favorable conditions, our decision proved valid. 2. If taken into consideration in
time, the data will be useful. 3. Once changed, the factor was of no use. 4. When corrected, the
information may be of some interest. 5. Until done properly, the work will be useless. 6. Unless
presented in detail, a program is a failure. 7. Influenced by many factors, the reaction did not proceed
smoothly. 8. A present is not so dear, if not presented in due time. 9. The process is reliable if
controlled by a specialist. 10. The plan is useless unless corrected. 11. The document is invalid until
examined.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Работа, проделанная в прошлом году в нашей лаборатории, представляет большой
интерес. 2. Используемый метод является очень надежным. 3. Данные, полученные из их
лаборатории, оказались неправильными. 4. Вопрос, за которым последовало много других
вопросов, оказался очень сложным. 5. Доклад, на который ссылался этот ученый, состоял из
двух частей (part). 6. Информация, на которую полагались эти ученые, оказалась неполной.

Урок 25.

Participle II в роли обстоятельства, вводного члена предложения, в


составе сказуемого
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание Participle II в
роли обстоятельства.
1. This expedition failed because undertaken in winter. 2. That lesson, once learned,
was never forgotten. 3. If properly designed, a system should be of considerable reliability. 4. Based
on a stage-by-stage schedule, the program embraces different fields of space research and
exploration. 5. Properly arranged and prepared, this information may be useful. 6. Once started, the
plan functioned. 7. If invited we shall come at once. 8. Rightly understood such correlations are of no
importance. 9.Once tested and working the system should be reliable.

Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык, используя (зависимые)


причастные обороты.
1. Если этот документ не будет исправлен, он окажется бесполезным. 2. Когда эти
данные проверили, они оказались неправильными. 3. Если эту работу сделать должным
образом, она будет представлять некоторый интерес. 4. Как только план изменили, он стал (to
be) бесполезным. 5. Хороший совет (advice) полезен, если он дан в нужное время. 6. Если эту
информацию использовать должным образом, она может быть полезной.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. Stated differently, we omit the differences. 2. All told about similarities, we proceed
to differences. 3. As expected, the process proceeded smoothly. 4. Syntax is another major
difference, as indicated in the preceding paragraphs. 5. Stated bluntly, we could select a different set
for this purpose.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на


составные именные сказуемые.
interested – интересующийся, заинтересованный; concerned – занятый,
озабоченный, имеющий отношение к чему-либо; devoted – посвященный, преданный;
connected – связанный, связный (рассказ); recognized – признанный, принятый; involved –
сложный, запутанный; related – связанный, родственный, suited – подходящий, годный.
1. Не will be interested in practical aspects of this problem. 2. They are concerned
with a somewhat different problem. 3. He was devoted to his idea. 4. Ethics is concerned with moral
duties of a man. 5. These ideas are related to the general problem. 6. Ethics is closely connected with
feeling. 7. The difficulties posed by this problem are generally recognized. 8. This chapter is devoted
to the main idea of the author. 9. He is concerned with a related problem. 10. The approach is suited
here.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Я интересуюсь практическими аспектами этой проблемы. 2. Он занимается той
же самой проблемой. 3. Моя статья будет посвящена новому аспекту этой проблемы. 4. Такой
метод не подходит в этом случае. 5. Эта идея признана всеми. 6. Они связаны с многими
другими лабораториями. 7. Он занимается (какой-то) родственной проблемой.

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, содержащие Participle II в разных


функциях.
1. A life devoted only to the satisfaction of immediate needs is a dull one. 2. A wanted
person has escaped. 3. Simply stated, a creative individual is also a trained individual. 4. The action
preceded by such a decision could not be false. 5. The decision followed by this action was correct. 6.
He followed rules known by experience. 7. The child lacks the experience required for practical
action. 8. Once designed and if designed properly, the system is very flexible. 9. Here again the views
expressed attracted no serious attention. 10. The results thus obtained contributed to the solution of
the problem.
Урок 26.

Gerund (Герундий) и его роль в предложении


Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, содержащие герундий (в форме Indefinite Active) в
роли подлежащего. Помните, что после герундия может использоваться прямое дополнение
(без предлога!).
1. Using the word was his mistake. 2. Making a decision is a complex process. 3. Considering these
problems took us much time. 4. Learning without thought is labour lost, thought without learning is
perilous (Confucius). 5. Having access to the code was symbolic. 6. Beating a child will do more harm
than good. 7. Trying to minimize the importance of the discovery was of no use.

Упражнение 2. Определите (с помощью замены беспредложных сочетаний предложными


или подбора лексического значения слова), является ли ing-форма герундием или причастием,
или и тем и тем одновременно.
A heating system, the blowing wind, building materials, a training machine, a shining star, the
blowing machine, a writing table, living conditions, a freezing point, a reading lamp, a searching
process, a planning stage, a planning office.

Упражнение З. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание герундию в роли


определения.
1. Life is an art of drawing sufficient conclusions from insufficient premises (S. Butler). 2. They
established a committee for the purpose of considering the nomenclature. 3. A searching period is an
important stage in the process. 4. Stage 1 includes the process of selecting the task. 5. The planning
stage is the most important one.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, выделяя герундий в роли обстоятельства. Особое


внимание уделяйте предлогам.
1. Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing him. 2. Do not do anything without thinking. 3.
Know your own faults before blaming others for theirs. 4. Learn by doing. 5. You cannot make an
omelet without breaking eggs. 6. He spoke while watching his opponents. 7. Appetite comes with
eating. 8. Upon switching off the current the pressure dropped. 9. On coming home I have a rest. 10.
We grow mature through training. 11. You should check the oil before starting the car.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание герундию в роли


подлежащего, определения и обстоятельства.
1. The secret of being tiresome (надоедливый, утомительный) is in telling everything (F.
Voltaire). 2. Life is a matter of making wise choices – of knowing when to draw the line. 3. He died
without leaving either a personal or a political will. 4. Search theory is potentially applicable to any
sort of searching process. 5. They were against postponing the meeting and for going on with the
discussion of this problem. 6. We were all for starting the experiment at once. 7. They answered the
question in part by studying the behavior of the optimal strategy. 8. We modified the plan while
retaining its main goal. 9. They stopped the experiment without examining the results. 10. Building a
new model may well be desirable. 11. Doing so removed the possibility of disappointment.
Упражнение 6. Переведите на английский.
1. Мы примем (какое-то) решение после изменения плана. 2. Мы будем использовать эту
информацию при проверке нашей программы. 3. Они осуществили этот процесс, используя (с
помощью использования) новый метод. 4. Мы были за обсуждение этой проблемы. 5. Они
будут против организации (установления) этого комитета. 6. Мы получили хорошие результаты,
не начиная новой серии экспериментов.

Урок 27.

Герундий в роли дополнения и в составе сказуемого. Три ing-формы


в английском языке.
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, в которых дополнение выражено герундием.
1. This justifies our coming here. 2. They accused him of being a friend of the Pretender. 3. They
insisted on postponing the discussion. 4. We succeeded in building a flexible system. 5. He was fond
of doing nothing. 6. The phenomenon deserved reconsidering. 7. We avoided using the reagent. 8.
They were interested in cooperating with us. 9. We shall object to combining the two approaches. 10.
They are responsible for doing this work. 11. This resulted in changing the requirements.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, в которых герундий играет роль смысловой части


сказуемого.
1. It is no use crying over spilt milk. 2. It is better doing well than saying well. 3. Seeing is believing. 4.
They continued experimenting with the substance. 5. It is worth while thinking over the effects. 6. It
is no use speaking of it. 7. They could not help seeing the importance of the process. 8. The purpose
of the method is determining system stability. 9. Two special cases are worth considering. 10. We
cannot help enjoying beautiful things. 11. The book is worth reading. 12. The film is not worth seeing.
13. It is no use using the agent repeatedly.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, содержащие в своем составе герундий в функции


дополнения и сказуемого.
1. Borrowing is not much better than begging (G. Lessing). 2. Research is searching without
knowing what you are going to find. 3. He objects to working on Sundays. 4. It is worthwhile
reconsidering this case as well as adding another, even more impressive example. 5. Several writers
succeeded in finding exact solution of the differential equation. 6. The Haber process consists in
uniting two elemental gases to make a compound. 7. Today we cannot help observing a tendency in
science to consider the financial aspects of all research proposals. 8. The architects' aim is using more
plastics in interior decoration. 9. It may well be worthwhile considering the purpose of the investi-
gation. 10. The missionaries kept coming back from the Latinized continent. 11. The Ministry of Social
Welfare stopped paying pensions, the Ministry of Post and Telegraph stopped transmitting cables
(телеграммы). 12. Peter insisted upon laying aside all the ceremonial of royalty.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Наше решение зависит от изменения требований. 2. Я настаивал на включении этой
информации в нашу программу. 3. Она будет возражать против поездки за границу (abroad). 4.
Они были ответственными за организацию этого собрания. 5. Им удалось закончить свою
работу в срок (on time). 6. Это привело к рассмотрению данной проблемы. 7. Это было
результатом рассмотрения данной проблемы. 8. Мы начали экспериментирование. 9. Они
продолжали слушать внимательно. 10. Они прекратили обсуждение этого вопроса.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский, используя словосочетания worth(while) – стоит,


cannot help – нельзя не, no use – нет смысла, после которых используется герундий.
Образец: The plan is worth changing – Этот план стоит изменить. It is worth(while) changing the
plan – Стоит изменить этот план. We cannot help changing the plan – Мы не можем не изменить
этот план.
1. Этот фильм стоит посмотреть. 2. Стоит посмотреть этот фильм. 3. Они не могли не
использовать эту информацию. 4. Нет смысла использовать эту информацию. 5. Эту книгу стоит
прочитать. 6. Эту информацию стоит включить в программу. 7. Мы не можем не включить эту
информацию в нашу программу. 8. Стоит рассмотреть его предложение. 9. Они не могли не
рассмотреть это предложение. 10. Нет смысла рассматривать это предложение.

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, определяя, какой частью речи является ing-форма:


герундием, отглагольным существительным или причастием
1. Everything must have a beginning. 2. The proof of the pudding is in eating. 3. Wisdom denotes
the pursuing of the best end by the best means (F. Hutcheson). 4. Swallow all your learning in the
morning, but digest it in company in the evening. (Ph. Chesterfield). 5. By that definition we mean the
following. 6. We obtained these values in terms of the following formula. 7. The problem, however, is
in not dividing the structure finely enough. 8. Before starting the engine it is necessary to test the
piping for leakage (утечка). 9. The boy playing in the garden is my son. 10. Fortran became a widely
accepted programming language for the coding of mathematical applications.

Урок 28.

Infinitive – неопределенная форма глагола. Инфинитив в роли


подлежащего, дополнения и обстоятельства.
Практические задания
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на инфинитив в
отрицательной форме.
1. Learn to write well, or not to write at all (J. Dryden). 2. His resolve is not to seem the bravest,
but to be it (Aeshylus). 3. To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage (Confucius). 4. Many
mathematicians, of course, prefer not to believe this. 5. Live not to eat, but eat to live.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, выделяя инфинитив в роли подлежащего.


Вспомогательный глагол would в 3 и 4 предложениях передает сослагательное наклонение
(сказуемое с частицей бы).
1. То err is human, to forgive divine. 2. To choose the right time is to save time. 3. To do that now
would make them traitors. 4. To solve this problem would justify all the costs. 5. To construct an
experiment of this kind seems nearly impossible. 6. It was difficult to sell my car. 7. It is nice to be
with you. 8. It's pointless to go there now. 9. It's unusual to see Pete with a girl.
Упражнение 3. Переведите, выделяя инфинитив в роли дополнения.
1. Distance helps us to see similarities; nearness helps us to see differences. 2. We attempted to
carry out this investigation.3. You are welcome to adopt or adapt my rules as you see fit. 4. They
preferred not to change the conditions. 5. Anyone can learn to use these tools. 5. He tried to save all
his money.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, выделяя инфинитив в роли обстоятельства.


1. То perform this work one must have all necessary equipment. 2. It is too urgent a matter to
postpone. 3. Specifications must be precise enough to be testable. 4. In order to demonstrate the
effect we give Table 1. 5. A small computer company announced a computer small enough to set on a
desktop and powerful enough to support high level language programming. 6. These conflicting views
suffice to indicate the complexity of the problem. 7. The Navy was too new, too small and not
experienced enough to resist the enemy's fleet.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, определяя, какую роль (подлежащего или


обстоятельства) играет инфинитив.
1. То do nothing is to have nothing. 2. To do something one must have something. 3. To make this
method effective requires some more efforts. 4. To make a method more effective we must pay
special attention to its applicability in a particular case. 5. To meet these requirements some facilities
must be provided. 6. To meet all these demands requires time.

Урок 29.

Инфинитив в роли определения и вводного члена предложения.


Употребление инфинитива в составе сказуемого.
Упражнение 1. Переведите, выделяя инфинитив в роли определения.
1. Old wood is best to burn, old wine to drink, old friend to trust, and old author to read (F.
Bacon). 2. One must have a home to come to. 3. There are also opposing factors to consider. 4. This
correspondence dealt with books published or to be published. 5. The ability to create exists in every
individual in varying degree. 6. He felt that the only thing to do was to study their methods and ideas.
7. Thomas was the first to focus attention on this type of reaction. 8. He had only himself to thank.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, выделяя инфинитив в роли вводного члена


предложения.
1. This does, to be sure, simplify the measurement somewhat. 2. To judge by the results obtained,
the postulate of these workers proved correct. 3. And to conclude, he is to be highly imaginative too.
4. The first, fourth and seventh examples, to mention only a few, are of no use. 5. To put is mildly, he
is wrong.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, в которых в той или иной форме используется


инфинитив.
1. То know everything is to know nothing. 2. Let us trust but not too much. 3. To be is to do
(Socrates). 4. To do is to be (Sartre). 5. You must look into people as well as at them. 6. It must be
hard to live on your salary. 7. We shall have to considerably reconstruct the programs. 8. We are to
meet these requirements. 9. The important thing is to understand what you are doing, rather than
(to) get the right answer. 10. They were to consider all possible alternatives. 11. It is better to under-
stand a little than to misunderstand a lot (A. France).

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание инфинитиву в разных


функциях.
1. For him, however, obstacles existed only to overcome. 2. To think is to see (H. de Balzac). 3. It is
easier to pull down than to build. 4. It is easy to be brave from a safe distance (Aesop). 5. It is easy to
be wise after the event. 6. It is a woman's privilege to change her mind. 7. Houses are built to live in,
and not to look at (F. Bacon). 8. It is a very hard undertaking to seek to please everybody (P. Syrus). 9.
One of the best ways to understand something is to try to explain it to others. 10. One must take into
consideration new developments in this field. 11. We were to determine all the criteria by purely
economic considerations. 12. They failed to consider the possible results. 13. These approaches are
too complicated to use them under these conditions. 14. Some molecules are large enough to see on
the electron microscope. 15. The business of a handbook is to tell you how to translate knowledge
into action.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Сделать это значит помочь ему. 2. Чтобы сделать эту работу вовремя, он должен начать ее
сейчас. 3. Эта проблема слишком сложная, чтобы решить ее сразу же (at once1) 4. Нам
пришлось пересмотреть эту программу. 5. Наша цель заключается в том, чтобы удовлетворить
эти требования. 6. Мы должны понимать друг друга (each other). 7. Для начала, давайте
рассмотрим их предложение (proposition) 8. Для того чтобы понять рассматриваемую
проблему, вы должны прочитать эту статью.

Урок 30.

Вопросительная форма сказуемого. Общие вопросы. Специальные


вопросы: вопрос к подлежащему, вопрос к обстоятельству, вопрос
к определению.
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте следующие утверждения и переведите на русский язык.
Поставьте к ним общие вопросы. Дайте краткие ответы (утвердительный или отрицательный,
или оба).
О б р а з е ц: Не understood the question. Did he understand the question? Yes, he did. No, he
didn't.
1. They tried to answer all the questions. 2. The nature of life is to win some and to lose some. 3.
We can enjoy our life continuously. 4. Hopkins was a great analyst. 5. They created their own
problems. 6. He loves people. 7. We shall change the situations. 8. It will disturb other people. 9. All
people know the secret of happiness. 10. He knew the situation around him. 11. It is difficult to find
the right person with whom to live one's life.
Упражнение 2. Дайте утвердительный или отрицательный ответ, переведите на русский язык.
О б р а з е ц: Do you make mistakes? Yes, I do.
Is it possible to handle the daily situations in our life without worrying? No, it is not (isn't).
1. Do you know the secret of happiness? 2. Do you try to help your friends in daily situations? 3. Can
you answer all the questions? 4. Is the nature of life to win some and to lose some? 5. Can we enjoy
our life continuously? 6. Do you often create your own problems? 7. Is it difficult to find the right
person with whom to live your life? 8. Do you often disturb people in your daily situations? 9. Are you
able to free yourself from making mistakes?

Упражнение 3. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие утверждения. Поставьте


вопрос к подлежащему и дайте краткий ответ. Обратите внимание на то, что вопросительные
слова who и what при постановке вопроса в настоящем времени требуют сказуемое в З л.
единственного числа (с окончанием -s, -es), если заранее не известно, каков будет ответ.
Образец: Who knows the answer to the question? We do. Кто знает ответ на этот вопрос? Мы
(знаем).
Who came too late? He did. Кто пришел слишком поздно? Он.
1. Не tried to answer the question. 2. She won all hearts. 3. They will win the battle. 4. Their plan
enabled us to arrange things properly. 5. Readers enjoyed his book. 6. I made (заставил) him do it. 7.
He loves people. 8. The outside world thrusts problems upon people. 9. It will disturb other people.
10. Continuous noises disturbe me. 11. The method will enable me to free myself from many
troubles. 12. The answers to many questions are in this handbook. 13. The principle is true in all
situations.

Упражнение 4. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Поставьте вопросы к обстоятельствам,


выделенным курсивом. Применяйте вопросительные слова, используемые в специальных
вопросах
Образец: We forget because we must, and not because we will (M. Arnold).– Мы забываем
потому, что мы должны (забывать), а не потому, что хотим. Why do we forget?– Почему мы
забываем?
1. At night I walk down the street with my wife and children. 2. As our case is new, so we must
think anew and act anew. 3. Since he had no time he could not come. 4. It is easy to be wise after the
event. 5. We carry out scientific tests in the laboratory. 6, Our interview took place in the hotel. 7. He
answered the question correctly. 8. They will soon recognize the fact. 9. We can use the method in
making all our decisions. 10. He is not able to do things properly because he does not give them
enough thought.

Упражнение 5. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения. Поставьте вопрос к


определениям, выделенным курсивом. Не забывайте, что определения могут быть выражены
одним словом, группой слов (без глагола) и придаточным предложением (с глаголом), которые
при постановке вопроса заменяются одним вопросительным словом. Обратите внимание на то,
что определения, выраженные существительным с предлогом, стоят после определяемого
слова (product of high quality). Обратите внимание на особенности порядка слов в вопросах, о
которых говорится в пункте Вопрос к определению!

Образец: The book that is of great interest for students has some drawbacks – Эта книга,
которая представляет большой интерес для студентов, имеет несколько недостатков.
What book has some drawbacks?
1. Concealed talent brings no reputation. 2. Hasty love is soon hot and soon cold. 3. The science of
success is defined as attaining one's purpose. 4. Two parts of this book give us «Six tools for thinking».
5. The third part of this book shows how one may use these tools. 6. False emotional alarms deprive
us of our energy, our ability to love ourselves and others. 7. Clear thinking helps you (to) predict the
future. 8. Adequate thinking will serve you in your everyday life situations. 9. Great achievements
await those who have patience. 10. Our book contains only tested and workable tools.

Урок 31.

Специальные вопросы: вопрос к сказуемому с глаголом do, вопрос к


дополнению.
Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на предлоги в
дополнениях.
1. Не addressed the meeting. 2. Could they answer all the questions? 3. This did not affect our
decision. 4. Shall we approach the problem differently? 5. I shall not attend all the lectures. 6. He did
not follow my example. 7. She could not influence my actions. 8. Will he mention this fact? 9. The
measure acted upon the whole process. 10. We did not deal with this problem. 11. Our decision must
not depend on his decision. 12. It will give rise to some problems. 13. Could you rely upon his data?
14. We always refer to this work. 15. The action resulted in the same changes. 16. The action resulted
from these changes. 17. An adequate scheme resulted. 18. We shall be able to account for this
phenomenon. 19. They will only touch upon the problem.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, в которых использованы прямые и косвенные


дополнения.
1. Our data suggested a different course for the reaction. 2. Turner revealed to his fellow islanders
the beauty of the sea. 3. It gave the metal remarkable mechanical properties. 4. This gives the
language clearer than usual semantics. 5. Appropriation of knowledge gives the firm a degree of
monopoly power. 6. The dancer gives objectivity to her feelings. 7. The serious error affected the
measurement. 8. The achievements earned the scientist great popularity among his colleagues.

Упражнение 3. Поставьте вопрос к дополнению. Используйте глаголы, приведенные в


пункте Вопрос к дополнению.
1. We changed the plan. 2. The environment influenced my decision. 3. He will mention the fact in
his article. 4. She followed him. 5. The result will depend on our choice. 6. It gave rise to the
development of a new method. 7. We relied on (upon) his knowledge of the subject. 8. They referred
to my work. 9. These factors affected our decision. 10. The procedure effects error correction. 11.
This resulted in heating. 12. This resulted from heating. 13. This accounts for the change. 14. They
provided for all these changes. 15. We listened to his speech.

Упражнение 4. Поставьте вопросы к дополнению. В случае предложного дополнения дайте


два варианта вопроса: с предлогом в начале предложения и в конце. Переведите на русский
язык.
Образец: I did it for you. Who did you do it for? For whom did you do it? Я сделал это для вас.
Для кого вы сделали это?
1. The article deals with the problem of error control. 2. Results will depend on the
communication system. 3. It gave rise to the change of the situation. 4. They relied on his ability to
see problems. 5. We refer in our work to his book. 6. We should call for dialectical synthesis and not
analysis. 7. The idea influenced my decision. 8. The mistake resulted from inappropriate
programming. 9. Correction of errors follows detection of errors. 10. The event affected his actions.
11. The communication system effects detection and correction of errors. 12. He knows the secret of
happiness.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык.


1. Что находится на столе? Моя книга. 2. Что ты делаешь после работы? Я иду домой. 3. Тебе
понравился этот фильм? Да. 4. Ему понравилась эта девушка? Нет. 5. Почему ты всегда
опаздываешь? 6. Кто поможет ему сделать эту работу? Я не знаю. 7. Куда мы пойдем завтра?
Мы пойдем в институт. 8. Сколько у тебя денег? (Сколько денег ты имеешь?) У меня мало
денег. 9. Сколько книг ты прочел в прошлом году (last year)? Я прочел только одну книгу. 10.
Которую (из двух) книгу ты возьмешь? Я возьму обе книги. 11. Кто сделал ошибку в этом слове?
Я (сделала). 12. Кто находится в комнате? Мои друзья.

Урок 32.

Альтернативные, расчлененные вопросы. Вопросительно-


отрицательные предложения.
Практические задания
Упражнение 1. Дайте ответы на следующие альтернативные вопросы.
Образец: Do you live among reliable or unreliable people?.- People are different.
1. Which book will you take, on economics, physics, history or chemistry? 2. Does he rely on my, your
or my friend's help? 3. Is this tool applicable to business or personal affairs? 4. Shall we go by bus or
by train? 5. Did Italy or Brazil win the World Cup? 6. Which data do you prefer to use, reliable or
unreliable? 7. What is more useful, adequate presentation or inadequate presentation? 8. Are
negative or positive emotions good for us? 9. Do you live in suitable or unsuitable conditions?

Упражнение 2. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы. Пользуйтесь подсказками на русском


языке.
Образец: Why don't you use his information? Because it is unreliable. Aren't negative emotions
bad for us? Yes, they are.
1. Isn't her presentation good? 2. Why don't you rely on his data? (Потому что его дынные
ненадежные). 3. Don't you prefer reliable friends? 4. Isn't life a wonderful thing? 5. When can an
answer not be adopted? (Когда он неверен). 6 Isn't the method adaptable to this condition? 7.
Aren't positive emotions good for us? 8. Why didn't you choose another language to learn? (потому
что мне нравится английский язык) 9. Isn't English a nice language? 10. Did they not know about it?
11. Is it not interesting for you?

Упражнение 3. Выразите свое согласие или несогласие со следующими расчлененными


вопросами
Образец: You did not enjoy the book, did you? Согласие: No, I did not. Несогласие Yes, I did.
1. Clear thinking helps you to predict the future, doesn't it? 2. Great achievements do not await
those who have no patience, do they? 3. Their book contains tested and workable methods, doesn't
it? 4. Clear thinking will help us live more successful and happier lives, won't it? 5. This textbook gives
you helpful information, doesn't it? 6. Love is not a simple thing, is it? 7. Life is a wonderful thing,
isn't it? 8. You prefer reliable friends, don't you? 9. You cannot love all people, can you? 10. You are
not able to read and write simultaneously, are you?

Упражнение 4. Переведите ответы на следующие вопросы на английский язык


1. Do you help your friends? – Да, помогаю. 2. One must not disturb other people, must he (one)?
– Да, нельзя. 3. Are all situations predictable? – Нет, не все. 4. Doesn't the outside world influence
your decisions? – Да, влияет. 5. Your decisions do not affect other people, do they? – Да, влияют. 6.
When don't you answer a question? – Когда не знаю ответа. 7. Do you always follow advice? – Нет,
не всегда. 8. Is it useful to refer to other people's experience? – Да, полезно.9. Ethical norms affect
our actions, don't they? – Да, влияют. 10. What do you prefer, to speak or to listen? – Я
предпочитаю слушать.11. Do you prefer to learn or to teach? – Я предпочитаю учиться. 12. What
information may we rely on? – Мы можем полагаться на верную информацию. 13. On what do
you base your predictions? – Я основываю прогнозы на знании фактов. 14. Are уour ideas always
brilliant? – Нет, не всегда. 15. You enjoy most of your time, don't you? – Да. 16. Can we always enjoy
our life? – Да, можем.17. What color do you like more, green, red, black, white or brown? – Мне
больше нравятся зеленый и белый цвета. 18. Doesn't clear thinking help you predict the future? -
Да, помогает. 19. Business and personal affairs differ, don't they? – Да, отличаются. 20. What does
one do when one (he) does not know what to do? – Он ищет выход из ситуации.

Урок 33.

Все функции глагола to be


Практические задания
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, уделяя особое внимание глаголу to be.
1. Art is a manifestation of emotions. 2. The wish is father to the thought. 3. They are paid good
money for their work. 4. They are paid workers. 5. Every fact is a process rather than a static entity. 6.
Further we are to give up these assumptions. 7. A different method of procedure is to list all the
known geometric facts. 8. Symbolism is not only of practical use but of great interest. 9. We are
trying to do our best. 10. The results were computed twice. 11. The result was computed values.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения на русский язык


1. Pleasure is not the sole good. 2. Real live is always complicated. 3. Another type of creativity is a
talent for organization. 4. Intuitive conclusions are often misleading. 5. Their failure to obtain
satisfactory results in the latter case is not due to the testing table. 6. A different approach to the
problem is due to Pernedo. 7. This analysis is possible due to the recourse to mathematical methods
of statistics. 8. The fundamental task of system analyses is not solving problems but defining them. 9.
They are to have due regard for the precision of the data. 10. Everything perceived is to be found in
Nature. 11. These parameters are known constants.

Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык предложения, в которых глагол to be


выступает в разных функциях.
1. Он был студентом Московского университета. 2. В то время он находился в другом
городе. 3. Это произошло из-за отсутствия (lack) информации. 4. Наша цель заключается в том,
чтобы сохранить (to maintain) эти условия. 5. Сделать это значит решить нашу проблему. 6.
После должного рассмотрения (этот) документ должен быть послан (to send) автору. 7. Лучше
давать, чем брать. 8. Они (сейчас) решают проблемы, имеющие практическое значение. 9.
Наша единственная задача – это сохранение должного уровня (level) понимания (данной)
ситуации.

Урок 34.

Формальное подлежащее it. Оборот there + to be


Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык. Обратите внимание на времена сказуемых.
1. It is said that sinners go to hell. 2. It is evening. 3. It is not difficult to find happiness. 4. It was
raining at 5 o’clock yesterday. 5. It is expected that they finish their work in time. 6. It is hot outside.
7. It is snowing. 8. It is believed that it is better where there are no us. 9. It is no use beating him. 10.
It is clear that she is a good girl.

Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык:


1. В этой комнате холодно. 2. Еще совсем светло. 3. Тепло сегодня? 4. Сейчас половина
шестого. 5. Шел дождь вчера? – Да. 6. Уже поздно и совсем темно. 7. Трудно говорить на
иностранном языке без ошибок. 8. Отсюда очень далеко до вокзала? 9. Очень приятно купаться
в море. 10. Очень трудно переводить такие тексты без словаря.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. There was nobody in the room. 2. There is something interesting in his idea. 3. There will be many
people at the meeting. 4. There are some grammar difficulties in this text. 5. There was somebody in
the hall. 6. There were some plans to do the work. 7. There must be a way out. 8. There may be a
mistake in the program.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения.


1. There existed a great interest in this technique. 2. There remains two ways to solve this
problem. 3. There will appear a set of similar processes. 4. It is probable that there took place an
inversion of the configuration. 5. There appeared a number programs in their plan. 6. There followed
a tremendous battle. 7. There may exist two alternatives. 8. There remained many technical
questions. 9. There will follow many days of hard work. 10. There arises two reasons to make such a
decision. 11. There entered a strange figure dressed all in black.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения на английский язык.


1. Существует только один способ решения этой проблемы. 2. Будет (иметься) много
вариантов этого плана. 3. Есть время подумать. 4. Существовало много проблем в нашей
работе. 5. Последует изменение скорости реакции. 6. Должно существовать несколько точек
зрения. 7. Появилось три различных плана. 8. Имелся только один выход из этой ситуации. 9.
Там произошло огромное сражение. 10. Вошли четыре человека. 11. В комнате остался только
один человек.

Урок 35.

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы предложений с


оборотом there + to be
Практические задания

Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык.


1. There is no end to evolutionary process. 2. Is there any evidence available as to these
reactions? Yes, there is. 3. There was no interest in this process at that time. 4. Was there any
interest in this problem at that time? No, there was not. 5. In other words there will never be another
such possibility. 6. How many solutions of the problem are there? There are three. 7. There did not
exist any program. 8. Did there exist any program? No, there did not. 9. Is there any difference
between the canons of deduction and induction? 10. Did there follow a battle there? Yes, there did.
11. Will there appear another form of service? No, there will not. 12. There were no mistakes in these
calculations. 13. There did not remain any technical question. 14. Did there remain any technical
questions? Yes, there did. 15. Is there any reason for such a decision? Yes, there is.

Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения.


1. There is an unexplored area as big as that explored. 2. There is an assumption underlying all
moral estimates. 3. There appeared another form of service. 4. There were various reasons, internal
as well as external, to account for the actions. 5. There seems to be a problem. 6. There are not many
formal results concerning path testing. 7. There was not a single man who could decipher the
inscription. 8. Hardly a week goes by in which somewhere in the country there does not assemble a
group of people highly interested in the problem. 9. There is no need to hurry. 10. There may be
another why for every answer. 11. There arises a gap between the two points of view. 12. There
remain some doubts about the way of making corrections.

Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык, используя оборот there to be. He забывайте


обстоятельства (стоящие в начале русского предложения) перенести в конец английского.
Образец: В его работе (есть) много интересных идей – There are many interesting ideas in his
work.
1. В комнате было много людей. 2. В этой программе есть несколько ошибок. 3. Существует
только один план в нашем распоряжении (at our disposal). 4. Должен существовать выход (из
этого положения). 5. На собрании будет много людей. 6. Есть ли кто-нибудь в комнате? 7. В
комнате никого нет. 8. Нет (не существует) никаких интересных идей в этой работе. 9. Там будет
много молодых ученых. 10. Будут ли сделаны попытки исправить (этот) план? 11. Что
(находится) на столе? 12. Кто (находится) в зале?

Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык:


1. В этом журнале есть интересные статьи по программированию. 2. Есть ли иллюстрации в
этом журнале? – Нет. 3. В этой комнате будет телефон через несколько дней. 4. Телефон в
комнате № 10. 5. Будет ли лекция в сегодня? – Да. 6. Библиотека на втором этаже. 7. В зале
было много народу, когда я вошел. 8. Компьютер на столе у окна. 9. На этом письме нет под-
писи. 10. Сколько студентов в вашей группе? – В нашей группе восемь студентов. 11. Сколько
окон в вашей комнате? – В ней три окна. 12. Почтовое отделение в конце улицы. 13. Есть ли
почтовое отделение на этой улице? – Нет. 14. В вашей программе нет ошибок. 15. Пароход не
вышел вчера из порта, так как была буря. 16. Когда будет поезд на Киев? 17. Есть ли
иностранные книги в этой библиотеке? – Да. 18. Диск на полке. 19. Я думаю, что сегодня
вечером будет гроза. 20. Никого не было дома, когда я пришел. 21. Есть поезд на Одессу,
который отходит в десять часов утра. 22. В этой комнате на каждом столе должна 6ыть лампа.
23. В вашей статье должно быть больше цифр, иллюстрирующие развитие нашей
промышленности. 24. В нашем университете очень хорошая библиотека.

Урок 36-37.

Усилительные конструкции
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, в которых для усиления отдельных членов предложения
используется усилительная конструкция it is... that (who, which, when). Используйте Блок 19 (make).
1. It is the poor that help the poor. 2. It was this technique that failed to meet the requirement. 3. It is what
one does that counts, not what one promises. 4. It is precisely this opinion that makes a person defend this
approach. 5. It was not until 1980 that he published his book. 6. It is here that difficulties can occur. 7. It was
late at night when he came back. 8. It was not until the beginning of this century that the problem arose. 9. It
is the proposition that has nothing to do with our policy that was rejected.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения. Передайте значение усилительного глагола do


лексическими средствами.
1. Не does ask a lot of question. 2. The fault did occur. 3. Do be careful with that device! 4. The problem
was much more complex, but we did solve it. 5. Do ask him to do it. 6. We do need peace. 7. Do let us begin
the test. 8. A good advice does help us to overcome difficulties.

Упражнение 3. Выделите напечатанные жирным шрифтом члены предложения и придаточные


предложения, применяя оборот it is ... that (who). Переведите на русский язык.
Образец: The Russian scientist Ladygin invented the electric lamp. - It was the Russian scientist Ladygin who
invented the electric lamp.
1. After the revolution the great Russian scientist Mitchurin was given every opportunity to put his ideas into
practice 2. His brother brought me the letter an hour ago. 3. I shall discuss the matter with our legal adviser.
4. The equipment was to be delivered In Aprlt. 5 The notification of the bank was received by the seller after
the steamer had left 6. The job was done on that condition. 7. The shipowners are responsible for the damage
to the goods.

Упражнение 4. Переведите, обращая внимание на функцию глагола to do.


1. It doesn't do to be too curious or inquisitive. 2. Our desires for what we do not have keep us from enjoying
what we do have. 3. Who marries does well, who marries not does better. 4. The book does not simply discuss
what you must do, but gives you effective tools for how to do it. 5. Every force does its own job no matter how
many other forces are acting. 6. It does indeed lead to problems. 7. People would agree that education has
something to do with economic growth. 8. The difficulty has nothing to do with these changes. 9. More
education does not necessarily mean faster growth. In general, however, it probably does. 10. The first
argument relies, as it does, on these assumptions. 11. The labour market does not work perfectly. 12. Only
then did the plan work perfectly. 13. The investigation does, however, illustrate two basic approaches to the
problem. 14. We do not possess any accurate understanding of cause and effect. Nor do we know how to
evaluate the performance of the system. 15. These effects can be done away with the help of the new model.
16. Do be kind! 17. The approach eliminates, as it does, the problem.

Урок 38.
Сослагательное наклонение
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено глаголом в
сослагательном наклонении в форме Indefinite.
1. Our method could be generalized. 2. These steps might be arbitrary. 3. I should (would) like
to have the book. 4. They might be invited to take part in the discussion. 5. We could answer all the
questions. 6. They would do the work much better. 7. I would choose the latter variant. 8. She might
support his idea. 9.1 could agree with his point of view. 10. We could not agree with such a
proposition. 11. Some day it would be necessary to create programs that could better represent the
system's knowledge to itself.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения, в которых сказуемое выражено глаголом в


сослагательном наклонении в форме Perfect. Подкрепите лексически нереальность действия.
1. Our method could have been generalized. 2. In this case our assumption would have been
correct. 3. Without his assistance such an experiment would have been impossible. 4. We agreed
with his proposition, otherwise it would have been necessary to change the whole plan. 5. Such a
privilege would necessarily have led to competition with the merchants (торговцы, купцы). 6. The
problem could have been solved long ago. 7. The work might not have been completed. 8. We might
have compared the conditions to the present condition. 9. The event might not have taken place.

Упражнение 3. Замените сослагательное наклонение в форме Indefinite на перфектную


форму. Переведите на русский язык
Образец: The question might be asked – The question might have been asked. Этот вопрос
могли бы задать (но не задали)
1. The agreement might be signed. 2. It would be impossible to do this work. 3. Such an action
could lead to disagreement. 4. We might solve the problem properly. 5. They would agree with our
proposition. 6. The process would not take place. 7. He might not be invited to the conference. 8. It
would take much time to make such calculations.

Урок 39.
Употребление сослагательного наклонения
Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения, в которых использовано сослагательное
наклонение в форме Indefinite и Perfect. Следует помнить, что если в предложении есть два или
несколько однородных сказуемых в сослагательном наклонении, то только первое из них
дается в полной форме, а остальные выражены только смысловой частью (The letter might have
been written and sent – Письмо могло бы быть написано и отправлено).
1. For all sad words of tongue or pen, the saddest are these: «It might have been» (J. Whittier).
2. We could never have loved the earth so well, if we had no childhood in it (G. Eliot). 3. The book
might not have been written or published. 4. A different set could have been selected and easily
justified. 5. If the formal axioms did not agree more or less with the properties of physical objects,
the geometry would be of little interest. 6. The facts do not always answer our questions as
unmistakably as might be desirable. 7. Make exact calculations lest you should fail with your
experiment. 8. It would be indeed strange if this were not the case, because the situation is clear. 9. A
myriad subsystems could not have been understood without mathematical analysis. 10. This fact
could have been taken as a starting point to develop a complete algorithm, but there are computa-
tional problems. 11. But for the lack of a reliable instrument the problem could have been solved long
ago. 12. It is natural to require that final choices (альтернативы) should not be multivalued. 13. Re-
viewers are usually people who would have been poets, historians, biographers, etc., if they could;
they have tried their talents at one or at the other, and have failed; therefore they turn critics (S.
Coleridge).

Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык, используя сослагательное наклонение в


форме Indefinite.
1. Я смогла бы сделать эту работу завтра. 2. Он хочет, чтобы я помогла ему. 3. Мне бы
хотелось дать ему хороший совет. 4. Необходимо, чтобы мы пришли к (какому-нибудь)
соглашению (to come to an agreement). 5. Важно, чтобы они достигли своей цели (to achive the
aim). 6. Желательно, чтобы они обеспечили (to provide; нас необходимой информацией. 7. Они
потребовали, чтобы мы проверили (to check) эти данные еще раз. 8. Прочтите (этот) текст еще
раз, (так) чтобы вы могли понять его.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, выделяя сослагательное наклонение (в форме


Indefinite и Perfect).
1. It is urgent that we debate the importance of such gatherings. 2. But for the good weather
we should not have gone for a walk. 3. It seemed as if the fact were recognized. 4. In many cases it is
essential that cell growth start simultaneously in all infected bacteria. 5. Make haste lest you be late.
6. This would be truer in some types of operations than in others. 7. He asked that they should be
permitted to return to their homes. 8. They lived as if it was an imaginary world. 9. But for the data
presented by the professor, the work might not have been completed. 10. The system is as though
this transformation had never happened. 11. They have changed the sequence of the actions so that
it fit to the situation. 12. Revise the rules lest you forget them. 13. She must have forgotten all about
it otherwise she would have used it. 14. This would have given rise to economic problems. 15. It is
necessary that the model adequately represent the problem situation.

Урок 40.
Прилагательное. Положительная степень. Наречие.
Положительная степень
Упражнение 1. Образуйте наречия (путем присоединения суффикса -1у) от следующих
прилагательных. Помните, что наречия отвечают на вопрос как? каким образом? поэтому в некоторых
случаях можно дать описательный перевод, используя, например, слово образом.
Образец: chief главный – chiefly главным образом.
Real – реальный; right – правильный; different – другой; accurate – точный, правильный,
тщательный; main – главный; rapid – быстрый; wide – широкий; easy – легкий; complete – полный.

Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения.


1 We completed the work nearly two years ago. 2. I shall miss you badly. 3. I know little about this
phenomenon. 4. I know a little about it. 5. He can do the work readily. 6. There are few mistakes in this work.
7. There were a few mistakes in his work. 8. They can hardly realize the difficulty. 9. It was a hard work to do.
10. They will manage to do the work eventually. 11. We tested the substance repeatedly. 12. They followed
our method, however. 13. However carefully we read, we shall not be able to see the difference. 14. He passed
his examination successfully. 15. We shall perform the operations successively. 16. It will necessarily result in a
false program. 17. However attractive, the method must not be used.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на наречия.


1.Success in action depends partially on one's ability to control a situation. 2. The individual is particularly
sensitive to the features of natural objects. 3. It annoys people when we agree partly or disagree partly. 4. We
can use the term in a number of situations, in particular with two-person games.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения.


1. It is the very best thing you can do. 2. His very absence is eloquent (знаменательно). 3. They liked the
work very much. 4. He is the very man I want. 5. We aim to give learners a very rich input of natural English
from the very beginning. 6. Students come with very specific and diverse interests. 7. A very important task
was set before him. 8. On the very day of its arrival the delegations visited the plant. 9. When she was good,
she was very, very good, but when she was bad she was horrid. 10. From the very beginning geometry was
based rather on experience than on axioms.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения


1. Few things, however good, are without some disadvantages, and almost nothing, however bad, is
without a trace of good. 2. All this happened with little encouragement from his colleagues. 3. The few who
opposed this new trend were finally forced to agree. 4. The little that is known of these agreements is
inconclusive. 5. They suffered badly from the lack of information. 6. This does not necessarily end in failure. 7.
They suffered badly from the continuous noise. 8. Science by its very nature is adequate to aid the manager in
producing good decisions. 9. The facts may readily be proved. 10. He will eventually yield. 11. They met with
failure repeatedly. 12. Fundamental discoveries in this new science took place nearly twenty years ago. 13.
From the very beginning we had little information on this subject. 14. A little attention is given, however, to
minor deviations from normal practice. 15. There are few papers dealing with this subject. 16. There were a
few papers dealing with this subject. 17. This course of investigation will hardly suit our purpose.. 18. In this
case the robot can successfully manipulate steel parts. 19. They performed checks successively as complication
increased.

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на


прилагательные и наречия.
1. The number of samples is small. 2. The problem remains difficult. 3. The temperature is high. 4. We
have little information on this subject. 5. The author gave a little attention to the problem identification
approach. 6. We have few papers on the subject. 7. The researcher had a few papers on this problem. 8. We
shall focus on a small number of questions. 9. She is always right. 10. He is always wrong. 11. Reasoning helps
us to be wise. 12. The left side of our brain helps us to be smart (перевести буквально). 13. The right side of
our brain helps us to be wise (перевести буквально). 14. The main purpose is to throw light on this difficult
problem. 15. They mainly focused on fundamental problems. 16. We solved a number of complicated
problems.
Урок 41.
Словообразование
Упражнение 1. Образуйте из данных глаголов новые глаголы путем присоединения префиксов и
переведите на русский язык.
de-: to compose – составлять, to compress – сжимать, to code – кодировать;
dis-: to join – соединять, to agree – соглашаться, to arm – вооружать; to approve – одобрять;
mis-: to inform – информировать, to understand – понимать, to lead – вести, to take – брать;
pre-: to test – испытывать, проверять, to cook – готовить,'to determine – определять;
fore-: to tell – сказать, to go – идти;
under-: to estimate – оценивать, to line – проводить линию, to do – делать, to dose – давать дозу, to
pay – платить;
over-: to estimate – оценивать, to dose – давать дозу, to do – делать, to pay – платить, to eat – есть.

Упражнение 2. Образуйте от приведенных существительных прилагательные, используя суффиксы


-ful и -less. Переведите на русский язык.
Образец: event – событие: eventful – полный событий, богатый событиями; eventless – бедный
событиями.
Use – польза; doubt – сомнение, harm – вред; success – успех; hope – надежда; care – забота,
внимание; fruit – плод; help – помощь.

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на


прилагательные и наречия.
1. They usually use analytical methods. 2. His reasoning is always logical. 3. She has a creative mind. 4. He
is a rational man. 5. It is easy to label people or things as «good» or «bad». 6. The paper is predominantly
concerned with intuitive functions of our mind. 7. The left hemisphere of the brain is predominantly concerned
with intellectual functions. 8. Computational methods are very useful. 9. We carefully described the relations
between a search approach and a reasoning approach. 10. We are mainly concerned with fundamental ques-
tions. 11. We shall be concerned with all these questions. 12. They will omit creative aspects of the problem.
13. We shall organize the discussion of the problem in five main directions.

Урок 42.
Предлоги of, to, for и некоторые из их значений. Существительное в
роли определения. Правило ряда
Упражнение 1. Переведите словосочетания с предлогом of.
Of sets, of tents, of lifts, of pens, of risks, of desks, of tests, of lenses, of dresses, of steps, of themes, of
theorems, of things.

Упражнение 2. Переведите словосочетания с предлогом to.


То dogs, to trends, to boxes, to lenses, to hills, to tests, to plans, to texts, to themes, to belts, to things, to
steps, to desks.

Упражнение 3. Переведите словосочетания с предлогом for.


For things, for themes, for texts, for boxes, for theorems, for dresses, for sets, for lifts, for pens, for plans.
Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язык.
Crystal growth, cell growth, control systems, control of systems, search methods, search for methods, a
system model, a system of models, the system reaction, system identification, problem determination, a
determination problem, problem identification, an identification problem, problem of identification, a
reasoning approach.

Упражнение 5. Переведите словосочетания, уделяя особое внимание первому слову в ряду –


прилагательному.
A new control system, complex search methods, an interesting system model, a simple identification
technique, an elementary game theory, a complicated determination approach, important measurement
parameters, the main growth parameter, a complex simulation model.
Ho: digital data design, the nearest (ближайший) city approach, the complicated problem solution,
complex system design, a large scale map.

Упражнение 6. Переведите словосочетания, иллюстрирующие правило ряда.


Control system design, digital data design, the system reaction identification, parameter identification
methods, the system parameter identification method, our problem determination task, their crystal growth
technique, a cell growth rate increase, a product identification problem, a new control system design, different
search approaches, an important control system identification problem, straight line motion, different
parameter identification methods, a number of general stimulation programs.

Упражнение 7. Переведите на русский язык, используя правило ряда.


1. They used the temperature control system. 2. The paper aims at the development of a search
approach. 3. The paper omits the problem of system identification. 4. A cell growth increase is a factor in the
test. 5. We shall focus on a new crystal growth method. 6. They used an elementary game theory. 7. We shall
organize discussion of the important measurement parameters. 8. You may use any control system design
method. 9. They omitted the identification approach. 10. We use different system models. 11. They solved the
parameter identification problem. 12. We shall use cold light source lamps. 13. The problem identification task
is of great importance. 14. This parameter determination method is of great help. 15. Their control system
design is of interest.

Урок 43.
Суффиксы существительных -er (-or), -ist, -ian, -ity, -ing, -hood, -ment,
-ness, -y, -th, -ant, -ism, -ure, -ship
Практические задания

Упражнение 1. Дайте русские эквиваленты.


A collector, a selector, a container, a protector, an inventor, a reporter, a composer, a producer, a fixer, a
maker, a worker, a flyer, a doer, a writer, a recorder, a reader, a killer, a racer, a player, a computer, a
specialist, a naturalist, a scientist, a chemist, an economist, a botanist, a moralist.

Упражнение 2. На основе приведенных глаголов образуйте существительные, используя


суффиксы -er, -or, и переведите.
О б р а з е ц: to tell рассказывать – a teller рассказчик.
Суффикс -er: to absorb – абсорбировать, поглощать; to advise – советовать, консультировать; to
compute – вычислять; to point – указывать; to produce – производить, вызывать; to report – сообщать,
докладывать; to design – проектировать, конструировать; to restore – реставрировать, восстанавливать;
to run – бежать; to test – проверять, испытывать.

Суффикс -or: to act – действовать; to correct – исправлять; to inspect – инспектировать; to invent –


изобретать; to operate – работать, действовать, управлять; to select – отбирать, сортировать.

Упражнение 3. Переведите на русский язык.


Суффикс -(i)an: historian, arithmetician, statistician, politician, phonetician, librarian (library –
библиотека), tragedian (tragedy – трагедия), comedian (comedy – комедия).
Суффикс -ity: simplicity (simple – простой), similarity (similar – подобный), selectivity (to select –
отбирать), complexity (complex – сложный), certainty (certain – определенный), relativity (relative –
относительный), conductivity (to conduct – проводить).
Суффикс -ing: writings (to write – писать), finding (to find – находить), coming (to come – приходить),
going (to go – ходить), planning (to plan – планировать).
Суффикс -hood: fatherhood (father – отец), brotherhood (brother – брат), serfhood (serf - крепостной,
раб), neighborhood (neighbour – сосед).
Суффикс -ment movement (to move – двигаться), equipment (to equip – оборудовать), requirement (to
require – требовать), agreement (to agree – соглашаться), measurement (to measure – измерять),
development (to develop – развивать), improvement (to improve – улучшать), treatment (to treat –
трактовать, обрабатывать).
Суффикс -ness (основной русский эквивалент -ость): emptiness (empty – пустой), weakness (weak –
слабый), usefulness (useful – полезный), readiness (ready – готовый), effectiveness (effective –
эффективный).
Суффиксы -у; -th; -ant; -ism; -ure: discovery (to discover – открывать), strength (strong – сильный),
truth (true – истинный), growth (to grow – расти), chemist, physicist, capitalist, economist, scientist (science
– наука), meteorologist, assistant, servant (to serve – служить), exposure (to expose – выдерживать (на
свету), выставлять).
Суффикс -ship: leadership (to lead – вести), citizenship (citizen – гражданин), dictatorship (dictator –
диктатор).

Упражнение 4. Переведите, уделяя особое внимание существительным.


1. Beggars cannot be choosers. 2. The impossibility of such a simplification is obvious. 3. Clearliness is next
to godliness. 4. Death is the great leveller. 5. Idleness is the mother of all evil. 6. Overdocumentation has two
dangers. 7. There are times when the weak can help the strong. 8. Two wrongs do not make a right. 9. They
have the same likes and the same dislikes. 10. The capacity to select the important from the many is also
necessary. 11. The wheres and whens are very important.

Урок 44.
Суффиксы прилагательных -able (-ible), -ent, -ant, -ate, -y, -ed.
Суффиксы глаголов -ate, -ize, -ify, -en.
Практические задания

Упражнение 1. Образуйте прилагательные, используя суффиксы, и переведите на русский язык.


Суффикс -able. То obtain - получать; to accept - принимать; to depend - зависеть; to support
поддерживать; to test испытывать; to avoid - избегать; to correct - исправлять; to realize - осознать,
реализовать; to prove - доказывать; to measure - измерять; to modify - видоизменять; to identify -
идентифицировать.
Суффикс -ible: to express - выражать, to reduce - уменьшать, to compress - сжимать, to reverse -
перевертывать.
Суффикс -у. Образуйте прилагательные: hair - волосы; rain - дождь; fun - веселье, радость; snow.
Суффикс -еd: roof - крыша, ice - лед, culture - культура, grass - трава.
Суффиксы -ent, -ant, -ate. Переведите следующие прилагательные: dependent; convenient; efficient;
consequent; evident; frequent; relevant; accurate; adequate.

Упражнение 2. Подберите русские эквиваленты производным словам.


mathematics –; mathematician –; mathematical –;
biology –; biological –; biologist –; biologically –;
to change – изменять; to exchange –; changable –;
difficult – трудный, difficulty –;
to remain – оставаться; remainder –;
valid – имеющий силу, правильный; validity –; invalid –; invalidity –;
to regret – сожалеть, regrettable –;
to inform – информировать, information –; informed –;
experiment – to experiment –; experimentation –; experimenter –;
to cover – покрывать, охватывать, to discover –; to rediscover –;
certain – определенный, некоторый, certainly –; certainty –.

Упражнение 3. Переведите, уделяя особое внимание прилагательным.


Запомните: Глагол to ask имеет разные значения: спрашивать (to ask a question); спрашивать, хотеть
видеть (Не is asking for you – Он хочет тебя видеть); попросить (to ask a favour – попросить об
одолжении); требовать (It asks (for) attention – Это требует внимания) et al. - и другие.
1. Lucky at card, unlucky in love. 2. Propositions may be askable or unaskable. 3. These data are rather
unreliable. 4. This protects us from unnecessary or inappropriate details. 5. There is a possibility that this
search will prove fruitless. 6. In this case high accuracy is obtainable. 7. A related article by Brown et al. is
concerned with manufacturing. 8. Such an accuracy is an unattainable ideal.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язык.


Суффикс -ate: to indicate, to demonstrate, to calculate, to cultivate, to communicate, to dictate, to illus-
trate, to operate.
Суффикс -ize: to utilize, to modularize, to initialize, to stabilize, to realize, to synthesize, to decentralize,
to idealize, to localize, to minimize, to specialize.
Суффикс -ify: to satisfy, to classify, to identify, to modify, to specify, to intensify;
Суффикс -en: to harden (hard – твердый, жесткий), to quicken (quick – быстрый), to soften (soft –
мягкий), to whiten (white – белый), to shorten (short – короткий), to lengthen (length – длина), to blacken
(black – черный), to sharpen (sharp – острый), to strengthen (strength – сила), to thicken (thick – толстый,
густой), to deepen (deep – глубокий).

Урок 45.
Префиксы глаголов en-, re-, be-. . Отрицательные префиксы in- (im-, il-,
ir-), un-, поп-; префиксы post-, super-
Практические задания
Упражнение 1. Образуйте новые слова, используя префиксы, и переведите на русский язык.
Префикс in-: complete - полный, edible - съедобный, correct - правильный, capable - способный,
accurate - точный, правильный, visible - видимый, flexible - гибкий.
Префикс im-: possible - возможный, perfect - совершенный, probable - вероятный, pure - чистый,
precise - точный, practical - практический, mobile – подвижный, мобильный.
Префикс ir-: relevant - относящийся к делу, regular - регулярный, respective - соответственный,
responsible - ответственный.
Префикс il-: legal - легальный, liberal - терпимый, либеральный, literate - грамотный.
Префикс un-: stable - устойчивый, fair - справедливый, familiar - знакомый, to freeze - замораживать,
to fix - закреплять, fit – годный, foreseen - предвиденный, to hang - вешать, heard - слышный.
Префикс post-: war - война, glacial - ледниковый.
Префикс super-: dense - плотный, sonic - звуковой, heavy - тяжелый, natural - естественный, speed -
скорость, conductor - проводник.

Упражнение 2. Дайте значение производных слов.


То describe – описывать, description –; necessary – необходимый, necessarily –; happy – счастливый,
unhappy –; child – ребенок, childhood –; to educate – давать образование, воспитывать, education –; bitter
– горький, резкий (о словах), bitterly –; courage – храбрость, смелость, отвага, to encourage –; to
discourage –; to improve – улучшать, improved –; improvement –; to speak –, speaker –; great – великий,
greatness –; good –, goodness –; sound – звук, to sound –; to verify – проверять, подтверждать, verifiable –;
verification –.

Упражнение 3. Прочитайте и переведите предложения.


1. The usefulness of the method is unquestionable. 2. Most (большинство) people can question the
uncertain, only few can question the obvious. 3. The process is unacceptably slow. 4. The artificiality of this
theory and the inadequacy of the evidence are obvious. 5. They attempted to restore the postwar structure. 6.
Sufficient data to make a relative reproducibility comparison are not available. 7. Misfortunes never come
singly. 8. The inclination toward independent thought can easily be stunted (может быть заторможено) by
overspecialization.