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Dairy farming is a ˜ ˜˜˜ for the following reasons:

c t is eco-friendly and does not cause environmental pollution as compared to other

c ¦equirement of skilled labour is relatively less.
c Dairy product market is active round the year.
c 3inimum investment on inventory. (No need to to stock raw materials in huge
c Gntire establishment can be shifted to a new location (if need arises e.g. Fire, Floods
c Œne can insure animals.
c £    ×iogas plant fed with cow dung can supply maximum
energy to meet farms day to day requirement. Decomposed slurry of such plant can
also be effectively used as organic manure.

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c ×reeding of animals and getting expected milk yield is a biological phenomenon,

which depends upon various factors.
c Dairy farming besides good planning requires hardworking, reliable and alert
manager. n ndia, usually persons from the family take the responsibility.
c nadequate management of feeding ,heard health and lack of quality control in
various stage of production can cause major loss affecting the profitability of the
entire venture.

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c Œne needs to decide first on the aims and objective of the farm. Gvery year there
should be a progressive aim for breeding ( including number of animals to be
maintained) and production.
c Ñou can visit dairy farms that run on commercial basis and have a discussion with
experienced farm owners. Ñou need not have to rely much on others experience,
analyze every event logically and if needed consult with local Veterinarians for more
c f you plan to manage the farm on your own, look for opportunities to work for an
existing farm for a minimum period of six months.
c Develop interest and study feed and fodder's market in your region, its difficulties in
relation to seasons.
c 3anage a good team of labourers. Ñou need to choose hardworking reliable persons
preferably with some experience. Ñou can also train them for specific jobs.
c Visit the cattle market occasionally. Œbserve animals on sale and talk with persons
engaged with purchasing of animals.
c ¦ead magazines on Dairy ndustry and keep yourself informed.

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c Œpportunities for training are available with most of the: 

j mgricultural/Veterinary Universities of various states
j 6rishi Vigyan 6endras
j Útate Department of mnimal Husbandry

c Ñou can also choose to inquire with National level organization like: National Dairy
¦esearch nstitute (ND¦) 6arnal (Haryana) - For training on rearing of dairy animals
and manufacture of milk products.

c mlternately, you can also look for training facilities of non-governmental

organizations that are active in farming sectors.

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c ]ood quality cows are available in c n ndia, we have good buffalo
the market and it cost around breeds like 3urrah and 3ehsana,
¦s.1200 to ¦s.1500 per liter of which are suitable for commercial
milk production per day. (e.g. dairy farm.
Cost of a cow producing 10 liter c ×uffalo milk has more demand for
of 3ilk per day will be between making butter and butter oil
¦s.12,000 to ¦s.15,000). (]hee), as fat percentage in milk
c f proper care is given, cows is higher then cow. ×uffalo milk is
breed regularly giving one calf also preferred for making tea, a
every 13-14 month interval. welcoming drink in common
c Êhey are more docile and can be ndian household.
handled easily. ]ood milk c ×uffaloes can be maintained on
yielding cross breeds (Holstein more fibrous crop residues, hence
and Jersey crosses) has well scope for reducing feed cost.
adapted to ndian climate. c ×uffaloes largely mature late and
c Êhe fat percentage of cow's milk give birth to calves at 16 to 18
varies from 3-5.5% and is lower months interval. 3ale calves
then ×uffaloes. fetch little value.
c ×uffaloes need cooling facility
 e.g. Wallowing tank or showers /
foggers with fan.



3iddle class health-conscious ndian families prefer low fat milk for consumption as liquid
milk. We suggest you to go for a commercial farm of mixed type. (Cross breed, cows and
buffaloes kept in separate rows under one shed). Conduct a through study of the immediate
market where you are planning to market your milk Ñou can mix milk from both type of
animals and sold as per need of the market. Hotels and some general customers (can be
around 30%) prefer pure buffalo milk. Hospitals, sanitariums prefer cow's milk.



xopular buffalo milch breeds are   %Ú % %&  



Êhe indigenous milch breeds of cattle are ] %Ú %"


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Êhe exotic breeds of cattle are S # %&  


Gconomic life of buffaloes is 5-6 lactation and that of Crossbreed cows is 6-7 lactation.




Under ndian condition a commercial dairy farm should consist of minimum 20 animals (10
cows, 10 buffaloes) this strength can easily go up to 100 animals in proportion of 50:50 or
40:60. mfter this however, you need to review your strength and market potential before
you chose to go for expansion. 



Êhe space required per animal should be 40 sq.ft in shed and 80sq.ft open space. ×esides,
you will also need:

 Œne room 10'' x 10'' for keeping implements.

 Œne room 10''x 12'' for milk storage
 Œffice cum living room of suitable size.
 Water tank capable of storing minimum 2000 liters 
 ×ore well with capacity to fill water tank in 1 hr

Êotal land requirement for a unit of 20 animals can be sited as 3000 sq.ft. Êhere should be
space for expansion. deal space requirement for 100 animals is 13,000 to 15,000 sq.ft
(120" x 125''). For 20 animals initially, you can make contractual arrangements for getting
an assured supply of 300 kgs. of Lucerne and 400 kgs. of maize fodder per day. However, in
long run, as the strength of you farm will go up to 100 animals, t is advisable that you
should go for a lease land of 15 to 20 acres with irrigation facility to cultivate green fodder
for your animals. (Œne acre of green fodder cultivation for every five animals is required as
a thumb rule.) Êhe economics of whole dairy animal management depends upon its
economic feeding. ×y making fodder's like Lucerne or ×erseem available for your animals
you can reduced cost on feeding concentrate feed. 

Êhe strength of labourers in your farm can vary with number of animals usually the thumb
rule is one labour for every 10 animals on milk or 20 dry animals or 20 young stock.