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A learning curve is a concept used to measure how quickly a skill can be mastered. Usually shown as a
simple graph, a learning curve often depicts the combination of the time it takes to learn a new idea or
skill set, combined with the rate at which mastery is achieved. Learning curves are often used to measure
an individual¶s progress against an average

The principle of the learning curve theory is process improvement. The process improvement will occur as
a result of the repetitive nature of the tasks.
³Learning curve theory is based on three assumptions:
1. The amount of time required to complete a given task or unit of a product will be less each time the
task is undertaken.
2. The unit time will decrease at a decreasing rate.
3. The reduction in time will follow a predictable pattern´


Dr. J.M. Juran, did impact on the quality movement in Japan. He developed a useful framework, referred
as ³a universal thought process about quality, which fits all functions, all levels, all products lines.´ He
called it as ³Quality Trilogy´

Juran Triology consists of three elements.

1. Quality Planning

2. Quality Control

3. Quality Assurance

A. Quality Planning -

1.1 Identify external customers

1.2 Identify internal customers

1.3 Identify needs of external customers

1.4 Identify needs of internal customers

1.5 Translate the needs into specifications

1.6 Determine short-term and long-term objectives and goals

1.7 Prioritize objectives and goals
1.8 Design and Develop products and services that meet specifications and quality objectives and goals

1.9 Track performance

r. Quality Control

2.1 Identify elements that need to be controlled

2.2 Establish measurement program

2.3 Establish standards of performance

2.4 Measure actual performance using quality control tools

2.5 Measure variation between actual performance and established standard

2.6 Take appropriate preventive and corrective actions

C. Quality Improvement

3.1 Identify opportunities for improvement

3.2 Get management committment

3.3 Get support from workforce and get workforce involved

3.4 Provide appropriate training

3.5 Maintain and sustain improvement


1. ^     

R ½lan for quality in the long term.

R Ôon't just do the same things better ± find better things to do.
R ½redict and prepare for future challenges, and always have the goal of getting better.
2. Ô    

R ‰mbrace quality throughout the organization.

R re prepared for a major change in the way business is done. It's about leading, not simply
R ^reate your quality vision, and implement it.

R Inspections are costly and unreliable ± and they don't improve quality, they merely find a lack of
R ruild quality into the process from start to finish.


R Look at suppliers as your partners in quality. ‰ncourage them to spend time improving their own
quality ± they shouldn't compete for your business based on price alone.
R Analyze the total cost to you, not just the initial cost of the product.
Ñ. Œ   

R ^ontinuously improve your systems and processes. Ôeming promoted the ½ ^ 
Ô approach to process analysis and improvement.
R Use   as a model to reduce waste and to improve productivity, effectiveness, and safety.

R Train for consistency to help reduce variation.

R ‰ncourage staff to learn from one another, and provide a culture and environment for effective
7. Π    

R ‰ pect your supervisors and managers to understand their workers and the processes they use.
R *igure out what each person actually needs to do his or her best.
8. ‰  

R Allow people to perform at their best by ensuring that they're not afraid to e press ideas or
R ake workers feel valued, and encourage them to look for better ways to do things.
R Use open and honest communication to remove fear from the organization.
9. r      

R ruild the "internal customer" concept ± recognize that each department or function serves other
departments that use their output.
R ruild a shared vision.


R Let people know e actly what you want ± don't make them guess. "‰ cellence in service" is short
and memorable, but what does it mean? How is it achieved? The message is clearer in a slogan like
"You can do better if you try."
11. ‰     

R Look at how the process is carried out, not just numerical targets. Ôeming said that production
targets encourage high output and low quality.
R ½rovide support and resources so that production levels and quality are high and achievable.


R Allow everyone to take pride in their work without being rated or compared.
R Treat workers the same, and don't make them compete with other workers for monetary or
other rewards..
13. Π     

R Improve the current skills of workers.

R ‰ncourage people to learn new skills to prepare for future changes and challenges

R Improve your overall organization by having each person take a step toward quality.
R Use effective change management principles to introduce the new philosophy and ideas in
Ôeming's 14 points.