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Unit 2

1.Speak about FIXED FF SYSTEMS.

Fixed Fire Fighting Systems is a combination of pipes, valves and other non-portable devices.There
are designed to extinguish a fire in rooms and on the deck.They are the following: Water Sprinkler
System, CO2, Foam System, Fire Detectors and alarm system, Fire Retardant Bulkhead, Fire Doors, Fire
Dumpers, Fire Escape means, Remote Shut Valves and Stop Engines System, Inert Gas System.

Стационарные системы пожаротушения представляют собой комбинацию труб, клапанов и других


непереносимых устройств, которые предназначены для тушения пожара в помещениях и на
палубе. Это следующие: система разбрызгивания воды, CO2, система пены, пожарные извещатели
и сигнализация , Огнестойкая переборка, противопожарные двери, противопожарные самосвалы,
средства пожарной эвакуации, система дистанционных запорных клапанов и запорных
двигателей, система инертного газа.

2.What are the mist/fog system’s advantages?

The mist systems use less water and can be brought into action faster than gas systems ,mist also cools
the space and controls smoke in the process.

Системы тумана используют меньше воды и могут быть приведены в действие быстрее, чем
газовые системы, туман также охлаждает пространство и контролирует дым в процессе.

3.What are the disadvantage(недостаток) and advantage(преимущество) of CO2 system?

CO2 gas has excellent fire-extinguishing capabilities and is relatively inexpensive, but can pose a serious
risk to personnel because it works by reducing the oxygen content in the atmosphere.

Газ CO2 обладает превосходными возможностями пожаротушения и относительно недорог, но


может представлять серьезный риск для персонала, поскольку он работает за счет снижения
содержания кислорода в атмосфере.

4.What is the function of Inert Gas system in cargo space?

The IG system is to protect Cargo space from any fire hazards in the oil tankers of 20000 dwt and above .

Система IG предназначена для защиты грузового пространства от любых пожаров на нефтяных


танкерах мощностью от 20000 тонн и выше.

5.Speak about PORTABLE FF EQUIPMENTS?

They are the following: Fire Hose and Nozzles, Portable Fire Extinguishers, Fire Fighter’s Outfit, Fire
Control Plan on Ship, International Shore Connection (ISC), Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD).
К ним относятся: пожарные шланги и насадки, переносные огнетушители, экипировка пожарного,
план управления огнем на корабле, международное соединение с берегом (ISC), дыхательное
устройство для аварийного выхода (EEBD).

6.What are semi- portable FF EQUIPMENTS?

These can be a semi-portable foam fire extinguisher or semi-portable DCP type fire extinguisher.

Это могут быть полупереносные пенные огнетушители или полупортативные огнетушители типа
DCP.

7.Speak about five main portable marine fire extinguisher ?

There are five main types of fire extinguishers used on ships: Soda Acid Fire Extinguisher, Water
Extinguisher, Foam Extinguisher – Chemical and Mechanical, Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher, Dry Powder
Extinguisher(DCP).

Существует пять основных типов огнетушителей, используемых на судах: кислый огнетушитель,


огнетушитель воды, пенный огнетушитель - химический и механический, углекислотный
огнетушитель, порошковый огнетушитель (DCP).

8.What are five marine fire classes?

Class A - fires involving solid materials such as wood, paper or textiles.


Class B - fires involving flammable liquids such as petrol, diesel or oils.
Class C - fires involving gases.
Class D - fires involving metals.
Class E - fires involving live electrical apparatus.

Класс A - пожары с использованием твердых материалов, таких как дерево, бумага или текстиль.
Класс B - пожары с использованием легковоспламеняющихся жидкостей, таких как бензин,
дизельное топливо или масла.
Класс С - пожары с участием газов.
Класс D - пожары с участием металлов.
Класс E - пожары с участием живого электрического оборудования.

Unit 3

1.Speak about Collective LSA.

Collective LSA can be used to rescue the group of people. They are the following: life boat, life raft
and resque boat.

Collective LSA можно использовать для спасения группы людей.

2.Speak about lifeboats.


Lifeboats can be open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed type. Lifeboat has two methods of
launching –by Davit launching and freefall.
Спасательные шлюпки могут быть открытого, частично закрытого и полностью закрытого типа.
Спасательная шлюпка имеет два способа запуска - путем запуска Davit и свободного падения.

3.Speak about life rafts .

LIFE RAFTS have three methods of launching: Automatically inflatable, Launched overboard
manually, by Davit. Liferaft can be automatically activated by using Automatically inflatable HRU –
Hydrostatic Release unit that activates on 4 mtrs underwater.

У LIFE RAFTS есть три метода запуска: Автоматически надувные, Запущенные за борт вручную,
Davit. Спасательный плот может быть автоматически активирован с помощью Автоматически
надувного блока HRU - Hydrostatic Release, который активируется на 4 метрах под водой.

4.What personal LSA can you name?

Life jacket, life bouy , immersion suit , anti exsplosure suit, TERMAL PROTECTIVE SUIT.
Спасательный жилет, спасательный круг, иммерсионный костюм, противоударный костюм,
ТЕРМИЧЕСКИЙ ЗАЩИТНЫЙ КОСТЮМ.

5.What LSA AIDS do know? (Устройства)

LINE THREWING APPARATUS, PARACHUTTE ROCKETS,HAND FLARES, SMOKE SIGNALS.

6.What LSA aids do we have in the life boat and in life raft?

Hand flares, smoke signals, portable fire-extinguishing equipment.

7.Speak about LIFE BOUY.

Lifebuoy is a life saving equipment designed to be thrown to a person in the water, to provide
buoyancy and prevent drowning. The lifebuoy is usually ring- or horseshoe-shaped and has a
connecting line allowing the casualty to be pulled to the rescuer in a boat.
Спасательный круг - это спасательное оборудование, предназначенное для бросания человека в
воду, чтобы обеспечить плавучесть и предотвратить утопление. Спасательный круг обычно
имеет форму кольца или подковы и имеет соединительную линию, позволяющую доставить
пострадавшего к спасателю на лодке.

Unit4

1.What Protective Clothing do you know?


Какую защитную одежду вы знаете?
Helmet, safety shoes,safety hand gloves ,googles ,ear plugs, safety harness, face mask , chemical suit ,
welding shield.
Шлем, защитная обувь, защитные перчатки, очки, беруши, ремни безопасности, маска для лица,
химический костюм, сварочный щиток.

2.Define an enclosed Space?


Определить закрытое пространство?

The space which have restricted access, restricted ventilation and NOT designed for continuous working.
Пространство с ограниченным доступом, ограниченной вентиляцией и НЕ предназначено для
непрерывной работы.
3. What is ISGOTT?

International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers & Terminals. The main purpose of ISGOTT is to provide
recommendations and guidance's on the safe carriage and handling of crude oil and petroleum for
tankers and terminals but without providing a definitive description of how cargo operations should be
conducted on board a tanker.
Международное руководство по безопасности для нефтяных танкеров и терминалов. Основная
цель ISGOTT - предоставить рекомендации по безопасной перевозке и обработке сырой нефти для
танкеров и терминалов, но без предоставления четкого описания того, как грузовые операции
должны проводиться на борту танкера.

4.What is Work Permit?


Что такое разрешение на работу?

Work Permits- The permit-to-work system is a method whereby safety procedures are specified in
writing on a form issued to seafarers who are entrusted with a task which may involve work of a
hazardous nature
Система разрешения на работу - это метод, при котором процедуры безопасности определяются
в письменной форме, выданной морякам, на которых возложена задача, которая может
включать в себя работу опасного характера.

5.Define Snap Back Zones?


Определить зоны возврата назад?

A snap-back is the sudden recoil of a mooring line as a result of its failure under tension. A snap-back
zone on a mooring deck is the space where it is anticipated that the failed mooring line could recoil with
great velocity, possibly resulting in injury or even death to crew present within this zone.
Ослабление - это внезапная отдача от швартовной линии в результате ее разрушения под
напряжением. Зона возврата назад на швартовной палубе - это место, где ожидается, что
неисправная швартовная линия может отскочить с большой скоростью, что может привести к
травме или даже смерти экипажа, присутствующего в этой зоне.
6.What does Toxic cargoes mean?
Что такое токсичные грузы?

A toxic substance is one which is liable to cause either harm to human health, serious injury or death.
Toxic means the same as poisonous. There are three common ways that a cargo can be toxic: swallowed
(oral toxicity), absorbed through the skin, eyes and mucous membranes (dermal toxicity) or inhalation
as a vapour or mist (inhalation toxicity).
Токсичное вещество - это вещество, которое может нанести вред здоровью человека, серьезным
травмам или смерти. Токсичный означает то же, что и ядовитый. Существует три
распространенных способа, которыми груз может быть токсичным: проглатывание (оральная
токсичность), впитывание через кожу, глаза и слизистые оболочки (кожная токсичность) или
вдыхание в виде паров или тумана (ингаляционная токсичность).

Unit 5 :

1. Describe action MOB.


Immediately wheel over to casualty side, release MOB(Man Over Board) markers, press MOB on
GPS and ECDIS, note ships position, wind speed, direction ,current speed and direction, and time,
raise general emergency alarm, inform master and engine room, sound three prolong blast using
ships whistle, emergency broadcast on vhf with position and time and also advice nearby vessel
to navigate with caution, carry out the Williamson turn, keep an eye on the casualty and post
extra lookout, hoist flag “o”, muster rescue boat crew, prepare rescue boat launching, send
urgency msg ,rig pilot ladder, recover the casualty from windward side, give first aid to the
person, pick up the marker, once rescue is successful cancel the urgency msg, keep the record of
all the event.
2. What maneuvers are used in action MOB?
The main maneuvers in action MOB is Williamson turn. Anderson turn and the Scharnov turn
also can be used in action MOB.
3. What is PIVOT POINT?
PIVOT POINT is the point around which the vessel normally turns (swings)
4. When to call a master?
The officer in charge should always call the Ship’s Captain in case of an emergency. Therefore, if
the OOW has any doubt regarding the safety of the ship or how to deal with an unknown or risky
situation, should immediately call the Ship’s Captain. The list of situations, where in the Ship’s
Master should be called : In circumstances of restricted visibility; traffic conditions that cause
concerns; when appear difficulties in maintaining course; in case of any malfunctions of
communications equipment or GMDSS radio; in any cases when the situation is beyond the
experience of the OOW; if there is any doubt regarding the safety of the ship, or ability to comply
with regulatory requirements and etc.. If the situation demands to call the Ship’s Master, then
this must be done early enough in order to allow the Master sufficient time to understand and
respond effectively to the situation. However, the presence of the Ship’s Master on the bridge
does not relieve the OOW of responsibility for the watch. He should remain and continue to
manage the Bridge Team supporting Ship’s Master actions, unless instructed otherwise.
5. What are the duties of OOW?
While keeping a watch on the bridge Officer on Watch (OOW) is the representative of the ship’s
master and has the total responsibility of safe and smooth navigation of the ship. OOW is also in
charge of the bridge team, which is there to support him in the navigation process. He is also
responsible to ensure that the ship complies with COLREGS and all the orders of the master are
followed with utmost safety under all conditions. A list of main duties of an officer on watch
(OOW):compare the compasses, check soundings by the echo sounder, ensure that the lookout is
alert, check the position, discussing with the outgoing OOW, read log entries and etc.. However,
this is not an exhaustive list and the duties may change according to the requirements.
6. When Pilot on board what are OOW duties?
OOW always go down on deck to meet the pilot and check pilot ladder is properly rigged as per
instructions and if required go down to the gangway to meet pilot on lowest platform of
accommodation ladder. The presence of the pilot on board does not relieve the OOW from his
duties and he remains to be responsible for navigation of the vessel.
7. Describe anchor station.
Prior entering the anchorage area, the anchor party should be stand by forward to undertake
checks and preparations to carry out the anchor operation. Officer in charge should ensure that
the anchor party wearing proper Personal Protective Equipment for the anchor station. He must
also ensure that the following actions are completed: hydraulic power on , windlass operation
checked, break properly working, anchor lashing removed ,anchor ball prepared, communication
tested with bridge, prepare the anchor to drop. It is very important to maintain good
communication between bridge and anchor party.A secondary means of communication to be
tested and kept stand by.
8. Describe the bridge preparation for departure(Отплытие).
During the preparation of the bridge for departure, first of all we need to prepare the passage
plan. We also need to check all navigation devices and equipment on the bridge. For example,
ARPA, NAVTEX, ECDIS. It is necessary to test engines, equipment of engine department,
communication and radio equipment. All these actions and their results should be recorded and
documented.
9. What is the function of mooring lines and what mooring lines do you know?
Mooring lines are to prevent the ships from drifting away from a berth. Mooring lines hold
(держат) the ship in place in relation to the loading/discharging arm or hoses, which may only
have limited freedom of movement. Mooring lines also assist in heaving the ship alongside berth
and can be used to assist in unberthing. They are the foolowing:Headlines, Breast lines, Spring
lines, Stern lines.
10. What is Master’s stranding order?
Master’s standing orders shall be issued by Master before retiring from the bridge when the
vessel is at sea, anchorage and at any other time when he considers specific orders to be
required. The night orders shall include but not be limited to the course, speed, changes of
course and/or speed and any other information of precaution that may be suitable and
necessary to enable the OOW to navigate the vessel accurately and safely.
11. Describe costal navigation.
Coastal navigation can be described as the safe conduct of a ship where the navigator has the
land on one side of his course and the open sea on the other, even he is in fact navigating in what
are known as pilotage waters. When a ship is proceeding in sight of a coastline, its navigator
need not be in doubt as to his position, for the largest-scale chart of the area will show all
landmarks, lighthouses, lightships, buoys, etc., and by taking bearings of objects on shore, and
laying them off on the chart, he can fix the ship's position. Where the chart shows only one
conspicuous object in a long coastline, a position can be obtained by a running fix.
12. Describe pilotage.
Pilotage refers to activities related to the navigation of vessels in which the pilot acts as an
advisor to the master of the vessel and as an expert on the local waters and their navigation. The
purpose of pilotage is to enhance the safety of vessel traffic and prevent environmental damage
generated by vessel traffic.Ships arriving to and departing from ports may use the services of a
pilot if the vessel’s cargo is considered dangerous or hazardous, or if such services are required
due to the size of the vessel itself.But the presence of the pilot onboard vessel does not relieve
OOW and Master from their duties and responsibilities.

13 . Name the methods used of fixing the ship's position when in sight of land.

By a running fix, by a vertical sextant angle of, for instance, a lighthouse when its height above sea level
is known, or by satelite navigation systems.

13. Describe BRIDGE WATCH I and BRIDGE WATCH II.


BRIDGE WATCH I -this watch has one Deck Officer and lookout on the Bridge. BRIDGE WATCH II-
this watch requires two Deck Officers,a lookout and helmsmen .

14. What you should inform the muster?


The Master must be informed whenever a significant event or change occurs. The Master must
be informed well in time to allow for a full assessment of the situation and to undertake any
corrective actions that may be necessary. He must be informed immediately for example when
any navigation equipment fails, at any time the OOW is in doubt as to the safety of the ship, or in
condition of restricted visibility and etc.
15. Describe navigation in RESTRICTED VISIBILITY what must be done?
Comply COLREG Rule 19 for Restricted Visibility and Rule 35.Inform master and engine room,
determine all the traffic nearby, start the sound signals, changeover to hand steering and post
extra lookout, reduce speed to safe speed, start both steering motors, open bridge wing doors,
close all water tight doors or weather tight doors, monitor VHF, start echo sounder, comply
company navigation checklist.
16. What are the actions to be taken in heavy weather?
There should be possible to obtain timely warning to approaching heavy weather.When Master is
informed he should take action to either avoid the worst of the weather or prepare for
inclement conditions. The following actions may be taken: all watertight doors, vents ,openings
and lashings should be inspected, all crew should be inform about heavy weather approaching
and participate in preparations, all rooms should be secured and etc..
17. What Actions Ship Must Take For Tropical Revolving Storm (TRS)?
The vessel must keep the distance from center of the storm at least not less than 50 miles. Need
to maintain a sufficiently high speed and monitor the performance of barometer. It is also
necessary to use every opportunity to leave the storm zone.
18. Describe ship to ship (STS)operation.
Prior to any STS operation Master shall ensure a thorough risk assessment is carried out and it
should include sufficient information which will assist in a good understanding of the operation.
The company has provided all ships with generic STS Risk assessment. While doing risk
assessment Master shall take into account the influence of currents and depth of water in the
area, draught and others factors that which may affect the mooring operation.
19. Describe SAFETY / SECURITY ROUNDS AND STAND-BY DUTY.
On completion of work each day the Chief Officer and Bosun must ensure that the vessel is
secure for the night. This check should include but not be limited to verify the security of
lifeboats, liferafts, cranes and all equipment stowed on deck and all watertight doors/ opening on
weather deck are closed. During the hours of darkness, the outgoing (OOW) Officer of the Watch
and his lookout shall perform Fire rounds of accommodation spaces after his bridge watch; the
rounds shall include checks for fire, leaks, electrical fittings etc..
20. what Log books do you know?
Bell book, deck log, course recorder, medical log, official logbook,oil record book, radio
messages.

Unit 6

1. What Is IMDG CODE, How often amendments regarding of IMDG are proposed?

The International Maritime Dangerous Goods or IMDG Code was formed to prevent all types of
pollutions at sea and to ensure that the goods transported through seaways are packaged in such a way
that they can be safely transported. Since IMDG code was adopted marine transportation has
undergone a lot of development and changes, it becomes essential that the code also keeps up with the
changes.This is why the amendments to IMDG code are proposed every two years, and the adoption of
the amendments takes place after two years of the proposal by the concerned authorities.

2.What are 9 classes in which the dangerous goods are classified?


Class 1 - Explosives. Class 2 - Gases: Compressed, Liquefied or Dissolved under Pressure. Class 3 -
Flammable Liquids. Class 4 - Flammable Solids or Substances. Class 5 - Oxidizing Substances (agents) and
Organic Peroxides. Class 6 - Toxic and infectious Substances. Class 7 - Radioactive Substances.Class 8 -
Corrosives.Class 9 - Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.

3. What is the role of DGSA?

Dangerous Goods Safety Advisor (DGSA) has to ensure that the required rules and regulations pertaining
to the packaging and storage of dangerous goods is met with as is the overall transportation aspect.

4. Working with IMDG what should Seafarer know?

Working with IMDG Seafarer should know the following important things : classification of dangerous
goods, packing rules, different types of markings, labels or placards used to address various dangerous
goods, safe practice to load/unload the cargo unit carrying the IMDG product, the transport documents
used for dangerous goods, the best procedure to contain and fight a fire involving dangerous goods
carried on ship and etc..

5. Working with IMDG what should OOW check?

Working with IMDG OOW should check : check the Cargo for Correct Packaging, check the Labels ,
check the Documents of the Cargo , check the stowage plan and store the package as per the same,
check that no bunkering is going on or stopped during the time of loading, check the radar is put off,
applicable for certain cargoes, check the packaging is weather tight, checkthere is no damage or leakage
found during loading, check on port regulation on IMDG cargo before cargo operation and etc..

6. What are the groups of IMDG?

IMDG cargoes are divided in to three main groups and each has a specific plan to store, transport and
handling in case of accident or spill: Group 1: Cargo which are extremely dangerous; Group 2: Cargo with
moderate danger; Group 3: Cargo with less danger.

7. Which documents must be handed over by agent or shipper to the master/ chief before loading
any IMDG cargo?

The following documents must be handed over by agent or shipper to the master/ chief before loading
any IMDG cargo : the technical name of the cargo carried, the declaration certificate saying cargo has
been packed as per the IMDG code, Material Safety Data Sheet .

8. What must be checked when Loading IMDG Cargo?

While loading the IMDG cargo, following things must be checked:

check the stowage plan and store the package as per the same;

no bunkering is going on or stopped during the time of loading;


the radar is put off, applicable for certain cargoes; check the packaging is weather tight; ensure there is
no damage or leakage found during loading; before cargo operation, have a check on port regulation on
IMDG cargo.

9. What must be checked when Loading Explosive Cargo?

If the IMDG cargo is with explosive label, ensure to check: the package is stored over a wooden pallet;
all the electrical fittings in that region are disconnected from the source; all electrical wirings are
sheathed properly; the cargo is stowed away from accommodation and hot bulkhead.

10. What deck officer must read and understand for Emergency Procedure?

The deck officer must read and understand : emergency procedure for ships carrying IMDG cargo;
MFAG-Medical First Aid Guide for accidents involving IMDG cargo; risk associated with cargo by
understanding the labels.

11. What kind of information is provided by MSDS?

The following information is provided by MSDS : hazard Identification along with identification of the
mixture or content, composition or information of the ingredients, fire fighting measures, first aid
measures, accidental release measure, handling and storage criteria, personal protection and exposal
control methods, chemical and physical properties of the mixture, information about the toxicity of the
material, ecological and Disposal information, transport and regulatory information, additional
information on the preparation and revision of MSDS.

7 MARPOL
1. Speak about MARPOL Annex –I.
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil. The objective of Annex is to preserve
the marine environment through the complete elimination of pollution by oil or oily
materials and the minimization of accidental discharge of such substances.
2. Speak about MARPOL Annex –II.
Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk. It details
the discharge criteria for the elimination of pollution by noxious liquid substances
carried in large quantities. It divides substances into several groups and introduces
detailed operational standards and measures.
3. Speak about MARPOL Annex –III.
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in
Packaged Form. It contains general requirements for the standards on packing, marking,
labeling, documentation, stowage, quantity subtraction, division and notifications for
preventing pollution by harmful substances.
4. Speak about MARPOL Annex –IV.
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships. It introduces
requirements to control pollution of the sea by sewage from ships.
5. Speak about MARPOL Annex –V.
Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships. It seeks to eliminate
and reduce the amount of garbage being discharged into the sea from ships.It specifies
the distances from land in which materials may be disposed of and subdivides different
types of garbage and marine debris.
6. Speak about MARPOL Annex –VI.
Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships. It introduces requirements to
regulate the air pollution being emitted by ships, including the emission of ozone-
depleting substances, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulphur Oxides (SOx), Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs) and shipboard incineration. It also establishes requirements for
reception facilities for wastes from exhaust gas cleaning systems, incinerators, fuel oil
quality, for off-shore platforms and drilling rigs and for the establishment of SOx
Emission Control Areas (SECAs).
7. Which Special Area do you know According to MARPOL Annex I.
Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, "Gulfs" area, Gulf of Aden, Antarctic
area, North West European Waters, Oman area of the Arabian Sea, Southern South
African waters.
8. Which Special Area do you know According to MARPOL Annex II.
Antarctic area.
9. Which Special Area do you know According to MARPOL Annex IV.
Baltic Sea.
10. Which Special Area do you know According to MARPOL Annex V.
Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea,Black Sea, Red Sea,"Gulfs" area,North Sea, Antarctic area
(south of latitude 60 degrees south), Wider Caribbean region including the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.
11. Which Special Area do you know According to MARPOL Annex VI.
Baltic Sea ,North Sea ,North American ECA (Emission Control Areas) ,United
States,Caribbean Sea ECA (Emission Control Areas).
12. Explain what is P&A Manual , which Vessel shell carry out P&A Manual.
Procedures & Arrangements (P&A) Manual. A Manual to identify the arrangements and
equipment required to enable compliance with Annex II and to identify for the ship’s
officers all operational procedures with respect to cargo handling, tank cleaning, slops
handling, residue discharging, ballasting and deballasting . MARPOL Annex II requires
that each ship which is certified for the carriage of Noxious Liquid Substances in bulk
shall be provided with a Procedures and Arrangements Manual.
13. Explain what is Oil Record Book, and What entries to be filled in.
In accordance with MARPOL Annex I, " each oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above, ship
of 400 gross tons and above other than an oil tanker, and manned fixed or floating
drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery Space
Operations) ; an oil tanker of 150 gross tons and above or a non oil tanker that carries
200 cubic meters or more of oil in bulk, shall also maintain an Oil Record Book Part II
(Cargo/Ballast Operation) ". The following entries to be filled in ". The following entries
to be filled in Oil Record Book : ballasting or cleaning of fuel oil tanks; discharge of
ballast containing an oily mixture or cleaning water from fuel oil tanks; disposal of oil
residue; discharge overboard or disposal otherwise of bilge water that has accumulated
in machinery spaces; loading of oil cargo; internal transfer of oil cargo during voyage;
unloading of oil cargo; ballasting of cargo tanks and dedicated clean ballast tanks;
cleaning of cargo tanks including crude oil washing; discharge of ballast except from
segregated ballast tanks; discharge of water from slop tanks; closing of all applicable
valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations; closing of valves necessary
for isolation of dedicated clean ballast tanks from cargo and stripping lines after slop
tank discharge operations; and disposal of oil residue.
14.Describe condition when and what kind of Garbage you may threw overboard.
In accordance with MARPOL Annex V, "the disposal into the sea of the following garbage shall
be made as far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance
from the nearest land is less than:25 nautical miles for dunnage, lining and packing materials
which will float;12 nautical miles for food wastes and all other garbage including paper products,
rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery and similar refuse".Disposal into the sea of such types
garbage may be permitted when it has passed through a comminuter or grinder and made as
far as practicable from the nearest land but in any case is prohibited if the distance from the
nearest land is less than 3 nautical miles. Such comminuted or ground garbage shall be capable
of passing through a screen with openings no greater than 25 mm.

8 NAVIGATION

1. MEANS AND AIM OF IALA BUOY SYSTEM.

IALA brings together representatives of the aids to navigation services of about 80 countries for
technical coordination, information sharing, and coordination of improvements to aids to navigation
throughout the world, in order to provide a permanent organization to support the goals of the
Technical Lighthouse Conferences. IALA is primarily known for the IALA Maritime Buoyage Systems or
sea mark systems that are used in the pilotage of vessels at sea.

2. Speak about Lateral marks.

Lateral mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in
maritime pilotage to indicate the edge of a channel.

3. Speak about Cardinal marks.

A cardinal mark is a sea mark (a buoy or other floating or fixed structure) used in maritime pilotage to
indicate the position of a hazard and the direction of safe water.

4. Speak about Safe water mark.


A Safe Water Mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark
used in maritime pilotage to indicate the end of a channel. It usually implies that open, deep and safe
water lies ahead, though it is sometimes also used to indicate the start and end of a buoyed section of a
continuous narrow channel, or a line of these marks can be used to mark a safe route through shallow
areas.

5. WHY WE TAKE COMPASS ERROR -

The compass error should be checked each watch and on every new course to measure the error of the
gyrocompass. This is important because should the gyro compass fail , this information will be needed to
set courses using the magnetic compass.

6. Explain method to Find Compass Error by TRANSIT BEARING.

This is a line on the chart where an observer would see two identifiable objects in line. A bearing taken
when both the objects are in line can be used to determine the gyro and compass errors by comparing
charted and observed bearings.

7. Explain method to Find Compass Error by LEADING LIGHTS

This is similar to transit bearings where two identifiable objects are used to draw a line of bearing on
the chart. These bearing lines are used to indicate track to be followed when approaching a port or a
channel. The difference between the charted bearing and the heading of the ship when on the leads
can be used to determine the error on both gyro and magnetic compass.

8. Explain method to Find Compass Error by HORIZONTAL SEXTANT ANGLE (HSA)

This method is used to plot ship’s position, the observed bearing of one of the objects used for plotting
the position when compared to the bearing line drawn on the chart from the observed ship’s position to
the same object would give the compass error.

9. Explain method to Find Compass Error by VERTICAL SEXTANT ANGLE(VSA)

This method gives us distance off. We need take the compass bearing of that object, then from the
position on chart take the true bearing. The difference will be error. VSA is require to know our position.
Then only we can take true bearing.

10. Explain method to Find Compass Error by AZIMUTH (SUN, MOON, PLANET, STAR)

The azimuth is used to observe the compass error by taking the bearing of the heavenly body and
comparing it with the result of the azimuth calculation.The azimuth can be calculated either
mathematically, or by using the Azimuth Tables.

11. Explain method to Find Compass Error by AMPLITUDE (SUN, MOON)


It can only be done when the sun is on the celestial True horizon, meaning only at sunrise or sunset.
Stars and planets being small and dim when are on the horizon are not suitable. A pelorus mounted on a
gyro repeater is used in order to obtain a bearing to the sun.

14. Explain method to Find Compass Error by TERMINAL DIRECTION.


The difference between the observed direction of the jetty and the charted direction
when the ship is fully alongside will give the compass error. This will only be accurate if
the vessel is close to the jetty throughout its length and the jetty extends to the full
length of the vessel. This may not be accurate if either the bow or stern is away from
the jetty or the jetty is not complete.
15. Define VARIATION and DEVIATION.
Variation is the difference in degrees between the true north and the magnetic north.
Variation can be east or west. We get variation on charts and ECDIS. Deviation is the
difference in degrees between the magnetic north and the compass north .
16. Define True course .
True course –the angle between the true north and the direction of the ship.
17. Define True bearing .
True bearing is the angle between true north and direction on an object.
18. Define Relative Bearing .
Relative Bearing is the angle between the diametral plane of the ship and direction on
an object.

17. Define NO GO AREAS -

Some Cautionary Zones called 'No-Go Area' where the ship cannot navigate safely. These areas must be
shown by cross hatching (using only Pencil on paper chart) in area close to charted track.

19. Define ABORT POINT –


The Abort Point is a position to be marked on the charted course where the ship may
abandon her passage and be able to return (or hold position safely).
20. Explain method to fix position by Celestial by using sextant.
This method is not so popular during coastal navigation because of few reasons.One
because this method requires longer time to determine the position because of
calculations involved.Second because there are chances of user induced error (like error
in taking the sight). That could be risky when ship is navigating in the proximity of
dangers during coastal navigation. To take accurate Celestial position need to have clear
sky and clear horizon so that we can measure the altitude of the celestial body. Also it is
difficult to measure the sextant altitude when ship is rolling.
21. Explain method to fix position by Visual fix.
Used with taking the bearing or cross bearing by pylorus and visual recognized objects.
22. Explain method to fix position by Radar Fix.
Position by radar gives quite accurate results and must be used whenever we have radar
conspicuous objects. The advantage with radar fixes is that it just needs one object to
get the ship’s position. We can get the range and bearing of this object and plot the
same on the chart. Also could be used method with two or more objects Bearing +
Bearing + Distance for more accuracy.
23. Explain method to fix position by GPS –
It is accurate (most of the time) and quick fix. On ECDIS, navigators do not need to do
anything in plotting the GPS positions. These are plotted automatically at the set
interval. Some ECDIS can even record the ship’s position when it senses change in any
parameters like change in course.For the passage planning we must ensure that PFI
(Parallel Fix Indexing) is set in the ECDIS, so that GPS positions are marked and recorded
automatically in the ECDIS.
24. Explain method to fix position by Echo sounder .
During crossing depth isobata on the ENC we may determine vessels position, it is not
so accurate but can be used as cross checking in complex of other methods.
25. Explain method to fix position by Parallel Fix Indexing .
This is useful method of monitoring cross track tendency in any condition of visibility.
PFI mast be prepared in advance to fixed objects, mast not be linked to floating objects,
crossing or approaching to PFI can give advice to navigator vessels actual position even
if GPS and/or GYRO malfunction , also PFI can give advice for WOP (wheel over point).
26. Explain method to fix position by dead reckoning .
It is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined
position, or fix and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over
elapsed time and course.
27. What Data must be included in PASSAGE PLANNING?
Data of the tide and current, the time of Sunrise and Sunset, and the ships Time
Correction schedule.Data from Routing charts and various nautical publications like
Sailing directions, List of Lights, List of Radio Signals, Ocean passages, Mariners hand
book, etc.

Navigational Rules and Regulations through the passage.Traffic scheme, Signals, method of
communications with VTS, etc.Draught and other ship conditions.Sea and Weather forecast.

Navigational Warning. Distance Table.Environmental requirement such as Ballast exchange.

28. What Navigation Equipment do you know(list)?


RADAR,ARPA, ECHO SOUNDER, GPS (Global Positioning System), WGS 84 (World
Geodetic System), SPEED LOG, BWNAS(bridge navigational watch alarm system),
BAROGRAPH, BAROMETER , SEXTANT, GYRO COMPASS, MAGNETIC COMPASS , VOYAGE
DATA RECORDER (VDR).

28. Which Speed you use in ARPA for Collision Avoidance and Why?
29. What are Frequency and Wave length of X-band radar and Frequency and Wave length of S-
band radar?
X-band radar operating Frequency -9GHz, wave -3sm . S- Band Radar operating at Frequency of 3GHZ,
wave length is 10sm.

30. Define SPEED LOG .

A device for determining the speed of a ship in water.

31. Define BWNAS.

A Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System, abbreviated BNWAS, is an automatic system which sounds
an alarm if the watch officer on the bridge of a ship falls asleep, becomes otherwise incapacitated, or is
absent for too long a time. The BNWAS is automatically engaged when the ship's autopilot is activated.

32. Define BAROGRAPH and BAROMETER.

BAROGRAPH is used to record the atmospheric pressure and to determine the pressure tendency. A
barometer is a scientific instrument that is used to measure air pressure in a certain environment.

33. Which Compass is main compass and Why?

The main compass is a magnetic compass because it does not require any electrical power to function,
tends to be more stable than a gyrocompass and has a long history of reliability.

34. Define GYRO COMPASS and MAGNETIC COMPASS.

GYRO COMPASS - A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning


disc and the rotation of the Earth (or another planetary body if used elsewhere in the universe) to find
geographical direction automatically.It is the main compass onboard vessel. It functions as a pointer to
"magnetic north", the local magnetic meridian, because the magnetized needle at its heart aligns itself
with the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field.

35. Definition of VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (VDR).

Voyage data recorder, or VDR, is a data recording system designed for all vessels required in order to
collect data from various sensors on board the vessel.