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Chapter 5 Developing Through

the Life Span - 42 Questions


21 Multiple Choice Questions
1. interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas

a. Conservation

b. CORRECT: assimilation
c. Habituation
d. Accommodation

2. The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction
possible
a. Secondary sex characteristics

b. CORRECT: Primary sex characteristics


c. Critical Period
d. Basic Trust

2. One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self
by testing and integrating various roles.
a. Intimacy
b. Imprinting
c. Fetus

d. CORRECT: Identity
2. The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to
independence.
a. Self-concept

b. CORRECT: Adolescence
c. Autism
d. Attachment

2. The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

a. Autism
b. Puberty

c. CORRECT: Fetus
d. Schema

2. In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12)
during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
a. Concrete operational stage

b. CORRECT: Formal operational stage


c. Cross-sectional study
d. Preoperational stage
2. In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age)
during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete
events.
a. Cross-sectional study
b. Formal operational stage

c. CORRECT: Concrete operational stage


d. Preoperational stage

2. one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.

a. Critical Period

b. CORRECT: Crystallized intelligence


c. social identity

d. INCORRECT:
2. research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.

a. INCORRECT:
b. social identity
c. Social clock

d. CORRECT: Longitudinal study


2. Fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops onto an embryo.

a. CORRECT: Zygote
b. Embryo
c. Schema
d. Puberty

2. Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality,
and body hair.

a. CORRECT: Secondary sex characteristics


b. Sensorimotor stage
c. Primary sex characteristics
d. Menarche

2. one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.

a. Adolescence
b. Object permanence

c. CORRECT: Fluid intelligence


d. Crystallized intelligence

2. A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information. (No Answer)

a. CORRECT: Schema
b. Zygote
c. Fetus
d. Autism
2. Physical and cognitive abnormalties in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy
drinking. Severe case: noticeable facial misproportions
a. Attachment
b. Developmental psychology
c. Sensorimotor stage

d. CORRECT: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)


2. The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

a. CORRECT: Puberty
b. Fetus
c. Schema
d. Embryo

2. People's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, percetpions,
and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
a. Teratogens

b. CORRECT: Theory of mind


c. Embryo
d. Imprinting

2. the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes
from our group memberships
a. Social clock
b. Identity

c. CORRECT: social identity


d. Imprinting

2. The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and
retirement.
a. social identity

b. CORRECT: Social clock


c. Basic Trust
d. Schema

2. In Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental
task in late adolescence and early adulthood.

a. CORRECT: Intimacy
b. Autism
c. Schema
d. Identity

2. Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.

a. Maturation
b. assimilation

c. CORRECT: Accommodation
d. cognition

2. An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness
to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
a. Autism
b. Menarche

c. CORRECT: Attachment
d. Schema

21 True/False Questions

1. Menopause → the first menstrual period

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Menopause → The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the
biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines..

2. Sensorimotor stage → In Piaget's theory the stage (fom about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during
which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete
logic.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Sensorimotor stage → In Piaget's theory, the stage ( from birth to about 2 years of
age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and
motor activities.

3. Emerging adulthood → For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to
early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible
adulthood

CORRECT: This is true.

4. Preoperational stage → In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally


beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Preoperational stage → In Piaget's theory the stage (fom about 2 to 6 or 7 years of
age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental
operations of concrete logic..

5. cognition → Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively
uninfluenced by experience.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be cognition → all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing,
remembering, and communicating.

6. Menarche → The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological
changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.

INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true.


It should be Menarche → the first menstrual period.

7. Egocentrism → One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a
sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Egocentrism → In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take
another's point of view..

8. Embryo → The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of
reproducing

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Embryo → The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization
through the second month..

9. Teratogens → An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking
closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Teratogens → Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or
fetus during prenatal development and cause harm..

10. Habituation → Decreasing responsiveness with repeated simulation. As infants gain


familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus their interest wanes and they look away sooner.

CORRECT: This is true.

11. Cross-sectional study → research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a
long period.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Cross-sectional study → a study in which people of different ages are compared
with one another.

12. Stranger anxiety → One's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to
solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.

CORRECT: This is false. It should be Stranger anxiety → The fear of strangers that infants
commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age..

13. Developmental psychology → The culturally preferred timing of social events such as
marriage, parenthood, and retirement.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Developmental psychology → Branch of psychology that studies physical,
cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

14. Imprinting → The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period
very easily in life.

CORRECT: This is true.


15. Conservation → Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior,
relatively uninfluenced by experience.

INCORRECT: This is false, but you marked it true.


It should be Conservation → The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number
remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects..

16. Autism → The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Autism → A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient
communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind..

17. Self-concept → The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to
independence.

CORRECT: This is false.


It should be Self-concept → A sense of one's identity and personal worth.

18. Basic Trust → According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and
trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.

CORRECT: This is true.

19. Object permanence → The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from
puberty to independence.

CORRECT: This is false. It should be Object permanence → The awareness that things
continue to exist even when not perceived..

20. Critical Period → An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain
stimuli of experiences produces proper development.

CORRECT: This is true.

21. Maturation → Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively
uninfluenced by experience.

CORRECT: This is true

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW ( I JUST PUT IN ANY ANSEWRS TO GET THE CORRECT


ANSWERS TO REVEW. )

1. When an infant finds him- or herself in a situation that he or she cannot make
sense of, the infant experiences:

Your Answer: fear

2. When a customary care provider departs, an infant may display __________


anxiety.

Your Answer: full


Correct Answer: separation

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

3. At what age do infants start to smile at stimuli (such as toys) that bring them
pleasure?

Your Answer: around 6 months

Correct Answer: around 2 months

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

4. What benefits lie in infants' usage of social referencing?

Your Answer: all of the above

5. We are born with the knowledge that we exist independently of others.

Your Answer: False

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

6. The emergence of self-awareness in children may be examined through:

Your Answer: their pretend play

Correct Answer: the mirror-and-rouge task

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

7. Children are already capable of showing empathy at:

Your Answer: 32 months

Correct Answer: 24 months

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

8. The explanations that children use in order to explain other people's thinking
represents a __________.

Your Answer: egocentric

Correct Answer: theory of mind

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

9. Match each researcher with their specific attachment theory .


Option Your Answer: Correct Answer:

9.1 Harry Harlow A. need for safety and C. contact comfort


security

9.2 Konrad B. responsiveness to child's D. imprinting


Lorenz oral needs

9.3 Sigmund C. contact comfort B. responsiveness to child's


Freud oral needs

9.4 John Bowlby D. imprinting A. need for safety and


security

9.5 Mary E. strange situations E. strange situations


Ainsworth

See section, “Developing the Roots of Sociability”

10. Using examples from the Strange Situations study, match the different
attachment patters to children's responses.

Option Your Answer: Correct Answer:

10.1 secure A. This child shows great B. The child uses his
attachment distress when the mother mother as a home base, is
pattern leaves the room, but when at ease when the mother is
she returns, the child may present, becomes upset
both kick her and wish to when she leaves, but will
be close to her. go to her as soon as she
returns.

10.2 avoidant B. The child uses his D. The child does not seek
attachment mother as a home base, is close proximity to the
pattern at ease when the mother is mother, and after she
present, becomes upset leaves and comes back, the
when she leaves, but will child seems to avoid her.
go to her as soon as she
returns.

10.3 ambivalent D. The child does not seek A. This child shows great
attachment close proximity to the distress when the mother
patterns mother, and after she leaves the room, but when
leaves and comes back, she returns, the child may
the child seems to avoid both kick her and wish to
her. be close to her.

10.4 disorganized- C. The child displays C. The child displays


disoriented inconsistent, often inconsistent, often
attachment contradictory behavior. contradictory behavior.
pattern When the mother leaves When the mother leaves
and then returns, the child and then returns, the child
will seek to be close to her, will seek to be close to her,
but will not look at her. but will not look at her.

See section, “Forming Relationships”

11. Children who are raised by overly responsive mothers are likely to be
__________ attached.

Your Answer: social

Correct Answer: insecurely

See section, “Forming Relationships”


12. Infants prefer to be soothed by their mothers rather than by their fathers.

Your Answer: True

See section, “Forming Relationships”

13. What is one of the main critiques of the Strange Situations experiment?

Your Answer: it does not distinguish between mothers with biological


infants and mothers with adopted infants
Correct Answer: it disregards cultural variations in attachment

See section, “Forming Relationships”

14. The process during which infants' behaviors prompt further responses from
parents and other caregivers and, in turn, initiates new responses from the
infants is known as:

Your Answer: social regulation

Correct Answer: reciprocal socialization

See section, “Forming Relationships”

15. Infants who are __________ exhibit a higher level of social behavior toward
each other than towards an unfamiliar infant.

Your Answer: good

Correct Answer: twins

See section, “Forming Relationships”

16. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development argues that infant's personalities


are shaped primarily by their environment.

Your Answer: False

See section, “Differences Among Infants”

17. Difficult babies have difficult moods but are quick to adapt to new situations.

Your Answer: True

Correct Answer: False

See section, “Differences Among Infants”

18. When confronted with a new situation, difficult babies tend to __________.

Your Answer: cry


Correct Answer: withdraw

See section, “Differences Among Infants”

19. Nearly __________ percent of children under the age of 3 are cared for by
other adults while their parents are at work.

Your Answer: 7

Correct Answers: fifty

50

See section, “Differences Among Infants”

20. Describe the four classifications of infant attachment. Be sure to address the
four types as well as classification criteria.
Your Answer:

CHAPTER 16

Raven Helson suggests that it is not adults' _____ but _____ that determines
the course of their personality development.

Your Answer: age; life events

2. Generative individuals do not strive to play a role in guiding future generations.

Your Answer: True

See section, “Personality Development”

3. A __________ may occur when one reaches a stage of uncertainty and


indecision when it is realized that life is finite.

Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: midlife crisis

See section, “Personality Development”

4. The "Big Five" stands for:

Your Answer: the five major clusters of personality characteristics

5. The components of the "Big Five" are neuroticism, extroversion,


conscientiousness, openness, and __________.
Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: agreeableness

See section, “Personality Development”

6. Cross-cultural research shows that regardless of their socioeconomic status,


people generally feel:

Your Answer: dissatisfied with their lives

Correct Answer: generally happy

See section, “Personality Development”

7. Divorced people may find remarriage appealing because it provides


companionship and often also__________ benefits.

Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: economic

See section, “Personality Development”

8. Women over 40 find it harder to remarry due to:

Your Answer: the marriage gradient

Correct Answer: all of the above

See section, “Personality Development”

9. Fathers and mothers tend to be equally sympathetic to their children who are
unemployed.

Your Answer: False

See section, “Personality Development”

10. The majority of elderly people who live alone report that they:

Your Answer: do not want to live with their children

11. __________ grandparents frequently call and visit their grandchildren, may
take them on vacations, or ask them to come for a visit.

Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: Companionate

See section, “Personality Development”


12. African American grandparents are __________ likely to be involved with their
grandchildren than European American grandparents.

Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: more

See section, “Personality Development”

13. What are some of the factors that increase the likelihood of spousal abuse?

Your Answer: all of the above

14. Ninety-percent of women under the age of twenty-five remarry.

Your Answer: False

Correct Answer: True

See section, “Relationships: Family in Middle Age“

15. Some researchers argue that the more a society differentiates between the
roles and statuses of women and men in the society, the __________ the
likelihood is of abuse.

Your Answer: BLANK

Correct Answer: higher

See section, “Personality Development”

16. In general, the older a person is, the more likely he/she is to be satisfied with
his/her job.

Your Answer: False

Correct Answer: True

See section, “Work and Leisure“

17. Middle-aged individuals who are unemployed show signs of:

Your Answer: frustration

Correct Answer: insomnia

See section, “Work and Leisure“

18. Less than 10% of women will be slapped, kicked, beaten, choked, or
threatened by an intimate partner at least once during a relationship.

Your Answer: False


See section, “Relationships: Family in Middle Age“

19. According to Daniel Levinson, the early 40’s in an individual’s life is marked by
intense psychological turmoil, often resulting in a midlife crisis. In your opinion,
is a midlife crisis truly a reality for adults?
Your Answer:
BLANK BLANK BLANKBLANK

-answers will vary

See section, “Personality Development”

20. Describe the “cycle of violence” hypothesis. What are some of the ways to deal
with spousal abuse?
Your Answer:
BLANK BALANK BLANK NLANK

-abuse and neglect of children leads them to be predisposed to abusiveness as


adults

See section, “Relationships: Family in Middle Age“