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-

Variations

in organic occlusion

- Variations in organic occlusion Francis S. Johnson, D.D.S. Santa Barbara, Calif. 0 rganic occlusion

Francis S. Johnson,

D.D.S.

Santa Barbara,

Calif.

0

rganic

occlusion

had

been presented

as a basic

concept

of occlusion.’

This

type

of occlusion

includes

a cusp-fossa

for

stability,

contact

with

tripoding

of cusps in fossae

a tooth-to-tooth

occlusion, coincidence

of centric

occlusion

and

centric

relation,

and

disclu-

sion

or

separation

of

the

posterior

teeth

by

the

anterior

teeth

during

eccentric

jaw

movements.

The

functioning

element

of

organic

occlusion

is

the

stamp

cusp

in

a fossa.

The

fnaxillary

lingual

cusps and

mandibular

buccal

cusps are stamp

cusps.

As the -jaw moves

from

centric

occlusion

these cusps

pass into

grooves

to prevent

occlusal

interferences.

The

working

grooves

are

transverse

and

the

idling

grooves

oblique.’

The

maxillary

buccal

cusps

and

the

mandibular

lingual

cusps are shearing

cusps.

The

posterior

stamp

cusps

protect

the

anterior

teeth

in centric

occlusion.

The

anterior

teeth

protect

the

posterior

teeth

from

eccentric

or

horizontal

stresses

and

from

grinding

during

empty

mouth

contacts.

 

The

cusp

tips

of

the

teeth

do

not

touch

the

opposing

teeth

at

anytime,

either

in

centric

or

eccentric

occlusion.

The

contact

surface

of the cusp-

fossa unit

is a small

contact

area

at

the

apex

of the

triangles

(Figs.

1 to

4):’

Variations

in

the

mesial-distal

position

of

the

cusps and

ad.justments

fossae do occur.

These

pattern

variations

require

in the occlusal

of the

teeth

and

Fig.

occlusal contact points

The cusp tips themselves

1. Mandibular

stamp

being

cusps are indicated

do not contact

with

the

the apices of the triangles.

thr

fossae.

Fig.

of the mandibular buccal stamp cusps. The only points are the apices of the triangles.

2. Maxillary

fossae centric

occlusion

contact

points

contact

must

be understood

to

maintain

an organic

occlu-

 

sion.

mandibular

molars

close into

the

maxillary

mesial,

central,

and

distal

fossae

of

the

maxillary

molars,

OCCLUSAL

Neutroclusion

VARIATIONS

 

respectively

(Fig.

5). Conversely,

the

lingual

stamp

 

cusps of the maxillary

premolars

close into

the distal

The

usual

mesial-distal

stamp-cusp

position

(Class

fossae of the mandibular

premolars,

and

the lingual

I

occlusion)

is known

as neutrochion.

The

buccal

stamp

cusps

of

the

maxillary

molars

close

into

the

stamp

cusps of the mandibular

premolars

close into

central

and

distal

fossae of the molars,

respectively.

the

mesial

fossae

of

the

maxillary

premolars

in

The

mesial

fossae of the mandibular

molars

and

the

centric

occlusion.

The

buccal

stamp

cusps

of

the

distal

fossae of the

maxillary

premolars

are vacant,

 

since

there

are

no

available

stamp

wsps

(Figs.

5

Kcad before the Pacitic Coast Society of Prosthodontists,

Newport

and

6).

Beach, Calif.

The

direction

the

stamp

cusps

of

the

premolars

(K)22-3313:73’060625

+

05%00.50/O

(0 1979

The

C.

V.

Mosby

Co.

THE

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62.5

the premolars (K)22-3313:73’060625 + 05%00.50/O (0 1979 The C. V. Mosby Co. THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC
Fig. points triangles. 3. Maxillary of each lingual cusp stamp cusps. The tripod points contact
Fig. points triangles. 3. Maxillary of each lingual cusp stamp cusps. The tripod points contact
Fig. points triangles. 3. Maxillary of each lingual cusp stamp cusps. The tripod points contact
Fig. points triangles. 3. Maxillary of each lingual cusp stamp cusps. The tripod points contact

Fig.

points

triangles.

3. Maxillary

of

each

lingual

cusp

stamp cusps. The tripod

points

contact

of

the

teeth

are only

the

three

The cusp tips do not contact the opposing

at any time.

 

Fig. 5. In neutroclusion the mandibular

buccal

stamp

cusps occlude with the indicated maxillary centric occlusion and centric relation.

fossae in

Fig. 4. Mandibular

fossae contact points

are indicated

at

the apices of the triangles.

occludes in the mesial fossae of mandibular molars.

There is no maxillary

cusp that

fossae of mandibular molars. There is no maxillary cusp that and molars move during eccentric border

and

molars

move

during

eccentric

border

move-

rnents

are

seen in

Figs.

7 and

8. There

is no cuspal

interference

during

these movements,

since the cusps

work

and

idle

in

their

respective

grooves.

The

working

grooves

are transverse

(rotation

around the

near

condyle)

and

the

idling

grooves

are

oblique

(rotation

around

the

far

condyle).

The grooves are

formed

from

developmental

and

supplemental

occlusal

grooves.

 

Fig.

cusps occlude

centric

6.

In

neurroclusion

with

the

maxillary

lingual

stamp

the indicated

mandibular

fossae in

occlusion

and centric

relation.

There

are

no posterior

interferences

of

the

teeth

 

during

mandibular

closure.

If there

were an interfer-

 

lar

premolar

cusps are one half-tooth

distal

and

the

ence

it

would

deflect

the

mandible

and

would

be

mandibular

molars

are

one

cusp

distal

 

to

normal.

called

a deflective

occlusal

contact,

a type

of maloc-

This

tooth

position

is called

distoclusion. This mesio-

clusion.

 

distal

position

also

causes

the

maxillary

 

lingual

Each

stamp

cusp,

as it

leaves

its opposing

stamp

premolar

stamp

cusps to be one half-tooth

forward

fossa, moves

eccentrically

 

out

of contact

and

into

a

or

to close

into

the

mesial

fossa of

the

mandibular

 

groove.

This

prevents

posterior

tooth

rubbing

and

premolars.

The

maxillary

molar

stamp

cusps move

wear

and

eliminates

lateral

stresses on the posterior

 

one cusp forward

so that

they

function

in the mesial

teeth.

and

central

fossa of the mandibular

molars,

respec-

tively.

This

is also called

a Class II occlusion

(Figs.

9

Distoclusion

 

and

10).

A variation

to the normal

mesial-distal

stamp

CUSF

‘I-his

cusp

position

places

the mandibular

 

premo-

position

exists in centric

relation

when

the mandibu-

 

lar

stamp

cusp

posterior

to

the

maxillary

premolar

 

626

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NUMBER

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Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps

Fig. 7. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps pass through during eccentric occlusal movements in a neutrociusion tooth arrangement.

Fig. 9. In distoclusion the mandibular

cusps occlude with the indicated maxillary fossa in centric occlusion and centric relation.

buccal

stamp

in centric occlusion and centric relation. buccal stamp Fig. 8. Mandibular (oblique), and protrusive lingual cusps
in centric occlusion and centric relation. buccal stamp Fig. 8. Mandibular (oblique), and protrusive lingual cusps
in centric occlusion and centric relation. buccal stamp Fig. 8. Mandibular (oblique), and protrusive lingual cusps
in centric occlusion and centric relation. buccal stamp Fig. 8. Mandibular (oblique), and protrusive lingual cusps

Fig. 8. Mandibular (oblique), and protrusive

lingual cusps pass through during eccentric occlusal movements in a neutroclusion tooth arrangement.

working

(transverse),

idling

grooves marked where maxillary

i d l i n g grooves marked where maxillary stamp cusp. As the mandible rotates

stamp

cusp.

As

the

mandible

rotates

around

the

vertical

rotation

center

during

function,

the advanc-

ing

or

idling

condyle

comes

forward

and

medial.

This

causes

the

mandibular

stamp

cusp

to

travel

medially

and

forward

and

interfere

with

the

maxil-

Fig. 10. In distoclusion the maxillary lingual stamp cusps occlude with the indicated mandibular fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation.

lary

stamp

cusp.*

This

idling

interference

of

the

premolars

and

molars

appears

in

the

oblique

or

distal

and

buccal

and

the affected

maxillary

stamp

idling

groove

(Figs.

11

and

12).

Because

of

the

cusps

slightly

mesially

and

lingual.

This

allows

changed

fossae in

which

the

stamp

cusps

function,

further

travel

of the

respective

cusps

in

their

idling

the maxillary

premolars,

the mandibular

premolars,

grooves

before

coming

to

an

opposing

cusp

tip

and

the

mandibular

mesial

fossae all

have

oblique

position.

As the advancing

condyle

travels

further

it

paths

that

lead

to

a cusp

tip.

This

cusp

tip,

passing

also descends

and

further

separa.tes

the idling

teeth.

directly

over

or under

the opposing

cusp

tip,

could

Also,

supplemental

grooves

along

the

idling

cusp

cause eccentric

contact

or interference.

 

paths

(oblique

grooves)

are

placed

to

further

In

restoring

teeth

in

this

mesiodistal

position,

the

enhance

eccentric

clearance.

 

elimination

of these

eccentric

interferences

is done

by

 

moving

the affected

mandibular

stamp

cusps slightly

Mesioclusion

 

The

mesial

placement

of the rnandibular

teeth

by

*Personal

communication:

C.

E. Stuart.

Oct.

1977

one half-tooth

in the premolars

and

one cusp

in

the

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627

Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps
Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps

Fig. 11. Maxillary working (transverse), idling (oblique), and protrusive grooves marked where mandibular buccal cusps pass through during eccentric occlusal positions in distoclusion. Premolar oblique grooves lead to cusp tips and interference unless modified as suggested in the text.

Fig. 13. ln mesioclusion the mandibular first premoiar buccal stamp cusp occludes with the maxillary canine, and the remairiing buccal stamp cusps occlude with the indicated maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation.

maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling
maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling
maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling
maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling
maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling
maxillary fossae in centric occlusion and centric relation. Fig. 12. Mandibular working (transverse), idling

Fig.

12. Mandibular

working

(transverse),

idling

 

(oblique),

and protrusive

grooves marked where maxillary

lingual

cusps

pass

through

during

eccentric

occlusal

positions

in

distoclusion.

Premolar

oblique

and

molar

Fig. 14. In mesioclusion the maxillary

lingual

stamp

mesial

fossa

oblique

grooves

lead

to

cusp

tips

and

cusps occlude with the indicated mandibular

fossae in

interference

unless modified

as suggested in the text.

centric occlusion and centric relation.

molars

is called

mesioclusion.

This

also

places

the

As noted

in the preceding

section

on distoclusion,

 

maxillary

lingual

stamp

cusps one half-tooth

distally

the

conflict

in

eccentric

interference

occurs

when

a

in

the

premolar

area

and

one

cusp

distally

in

the

mandibular

stamp

distal

to its oppos-

molar

relationship.

This

is

a

Class

III

occlusal

ing

maxillary

stamp

cusp is placed cusp.

relationship

where

the anterior

teeth

are often

close

This

potential

cuspal

interference

is corrected

by

to an end-to-end

position.

 

moving

the

involved

maxillary

lingual

stamp

cusps

 

The

mandibular

first

premolar

buccal

stamp

cusp

slightly

mesial

and

lingually.

Conversely,

the

will

function

against

the

maxillary

canine.

The

involved

mandibular

buccal

stamp

cusps are moved

 

respective

fossae that

the other

maxillary

and mandi-

slightly

buccal

and

distally

(Figs.

15 and

16). The

bular

stamp

cusps function

in are visualized

in Figs.

amount

these

cusps

are

moved

is

established

by

13 and

14.

observing

the

idling

side

in

eccentric

position

to

628

JUNE

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VOLUME

41

NUMBER

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Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary
Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary
Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary
Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary
Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary
Fig. 15. During mesioclusion   the mandibular. stamp cusps function as indicated. Th* maxillary

Fig. 15. During mesioclusion

 

the

mandibular.

stamp

cusps function as indicated.

Th*

maxillary

premolar

oblique

grooves

 

lead

to the

cusp tips

and will

interfere

unless corrected

as suggested in the text.

 

verify

an

adequate

clearance.

Idling

(oblique)

grooves

are also established

to allow

free travel

to the

border

position

 

for

the cusps.

 

SUMMARY

 

The

principles

of

organic

occlusion

were

illus-

trated

and

described

as neutroclusion.

Variations

of

occlusion

in

a

mesial

and

distal

position

were

described

as

distoclusion

and

mesioclusion.

The

potential

areas

of conflict

in

these

variations

were

described,

and

the

methods

for

correction

were

shown

so that

 

the

principles

of

organic

occlusion

would

not

be

compromised

even

in

these

varia-

tions.

Fig. 16. During mesioclusion the maxillary iingual cusps

function

premolar and oblique grooves extending frown the mcbsi,ll

fossa of the molars lead directly to cusp tips md must be corrected to eliminate interferences

as indicated.

The oblique

groove

oi

the

second

REFERENCES

1. Stuart, C. E.: What is organic occlusion. Orai

Rehabilitation

and Occlusion, University of California,

Sept

i”ii6.

2. Stuart, C. E.: The geometries of the gnathit

svsrem. Oral

Rehabilitation and Occlusion; tini\-er+ Sept. 1976.

If

California.

3. Stuart.

C. E.:

Why

dental

restorations

sixmlri

II>:XC c uupq ,J

South Calif Dent Assoc 27:198, I95!$

Refmnt requea to.

DR. FRANCIS S. JOHNSON

2780 STATE ST

SAW.\ BARBARA.C~LIF. 93105

Sm.

I1

S. JOHNSON 2780 STATE ST SAW.\ BARBARA.C~LIF. 93105 Sm. I1 ARTICLES TO APPEAR IN FUTURE ISSUES

ARTICLES

TO APPEAR

IN FUTURE

ISSUES

Fabricating

a post and

N. Beheshti, D.M.D.

core to

fit

an existing

crown

The significance

of articulator

capability.

Part II: The prevalence

of

immediate

side shift

 

Neal D. Bellanti.

D.D.S.,

M.S

and Kenneth

R. Martin.

D.M.D.

Current

concepts in cranioplasty

 

.John Beumer,

III,

D.D.S.,

M.S., David

N. Firtell,

D.D.S.,

and Thomas

A. Curtis,

D.D.5

N. Firtell, D.D.S., and Thomas A. Curtis, D.D.5 Effect of varying surface texture on bond strength

Effect of varying

surface texture

on bond

strength

of one semiprecious

and

one nonprecious

ceramo-alloy

Michael

A. Carpenter,

D.D.S.,

MS.,

and Richard

J. Goodkind,

D.M.D

M.S.

THE

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b29

Michael A. Carpenter, D.D.S., MS., and Richard J. Goodkind, D.M.D M.S. THE JOURNAL OF PROSTHETIC DENTISTRY