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Submitted to xxxxxxUNIVERSITY for the partial fulfillment of the

Requirement for the

Award of Degree for


Done by

Mr. /Miss. XXXXXX

XXXXX Institute of Management & Computer Sciences



This is to certify that Mr. XXXX, bearing Roll No. XXXXXXXXXXX have

developed Software project titled XXXXXXXX for Heritage IT SOLUTIONS as a

partial Fulfillment for the award of the Degree of XXXXXXX.


XXX institute of Management &
Computer Sciences



My express thanks and gratitude and thanks to Almighty God, my parents and
other family members and friends without whose unsustained support, I could not have
made this career in XXXX.

I wish to place on my record my deep sense of gratitude to my project guide, Mr.

XXXXX, Heritage IT Solutions, Hyderabad for his constant motivation and valuable
help through the project work. Express my gratitude to Mr. XXXX, Director of XXXXX
Institute of Management & Computer Sciences for his valuable suggestions and
advices through out the XXX course. I also extend my thanks to other Faculties for their
Cooperation during my Course.

Finally I would like to thank my friends for their cooperation to complete this


Title: Employee Payroll Management System


The main aim of the project is to develop an application which helps in providing a
company payroll system which is the sum of all financial records of salaries, wages,
bonuses and deductions.

Functional components of the project

1. Master

The Master Module consists of Employee Master, Allowances/deductions,

Financial year.
In Employee Master Employee details are with the following information like name,
address, preferred login id, mail id etc
In Allowances/deductions are with the following information like HRA, Conv, DA,

2. Payroll

The payroll module consists of loans, pay slip and generating reports
In Loans details are with the following information like employee name, employee code,
loan amount, paid amount, balance amount and from to which date
Pay slip consists information of an employee pay slip like no of days present, loss of pay,
allowances, deductions etc;
Generating reports for all the modules









2.2.1 AIM













Heritage IT Solutions (HIT) is a Hyderabad (India) based IT company and a leader in

multimedia and software technologies, providing cutting-edge solutions for business
success in the new economy.

A leader in interactive business solutions, HIS delivers more than just consulting,
interactive website development, multimedia solutions, electronic business tools, online
marketing, hosting, management and technical support. We help build businesses and
make business management a pleasure.

HIS offers a one-stop solution for all your present and future IT requirements.
Multimedia Presentations, Websites & Portals, Document Management Systems (DMS),
Intranet Architecture, Customized Software Packages, Business Processing Outsourcing

These days when technology is changing every minute, HIS fulfills your need of an IT
partner that has the resources and willpower to stay abreast with the latest development,
analyze the current requirements and predict the future trends and thus help you to always
stay one step ahead of the competition.


Quality is a comprehensive & fundamental rule/belief, for leading and operating an

organization. And this helps in continually improving performance over the long term.


To develop a strong Client base with an equally effective Support structure which acts as
a catalyst for effective deployment of futuristically complete and credible IT solutions.
We strive to achieve this by focusing individually on each project and build a healthy
relationship with our Customers.


After having brought the company from the conceptualization stage onward, the
management is confident that technologies, work force and determination are poised for
growth and wide acceptance.

The management is continually identifying some more niche segments, where the
presence is desirable to ensure globalization of the organization's presence.


Our Team is a complete and strategic mix of professionals from Technology, Consulting,
Business Management and Client Servicing domains. The Team has some of the most
talented and spirited people within the industry. Whether it comes to innovation, deadline
based delivery, quality consciousness, cutting-edge solutions; collective achievement is
simply a way of life. Almost obviously, we have engineers and technology associates
from premier institutions and colleges who are powerhouses of corporate and technology
services experience.

Our software engineers provide superior results on a wide variety of platforms and
programming environments. Our database systems experts create sophisticated data marts
and other Internet solutions that make up the core of your web business. The creative
team can conjure up magic on your Internet business screen and the client servicing
associates will assist you through every stage of the project and complete it within crucial


Heritage IT Solutions (HIT) offers a one-stop solution for all your present and future IT
requirements. Our services includes

• Websites & Portal Designing

o Website Design and Development
o Portal Development
o Flash Website Design
o Website Re-Design
o Domain Registration
o Web Hosting

• Multimedia Presentation
o Slideshow Presentation
o Flash Animation
o Intro Design

• Document Management Systems (DMS)

o Content Management
o E-commerce
o Dynamic Catalogs

• Customized Software Packages

o Customized Software Development
o ERP Solutions

• Intranet Architecture

• Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO)

• F-Secure Antivirus Sales Partner


Our esteemed clients includes

• Reem style Shipping Co

• Oasis Chemicals.
• Vas Technical Services
• Indian Airlines
• Kshethra Exports (SAP Implementation)
• Varshita Concrete Engineering Solutions
• Sun pack Machines
• Pragati Polymers
• Heritage Hospitality Solutions
• G K Trips
• J R S Travels
• Dr.Naron.com



RAM : 256MB

Processor : P-IV

Hard Disk : 20GB

Memory : 32MB


Operating System : Windows 2000.

Software : C#.Net, ASP.Net.

Data Base : MS-Access


• Searching for a particular employee through a book is strenuous
• Details may be incomplete or inaccurate
• However payroll calculation, year-end reporting, and recording employee data in
a book is strenuous
• It is less user-friendly.


The development of the new system contains the following activities, which try to
automate the entire process keeping in view of the database integration approach.

• User friendliness is provided in the application with various controls.

• The system makes the overall project management much easier and flexible.

• Payroll calculation, year-end reporting, and recording employee data can be

simplified using payroll software

• There is no risk of data mismanagement at any level while the project

development is under process.

• The most obvious benefit of payroll software is that payroll calculations can
be completed in a fraction of the time that it takes to workout manually.


This Document plays a vital role in the development life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the
complete requirement of the system. It is meant for use by the developers and will be the
basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have
to go through formal change approval process.
WATER FALL MODEL was being chosen because all requirements were known
beforehand and the objective of our software development is the
computerization/automation of an already existing manual working system.





Executable Maintenance
Programming Modules

Process Software

Product Software
Product Product
Output Delivery


The developer is responsible for:
• Developing the system, which meets the SRS and solving all the requirements of
the system?
• Demonstrating the system and installing the system at client's location after the
acceptance testing is successful.
• Submitting the required user manual describing the system interfaces to work on it
and also the documents of the system.
• Conducting any user training that might be needed for using the system.
• Maintaining the system for a period of one year after installation.

Creating Database:

• Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. It

has many built in features to assist you in constructing and viewing your
information. Access is much more involved and is a more genuine database
application than other programs such as Microsoft Works.

This tutorial will help you get started with Microsoft Access and may solve some
of your problems, but it is a very good idea to use the Help Files that come with
Microsoft Access, or go to Microsoft's web site located at
http://microsoft.com/office/access/default.htm for further assistance.

First of all you need to understand how Microsoft Access breaks down a database.
Some keywords involved in this process are: Database File, Table, Record, Field,
and Data-type. Here is the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down
a database.

Database File: This is your main file that encompasses
the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive
or floppy disk.
Example) StudentDatabase.mdb
Table:A table is a collection of data about a specific
topic. There can be multiple tables in a database.
Example #1) Students
Example #2) Teachers
Field:Fields are the different categories within a Table.
Tables usually contain multiple fields.
Example #1) Student LastName
Example #2) Student FirstName
Datatypes:Datatypes are the properties of each field. A
field only has 1 datatype.
FieldName) Student LastName
Datatype) Text

Starting Microsoft Access

• Two Ways
1. Double click on the Microsoft Access icon on the desktop.

Click on Start --> Programs --> Microsoft Access

Creating New, and Opening Existing Databases

The above picture gives you the option to:

• Create a New Database from scratch

• Use the wizard to create a New Database
• Open an existing database
o The white box gives you the most recent databases you have used. If you
do not see the one you had created, choose the More Files option and hit
OK. Otherwise choose the database you had previously used and click OK.

Create a database using the Database Wizard

1. When Microsoft Access first starts up, a dialog box is automatically displayed
with options to create a new database or open an existing one. If this dialog box is
displayed, click Access Database Wizards, pages, and projects

And then click OK.
2. If you have already opened a database or closed the dialog box that displays when
Microsoft Access starts up, click New Database on the toolbar.

3. On the Databases tab, double-click the icon for the kind of database you want to

4. Specify a name and location for the database.

5. Click Create to start defining your new database

Create a database without using the Database Wizard

1. When Microsoft Access first starts up, a dialog box is automatically displayed
with options to create a new database or open an existing one. If this dialog box is
displayed, click Blank Access Database, and then click OK.

If you have already opened a database or closed the dialog box that displays when
Microsoft Access starts up, click New Database on the toolbar, and then double-
click the Blank Database icon on the General tab.
2. Specify a name and location for the database and click Create. (Below is the
screen that shows up following this step)


A table is a collection of data about a specific topic, such as students or contacts. Using a
separate table for each topic means that you store that data only once, which makes your
database more efficient, and reduces data-entry errors.

Create a Table from scratch in Design view

1. If you haven't already done so, switch to the Database Window You can press F11 to
switch to the Database window from any other window.

2. Double-Click on "Create table in Design view".


3. Define each of the fields in your table.

1. Under the Field Name column, enter the categories of your table.
2. Under Data Type column, enter the type you want for you categories.

1. The attribute of a variable or field that determines what kind of
data it can hold. For example, in a Microsoft Access database, the
Text and Memo field data types allow the field to store either text
or numbers, but the Number data type will allow the field to store
numbers only. Number data type fields store numerical data that
will be used in mathematical calculations. Use the Currency data
type to display or calculate currency values. Other data types are
Date/Time, Yes/No, Auto Number, and OLE object (Picture).
3. Under the Description column, enter the text that describes what you field
is. (This field is optional).

Primary Key

• One or more fields (columns) whose values or value uniquely identify each record
in a table. A primary key does not allow Null values and must always have a
unique value. A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other
• NOTE: You do not have to define a primary key, but it's usually a good idea. If
you don't define a primary key, Microsoft Access asks you if you would like to
create one when you save the table.
• For our tutorial, make the Soc Sec # field the primary key, meaning that every
student has a social security number and no 2 are the same.
o To do this, simply select the Soc Sec # field and select the primary key

o After you do this, Save the table

Switching Views

• To switch views form the datasheet (spreadsheet view) and the design view,
simply click the button in the top-left hand corner of the Access program.

Datasheet View Design View

Displays the view, which allows you Displays the view, which allows you to enter fields,
to enter raw data into your database data-types, and descriptions into your database
table. table.

Entering Data

• Click on the Datasheet View and simply start "chugging" away by entering the
data into each field. NOTE: Before starting a new record, the Soc Sec # field
must have something in it, because it is the Primary Key. If you did not set a
Primary Key then it is OK.

Manipulating Data

• Adding a new row
o Simply drop down to a new line and enter the information
• Updating a record
o Simply select the record and field you want to update, and change its data
with what you want
• Deleting a record
o Simply select the entire row and hit the Delete Key on the keyboard

Advanced Table Features w/Microsoft Access

• Assigning a field a specific set of characters

o Example) Making a Social Security Number only allows 9 characters.
1. Switch to Design View
2. Select the field you want to alter
3. At the bottom select the General Tab

4. Select Field Size

5. Enter the number of characters you want this field to have
• Formatting a field to look a specific way (HINT: You do not need to assign a field
a specific set of characters if you do this)
o Example) Formatting Phone Number w/ Area Code (xxx) xxx-xxxx
1. Switch to Design View
2. Select the field you want to format
3. At the bottom select the General Tab
4. Select Input Mask Box and click on the ... button at the right.

5. Select Phone Number option

6. Click on Next
7. Leave! (999) 000-0000 the way it is. This is a default.
8. Click Next
9. Select which option you want it to look like
10. Click Next
11. Click Finish
• Selecting a value from a dropdown box with a set of values that you assign to it.
This saves you from typing it in each time
o Example)Choosing a city that is either Auburn, Bay City, Flint, Midland,
or Saginaw
1. Switch to Design View
2. Select the field you want to alter (City)
3. At the bottom select the Lookup Tab
4. In the Display Control box, select Combo Box
5. Under Row Source Type, select Value List
6. Under Row Source, enter the values how you want them
displayed, separated by a comma. (Auburn, Bay City, Flint,
Midland, Saginaw)

 NOTE: This will not alphabetize them for you, so you will
have to do that yourself. It should look something like this:

7. Select in the datasheet view and you should see the change when
you go to the city field.


After you've set up multiple tables in your Microsoft Access database, you need a way of
telling Access how to bring that information back together again. The first step in this
process is to define relationships between your tables. After you've done that, you can
create queries, forms, and reports to display information from several tables at once.

A relationship works by matching data in key fields - usually a field with the same name
in both tables. In most cases, these matching fields are the primary key from one table,
which provides a unique identifier for each record, and a foreign key in the other table.
For example, teachers can be associated with the students they're responsible for by
creating a relationship between the teacher's table and the student's table using the
TeacherID fields.
Having met the criteria above, follow these steps for creating relationships between

1. In the database window view, at the top, click on Tools ---> Relationships
2. Select the Tables you want to link together, by clicking on them and selecting the
Add Button
3. Drag the primary key of the Parent table (Teacher in this case), and drop it into the
same field in the Child table (Student in this case.)

4. Select Enforce Referential Integrity

o When the Cascade Update Related Fields check box is set, changing a
primary key value in the primary table automatically updates the matching
value in all related records.
o When the Cascade Delete Related Records check box is set, deleting a
record in the primary table deletes any related records in the related table
5. Click Create and Save the Relationship



Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input
design is as given below:
• To produce a cost-effective method of input.
• To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.
• To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.

The main input stages can be listed as below:
• Data recording
• Data transcription
• Data conversion
• Data verification
• Data control

• Data transmission
• Data validation
• Data correction

It is necessary to determine the various types of inputs. Inputs can be categorized as
• External inputs, which are prime inputs for the system.
• Internal inputs, which are user communications with the system.
• Operational, which are computer department’s communications to the
• Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue.
At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the
input media consideration has to be given to;
• Type of input
• Flexibility of format
• Speed
• Accuracy
• Verification methods
• Rejection rates
• Ease of correction
• Storage and handling requirements
• Security
• Easy to use
• Portabilility
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said
that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As
Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be
the most suitable input device.


Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of
processing to users. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of the results for
later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are:
• External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization.
• Internal Outputs whose destination is with in organization and they are the
 User’s main interface with the computer.
• Operational outputs whose use is purely with in the computer department.
• Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly with

The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points:
 Type of the output
 Content of the output
 Format of the output
 Location of the output
 Frequency of the output
 Volume of the output
 Sequence of the output

It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be

Decided as which form of the output is the most suitable.
For Example
• Will decimal points need to be inserted
• Should leading zeros be suppressed.


In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the
output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are:

• The suitability for the device to the particular application.

• The need for a hard copy.
• The response time required.
• The location of the users
• The software and hardware available.

Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly
coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the
requirement specification are: The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy
and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the
format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after
manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.


A data flow diagram is graphical tool used to describe and analyze movement of
data through a system. These are the central tool and the basis from which the other
components are developed. The transformation of data from input to output, through
processed, may be described logically and independently of physical components
associated with the system. These are known as the logical data flow diagrams. The
physical data flow diagrams show the actual implements and movement of data between
people, departments and workstations. A full description of a system actually consists of
a set of data flow diagrams. Using two familiar notations Yourdon, Gane and Sarson
notation develops the data flow diagrams. Each component in a DFD is labeled with a
descriptive name. Process is further identified with a number that will be used for
identification purpose. The development of DFD’s is done in several levels. Each
process in lower level diagrams can be broken down into a more detailed DFD in the next

level. The lop-level diagram is often called context diagram. It consists of a single
process bit, which plays vital role in studying the current system. The process in the
context level diagram is exploded into other process at the first level DFD.

The idea behind the explosion of a process into more process is that understanding
at one level of detail is exploded into greater detail at the next level. This is done until
further explosion is necessary and an adequate amount of detail is described for analyst to
understand the process.

Larry Constantine first developed the DFD as a way of expressing system

requirements in a graphical from, this lead to the modular design.

A DFD is also known as a “bubble Chart” has the purpose of clarifying system
requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system
design. So it is the starting point of the design to the lowest level of detail. A DFD
consists of a series of bubbles joined by data flows in the system.


In the DFD, there are four symbols

1. A square defines a source(originator) or destination of system data

2. An arrow identifies data flow. It is the pipeline through which the information flows
3. A circle or a bubble represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into
outgoing data flows.
4. An open rectangle is a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data

Process that transforms data flow.

Source or Destination of data

Data flow

Data Store

Several rules of thumb are used in drawing DFD’s:

1. Process should be named and numbered for an easy reference. Each name should be
representative of the process.
2. The direction of flow is from top to bottom and from left to right. Data Traditionally
flow from source to the destination although they may flow back to the source. One
way to indicate this is to draw long flow line back to a source. An alternative way is
to repeat the source symbol as a destination. Since it is used more than once in the
DFD it is marked with a short diagonal.

3. When a process is exploded into lower level details, they are numbered.
4. The names of data stores and destinations are written in capital letters. Process and
dataflow names have the first letter of each work capitalized

A DFD typically shows the minimum contents of data store. Each data store should
contain all the data elements that flow in and out.

Questionnaires should contain all the data elements that flow in and out. Missing
interfaces redundancies and like is then accounted for often through interviews.


1. The DFD shows flow of data, not of control loops and decision are controlled
considerations do not appear on a DFD.

2. The DFD does not indicate the time factor involved in any process whether the
data flows take place daily, weekly, monthly or yearly.
3. The sequence of events is not brought out on the DFD.


1. Current Physical
2. Current Logical
3. New Logical
4. New Physical

In Current Physical DFD process label include the name of people or their
positions or the names of computer systems that might provide some of the overall

system-processing label includes an identification of the technology used to process the
data. Similarly data flows and data stores are often labels with the names of the actual
physical media on which data are stored such as file folders, computer files, business
forms or computer tapes.

The physical aspects at the system are removed as mush as possible so that the
current system is reduced to its essence to the data and the processors that transform them
regardless of actual physical form.

This is exactly like a current logical model if the user were completely happy with
he user were completely happy with the functionality of the current system but had
problems with how it was implemented typically through the new logical model will
differ from current logical model while having additional functions, absolute function
removal and inefficient flows recognized.


The new physical represents only the physical implementation of the new system.


1) No process can have only outputs.
2) No process can have only inputs. If an object has only inputs than it must be a
3) A process has a verb phrase label.


1) Data cannot move directly from one data store to another data store, a process
must move data.
2) Data cannot move directly from an outside source to a data store, a process,
which receives, must move data from the source and place the data into data
3) A data store has a noun phrase label.

The origin and /or destination of data.

1) Data cannot move direly from a source to sink it must be moved by a process
2) A source and /or sink has a noun phrase land


1) A Data Flow has only one direction of flow between symbol. It may flow in
both directions between a process and a data store to show a read before an
update. The later is usually indicated however by two separate arrows since
these happen at different type.
2) A join in DFD means that exactly the same data comes from any of two or
more different processes data store or sink to a common location.
3) A data flow cannot go directly back to the same process it leads. There must
be at least one other process that handles the data flow produce some other
data flow returns the original data into the beginning process.
4) A Data flow to a data store means update (delete or change).
5) A data Flow from a data store means retrieve or use.
6) A data flow has a noun phrase label more than one data flow noun phrase can
appear on a single arrow as long as all of the flows on the same arrow move
together as one package.

DFD Level – 0 for C-Channel Track:




Employee Master Pay Slip


Allowances/Deductions Reports


Add Employee Details



Add Allowances/Deduction Details



Add Loan Details

N Store


Overview of .Net
The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application
development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The .NET Framework
is designed to fulfill the following objectives:
• To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object
• Code is stored and executed locally, executed locally but Internet-distributed, or
executed remotely.
• To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment
and versioning conflicts.

• To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code,
including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party.
• To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance
problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
• To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of
applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications.
• To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the
.NET Framework can integrate with any other code.

The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and
the .NET Framework class library. The common language runtime is the foundation of
the .NET Framework. You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at
execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread
management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of
code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. In fact, the concept of code
management is a fundamental principle of the runtime. Code that targets the runtime is
known as managed code, while code that does not target the runtime is known as
unmanaged code. The class library, the other main component of the .NET Framework, is
a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop
applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI)
applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such
as Web Forms and XML Web services.

The .NET Framework can be hosted by unmanaged components that load the common
language runtime into their processes and initiate the execution of managed code, thereby
creating a software environment that can exploit both managed and unmanaged features.
The .NET Framework not only provides several runtime hosts, but also supports the
development of third-party runtime hosts.

For example, ASP.NET hosts the runtime to provide a scalable, server-side environment
for managed code. ASP.NET works directly with the runtime to enable Web Forms
applications and XML Web services, both of which are discussed later in this topic.

Internet Explorer is an example of an unmanaged application that hosts the runtime (in
the form of a MIME type extension). Using Internet Explorer to host the runtime enables
you to embed managed components or Windows Forms controls in HTML documents.
Hosting the runtime in this way makes managed mobile code (similar to Microsoft®
ActiveX® controls) possible, but with significant improvements that only managed code
can offer, such as semi-trusted execution and secure isolated file storage.

Features of the Common Language Runtime

The common language runtime manages memory, thread execution, code execution,
code safety verification, compilation, and other system services. These features are
intrinsic to the managed code that runs on the common language runtime.

With regards to security, managed components are awarded varying degrees of trust,
depending on a number of factors that include their origin (such as the Internet, enterprise
network, or local computer). This means that a managed component might or might not
be able to perform file-access operations, registry-access operations, or other sensitive
functions, even if it is being used in the same active application.

The runtime enforces code access security. For example, users can trust that an
executable embedded in a Web page can play an animation on screen or sing a song, but
cannot access their personal data, file system, or network. The security features of the
runtime thus enable legitimate Internet-deployed software to be exceptionally featuring

The runtime also enforces code robustness by implementing a strict type- and code-
verification infrastructure called the common type system (CTS). The CTS ensures that
all managed code is self-describing. The various Microsoft and third-party language
compilers generate managed code that conforms to the CTS. This means that managed
code can consume other managed types and instances, while strictly enforcing type
fidelity and type safety.

In addition, the managed environment of the runtime eliminates many common software
issues. For example, the runtime automatically handles object layout and manages
references to objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. This automatic

memory management resolves the two most common application errors, memory leaks
and invalid memory references.

The runtime also accelerates developer productivity. For example, programmers can write
applications in their development language of choice, yet take full advantage of the
runtime, the class library, and components written in other languages by other developers.
Any compiler vendor who chooses to target the runtime can do so. Language compilers
that target the .NET Framework make the features of the .NET Framework available to
existing code written in that language, greatly easing the migration process for existing

While the runtime is designed for the software of the future, it also supports software of
today and yesterday. Interoperability between managed and unmanaged code enables
developers to continue to use necessary COM components and DLLs.

The runtime is designed to enhance performance. Although the common language

runtime provides many standard runtime services, managed code is never interpreted. A
feature called just-in-time (JIT) compiling enables all managed code to run in the native
machine language of the system on which it is executing. Meanwhile, the memory
manager removes the possibilities of fragmented memory and increases memory locality-
of-reference to further increase performance.

Finally, the runtime can be hosted by high-performance, server-side applications, such as

Microsoft® SQL Server™ and Internet Information Services (IIS). This infrastructure
enables you to use managed code to write your business logic, while still enjoying the
superior performance of the industry's best enterprise servers that support runtime

Common Type System

The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the
runtime, and is also an important part of the runtime's support for cross-language
integration. The common type system performs the following functions:

Establishes a framework that enables cross-language integration, type safety, and high
performance code execution.

Provides an object-oriented model that supports the complete implementation of many
programming languages.

Defines rules that languages must follow, which helps ensure that objects written in
different languages can interact with each other.

In This Section Common Type System Overview

Describes concepts and defines terms relating to the common type system.

Type Definitions
Describes user-defined types.

Type Members

Describes events, fields, nested types, methods, and properties, and concepts such as
member overloading, overriding, and inheritance.
Value Types

Describes built-in and user-defined value types.


Describes the characteristics of common language runtime classes.


Describes the delegate object, which is the managed alternative to unmanaged function

Describes common language runtime array types.


Describes characteristics of interfaces and the restrictions on interfaces imposed by the

common language runtime.


Describes managed pointers, unmanaged pointers, and unmanaged function pointers.

Related Sections

. NET Framework Class Library

Provides a reference to the classes, interfaces, and value types included in the
Microsoft .NET Framework SDK.

Common Language Runtime

Describes the run-time environment that manages the execution of code and provides
application development services.

Cross-Language Interoperability

The common language runtime provides built-in support for language interoperability.
However, this support does not guarantee that developers using another programming
language can use code you write. To ensure that you can develop managed code that can
be fully used by developers using any programming language, a set of language features
and rules for using them called the Common Language Specification (CLS) has been
defined. Components that follow these rules and expose only CLS features are considered

This section describes the common language runtime's built-in support for language
interoperability and explains the role that the CLS plays in enabling guaranteed cross-
language interoperability. CLS features and rules are identified and CLS compliance is

Language Interoperability

Describes built-in support for cross-language interoperability and introduces the Common
Language Specification.

What is the Common Language Specification?

Explains the need for a set of features common to all languages and identifies CLS rules
and features.

Writing CLS-Compliant Code

Discusses the meaning of CLS compliance for components and identifies levels of CLS
compliance for tools.

Common Type System

Describes how types are declared, used, and managed by the common language runtime.

Metadata and Self-Describing Components

Explains the common language runtime's mechanism for describing a type and storing
that information with the type itself.

. NET Framework Class Library

The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate
with the common language runtime. The class library is object oriented, providing types
from which your own managed code can derive functionality. This not only makes the
.NET Framework types easy to use, but also reduces the time associated with learning
new features of the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate
seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework.

For example, the .NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that
you can use to develop your own collection classes. Your collection classes will blend
seamlessly with the classes in the .NET Framework.

As you would expect from an object-oriented class library, the .NET Framework types
enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks, including tasks such as
string management, data collection, database connectivity, and file access. In addition to

these common tasks, the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized
development scenarios. For example, you can use the .NET Framework to develop the
following types of applications and services:

Console applications

• Scripted or hosted applications.

• Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms).

• ASP.NET applications.

• XML Web services.

• Windows services.

For example, the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that
vastly simplify Windows GUI development. If you write an ASP.NET Web Form
application, you can use the Web Forms classes.

Client Application Development

Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in Windows-based

programming. These are the types of applications that display windows or forms on the
desktop, enabling a user to perform a task. Client applications include applications such
as word processors and spreadsheets, as well as custom business applications such as
data-entry tools, reporting tools, and so on. Client applications usually employ windows,
menus, buttons, and other GUI elements, and they likely access local resources such as
the file system and peripherals such as printers.

Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the
managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. This
application is much like other client applications: it is executed natively, has access to
local resources, and includes graphical elements.

In the past, developers created such applications using C/C++ in conjunction with the
Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) or with a rapid application development (RAD)
environment such as Microsoft® Visual Basic®. The .NET Framework incorporates

aspects of these existing products into a single, consistent development environment that
drastically simplifies the development of client applications.

The Windows Forms classes contained in the .NET Framework are designed to be used
for GUI development. You can easily create command windows, buttons, menus,
toolbars, and other screen elements with the flexibility necessary to accommodate shifting
business needs.

For example, the .NET Framework provides simple properties to adjust visual attributes
associated with forms. In some cases the underlying operating system does not support
changing these attributes directly, and in these cases the .NET Framework automatically
recreates the forms. This is one of many ways in which the .NET Framework integrates
the developer interface, making coding simpler and more consistent.

Unlike ActiveX controls, Windows Forms controls have semi-trusted access to a user's
computer. This means that binary or natively executing code can access some of the
resources on the user's system (such as GUI elements and limited file access) without
being able to access or compromise other resources. Because of code access security,
many applications that once needed to be installed on a user's system can now be safely
deployed through the Web. Your applications can implement the features of a local
application while being deployed like a Web page.

Managed Execution Process

The managed execution process includes the following steps:

Choosing a Complier

To obtain the benefits provided by the common language runtime, you must use one or
more language compilers that target the runtime.

Compiling your code to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)

Compiling translates your source code into MSIL and generates the required metadata.

Compiling MSIL to native code

At execution time, a just-in-time (JIT) compiler translates the MSIL into native code.
During this compilation, code must pass a verification process that examines the MSIL
and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe.

Executing your code

The common language runtime provides the infrastructure that enables execution to take
place as well as a variety of services that can be used during execution.

Assemblies Overview

Assemblies are a fundamental part of programming with the .NET Framework. An

assembly performs the following functions:

It contains code that the common language runtime executes. Microsoft intermediate
language (MSIL) code in a portable executable (PE) file will not be executed if it does
not have an associated assembly manifest. Note that each assembly can have only one
entry point (that is, DllMain, WinMain, or Main).

It forms a security boundary. An assembly is the unit at which permissions are requested
and granted. For more information about security boundaries as they apply to assemblies,
see Assembly Security Considerations

It forms a type boundary. Every type's identity includes the name of the assembly in
which it resides. A type called MyType loaded in the scope of one assembly is not the
same as a type called MyType loaded in the scope of another assembly.

It forms a reference scope boundary. The assembly's manifest contains assembly

metadata that is used for resolving types and satisfying resource requests. It specifies the
types and resources that are exposed outside the assembly. The manifest also enumerates
other assemblies on which it depends.

It forms a version boundary. The assembly is the smallest version able unit in the
common language runtime; all types and resources in the same assembly are versioned as
a unit. The assembly's manifest describes the version dependencies you specify for any
dependent assemblies. For more information about versioning, see Assembly Versioning

It forms a deployment unit. When an application starts, only the assemblies that the
application initially calls must be present. Other assemblies, such as localization
resources or assemblies containing utility classes can be retrieved on demand. This allows
applications to be kept simple and thin when first downloaded. For more information
about deploying assemblies, see Deploying Applications

It is the unit at which side-by-side execution is supported. For more information about
running multiple versions of the same assembly, see Side-by-Side Execution

Assemblies can be static or dynamic. Static assemblies can include .NET Framework
types (interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files,
resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in PE files. You can also
use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from
memory and are not saved to disk before execution. You can save dynamic assemblies to
disk after they have executed.

There are several ways to create assemblies. You can use development tools, such as
Visual Studio .NET, that you have used in the past to create .dll or .exe files. You can use
tools provided in the .NET Framework SDK to create assemblies with modules created in
other development environments. You can also use common language runtime APIs, such
as Reflection. Emit, to create dynamic assemblies.

Server Application Development

Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts.
Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime, which allows your custom
managed code to control the behavior of the server. This model provides you with all the
features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance
and scalability of the host server.

The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in
different server environments. Servers such as IIS and SQL Server can perform standard
operations while your application logic executes through the managed code.

Server-side managed code

ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET Framework
to target Web-based applications. However, ASP.NET is more than just a runtime host; it
is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using
managed code. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP.NET as the
publishing mechanism for applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes
in the .NET Framework.

XML Web services, an important evolution in Web-based technology, are distributed,

server-side application components similar to common Web sites. However, unlike Web-
based applications, XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for
browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead, XML Web services
consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications,
such as traditional client applications, Web-based applications, or even other XML Web
services. As a result, XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application
development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet.

If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology, you will immediately notice the
improvements that ASP.NET and Web Forms offers. For example, you can develop Web
Forms pages in any language that supports the .NET Framework. In addition, your code
no longer needs to share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to
do so if you prefer). Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because, like
any other managed application, they take full advantage of the runtime. In contrast,
unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. ASP.NET pages are faster,
more functional, and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact
with the runtime like any managed application.

The .NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in
development and consumption of XML Web services applications. XML Web services

are built on standards such as SOAP (a remote procedure-call protocol), XML (an
extensible data format), and WSDL (the Web Services Description Language). The .NET
Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with non-Microsoft

For example, the Web Services Description Language tool included with the .NET
Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web, parse its WSDL
description, and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to
become a client of the XML Web service. The source code can create classes derived
from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using
SOAP and XML parsing. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web
services directly, the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools
contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the .NET Framework.

If you develop and publish your own XML Web service, the .NET Framework provides a
set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards, such as SOAP,
WSDL, and XML. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service,
without concerning yourself with the communications infrastructure required by
distributed software development.

Finally, like Web Forms pages in the managed environment, your XML Web service will
run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of IIS.

Programming with the .NET Framework

This section describes the programming essentials you need to build .NET applications,
from creating assemblies from your code to securing your application. Many of the
fundamentals covered in this section are used to create any application using the .NET
Framework. This section provides conceptual information about key programming
concepts, as well as code samples and detailed explanations.

Accessing Data with ADO.NET

Describes the ADO.NET architecture and how to use the ADO.NET classes to manage
application data and interact with data sources including Microsoft SQL Server, OLE DB
data sources, and XML.

Accessing Objects in Other Application Domains using .NET Remoting

Describes the various communications methods available in the .NET Framework for
remote communications.

Accessing the Internet

Shows how to use Internet access classes to implement both Web- and Internet-based

Creating Active Directory Components

Discusses using the Active Directory Services Interfaces.

Creating Scheduled Server Tasks

Discusses how to create events that are raised on reoccurring intervals.

Developing Components

Provides an overview of component programming and explains how those concepts work
with the .NET Framework.

Developing World-Ready Applications

Explains the extensive support the .NET Framework provides for developing
international applications.

Discovering Type Information at Runtime

Explains how to get access to type information at run time by using reflection.

Drawing and Editing Images

Discusses using GDI+ with the .NET Framework.

Emitting Dynamic Assemblies

Describes the set of managed types in the System.Reflection.Emit namespace.

Employing XML in the .NET Framework

Provides an overview to a comprehensive and integrated set of classes that work with
XML documents and data in the .NET Framework.

Extending Metadata Using Attributes

Describes how you can use attributes to customize metadata.

Generating and Compiling Source Code Dynamically in Multiple Languages

Explains the .NET Framework SDK mechanism called the Code Document Object Model
(CodeDOM) that enables the output of source code in multiple programming languages.

Grouping Data in Collections

Discusses the various collection types available in the .NET Framework, including stacks,
queues, lists, arrays, and structures.

Handling and Raising Events

Provides an overview of the event model in the .NET Framework.

Handling and Throwing Exceptions

Describes error handling provided by the .NET Framework and the fundamentals of
handling exceptions.




In the text boxes like name, address etc., only alphabets and number could be
entered thus if the operator by mistake enters other special characters, it would not be
In the text boxes like age, telephone number only numbers could be entered.
If the users do not fill any of the fields, which could not be empty, a message
would be displayed asking to enter the required parameters.
When a user starts the applications, a login form will be displayed prompting to
enter the username and password, if even any one of them is not matched with the details
stored in the database, the user will be warned to re-enter the correct details.
While entering the details of new customer, the customer number which cannot be
null value will be automatically generated. This is one greater than the highest number
existing previously.
When the details of one customer are modified even if one parameter is missed a
message will be displayed asking to enter complete details.


Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents

the ultimate review of specification, designing and coding.

1. Testing is process of executing a program with the intent of finding an

2. A good test case design is one that has a probability of finding an as
yet undiscovered error.
3. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.
These above objectives imply a dramatic change in view port.
Testing cannot show the absence of defects, it can only show that software errors
are present.

Any engineering product can be tested in one of two ways:
White Box Testing: This testing is also called as glass box testing. In this testing,
by knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform test can be
conducted that demonstrates each function is fully operation at the same time searching
for errors in each function. It is a test case design method that uses the control structure of
the procedural design to derive test cases. Basis path testing is a white box testing.
Basis Path Testing:
i. Flow graph notation
ii. Cyclomatic Complexity
iii. Deriving test cases
iv. Graph matrices
Control Structure Testing:

i. Condition testing
ii. Data flow testing
iii. Loop testing
Black Box Testing: In this testing by knowing the internal operation of a product,
tests can be conducted to ensure that “all gears mesh”, that is the internal operation
performs according to specification and all internal components have been adequately
exercised. It fundamentally focuses on the functional requirements of the software.
The steps involved in black box test case design are:
i. Graph based testing methods
ii. Equivalence partitioning
iii. Boundary value analysis
iv. Comparison testing

A software testing strategy provides a road map for the software developer.
Testing is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically.
For this reason a template for software testing a set of steps into which we can place
specific test case design methods should be defined for software engineering process.
Any software testing strategy should have the following characteristics:

1. Testing begins at the module level and works “outward” toward the
integration of the entire computer based system.
2. Different testing techniques are appropriate at different points in time.
3. The developer of the software and an independent test group conducts testing.
4. Testing and Debugging are different activities but debugging must be
accommodated in any testing strategy.

Unit Testing: Unit testing focuses verification efforts in smallest unit of software
design (module).

1. Unit test considerations

2. Unit test procedures
Integration Testing: Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing
the program structure while conducting tests to uncover errors associated with
interfacing. There are two types of integration testing:

1. Top-Down Integration: Top down integration is an incremental approach to

construction of program structures. Modules are integrated by moving down wards
throw the control hierarchy beginning with the main control module.
2. Bottom-Up Integration: Bottom up integration as its name implies, begins
construction and testing with automatic modules.
3. Regression Testing: In this contest of an integration test strategy, regression
testing is the re execution of some subset of test that have already been conducted to
ensure that changes have not propagate unintended side effects.

At the culmination of integration testing, software is completely assembled as a

package; interfacing errors have been uncovered and corrected, and a final series of
software tests – validation testing may begin. Validation can be fined in many ways, but
a simple definition is that validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that
can be reasonably expected by the customer.

Reasonable expectation is defined in the software requirement specification – a
document that describes all user-visible attributes of the software. The specification
contains a section titled “Validation Criteria”. Information contained in that section forms
the basis for a validation testing approach.

Software validation is achieved through a series of black-box tests that

demonstrate conformity with requirement. A test plan outlines the classes of tests to be
conducted, and a test procedure defines specific test cases that will be used in an attempt
to uncover errors in conformity with requirements. Both the plan and procedure are
designed to ensure that all functional requirements are satisfied; all performance
requirements are achieved; documentation is correct and human-engineered; and other
requirements are met.
After each validation test case has been conducted, one of two possible conditions
exists: (1) The function or performance characteristics conform to specification and are
accepted, or (2) a deviation from specification is uncovered and a deficiency list is
created. Deviation or error discovered at this stage in a project can rarely be corrected
prior to scheduled completion. It is often necessary to negotiate with the customer to
establish a method for resolving deficiencies.

An important element of the validation process is a configuration review. The

intent of the review is to ensure that all elements of the software configuration have been
properly developed, are catalogued, and have the necessary detail to support the
maintenance phase of the software life cycle. The configuration review sometimes called
an audit.

It is virtually impossible for a software developer to foresee how the customer will
really use a program. Instructions for use may be misinterpreted; strange combination of
data may be regularly used; and output that seemed clear to the tester may be
unintelligible to a user in the field.

When custom software is built for one customer, a series of acceptance tests are
conducted to enable the customer to validate all requirements. Conducted by the end user
rather than the system developer, an acceptance test can range from an informal “test
drive” to a planned and systematically executed series of tests. In fact, acceptance testing
can be conducted over a period of weeks or months, thereby uncovering cumulative
errors that might degrade the system over time.
If software is developed as a product to be used by many customers, it is
impractical to perform formal acceptance tests with each one. Most software product
builders use a process called alpha and beta testing to uncover errors that only the end
user seems able to find.
A customer conducts the alpha test at the developer’s site. The software is used in
a natural setting with the developer “looking over the shoulder” of the user and recording
errors and usage problems. Alpha tests are conducted in controlled environment.
The beta test is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end user of the
software. Unlike alpha testing, the developer is generally not present. Therefore, the beta
test is a “live” application of the software in an environment that cannot be controlled by
the developer. The customer records all problems that are encountered during beta testing
and reports these to the developer at regular intervals. As a result of problems reported
during bets test, the software developer makes modification and then prepares for release
of the software product to the entire customer base.
Implementation is the process of having systems personnel check out and put new
equipment into use, train users, install the new application depending on the size of the
organization that will be involved in using the application and the risk associated with its
use, systems developers may choose to test the operation in only one area of the firm, say
in one department or with only one or two persons. Sometimes they will run the old and
new systems together to compare the results. In still other situation, developers will stop
using the old system one-day and begin using the new one the next. As we will see, each
implementation strategy has its merits, depending on the business situation in which it is
considered. Regardless of the implementation strategy used, developers strive to ensure
that the system’s initial use in trouble-free.

Once installed, applications are often used for many years. However, both the
organization and the users will change, and the environment will be different over weeks
and months. Therefore, the application will undoubtedly have to be maintained;
modifications and changes will be made to the software, files, or procedures to meet
emerging user requirements. Since organization systems and the business environment
undergo continual change, the information systems should keep pace. In this sense,
implementation is ongoing process.
Evaluation of the system is performed to identify its strengths and weakness. The
actual evaluation can occur along any of the following dimensions.
Operational Evaluation: assessment of the manner in which the system functions,
including ease of use, response time, suitability of information formats, overall reliability,
and level of utilization.
Organization Impact: Identification and measurement of benefits to the
organization in such areas as financial concerns operational efficiency, and competitive
impact. Includes impact on internal and external information flows.

User Manager Assessment: Evaluation of the attitudes of senior and user mangers
within the organization, as well as end-users.
Development Performance: Evaluation of the development process in accordance
with such yardsticks as overall development time and effort, conformance to budgets and
standards, and other project management criteria. Includes assessment of development
methods and tools.
Unfortunately system evaluation does not always receive the attention it merits.
Where properly managed however, it provides a great deal of information that can
improve the effectiveness of subsequent application efforts.


• The project has been appreciated by all the users in the organization.
• It is easy to use, since it uses the GUI provided in the user dialog.
• User friendly screens are provided.
• The usage of software increases the efficiency, decreases the effort.
• It also provides the user with variable options in administering.
• It has been thoroughly tested and implemented.


By Roger.S. Pressman

MSDN 2005
By Microsoft

An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering

By Pankaj Jalote
Narosa Publishing House

Fundamentals of Database Systems

By Elmasri & Navathe
Addison Wesly

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By Nell B. Dale