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Introduction To Waveguide Bench

And Measurement Of Source


Frequency And Wavelength

• Abstract:

In Our Experiment we will measure two important parameters


using a number of basic microwave components. Frequency will
be measured using a cavity wavemeter and guide wavelength
using waveguide slotted line.

• Introduction:

- General Background:

A waveguide is a structure which guides waves, such as


electromagnetic waves or sound waves. There are different
types of waveguide for each type of wave. The original and most
common meaning is a hollow metal pipe used for this purpose.

Waveguides differ in their geometry which can confine energy in


one dimension such as in slab waveguides or two dimensions as
in fiber or channel waveguides. In addition, different waveguides
are needed to guide different frequencies: an optical fiber
guiding light (high frequency) will not guide microwaves (which
have a much lower frequency). As a rule of thumb, the width of a
waveguide needs to be of the same order of magnitude as the
wavelength of the guided wave.

Waves in open space propagate in all directions, as spherical


waves. In this way they lose their power proportionally to the
square of the distance: i.e., at a distance R from the source the
power is the source power divided by R2. The waveguide confines
the wave to propagation in one dimension, so that it doesn't lose
(in ideal conditions) power while propagating.

Waves are confined inside the waveguide due to total reflection


from the waveguide wall, so that the propagation inside the
waveguide can be described approximately as a "zigzag"
between the walls. This description is exact for electromagnetic
waves in a rectangular or circular hollow metal tube.

- Objectives:
To be familiar with some microwave waveguide components and
know their use
To know how to measure frequency using cavity wavemeter
To know how guide wave length λg is measured using a slotted
line
To understand the meaning of cut-off wavelength and frequency
To Use the general relationship for waveguides of: 1/λg²=1/λ² –
1/λc² to calculate the guider wavelength, cut-off wavelength and
free space wavelength and frequency

• Theory:

- Measuring Source frequency using cavity meter:

The principle of cavity wavemeter is based on the fact that very


high Q-resonances can be obtained in metal waveguide cavities.
Such cavities are usually of uniform circular or rectangular
cross-section and resonate when their axial length equals an
integral number of half guide wavelength.

L=0.5nλg Where L = axial length of cavity


n = 1, 2, 3, …., the order of
resonance
λg = guide wave length of resonating
mode

The cavity length L may be varied by altering the position of the


short circuit plunger. Off resonance the cavity absorbs little or
no power from the main waveguide transmission system. The
type of resonant mode and the order of resonance enables the
exciting frequency, the source frequency f, to be calculated.
From theory:

f=c/l= 3*10^8√[(n/2L) ²+(1/lc²)]

Where c = The velocity of electromagnetic waves in free


space
lc = cutoff wavelength of mode resonant in the cavity
n = order of resonance

- Guide Wavelength And Its Measurements :

Free space wavelength "l" is the distance traveled by the wave


front of the electromagnetic wave in free space in the duration
of one cycle, and it is related to frequency f by:
λ=c/f
When the waves are guided by a wave guide they travel in the
form of distinctive wave patterns known as modes and the guide
length of the guided transmission is known as wavelength λg. For
rectangular and circular waveguides, λg is related to "l" by the formulae:
λg = (λ. λc/√λc² - λ0²)

Where λc = The cutoff wavelength f the propagating mode

For rectangular waveguides, transmission is limited to a single


mode operation in its dominant H10 mode. The cutoff wavelength
for H10 mode is:

λ=2a Where a= internal broadside dimension of


the waveguide

• Experimental Method :

- The three consecutive nulls:

X1 =
X2 =
X3 =

- The guide wavelength:

λg = 2(x2-x1) =
2(x3-x2) =
2(x3-x1) =

- The cutoff wavelength for the dominant mod H10:

It is standard for our microwave trainer WG16, The guide


wavelength:

λc = 2a=2 * 22.86 mm(broad dimension) = 45.72 mm for


WG 16

- The guide wavelength at the source frequency 10.7 GHz:


•References:

Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide

•Conclusions & Recommendations:

- waveguides are structures which guides electromagnetic waves


and usually used in high frequencies and has too many
applications in microwave devices and optical fiber
communication systems

- Frequency was measured by using the recorded micrometer


reading by cavity wavemeter at resonance using the E011 mode
calibration curve

- The guide wavelength was measured recording the positions of


electric field nulls using waveguide slotted line