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Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Classification of structures for stability and redundancy.

Definition of support conditions.

A roller support has one unknown, a hinged support two unknowns and a fixed support three unknowns.

Mono-planar structures are divided into three groups, namely trusses, frames and a combination of the two.

Trusses: One assumes that the members are hinged at the ends and can thus only take axial forces in the direction of the line that joins the two hinges. These are called bar-hinged members. Any force that has a component vertical to that direction will cause the member to rotate. The members are connected to each other at nodes. As the whole structure is in equilibrium, every part of the structure must be in equilibrium and thus every node is in equilibrium.

Let us call the number of reaction components, r, and the number of bar hinged members, m, and the number of nodes, n.

We know that the unknowns are the reactions (support forces) and the forces in the members. Total number

of unknowns = r + m

Every node is in vertical and horizontal equilibrium and therefore we have two equations at every node, namely Σ Y = 0 and Σ X = 0. Number of equations = 2 n.

 If: r + m > 2 n we have more unknowns than possible equations so the truss is statically indeterminate. If: r + m = 2 n we have as many unknowns as possible equations so the truss is statically determinate. If: r + m < 2 n we have more equations than unknowns so the truss is statically unstable.

Example 1:

The following roof structure is used for a factory building. The trusses are spaced at 4 m spacing and the

purlin are spaced at 1,8 m. The roof covering is of galvanized sheeting with a mass of 10 kg/m

external imposed load of 0,3 kN/m 2 to allow for servicing, rain, hail etc. Assume the trusses and purlin to have a self-weight of 18 kg/m 2 . Determine:

2

. There is an

a) The point loads at each of the nodes

b) The reactions

c) The forces in the members AB, AF, BF, FC, FG and GH

Definition of sin θ and cos θ.

sinθ =

Y projection

Length

cosθ =

X projection

Length

Equilibrium of Forces

For equilibrium we can write the following:

Σ Y = 0

Σ X = 0

Σ M = 0

This allows us to solve 3 unknowns and only 3.

Solution to Questions:

A one metre length when seen vertically from the top has a length of 1/cos θ which in this case is equal to

1/cos 20 = 1,064 m. The load is then equal 10 kg/m

acceleration to be = 10 m/s 2 . The load in when seen vertically from the top = 106,4 N/m 2 = 0,1064 kN/m 2 .

2

x gravity acceleration x 1,064 m. Assume gravity

 Total vertical load = Sheeting Trusses Additional imposed 0,106 kN/m 2 0,180 kN/m 2 0,300 kN/m 2 Total 0,586 kN/m 2

= load intensity times the area carried by the node

= 0,586 kN/m 2 x 4 m x 1,8 m

= 4,22 kN

b) Reactions as a result of the symmetrical structure and loading are equal to 4 x 4,22 kN

Reactions = 16,88 kN

 Member X-projection, x Y- projection, y Length AB 1,800 0,655 1,9155 AF 2,038 0 2,038 BF 0,238 0,655 0,6969 BC 1,800 0,655 1,9155 FC 1,562 1,310 2,0386 FG 2,038 0 2,038 GH 6,248 0 6,248

For node A Assume that all members are in tension

Y = 0

+16,88 2,11 +

+16,88 2,11 +

Y

AB

F

AB

+

sinθ +

Y

AF

= 0

F

AF

sinθ = 0

+

16,88

2,11

+

F

AB

+ 16,88 2,11 + F

AB

 Y − projection ⋅ + F Y − projection ⋅ Length AF Length 0,655 ⋅ + F ⋅ 0 = 0 1,9155 AF 1,038

+ 14,77 + 0,34195 F AB

F AB

= 0 = - 43,194 kN

X = 0

X

AB

+

X

AF

= 0

F AB

 ⋅ x AB + X ⋅ x AF = 0 L AB AF L AF 1,800 + X ⋅ 2,038 1,9155 AF 2,038

43,194

F AF

= + 40,590 kN

= 0

Equilibrium of node B

Y = 0

 − Y BA F + ⋅ Y BC y BA − + Y F BF ⋅ = 0 y BC − F ⋅ y BF = 0 BA L BA BC L BC BF L BF 0,655 + F ⋅ 0,655 − F ⋅ 0,655 1,9155 BC 1,9155 BF 0,6969 X = 0 BA + X BC + X BF = 0 1,80 43,194 + 1,80 F + 0,238 F BF = 0 1,9155 1,9155 BC 0,6969

4,22

4,22

4,22 + 43,194

0,34195 F BC – 0,93988 F BF = - 10,550

X

− ⋅−

= 0

= 0

0,9397 F BC + 0,3415 F BF = - 40,5895

F BC

F BF

= - 41,753 KN = - 3,968 kN

(1)

(2)

Alternative method is to use the moment equilibrium of a portion of the structure. This enables us to solve three unknown forces. It is usual to choose a section where two of the forces cut in a point so that their moment is equal to zero, thereby we can solve one of the unknowns immediately.

M

C

= 0

16,88 x 3,6 – 2,11 x 3,6 – 4,22 x 1,8 – F FG x 1,310 = 0 F FG = 34,791 kN

Y = 0

16,88 2,11 4,22 +

Y

BC

+ Y

FC

10,55 +

0,655

1,310

1,9155

2,036

F

BC

+

F

FC

= 0

= 0

0,34195 F BC + 0,64342 F FC = - 10,55

X = 0

X

BC

+

X

FC

+

X

FG

= 0

 1,8 F + 1,562 F + 2,038 ⋅ 1,9155 BC 2,036 FC 2,038

34,791

0,9397 F BC + 0,76719 F FC = - 34,791

F BC

F FC

= - 41,753 kN = 5,793 kN

 (3) = 0 (4)

Parallel Chord Trusses

Parallel chord trusses may be treated in the same way as beams. The top and bottom chords resist the bending moment and the diagonal and vertical members resist the shear forces.

Examples of parallel chord trusses

The second truss must have a very small slope otherwise one underestimates the forces in the top and bottom chords.

Example:

Determine the member forces in the following trusses. The roof sheeting has a unit mass of 12 kg/m 2 , the

ceiling 15 kg/m 2 , the trusses 15 kg/m

and there is a live load of 0,4 kN/m 2 . The loads are to be increased

2

 Roof sheeting: 12 kg/m 2 x 10 m/s 2 = 120 N/m 2 = 0,12 kN/m 2 Ceiling: 15 kg/m 2 x 10 m/s 2 = 150 N/m 2 = 0,15 kN/m 2 Trusses and purlin 15 kg/m 2 x 10 m/s 2 = 150 N/m 2 = 0,15 kN/m 2 Total dead load = 0,42 kN/m 2 Total live load = 0,40 kN/m 2 Factored Load 1,2 x DL + 1,6 x LL = 1,2 x 0,42 + 1,6 x 0,40 = 1,144 kN/m 2 Load at each node intensity x tributary area = 1,144 x 2 x 3,5 = 8,008 kN

Draw the Shear force and bending moment diagrammes:

Solve the forces in the members through using sections.

Section 1:

In the panel between A and C the vertical shear force of 17,333 kN must be carried by the diagonal member BC. Therefore:

Y BC = 17,333 kN

y

BC

L

BC

F

BC

= 17,333

kN

F

BC

= 17,333

2,332

1,2

= 33,684

kN

The bending moment from the external forces must be in equilibrium with the internal forces in the top and bottom members. The bending moment from the external forces is shown in the bending moment diagramme.

F BD x 1,2 + 34,666 = 0

F

BD

= − 34,666 =

1,2

28,888

kN

All the sections may be tackled in a similar fashion.

Section 2:

To solve for the force in member CE take moments about D.

- F CE x 1,2 + 34,666 = 0

F CE = + 28,888 kN

The vertical force in member CD must be equal to the vertical component of the force in BC. The vertical component of the force in BC is equal to the shear between A and C. F CD = 17,333 kN.

Frames: One assumes that the members are connected rigidly and can thus transfer axial force, shear force and moment. These are called beam members and each beam has three unknown forces. The members are connected to each other at nodes. As the whole structure is in equilibrium, every part of the structure must be in equilibrium and thus every node is in equilibrium, i.e. forces in X direction, forces in Y direction and moments.

Let us call the number of reaction components, r, and the number of beam members, m, and the number of nodes, n.

We know that the unknowns are the reactions (support forces) and the forces in the members. Total number of unknowns = r + 3 m

Every node is in vertical, horizontal and moment equilibrium and therefore we have three equations at every node, namely Σ Y = 0, Σ X = 0 and Σ M = 0. Number of equations = 3 n.

If: r + 3 m > 3 n we have more unknowns than possible equations so the truss is statically indeterminate. If: r + 3 m = 3 n we have as many unknowns as possible equations so the truss is statically determinate. If: r + 3 m < 3 n we have more equations than unknowns so the truss is statically unstable.

We could also have additional equations, called, t, where for instance the end of a member is not rigidly connected to another member. These then reduce the number of unknowns or increase the number of equations.

In the above structure, the three equations for the equilibrium of node B are:

X BA

+ X BC + X BD = 0

Y BA + Y BC + Y BD = 0

M BA + M BC + M BD = 0

(1)

(2)

(3)

The additional equation in this case would be M BD = 0.

In this case the additional equations would be M BA = 0 and M BC = 0 and from equation (3) above M BD is equal to 0. There are thus only 2 additional equations and not 3.

It is thus possible to combine truss elements and beam elements and still determine the degree of redundancy of the structure.

Three-pinned Portal Frame Analysis

Determine the bending moment diagramme of the following structure.

Plywood unit weight = 7 kN/m 3 Portal unit weight = 7 kN/m 3 Tiles have a mass of 55 kg/m 2

Purlin have a unit weight of 5 N/m 3 Imposed or live load = 0,3 kN/m 2

We would like to convert these loads into a uniformly distributed load on the portal frame. Remember that the tiles, plywood and the portal itself are at an angle of 20,556º. We would like to have the loading horizontal.

 Tiles = 55 x 10 /1000 = 0,55 kN/m 2 on the slope = 0,55/cos 20,556 = 0,587 kN/m 2 horizontal Plywood = 0,022 x 7 = 0,154/cos 20,556 = 0,164 kN/m 2 Portal = 0,1 x 0,5 x 7 = 0,154 kN/m 2 on slope = 0,350 kN/m on the slope = 0,35/cos 20,556 = 0,374 kN/m Purlin = 0,075 x 0,225 x 5 = 0,084 kN/m length of purlin

Tributary length = the spacing of the portals

= 4 m.

 Total dead load: Tiles = 0,587 x 4 = 2,348 kN/m Plywood = 0,164 x 4 = 0,656 kN/m Portal = 0,374 = 0,374 kN/m Purlin = 0,084 x 4 / 1,1= 0,305 kN/m Total = 3,683 kN/m Live load Imposed = 0,3 x 4 = 1,2 kN/m Factored Loads 1,2 x DL + 1,6 x LL 1,2 x 3,683 + 1,6 x 1,2 = 6,340 kN/m

Line sketch of portal frame:

M

A

= 0

6,34

Y E = 50,72 kN

In a similar fashion Y A = 50,72 kN

Trusses

M

C = 0

X A = 28,983 kN

50,72 8

X

A

Page 13 of 25

Y

A

7

8

6,34

X

8

A

2

2

7

= 0

16

2

2

6,34

Y

E

8

2

2

16

= 0

=

0

7/10/2007

The following is an extract from “ELEMENTARY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, NORRIS & WILBUR”

Virtual Work Used to Calculate Deflection of Trusses.

Example 1:

The following timber truss has loads as shown. The sections have an area of 2700 mm 2 and a modulus of elasticity, E = 7800 MPa. Determine the vertical deflection of the node G and of the node F.

Solution to the forces in the members.

 Member L P 0 p v P 0 p v L AB 2,207 -7,238 -1,183 18,898 BC 2,207 -4,825 -1,183 12,598 CD 2,207 -4,825 -1,183 12,598 DE 2,207 -7,238 -1,183 18,898 AH 2,000 +6,559 +1,072 14,062 HG 2,000 +6,559 +1,072 14,062 GF 2,000 +6,559 +1,072 14,062 FE 2,000 +6,559 +1,072 14,062 BH 0,933 0 0 0 DF 0,933 0 0 0 CG 1,866 +2,040 +1,000 3,807 BG 2,207 -2,413 0 0 GD 2,207 -2,413 0 0 Σ P 0 p v L (kN.m) 123,047

External virtual work = internal virtual work

1,0 x

=

p A E

0

v

P

L

=

123,047 10 6

x

2700 7800

x

mm = 5,84 mm

For the deflection at F:

 Member L P 0 p v P 0 p v L AB 2,207 -7,238 -0,591 9,441 BC 2,207 -4,825 -0,591 6,293 CD 2,207 -4,825 -0,591 6,293 DE 2,207 -7,238 -1,774 28,338 AH 2,000 +6,559 +0,536 7,031 HG 2,000 +6,559 +0,536 7,031 GF 2,000 +6,559 +1,608 21,094 FE 2,000 +6,559 +1,608 21,094 BH 0,933 0 0 0 DF 0,933 0 +1,000 0 CG 1,866 +2,040 +0,500 1,903 BG 2,207 -2,413 0 0 GD 2,207 -2,413 -1,183 6,300 Σ P 0 p v L (kN.m) 114,818

External virtual work = internal virtual work

1,0 x

=

p A E

0

v

P

L

=

114,818 10 6

x

2700 7800

x

mm = 5,45 mm

Virtual work applied to bending members:

Example 1:

Determine the deflection in the middle of the following beam.

External Virtual work

1,0 x

M =

0

w

L x

w x

2

2

2

1,0 x

= Internal virtual work

=

L

0

M

m E I

0

v

ds

L
M
m
2
0
v
= 2
⋅ ∫
⋅ ds
0
E ⋅ I
m
v = 0,5⋅
x
2
w ⋅
L x
w ⋅ x

3

=

=

=

=

 ∫ L 2 2 − 2 ⋅ dx 0 E ⋅ I ⋅   4   L 1 w ⋅ L ⋅ x 3 w ⋅ x − 2 EI 1 ⋅     6 w ⋅ L 4 w ⋅ L − 4 8     0 EI 5   48 ⋅ w L 4 128  

384 EI

Instead of integrating the bending moment equations one can use standard integration equations.

Apply the table to the previous problem:

 L M m 0 ⋅ h ∫ 0 v ⋅ =⋅⋅ ⋅ ds 2 a a + 2 c ] EI 6 [ 12 2 h L ∫ 0 M 0 = ⋅ m v L 2 a 1 ⋅ ds =⋅ 2 L = ⋅ L 4 L ⋅  a 2 2 wL ⋅ = +⋅ 2 w ⋅ L 3 8 2 2 EI 12 4   8 ⋅⋅ wL    32 1 ⋅∆= 5 ⋅ w ⋅ L 4

384

E I

Example 2:

c 2

=

3 w L

2

32

Determine the deflection in the middle of the following beam. E = 200 GPa and I = 43,60 x 10 -6 m 4 :

External Virtual work

= Internal virtual work

EI * 1,0 x

=

L

0

M

0

m

v

=

=

h

3

3

3

1,5

6

a

1

a

2

1,5 50

+

+

h

[

2

6

1,5

6

a a

1

2

+

a b

1

[2

1,5 50

+

2,25 40

+

+

= 388,125 kN.m

[2

2,25 45

+

2

ds

+

a b

2

1,5 45

45 1,5

1

+

+

+

2

b b

1

2

]

+

50 2,25

+

2 1,5

40]

h

6

[

2

a a

1

2

+

2 2,25

45]

+

3

3

1,5 40

a b

1

2

=

388,125

EI

=

388,125

200 10

x

6

43,60 10

x

6

= 0,0445 m = 44,5 mm

+

a b

2

1

+

2

b b

1

2

]

+

h

3

a

1

a

2

Example 3:

The following beam has been strengthened and stiffened by welding 10 mm thick plates over the central half

of the member. Determine the deflection in the middle of the beam and compare this to the deflection of the

un-stiffened beam. I of un-stiffened = 44,3 x 10 6 mm 4 . With the stiffening, the I increases to 81,8 x 10 6 mm 4 .

E = 200 GPa

L
M
m
0
v
1,0 x
=
⋅ ds
∫ 0
E ⋅ I
L
M
m
2
0
v
=
2
⋅ ∫
⋅ ds
0
E ⋅ I
h
h
= ⋅
2
a
[
a
+
2
c
]
/
EI
+
2
[
a
1
2
2
1
1
6
6
3
= 1,5 67,5
2 ⋅
[
6
+
2 39,375 /(200 10
]
x
6
= 2,476 x 10 -2 + 6,911 x 10 -2 m

= 9,387 x 10 -2 m

= 93, 9 mm

a

2

+

b

1

b

44,3 10

x

2

6

Un-stiffened member:

∆=

∆=

4

5 w L

384 EI

5

5 12000

4

384

200 10

x

3

44,3 10

x

6

= 152,4 mm

+

2

)

+

2

(

c a

2

1

+

b

1

)]

/

EI

2

3

6

[1,5 67,5 3 90 2 84,375(1,5 3)]/(200 81,8)

+

+

+