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ВОЕННАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ УДК 623.54:629.

192
РАКЕТНЫХ ВОЙСК СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКОГО НАЗНАЧЕНИЯ
имени ПЕТРА ВЕЛИКОГО
Пособие представляет собой первую часть общего учеб-
А. Н. АНДРЕЕВ, С. И. ВОЙТЕНКО, Б. С. НУЖДИН ного пособия «Баллистика ракет» и содержит методологи-
ческие основы математического моделирования полета ра-
кет и их головных частей как основного метода решения
практических задач баллистики. В нем изложены общие
принципы математического описания полета, способы ма-
тематического представления гравитационного поля и ат-
мосферы Земли, математическое описание сил и моментов,
действующих на ракету в полете.
Пособие предназначено для слушателей и курсантов
академии, обучающихся по баллистической специальности,
в качестве основного учебного пособия по дисциплине
БАЛЛИСТИКА РАКЕТ «Баллистика», а также для использования при выполнении
научно-исследовательских, курсовых и дипломных работ.
Часть I Оно может быть полезно инженерам и научным работни-
кам, занимающимся вопросами моделирования движения
Методологические основы математического летательных аппаратов различных классов и назначения.
моделирования движения ракет Пособие подготовлено по открытым публикациям, при-
веденным в списке литературы.

Ил. 57, табл. 12, библ. 31 назв.

Рекомендовано в качестве учебного пособия


учебно-методическим объединением по образованию
в области авиации, ракетостроения и космоса

МОСКВА 2005 @ Военная академия имени Петра Великого, 2005


1.7. ................. 72
1.7.1.
................................................................ 72
.............................................................6 1.7.2. .......................... 76
..............................................................................8 1.7.3. ...................... 82
1.8.
1. ........................................................ 92
........................................................................................... 12
1.8.1. -
1.1. ..................................................................................12 ................................... 92
1.1.1. 1.8.2. -
.........................................................................12 ..................................................... 97
1.1.2. 1.9. ............................... 100
.....................................................15 1.9.1. ........................ 100
1.1.3. .......................23 1.9.2. ................... 105
1.1.4. - 1.10.
..............................................................25 ……………………………………………………..111
1.2. ...................29 1.10.1. …………………..110
1.2.1. ....................................29 1.10.2. -
1.2.2. - ...................................................................... 117
...............................................................33
1.3. ......................................................36 2.
1.3.1. .............................................36 ..........................................................................................123
1.3.2. .....................37 2.1. ....................................... 123
1.3.3. ...............................40 2.1.1. ......................... 123
1.3.4. .................................41 2.1.2. .......... 127
1.4. .……………….43 2.1.3. ............................... 131
1.4.1. ..................................42 2.1.4. -
1.4.2. .......44 ......................................... 135
1.4.3. ..48 2.2.
1.5. ..........51 .................................................. 137
1.5.1. ............................................52 2.2.1. .......................................... 137
1.5.2. - 2.2.2. -
...........................................55 ..................... 143
1.6. , - 2.2.3.
………………………….57 …………………………………….154
1.6.1. ..........................58 4
1.6.2. .......................60
1.6.3. ......................65
2 3
2.3. 3.2.2. ................ 224
......................159 3.2.3. ................................ 230
2.3.1. 3.3. ,
......................................................................159 .................................................................... 235
2.3.2. 3.3.1. ............................................... 235
...........................................160 3.3.2. , -
2.4. ..............163 .................................................................... 237
2.4.1. ………………………163 3.3.3. , -
2.4.2. ………………………...167 ................................... 242
2.5. .................170 3.4. .......................................... 245
2.5.1. 3.4.1. -
.............................................................170 ......................................................................... 245
2.5.2. . - 3.4.2.
.....................................................174 .............................................................. 247
2.5.3. - 3.4.3.
...........................................................................177 .............................................................. 252
2.6. ............................181
2.6.1. .....................181 1. ............. 256
2.6.2. ...........................185 2. …………...257
2.6.3. .....189 3. -
2.6.4. ....192 ……………………………………………….262
2.6.5. - 4.
...............................................196 …….265
2.7. 5.
......................................................................199 …………..268
2.7.1. ……………......200 6. -
2.7.2. ....204 …….....………..…………………… 269
…….…………………………………………………272
3. ,
............................................................... 208
3.1. y ...........................208
3.1.1. . . ......................209
3.1.2. ................................213
3.1.3. .216
3.2. ..........................219
3.2.1. -
...................................................................219

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44 45
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46 47
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48 49
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, , , - a a
. (1.14)
- ,
-

*)
, -
,
.

54 55
a2 − b2 b2 ,
e2 = = 1 − ; (1.15) , . ,
a2 a2 ,
a 2 − b2 a 2 ,
e′ 2 = = 2 − 1, (1.16)
b2 b . a
, -
e α,
2 ,
(1.14)
(1.15):
e2 = 2 − 2
, (1.17) M =
(
a 1 − e2 ) . (1.18)
, ,
(1 − e 2
sin B2
)
3

,
e 2 = 2α . (1.17, ) , -
,
N
. 1.1.

1.1
a
N= . (1.19)
- 1 − e 2 sin 2 B

1940 . 1977 . 1985 . r


a 6378245 6378140 6378138
0.0033523299 0.0033528244 0.0033528131 a 1 − e2
r= . (1.20)
b 6356863.019 6356755.245 6356751.295 1 − e 2 cos 2 B
e2 0.0066934216 0.0066944073 0.006694285
e' 2 0.0067385254 0.0067395244 0.006739501 1.6. ,
*)
, -
. , -
. .
-
*)
, -
[22].

56 57
( ) - . , -
. .
1. .
, - -
. - .
, ( )
. , , . -
, . , -
, - ,
( ). . -
, -
, - " -
. " .
, , -
, , - .
. - -
, ( ),
. . -
, - ,
- . -
. - . -
-
, .
. ,
- .
, , - , -
, - .
. , ,
1.6.1. . ,
.
, , -
-
, , :
, -
;
. ( ) -
;
. ( )
;
. -
.
( )
-
,
. -
.

58 59
1.6.2. L -
, - ,
— (
. - - , 00 L 3600).
. , -
P
, - H
-
, : ( )- • A 0 -
•K
, - ,
- . - . -
C0
-
, . B
-
n
.
, L
-
, -
,- .
, -
.1.4
,
, , B, L, H , - B, L, H .
- .
, -
, - ,
. . -
. -
-
,
( ), - , 00 3600.
-
, , , , ,
. ,
, . 1.4. . , -
- n,
, - .
( - ϕ -
, - - .
, -900 900). -
, . L.

60 61
a  N 
- - tgϕ = 1 − e 2 tgB , (1.22)
 N +H 
-
, .
N- ( . (1.19)).
, -
-
. -
*)
h – ,
. . -
. , -
( .1.4) - -
, .
. - -
h, - ( - )
- .
. - , -
- -
( -
, - ,
).
-
( )
tgϕ = 1 − e 2 tgB , (1.21)
,
-
-
.
[22]. -
- ,
. -85 -
-
).
(B − ϕ)″ = 692,7′′ sin 2B − 1,2′′ sin 4B + ... -

-
= 450, (B - ϕ)' 11,5'. *)
, ,
, , , , ,
,

62 63
. - -
( ) . , .
- - ,
4 -5 , ,
. .
.
. -

( ) u . -
.
u u -
ϒ
= +ζ , (1.26)
ξ u = u cos Au ; η u = u sin Au , (1.23)
- ( );
ϒ
u – , - ( );
. - , « -
- ».
1.6.3.
-
-
.
B=ϕ − u; L= − u secϕ . (1.24) -
. -
-
, :
1. -
,Z
A=a − u tgB . (1.25) ξ ξηζ ( . 1.5) .

N , Oξ
-
- . , - ζ,Y
, Oη
, - - η,,X
. , ζ -
,
, -
.1.5 , Oζ
.
. -

64 65
, . O ,
. ,
. Bo , Lo -
2. K ′ ′ ′. *)
( .1.6). O yc -
N
( .1.5) - -
yc xc
, - A -
∆ξ k , ∆η k , ∆ζ k ,
. - . -
O
-
-
ω1 , ω 2 , ω 3 - . Bo
-
/
- ′, -
. 1.2. Lo zc
-

. .1.6
1.2
∆ ∆ 1 2 3 . O xc
) ( ) ( ) ( ) . .) . .) . .)
, -
1977 -80 30 -125 +0,22 +0,64 +0,69
1985 -84 26 -139 -0,03 +0,35 +0,62
O xc yc -
3. OXYZ. . O zc . -
O xc yc .
( )
( ), . ,
, Z .
, X - 5. OH xu yu zu.
, OY - -
( . 1.5). , u, -
ξηζ -
. . , O yu -
4. O xc yc zc .
, O xu − -
, .
,
*)
, , - , -
, 0 0.

66 67
a , - -
,
, O zu Oxyz.
( . 1.7). N
yu
, α0 1. Sx1 y1 z1 .
xu
, - -
- O , -
, ϕ , .
/ . -
- λ zu
, - .
. ,
- .1.7 , , . -
, . -
6. O xyz. , , . -
( .
- 1.9). , ,
, - , I
. O , , III – -
λ o,ϕ o . 1.8). O y - . , I
. . III , -
y1 yv
N . -
. Ox y x
, -
x1
A
II IV -
, - x
r
,
xv
ϕ III S
V . -
, - II -
, - z O
z1 -
IV . . ( -
λ z zv
). ,
Ao .
I -
z .1.9 .
. .1.8 -
, Ox Ao , - :
. Sx1 – ;

68 69
Sy1 – - 4. x y z .
; -
Sz1 – -
. .
- , , -
. , . 1.11.
, - 1 2, ,
. - , 3.
, . - 4 , -
- Sz1 .
. y1
ψ
2. SxV yV zV .
y -
( . 1.9) . 4
. -
SxV ( y
3
). 1
, y
2
SyV - z x
. SzV -
, x
ϑ
. - ϕ
. z1 x1
.
3. Sx N y N z N . - z .
( .1.10) xN .1 .1 1 -
. yN
. t
Sy N -
N ),
. S
zN t
SxN - r -
- O ϕ
, . . .
λ ,
. . , -
Sz N -
.1.10 .
.
.
:

70 71
1) ξηζ; .
2) ξ' η' ζ' ; -
3) O x y z ; . -
.
4) O x y z ; .
5) O x y z ; , :
XYZ – ( ), Axyz – -
6) O x y z .
, , -
: r
t ,
a (X, Y, Z) ( x, y , z ) -
( ) , .
, , –
. , -
– - . ,
.
,
- .
, . . - ,
. Axyz
- AXYZ ,
. - :
, [7, 14].
cos( x, X ) = α11 ; cos( x, Y ) = α 12 ; cos( x, Z ) = α 13 ;
1.7.
cos( y , X ) = α 21 ; cos( y, Y ) = α 22 ; cos( y , Z ) = α 23 ;
cos( z, X ) = α 31 ; cos( z , Y ) = α 32 ; cos( z , Z ) = α 33 .
. -
, - -
, –
. ( )
1.7.1.
α 11 α 12 α13 
M = α 21 α 22 α 23 .
-
:
; α 31 α 32 α 33 
;
.

72 73
-
r
a) - .
. -
-
. -
 x X 
, -
 y  = M ⋅  Y .
.
   
 z   Z  ,
, λ , β , γ ),
- : M (λ , β , γ ) . , -
.
- ( ) .
: M x ← X (λ , β , γ ) .
, - ,
.
Axyz AXYZ, -
. -
. , , , -
, - . –
. - , . . :
, – .
. , - . . -
,
, , , [30]. -
. , ,
, - - , -
« - , -
». . . -
,
. - . ( , ).
– -
. - . , , -
.
, , - -
. -
, . , -
, ,

74 75
( ,
“ .
”). Sx1y1z1 -
xcyczc.
. -
- , -
- . Sx1y1z1 ( ) -
,
, . , -
. - .
[16, 24]. ,
ψ c (0 ≤ ψ c ≤ 2π ) -
-
, - Oy. Sx1z1
( , ), xczc,
( - Sp1y p2 ( . 1.12).
). ϑc (− π / 2 ≤ ϑ ≤ π / 2)
1.7.2. Sp2. Sp1
- ϑc Sx1
.
, 1 Sp3. -
- xcz 2 1 ( SK)
. .
-
, – -
p3 yc ϕ c (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2π )
, - - y1 ϑc
. - ϕc (1 )
Sx1. Sp3 -
- r
, ψ& c
r x1 1, 2 – -
. r ϕ& c
ϑ&c S
(3) ϑc Sz1 -
ψc p1 .
zc ψ K
(2) xc , -
c
, - ϕc -
. p2
z1 -
-
, . 1.12 -
, , . -
-

76 77
, “c” , – -
.
y1 v Sp1 α
(1)
– , ( -π/2≤ α ≤ π/2).
xc ,
, . . ( ) – -
.
– -
. , -
– - S -
. r
- V -
V
- . –
, ( , - , -
.). , - -
, , - . 1.13

, - .
. , Sx1y1z1 -
-
ψ ca , ϑca , ϕ ca .
( . . 1.11). -
, , -
. - . ,
, -
, . . xyz, -
,
. -
“V ”. , -
. -
ψ c , ϑc , ϕc .
V V V
, -
- -
( .1.13). ,
- .
– β α.
, SyV Sy1 . -
“ ” Sy ψ (0 ψ
. 2π), . 1.14).
Sp1
β (0 ≤ β ≤ 2π) SyV , (0 2π). -
Sz1 ϑ.
78 79
, 2 ψ~. . –
. -
,
Sx1 ϕ~.
– .
, -
- , -
, , . - -
y1 p3 y (1) . -
*)
. ϑ ϕ -
p2 y
y1
(2)
- .
ϕ ϑ
,
- x1 -
, ,
S
. ϑ p1
OH x1 -
, (2)
(3)
.
ϑ p1
z x (1)
- ϕ x , -
p2 z Ψ
-
- (3) p3 ϕ
ξ ′η ′ζ ′ , z1
z1
, -
- .1.14 . 1.15 . -
Lo, Bo, Ao , o, Ao , -
. .
, -
- -
. , -
, , - . ,
“~”. .
- -
( .1.15). - , -
z - [10, 14, 29].
~ ,
ϑ. – :
1. .
*) , – -
-
.
. – .

80 81
α ij - xyz
y Sx1.
2. , AXYZ.
,
).
( -
-
r
α i = {α i1 ,α i 2 ,α i 3 } {
β j = α1 j ,α 2 j ,α 3 j } ,
Oxz, - i, j = 1, 2, 3.
– Sy1z1. - r
r xyz AXYZ
. Oz :
Sz1.
3.
– . – SK.  x X  X   x
4. ,
 y = M Y  ;  Y  = M −1  y  , (1.27)
, :
       
-
 z   Z   Z   z 
( – ϑc );
- M −1 - , M.
-
( ψ c );
. , , :
- , . . ;
( ϕ c ). : M −1 = M T .
1.7.3.
,
– , -
-
,
.
.
:
-
1. ( ) -
-
, . .
.
3×3, r r 0, i ≠ j;
αi ⋅ α j = 
– 2× 2 . 1, i = j,
r r 0, i ≠ j;
βi ⋅ β j = 
α 11 α 12 α13  1, i = j, i, j = 1, 2, 3.
M = α 21 α 22 α 23  , :
α 31 α 32 α 33  )
;

82 83
) - .
. :
2. .
yc (y1)
3. .
4. det M = ±1 . S (O )  cosψ c 0 sinψ c 
5. - M xc ← p1 (ψ c ) =
 0 1 0
.
.
zc Ψc Ψc p1  
6.
(z1)
p2 xc (x1) − sinψ c 0 cosψ c 
.1.16,
 cos ϕ ε sin ϕ 
M = yc (y )
cos ϕ 
,
− ε sin ϕ
p3 1

ϑ
cos ϑc − sin ϑc 0
c

ε = ±1, ϕ ∈ [0, 2π ] − . M
p1 ← x1
(ϑc ) =  sin ϑc cos ϑc 0 .
7. - S (O ) x1  0 0 1
, ϑc
p2 p1
, -
.1.16,
.
p3
. -
y1
. 1 0 0 
. S (O ) x1
M

(ϕ ) = 0 cosϕc − sinϕc .

x1 ← x1 c  
p2 0 sinϕc cosϕc 
Ox y z Sx1y1z1 -
. z1
.1.16,
ψc , ϑc ϕc .1.12). -
– M xc ← p ( ψ c ) ,
1 ,
M p1 ← x ( ϑc ) , M x1 ← x ( ϕ c ) . :
1 1
-
x c ← x1 c ,ϑc ,ϕ c ) = M xc⋅ ← p1 ( ψ c ) × M p1 ← x1 (ϑc ) × M x1 ← x1 ( ϕ c ) .
1.16, , 1.16, 1.16, .
:

84 85
c11 c12 c13 
 c22 c23  ,
, -
x c ← x1 ( ψ c ,ϑc ,ϕ c ) = c 21 (1.28)
 .
c31 c32 c33  (1.28) -
,

c11 = cosψ c cosϑc ; . , -


c21 = sin ϑc ; ,
.
c31 = − sin ψ c cosϑc ; , -
c12 = sin ψ c sin ϕ c − cosψ c sin ϑc cos ϕ c ; - . ,
-
c22 = cosϑc cos ϕ c ; ,
c32 = cosψ c sin ϕ c + sin ψ c sin ϑc cos ϕ c ; ”.
. 1.17
c13 = sin ψ c cos ϕ c + cosψ c sin ϑc sin ϕ c ;
ξ p3 -
c23 = − cosϑc sin ϕ c ; (1)
xc -
A0
c33 = cosψ c cosϕ c − sin ψ c sin ϑc sin ϕ c .
, -
- (3)
: yc
O L0 , B0 A0 . -
(2) p1
B0 Bo Ao
x1 ← x c ( ,ϑ , ϕ ) = [M x ← p (ψ c ) × M p ← x ( ϑc ) × M x ← x ( ϕ c )]
1 1 1 1 1
= A0
ζ
-
= M x1 ← x1 ( ϕ c ) × M p1 ← x1 ( ϑc ) × M xc ← p1 ( ψ c ) .
T T T , . . -
η L0 zc
.
p2
( - . 1.17

M ξ ← xc (Lo , Bo , Ao ) = M ξ ←ξ (Lo ) ⋅ M ξ ← x (− Bo ) ⋅ M x
), :
1. : « », « », ← xc (− Ao ).
. -
.
2. , ( ) -
», . Bo Ao
3. « »
. - Bo - Ao .
4. , « », - - .1.18 , -
, . .

86 87
– , -
,
. -
. , Sx1 y1 z1
SxV yV zV , , -
, ,
β α : M xV ← x1 ( , ) . , -
.
M xc ← x1 ( c ,ϑc ,ϕ c )
O xc y c z c ,
M xv ← x ( V
c ,ϑcV ,ϕcV ) - . ,
,

M xv ← x1 (β , α ) = M x v ← xc (ψ cV ,ϑcV , ϕcV ) ⋅ M xc ← x1 (ψ c ,ϑc , ϕc ) .

, -
.
2 ,
. 1.18 .
-
. -
, -
.
.
Oxu y u z u
O xc y c z c u, -
.
, , -
u.

( .1.19).
- O yc ∆A = A0 − Au .
, -

88 89
O p1 y c p 2 , -

 cos( A0 − Au ) 0 sin( A0 − Au ) 
  cos( A0 − Au ) 0 − sin( A0 − Au ) 
M xc ← p1 ( A0 − A ) =  0 1 0 .  
M p3 ← xu ( A0 − Au ) =  0 1 0 .
− sin( A0 − Au ) 0 cos( A0 − Au )
sin( A0 − Au ) 0 cos( A0 − Au )
- O p2 -u, -
O p3 yu p 2 . -
M xc ← xu ( u , A0 − Au ) = M xc ← p1 ( A0 − Au ) × M p1 ← p3 (u ) ×
 cos u sin u 0
× M p 3 ← xu ( A0 − Au ) .
M p1 ← p3 (u ) = − sin u cos u 0  .
 0 0 1 

u ,  1 ϑx 0
sin u ≈ u; cos u ≈ 1.  
M p ← p (u )
1 3
M xc ← xu (u, A0 − Au ) = − ϑx 1 ϑz  , (1.29)
 0 − ϑz 1 
yc (1) yu
 1 u 0
M p1 ← p3 (u ) = − u 0.
u
1 (3) ϑx = u cos( A0 − Au ), ϑz = u sin( A0 − Au ).
 0 1
0
ϑx ϑz
O , -
- ∆p
A1
. (1.23) -
O yu , zu
u
xc ,
− p3 ϑx = ξu cos A0 + ηu sin A0 ;
zc (1.30)
p2 (2) xu ϑz = ξ u sin A0 − ηu cos A0 .
α .1.19
α u
, 1.19 O x - (1.29) ,
u
, -
.  1 ϑx 0 
 
(1.25) , M xc ← xu (ξu ,ηu , A0 ) = − ϑx 1 ϑz . (1.31)
α -α
u
= 0 - u.  0 − ϑz 1 

90 91
, -
O x y z - (1.27), -
-1
.
O x y z (1.31). , -
(1.31) -
. ,
, , -
. (1.31) , Vx  Vx1 
. , -  c  
, V yc  = M xc ← x1 (ψ c ,ϑc ,ϕ c ) ⋅ V y1  . (1.32)
. Vz  Vz 
 c  1
(1.31) .
M ξ ←ξ ′ (ω1 , ω 2 , ω 3 ), ,
- ( ), . . , ,
. . -
1.8. ,
, .
, , -
, , -
.
, ,
, . -
r r
ρ S r, -
r
-
r
r - ρ
yc .1.20). -
( , ). xc
, - 0
-
. -
O
. r
r0
1.8.1.
zc B0 O r r r
r = ro + ρ , -
, - L=0 0
r
r
O′
0
( V) ro -
L0 -
.
- .1.20 -
.
. -
S( )

92 93
, (1.33) (1.34) -
Xs  xs   X 0  , . . -
      -
Ys  = M ⋅  y s  + Y0  , . -
 Z s   z s   Z 0  ,
r
X s ,Ys , Z s - S( r) -
OXYZ ; ξ  ξ ′  ∆ξ k 
r η  = M    
xs , y s , z s - S( ρ) -   ξ ←ξ ′ (ω1 , ω 2 , ω 3 ) ⋅ η ′  + ∆ηk  . (1.35)
O xyz ; ζ  ζ ′ ∆ζ k 
X 0 ,Y0 , Z 0 - xyz -
r ω1, ω 2 , ω 3
ro ) XYZ ;
- , ∆ξ k , ∆ηk , ∆ζ k -
. . 1.2. -
, , , (1.34).

, -
,
ξ ′   xc  ξ0′  . , , , -
η ′  = M    ′ , -
  ξ ′← xc ( L0 , B0 , A0 ) ⋅  yc  + η 0  . (1.33)
, -
ζ ′  zc  ζ 0′  -
.
ξ o′ ,ηo′ , ζ o′
- ,
, , ( -
Bo , Lo , H o -
), -
(1.41), . , .
- , , .
ψua,ϑua,ϕua
 xc  ξ ′ − ξ o′ 
   ′ ′ ψ ,ϕ , ϑ
 yc  = M ξ ′← xc (Lo , Bo , Ao ) ⋅ η − ηo  ,
T .
(1.34)
 zc  ζ ′ − ζ o′  -
.
(1.33).

94 95
M xua ← x1 (ψ ua ,ϑ ua ,ϕ ua ) 1.8.2.
M xua ← x1 (ψ ,ϕ ,ϑ ) , . . -
,
, - , ,
. , ( ,
, .),
. , 21 ( - -
2), .
, ,
sin ϑua = sin ϑ cos ϕ . (1.36) -
.
ψ ua 11 31
-
s, s, s rs , s , s
:
. . 1.21, -
S, :
cosψ ua cos ϑua = sinψ sin ϑ sin ϕ + cosψ cos ϑ ;
− sinψ ua cos ϑua = cosψ sin ϑ sin ϕ − sinψ cos ϑ . ξ s = rs sin ϕ s ; η s = rs cos s cos λs ; ζ s = rs cos ϕ s sin λs . ( 1.39)

, , :

sinψ cos ϑ − cosψ sin ϑ sin ϕ ξs ζs


tgψ ua = . (1.37) rs = ξ s2 + η s2 + ζ s2 ; ϕ s = arcsin ; λs = arctg , ( 1.40)
cosψ cos ϑ + sinψ sin ϑ sin ϕ rs ηs

22 23, - -
-
tgϕ s.
tgϕ ua = . (1.38) s
cos ϑ -
S
r
-
(1.37) (1.38) - O ϕs
-
ψ ua ϕ ua .
s
λs s
. ,
, [14,
ϑ ψ ϑua - S′
22], ,
. 1 .2 1
ψ ua ϕ = 0.
,
:

96 97
[ ( )
ξ ′ = N 1 − e 2 + H sin B; ] .

η ′ = ( N + H )cos B sin L;
0,03 .
(1.41)
ζ ′ = ( N + H )cos B cos L, [5] ,
. -
N– , - :
(1.19); 1. R -
2
e - , - θ:
. 1.1. ξ
(1.41) - R = η 2 + ζ 2 , θ = arctg .
, , - R 1 − e2
B, L, H , N e2 -
. 2. :
( ξ,η,ζ
B, L, H) -  sin 3 θ  1 
, B - B = arctg  ξ + ae 2  .
, , . -  1 − e2  R − ae 2
cos 3
θ 
.
(1.41)
=2 ,
-
0,002".
:
3. :
η′
tgL = ; tgB = c + dtgB; H = η ′2 + ζ ′2 sec B − N , (1.42) L = arctg (ζ / η ) .
ζ′
ξ′ Ne 2 4. :
c= ; d= .
η′ + ζ ′
2 2 N+H
η ζ ξ
= −N = −N = − N (1 − e 2 ) .
(1.42) . cos B cos L cos B sin L sin B
tgB = c.
- , -
N , - -
(1.42). (1.22), (1.24), (1.25) (1.26).
-
,

98 99
1.9.
- , .
, - , ,
.
- -
. - ,
, .
– . .
. - ,
- ,
. , - .
,
, , -
. O xca yca zca , Oξaηaζa .
1.9.1. -
.
.
” ” , r r r r
V = Vx x 0 + V y y 0 + Vz z 0 ,
r r r r v
F = P + P + R + G. r0 r0 r0
xca , yca , zca - ;
Vx ,V y ,Vz - .

r r
r , ( ) V -
dV r dr r
m(t ) = F; = V. (1.43)
dt dt r
dV dVxca r dV yca r dVzca r
= x + y + z .
dt dt dt dt
,
. ,
v v
- dV / dt V,
( ) - , -
. - .
,
, . :

100 101
Vx  V&x   Fx  r
-
d  ca   & ca  1  ca  *
d V / dt ,
V y  = V y  =  Fy  , (1.44) v
dt  ca   ca  m(t )  ca  V . , -
&
( r
)
V F r
 z ca  Vz ca   z ca  ×V ,
Fx , Fy , Fz – , -
ca ca ca

. .
v
- V -
:
r r
dV d *V r r
x   x&  Vx  = + (Ω × V ) .
d   =  y&  = V  dt dt
dt 
y     y . (1.45)
 z   z&  Vz 
  v
V,
- .
r r
, , Sx1 y1 z1 , Ω ×V -
r , -
, - ,
-
: :
r r r r
V = Vx1 x10 +V y1y10 + Vz1 z10 , Vx1  V&x1   0 − Ω z1 Ω y1  Vx1   Fx 
r r r d   &      1  1
x10 , y10 , z10 - ; Vy = V y + Ω z 1 0 − Ω x1  ⋅ Vy1  = Fy ,
v dt  1   & 1   m(t )  1 
V x1 , V y1 , V z1 - V . Vz  Vz   − Ω y Ω x1 0  Vz1   Fz 
v  1  1  1  1
V
r Ω x1 , Ω y1 , Ω z1 –
dV  dVx r 0 dV y r 0 dVz r 0  ;
= x1 + y1 +
1
z1  + 1 1

dt  dt dt dt  Fx1 , F y1 , Fz1 -
r r r .
 dx10 dy10 dz10 

+  Vx + Vy + Vz . -
.
 dt dt dt 
1 1 1

.1.22), -

102 103
- Vϕ ,Vr ,Vλ –
ro
- N ϕ r r r r
r r r ro ϕ 0 , r 0 , λ0 .
ω r = λ& + ϕ& .
ro
v S λ -
λ& . ,
- O (1.10). , ,
r
ϕ& .
r r
dr d * r r r
= + ωr × r. 1.9.2.
dt dt
.1.22 . -
- (1.6),
r
r
r r r r r r r s
r = 0 ⋅ ϕ 0 + r ⋅ r 0 + 0 ⋅ λ0 . M =M +M +M ,

r r r
ϕ 0 , r 0 , λ0 - “ ”
r .
. r J1 ,
-
. , ,
0  0 − ωλr ωrr  0 − rωλr  (1.5), , , ,
 r&  +  ω r 0
  
− ωϕr  ⋅  r  =  r& , .
   λ -
0 − ωrr ωϕr 0  0  rωϕr  , .
. -
r r r r -
ωϕr , ωrr , ωλr – ωr ϕ 0 , r 0 , λ0 .
r r
dK d ∗K v r
= + Ω × K.
 − rωλr   rϕ&  Vϕ  dt dt
   
 r&  =  r&  = Vr ,
 rωϕr  r cos ϕλ&  Vλ  , -
    , -
:

104 105
. (1.48) -
&   0
Ω − Ω z1 Ω y1  Ω x1   M x1  , . . , -
x1
&        .
[J1 ]⋅ Ω y1  +  Ω z1 0 − Ω x1  ⋅ [J1 ]⋅ Ω y1  =  M y1  , (1.46)
&  
Ω 0  Ω z   M z 
 z1  − Ω y1 Ω x1 ,
 1  1

Ωx , Ω y , Ωz -
1 1 1
- p
3
y
a
;
y ϑca
M x1 , M y1 , M z1 - 1

. ϕ ca (1)

, r
[J 1 ] . -
ψ&

(1.46) : x1
ϕca
( )
S
& − J
J x1 x1 Ω y1 y1 − J z1 z1 Ω y1 Ω z1 = M x1 ;
(3) ϑ ca
x1

− (J )Ω ψ p1
&
J y1 y1 Ω − J x1 x1 Ω x1 = M y1 ; (1.47) (2)
y1 z1 z1 z1 ϑ a

− (J )Ω
z ca x a
&
J z1 z1 Ω − J y1 y1 x1 Ω y1 = M z1 .
ca
z1 x1 x1 ϕca
p2
. z1
.1.23
.
(1.46) : , , -
.
Ω &     0 − Ωz Ωy  Ω   . -
 x1   M x1   1 1   x1  
Ω &  = [J ]−1  M −  Ω − Ω x  ⋅ [J1 ]⋅ Ω y   .(1.48)
-
y 1  y1  z1 0
 1  M  
1
  1 
&
 Ω z1   z1   − Ω y1 Ωx
1
0 
  Ω z1   , . 1.23.

- :
, , - r r r r
. Ω = Ω x x10 + Ω y y10 + Ω z z10 .
1 1 1

106 107
-
Ox y z -
Ω x1 , Ω y1 , Ω z1 - .
M , -
ψ& ca , ϑ&ca , ϕ&ca .
-
.1.23, - :
O x1 y p2 :
v r r r
Ω = ψ& ca y 0 + ϑ&ca p20 + ϕ& ca x10 . [M ]ca
−1
=
1 ~

M ca ,
r r r
ψ& ca , ϑ&ca , ϕ&ca
∆- ;
Sx1 y1 z1 ~
M ca - ,
Ω x = ψ& ca sin ϑca + ϕ& ca ;
1 -
.
Ω y = ψ& ca cosϑca cos ϕ ca + ϑ&ca sin ϕ ca ;
1
M ca (1.50)
Ω z = −ψ& ca cos ϑca sin ϕ ca + ϑ&ca cos ϕ ca .
1
:

ψ& ca =
1
cos ϑca
(
Ω y1 cos ϕca − Ω z1 sin ϕca ; )
ϑ&ca = Ω y1 sin ϕca + Ω z1 cos ϕca ;
[Ω1 ] = M ca (ψ ca ,ϑca , ϕ ca ) ⋅ [α& ca ], (1.49)
(1.51)
(
ϕ&ca = Ω x1 + Ω z1 sin ϕca − Ω y1 cos ϕca tgϑca.. )
 Ω x1  ψ& ca   sin ϑca 0 1
 
[ ]   
[Ω1 ] = Ω y1 ; α& ca = ϑca ; M ca =  cosϑca cosϕca
& sin ϕ ca 0.
Ω z  ϕ&ca   − cosϑca sin ϕ ca cos ϕca 0
 1

M ca , ,
ψ& ca =
1
cos ϕca
(
Ω x1 sin ϑca + Ω y1 cosϑca ;

 )

, -
ϕ&ca = Ω x1 cosϑca − Ω y1 sin ϑca ; , (1.52)
.

(1.49) r (
ϑ&ca = Ω z1 + Ω x1 sin ϑca + Ω y1 cosϑca tgϕ ca  )
Ω 
:
-

[α& ca ] = [M ca (ψ ca ,ϑca ,ϕ ca )]−1 [ 1 ]. (1.50)

108 109
~&
ϑ =
1
cosψ~
(Ω y1

sin ϕ~ + Ω z1 cos ϕ~ ;
 ) , -


ψ~& = Ω y1 cosϕ~ − Ω z1 sin ϕ~ ; . (1.53) ,

( )
-
ϕ~& = Ω x1 + Ω y1 sin ϕ~ + Ω z1 cos ϕ~ tgψ~  .
 , -
,
,
.
(1.51), (1.52) (1.53) -
(1.46) -
, -
.
.
(1.51), (1.52) (1.53) - ( -
) .
,
, -
-
-
, .
.
, ϑca = ± 900, – -
ϕca = ± 90 0 , – ψ~ = ± 900 . , -
- . -
, , , -
- , , -
. , ,
.
,
1.10.
, .
.
1.10.1. -
[6] “ - .
- , , - :
, , , .
, ;
- ( ),
”. -
, ;
,
. - .

110 111
, - -
, , , -
- , ,
: .
; -
; , , -
. -
. - . -
, - .
.
, - ,
-
- .
- -
. , -
- . -
, -
- . , -
. -
. ,

- . -
, -
. .
-
, -
, .
, - - -
. -
- . -
.
,
.
, , - .
-
– , , , -
- .
( ) . -

112 113
, - ( ).
. -
,
. , . -
( ,
).
- δ ( ), δ ( ) δ ( -
, ).
.
, ( ). -
- -
:
.
- ;
- -
;
, -
. , .
, . -
, , - ( ). -
, ( ) -
( ( ).
). -
- ,
δm
& , -
,
.
, -
. ,
. δ, -
- ,
. -
, - -
.
- -
. , , -
, δ,
. ,

114 115
, - 1.10.2.
δ .
, –
, .1.24.
, - .
-
, - .
, , , ,
. , . -
:
, -
;
,
-
;
, -
.
δT -
, -
.1.25.
δp , -
u -
ϑ, , -
δ δm
& ϑ (t).

.1.24 (t ) -
ϑ ϑ
-
,
- u = u [ϑ − ϑ (t )] σ,
.
- . -
.
σ = σ (u ) -
, -
. , -
-
. ),
.1.25
116 117
. Jp M δ& Mσ
( , - T2 = ; T1 = ; kσ = ,
Mδ Mδ Mδ
) δ. -
, -
:
.
u.
. - T2δ&&T + T1δ&T + δ T = kσ σ T . (1.54)
-
- -
, - , -
-
J pδ&&T = ∑M i
i = M σ σ T − M δ&δ&T − M δ δ T , :

Jp – T1δ&T + δ T = kσ σ T . (1.55)
;
Mσσ T - , -
.
σT ;
T1 kσ , , ,
Mδ δT - ( -
.
), δT ; . -
M δ&δ&T - , -
σT
δ&T ; uT,
M σ , M δ , M δ& - , . - .
-
.
σ T = k0 uT .
, -
: , -

J pδ&&T + M δ&δ&T + M δ δ T = M σ σ T . , .
.
,
Mδ -
. , , ,
u , -
σT ,

118 119
, , -
-
. , - σ T = k0T uT (t + τ )
-
. uT (t + τ ) , -
-
, ,
, , -
(1.56).
:
. -
σ T = k0T uT + k1T u&T + k 2T u&&T . (1.56)
[
uT = kT ϑ − ϑ (t ) , ] (1.57)
k 0T , k1T , k 2T -
kT – .
. (1.55), (1.56) (1.57) ,
(1.56) - -
. , :
,
, u&T u&&T T1δ&T + δ T = kσ σ T ; 

. σ T = k0 uT + k1 u&T + k 2 u&&T ;.
T T T
(1.58)
- [
uT = k0 ϑ − ϑ (t ) 

]
.
, , -
. , .
-
, τ. ( )
, - .
, . - -
- , -
τ. , uT (t ) , u&T , u&&T δ&T , .
uT (t + τ ) . - (1.58) -
uT (t + τ ) t:
τ2
uT (t + τ ) = uT (t ) + u&T (t )τ + u&&T (t ) + ...
1
2 2
[
δ T = K T ϑ − ϑ (t ) , ] (1.59)
K T = kσ ⋅ k 0 ⋅ k 0 .
T

120 121
, 2.
- .
-
-
-
. (
, , .) -

.
2.1.
2.1.1.

, (
) ,
( ) - -
. -

,
. B( )
. 2.1
, - G
. r
- A B
°
, - r
. - O

. 2.1
.
, ,
,
, ( ) r, -

122 123
( , - , ,
, ) . .
r
( . , G
2.1) - m′ m =1 (2.1),

r m′m r m′
G = − f 2 ρ0,
ρ
(2.1) Gξ = − f (ξ − ξ ′); Gη = − f m3′ (η − η ′); Gζ = − f m3′ (ζ − ζ ′).
ρ 3
ρ ρ
f- , - ,
6.674 10-11 2
;
m′ - ', ', '; fm′
m- , , ; U (ξ , η , ζ ) = ,
r ρ
ρ0 - -
;
- , -
∂U ∂U ∂U
Gξ = ; Gη = ; Gζ = . (2.3)
∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ
ρ= ( − ' ) + ( − ' ) + ( − ′)
2 2 2
. (2.2)
r -
G - m′ .
, , , -
e .
U (ξ ,η , ζ ) ,
-
:
, . . r ∂U r 0 ∂U r 0 ∂U r 0
- G = gradU (ξ , η , ζ ) = ξ + η + ζ . (2.4)
, - ∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ
, -
. ,
. -
-
(2.1), m = 1. U (ξ , η , ζ ) = . (2.5)
( ) ρ
.
,
, , , -

124 125
- . -
, . -
-
- .
. , -
dm , ,
, .
', ' ( . 2.1). - 2.1.2.
(2.5) -

δdτ B1
dU( , , ) = f , ds . ,
ρ
dU -
= d ′ ⋅ d ′ ⋅ dζ ′ - ;
B1
δ = dm / dτ - .
dU = Gs ds ,
r
δ Gs - G s.
U (ξ ,η , ζ ) = f ∫
τ
ρ
dτ . (2.6) ,
r
-
, G -
, -
ds.
-
. -
, , , -
, - r
, G, . ,
, -
. , , - , -
, , , -
, - , ,
. , - . -
, , -
, . , -
r
G
U (ξ , η , ζ ) =
fM
, (2.7)
r ,
. -
M - .
.
, -
, -

126 127
.
, " "
( . 1.5), :
: .
dU = 0, - -
, ,
U = C = const . .
r
- ,
G .
, - .
.
, - , (2.6)
. ,

,
(2.6).
dU = −GdH , , -
[12, 21, 31].
dH -
, «+» .
«-» . 1. . U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) ,
, dH - ξ ,η ,ζ , , -

. U (ξ ,η ,ζ )
dH = −dU/G, (2.8)
,
. . . .
, 2. . -
. , . r -
, - , :

. , (2.8) lim U = 0; lim rU = fM ; lim r 2 ∂U / ∂r = fM .


dU - (2.9)
r →∞ r→∞ r →∞
-
,
.
-
,
, -
128 129
. 2.1.3.
(2.7) , -
. - , , -
- r r
G, F , -
. r
, (2.9), - F,
. ,
( .2.2).
r - r r r r
r. G , GT = G + F .
3. .
.
, -
, r ° F
∂ 2U ∂ 2U ∂ 2U - r0 r

.
∇U = + + = 0, (2.10)
∂ξ 2 ∂η 2 ∂ζ 2
(1.10)
∇U - .
.
.
U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) , r
F - .2.2
, . :
( ) r r r r r
, , - F = −ma = −m[ω × (ω × r )],
r
ω - ;
∇U = −4πfδ , (2.11) r
r - .2.2),
.
-
, - , , -
, .
r r r r r
a = F / m = −[ω × (ω × r )].
-
, . (2.12)
-
r
, - r, .(2.2),
r r r
. r = r0 + ρ (2,12). -

130 131
r r r r r r r r r r
a = −[ω × (ω × r0 )] − [ω × (ω × ρ )] = −[ω × (ω × ρ )], *)
981 .
-
r r ( (1.39)), -
ω r0 .
-
[15] 1
( )
r r r r rr r r r
a × b × c = b (a c ) − c ab ,( ) Q = ω 2 r 2 cos 2 ϕ .
2
(2.15)

, Q
.
r r rr r rr r
a = −ω (ωρ ) + ρ (ωω ) = ω 2 ρ , (2.13)
∇Q = 2ω 2 ,

r r .
ω ρ. ,
.
. W,
- :
, ,
W = U + Q,
:
. (2.6)
aξ = 0; aη = ω 2η ; aζ = ω 2ζ . (2.14),

( ).
2
W = f∫ + 2
+ 2
(2.16)
r 2
ω
( )
2
Q= η2 +ζ 2 . (2.14)
2
dW
, (2.14) ds ,
. , r
(η = ζ = 0) ,
GT -
ds.
.
*) 2
1/300 , I =1
. -
1 = 10 –3 = 10 -5 2
.

132 133
, , , ,
. .
- 2.1.4.
, ,

W (ξ ,η ,ζ ) = C = const . ,
(2.6), -
-
. - . -
, -
. . -
, - -
.
( ). - [12], -
, . , -
- , -
U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) ,
(2.16). ~
-
g,
, -
gT -
.
: -
∆g = g T −γ . (2.17) : -
U, -
, . - , -
∂γ / ∂H ,
-
, .
- -
) . .
, - -
, - .
. ( ) -
, U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) , , -
. -
, , - U.
(2.17), -

134 135
( ) - -
, , -
U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) , - .
-
dU dn .
, -
( ) - , . -
,
U (ξ ,η ,ζ ) ,
, , - ,
αU + dU / dn , – . -
.
. - -
. -
. , -
- ( ) -
. , . -
. -
,
[27]: [12]. -
, .
;
, 2.2.
;
-
. 2.2.1.
- -
: ( ., , [12,
. , 21, 31]). -

, .
. -
, .
, - 2.3,
. -
, ,
- dm ,
, , - .

136 137
-
1 1  r′  r′   3  r′  
2 n
r r 1
ρ r′ - = 1 + cosψ +    cos 2 ψ −  + ... +   Pn (cosψ ) =
ρ r  r  r  2 2 r 
-
r B
ρ
: ∞
( r ′) n
N
- = ∑ n +1 Pn (cosψ ). (2.21)
n=0 r
= r 2 + r ′2 − 2rr ′ cos . (2.18)
Ar r'/r (2.21) -
r O
cos -
=0
- .
r r
r r′ , -
[10, 12, 17], cos = -
ξξ ′ + ηη ′ + ζζ ′ Pn (ν ) . «n»
cosψ = ,
rr ′ .
n = 0,
.2.3 - 1, 2 (2.21). ,
A′NB′ ( . 2.3) - r'/r 0, 1, 2, .
:
2
0( ) = 1, 1( )= , 2( ) = 1,5 – 0,5.
cosψ = cosθ cosθ ′ + sin θ sin θ ′ cos(λ − λ ′ ) =
(2.19) n>2 -
= sin θ sin θ ′ cos λ cos λ ′ + sin θ sin θ ′ sin λ sin λ ′ , , -
:
θ ,θ ′ - A′ B′ ,
- 2n + 1
Pn +1 ( ) = Pn ( ) − Pn −1 ( ) .
n
. (2.22)
n +1 n +1
(2.18) r -
(2.22)
n = 1, 2, 3, -
−1 / 2
1 1   r ′2 r′  n = 3, 4, :
= 1 +  2 − 2 cosψ  . (2.20)
ρ r   r r 
P3 ( ) =
1
2
5 ( 3
)
− 3 , P4 ( ) =
1
8
35( 4
− 30 2
+3 . ) (2.23)
(2.20)
,
r'/r , -
[12]:

138 139
Pn (ν ) =
(
1 d n ν 2 −1
.
)
n

(2.24)
-
-
2 n ⋅ n! dν n [15]:

.
(n − m + 1)Pn +1, m (ν ) = (2n + 1)Pnm (ν ) − (n + m)P n −1, m (ν ), (2.26)
. 0 ≤ m ≤ (n − 1);
ν
Pn,m+ 2 (ν ) = 2(m + 1) Pn,m+1 (ν ) − [n(n + 1) − m(m + 1)]Pnm (ν ),
-
:
1 −ν 2
0 ≤ m ≤ (n − 2). (2.27)
Pnm (ν ) = 1 −ν( )
2 m/2 dm
dν m
Pn (ν ), n = 0,..., ∞; m = 0,..., n. (2.25)
, -
-
, -
, . - .
(1 −ν )
2 m/2
m .
n, m– -
, (n - 1)- , 1 −ν 2 , . ( . .2.3)
m– . m=0 , , ,
: (2.19). -
-
Pno (ν ) = Pn (ν ).
. -
, -
(n +1)- n , -
, n- , , [12].
*)
(n + 1) .
, n=2
Pn (cosψ ) = Pn (cos θ )Pn (cos θ ′) + 2
n
(n − m)!
∑ (n + m)! ×
P20 (ν ) = P2 (ν ) = ν 2 − 1; P21 (ν ) = 3ν 1 − ν 2 ; P22 (ν ) = 3 1 − ν 2 .
3
2
( ) m =1
× (cos mλ cos mλ ′ + sin mλ sin mλ ′)Pnm (cos θ )Pnm (cos θ ′),
(2.28)
(2.19), .
*)
.2.3).
3 (2.28)
n = 1, 2,…, 10.

140 141
Pn (cos θ ), Pnm (cos θ ) cos mλ , Pnm (cos θ ) sin mλ , f (λ, ϕ ) ,
Pn (cos θ ′), Pnm (cos θ ′) cos mλ ′, Pnm (cos θ ′) sin mλ ′ , -
,
- :
.
∞ ∞ n
f (λ , ϕ ) = ∑ Yn (λ , ϕ ) = ∑∑ P (µ )[A cos mλ + Bnm sin mλ ] ,
cos -
nm nm
- n =0 n=0 m =0
′ ′.
m= 0 . -
nm nm , -
Pnm (cos θ ) = Pn (cos θ ), sinmλ = 0, cosmλ = 1, , -
ϕ, λ′ ϕ, .
n - f (λ ′,ϕ ′) .
2n+1. Pn (cos θ )
2.2.2.
, . -
(2.25).
(2.6) -
[10, 17, 29] -
,
(2.21) 1 :
, ϕ , .
=900 - ϕ cos =sinϕ. , ∞
r′ n
=sinϕ - U (r , λ , ϕ ) = f ∫∑ P (cosψ )δdτ .
n +1 n
Pnm (sin ϕ ) = Pnm (µ ). τ n =0 r

-
n ,ϕ , , [15],
(2n+1) :
: ∞
U (r , λ , ϕ ) = f ∑ r ∫ r′ P (cosψ )δdτ .
n 1
∑ Pnm (µ )[Anm cos mλ + Bnm sin mλ ],
n
Yn (λ , ϕ ) = n +1 n (2.30)
(2.29)
n =0 τ
m =0

nm, Bnm - , -
(2n+1). ,

Yn (λ, ϕ ) (n=0,…,∞)
n, -
.
. - , ,

142 143
Pn(cos )
(2.28)

[Pn0 (µ )]∫ r ′n Pn 0 (µ ′)δdτ + Pnm (sin ϕ )[Dnm cos mλ + E nm sin mλ ]
1
U (r , λ ,ϕ ) = f ∑
1
Z nm =
n =0 r n +1
τ
r n+1
. (2.32) -
cos mλ r ′n cos mλ ′Pnm (µ ′ )δdτ +
n
(n − m )! 
∫τ 
+ 2∑ Pnm (µ ).
. -

m =1 (n + m )! sin mλ ′ r ′ sin mλ ′P (µ ′)δdτ
∫ 
n

 
nm
τ
.

*)
, - (2.32), . ,
, , - .
, . m = 0.
. (2.32)
,
Dn 0 Pn (sin ϕ ).
, 1
. : r n+1

Dn0 = f ∫ r ′n Pn 0 (µ ′)δdτ ; E = ; (2.31, ) Pn (sin ϕ ) n -


τ , n -
(n − m)! f r ′n cos mλ ′P (µ ′)δdτ ; *)
. , n+1
(n + m)! ∫τ
Dnm = 2 nm (2.31, ) , -
( . 2.4).
(n − m )! f r′ n sin mλ ′P (µ ′)δdτ ,
(n + m )! τ∫
Enm = 2 nm (2.31, )
n. -
, . . -
.
. , m=n.
∞ (2.32)
 1 
n
U (r, ,ϕ ) = ∑  n + 1  (Dnmcos
n=0  r  m =0
∑ + Enmsin )Pnm ( ). (2.32)
Dnn Pnn (sin ϕ ) cos nλ Dnn Pnn (sin ϕ )sin nλ .
1 1
n +1
r r n +1

*)

-
*)
, P2 (sin ϕ ) = 3 / 2 sin 2 ϕ − 1 / 2 -
. = ±35,264390.

144 145
dn . -
Pnn (sin ϕ ) = P (sin ϕ ) = const , -
d (sin ϕ )
n n . 2n - 2.
2n +1. -
, , -
cos =0 sin = 0. 2n - .
, - ,
n . 2.4).
. -
-
.
.

Z00 -
, -
-
. ,
.
, -
Z10 Z11 ,
. ,
:
-
-

Z20 Z21 Z22 cos 


∫∫ [P (sin ϕ ′)]   mλ ′dσ = 1.
2
1 2


nm 2
σ  sin 

" " -
, -
Z30 Z31 Z32 Z33
( ),
.2.4
k (2n + 1)(n − m )! 1, m = 0,
. 0<m<n N nm = , k = (2.33)
2m (n - m) (n + m)! 2, m ≠ 0.
– tessera, -

146 147
D00 P00 (µ ).
1
n = 1, 2, ...,10 3. U0 =
r
, , -
.
, P00 (µ ) = 1, D00 = f r ′ 0 P00 (µ ′)δdτ = fM .
∫ -
τ
-
, . ( )
-
. -
- fM
U0 = , (2.34)
. r
*)
(2.32), - - ;
r- .
. - -
, , ,
,
- . , -
. , -
r
G0 .
, - , -
. .
- . U
n = 0, 1, 2 , - ,
, -
, . -
. - (2.32) .
. -
, n = 0, 1, 2:
, -
U = U 0 + U1 + U 2 .
, -
.
U0 ,
. -
, n=0 *)
.
(2.32) 0 b0.

148 149
∫ (ξ ′ ) ∫ (ξ ′ ) ( )
U1: f f
D20 = 2
+ ′2 δd + 2
+ ′2 + f ∫ η ′ 2 + ′ 2 dτ ;
U1 = 2 [D10 P10 (sin ϕ ) + (D11 cos λ + E11 sin λ )P11 (sin ϕ )] ,
1 2 2
r
∫( )
f
D21 = f ∫ ξ ′ζ ′ ; D22 = ′ 2 − ζ ′ 2 dτ ;
n=1 , , m = 0, 1. 4
D10 , D11 , E11 E21 = f ∫ ξ ′η ′ dτ ; E 22 = f ∫η ′ζ ′ dτ .
:

D 10 = f ∫ r ′sin ϕ ′ ; , D21, E21, E22 ,

∫ r ′cos ∫ r ′sin
.
D 11 = f ′cos ϕ ′ ; E 11 = f ′cos ϕ ′ .
D20 D22 -
, ,
-
:
0, 0, 0,
 B +C 
− A ; D22 = (C − B ),
f
: D20 = f 
1 1 1  2  4
ξ0 =
M ∫ξ ′ ; 0 =
M ∫ ′ ; 0 =
M ∫ζ ′ .
, , - , , ,
: :

D10 = f ∫ ξ ′δdτ = ξ 0 M ;
τ
(
A = ∫ ′2 + ′2 ) (
; B = ∫ ξ ′ 2 + ′ 2 dτ ; ) ( )
= ∫ ξ ′2 + ′ 2 dτ .

D11 = f ∫ ′ = 0 M ; E11 = f ∫ ′ = 0 M .
U2
, D10 = fM 0 ; D11 = fM 0 ; E11 = fM 0.

f .
-
U2 =
1 
3 
2r 
1
( 
)
( B + C − 2 A) 3 sin 2 ϕ − 1 + (C − B )3 cos2 ϕ cos 2λ .
1
2 2 
. (2.35)
, U1.
n=2 , -
D20, D21, D22, E21,
E22, , , - . ,
. - (2.35), , , ,
: U2. , U2
-

150 151
, . ,
. , (
(2.35). - (2.32) fM /r),

, fM  ∞ n

U (r , λ , ϕ ) = ∑∑ fM r (D )Pnm ( ).
1
, - 1 + n nm cos + Enmsin
r  n= m =1 
B C . -
(2.35) . , -
,
U2
 ∞ n
 a  Dn0 
B− A 1 1 + ∑   P ( )+ 
U2 = f
r 3
2
(
⋅ 3 sin 2 ϕ − 1 . ) U=
fM  n =1  r  fM a
n n0
.
r  ∞ n  a  n  Dnm  
 Pnm ( )
+ ∑∑    Enm
 cos + sin
b2 = f(B - A), -  n = 2 m =1  r   fM a n
fM a n  

a ,
U =
b0 1 b2
+
r 2r 3
(
3 sin 2 ϕ − 1 . ) , . -
, ,
,
b0 b2 4 :
.4.3). Dn 0 Dnm Enm
. n
= cn 0 = I n ; n
= cnm = I nm ; = snm = K nm .
, - fM a fM a fM a n
n >2, . -
- -
. -

.  ∞
a
n n

∑ ∑ (cnm cos )Pnm ( ) .
fM
U= 1 +   + snmsin (2.36)
r  n =  r  m = 0 
-
.
- -
(2.32), N
(2.36) , , -
. - nm snm . (2.36)
-
152 153
fM   -
n n
a
N
U= ∑
1 +  
r  n =1  r  m = 0

(cnm cos + snmsin )Pnm ( ). (2.37) .
 , -
.
- ,
. cnm , snm .
( )
f (λ j , ϕ i )
n = 2, 3,…,10 4( . .4.1).
j ϕi -
2.2.3. :

( ) ∑∑ (D )P (sinϕ ).
N n
, (2.31),
f j ,ϕ i = nm cos j + Enmsin j nm i (2.38)
-
n=0 m= 0
, -
, (2.38) -
. Dnm Enm, (N+1)2. -
-
f (λ j , ϕ i ) ,
,
.
. -
- (N+1)2 (N+1)2 .
, -
. f (λ j , ϕ i ) ,
, , . , .
,
N, (N+1)2. , [31].
- -
2
(N+1) -
. -
(
∑∑ (D )P
N n
) . f i (λ , ϕ ) = nm cos + Enm sin nm (sinϕ ), (2.39)
, - n =0 m =0
, -
- , -
, . . Dnm Enm,
- ,
. [31].

154 155
,
, .
N i. - (2.38) (2.39) -
= 4 /N, - Dnm Enm -
(2.31) -
,  
2

∑∑ ( )
N N1 n
, ∑  i
i =1 
f ( ,ϕ ) − Dnm cos + Enm sin Pnm (sinϕ ) = min,

:  n = 0 m = 0

(2n + 1) N

∑ f (λ , ϕ )P (sin ϕ );
N- ;
Dn 0 = i n ,i E n0 = 0; N1 - ;
N i =1
ϕ -
2(2n + 1) (n − m ) ! N
i ,
f i (λ , ϕ )cos mλPnm,i (sin ϕ );
(n + m)! ∑
Dnm = ;
N i =1 Dnm , Enm - .
2(2n + 1) (n − m ) ! N
f i (λ ,ϕ )sin mλPnm,i (sin ϕ ).
(n + m)! ∑
E nm =
N i =1

-
, 1952 *)
. , ,
. . . - ( )
, , ( ), -
, - . , , -
, [31]. , .
. . " - -
" 410 . 410 “ - , -
” 204
. - ,
- . , -
" - , , -
" . . ,
50 - , , -
, - . , ,
, -
. 1952
8- , 1985 -
- *)
,
36- . ,
.

156 157
, 2.3.
. -
-
-
2.3.1.
.
,
. - -
, -
, (2.36) -
- . ,
cnm snm. , -
, - , -
.
” [12]. -

- .
. -
, - , [27].
cnm snm - -
. , N A1,
, A2,..., AN, .
Ai mi, i, i, i.
. - , Ai
[5] , ,
cnm snm.
− i η − ηi ζ −ζi
, G i = − fmi ; Gηi = − fmi ; Gζ i = − fmi ,
ρi ρi ρi
3 3 3
( 8 -10 ). -
18- -
. , , , - ;
1000 , - i- i .
. , -
,

N
mi (ξ − ξ i ) N
mi (η − ηi ) N
mi (ζ − ζ i )
Gξ = f ∑
i =1 ρ i3
; Gη = f ∑
i =1 ρi 3
; Gζ = f ∑
i =1 ρi 3
.

158 159
- “ ” -
Uj (j = 1… )
gj. , -
N N
mi ( i, i, i
U = ∑U i = f ∑ , (2.40) mi), (2.45).
i =1 i =1 ρi
( -
). -
- , -
.
Mi = fm i,, . -
mi, -
. -
N


Mi
U= . (2.40, )
i =1 ρi ,

∑ (U −U j )
k
(2.40) Ai - 2
, - pj
j =1
. = ,
, , - k −1
N
, , - mi
: U pj = f ∑ - j -
i =1 ρ ij
N ;
∑m = M .
i =1
i
k-
U.
,

,
- : mi
i, i, i,. -
. [17].
2.3.2. -

-
-
, - .
[17]. mi -
- (2.21) 1/
. -

160 161
∞ , -
ri n
∑ P (ν ),
mi
f = fmi n +1 n
(2.41) -
ρi n=0 r
.
, , -
ρi - i- mi , .
;
ri – i- ; ( ,
r - ). -
. mi . -
Pn ) = Pn(cos ) -
, (2.41) nm,, snm.
:

 Pn ( i )Pn ( ) +  mi. -
ri n  

fmi
= fmi n +1 
n
(n − m )! P ( )Pnm ( )cosm( i − )
. .
ρi n=0 r

+ 2 ∑
 m = 0 (n + m )! nm i


, mi -

, -
- -
, ,
. ,
. -
nm,, snm. , .
,
[17], 2.4.

-
cnm  N  ri  Pnm ( i ) cos 
n

  = ∑εi  
i , (2.16), -
 . (2.42)
snm  i =1  a  (2n + 1) sin i  , -
W,
, W -
-
, W =W +T .
- 2.4.1.
, . , -
-
, (2.42) - -
. , . ,

162 163
- , -
2 n,0
. -
, , W=U +Q.
. « ». ,
c20 = c20 = I 2 .
- , -
( ), -
. - -
-
, .
.
fM  
2
a 
4
a 
( ) - U = 1 + 20 
 r  P 20 (sin ϕ ) + 40   P 40 (sin ϕ ) . (2.44)
. r 
   r 
(2.16) W=U+Q -
. -
c200 , c400 .
(2.15), - , -

( ) -
.
W = U (ϕ , r , λ ) + ω 2 r 2 cos 2 ϕ .
1
(2.43)
2

U (ϕ ,r , λ ) + P2 ( ) + b45 P4 ( ).
b0 b2
U = (2.45)
r r3 r
. -
, [17, 27, 29], -
.
-
− P2 ( ) + b45 P4 ( ) ,
b0 b2
(2.37, ), U = (2.45, )
r r3 r
-
. : b2 .

b0, b2, b4 -
fM  
∞ 2n
a 
U = 1 − ∑   c2 n, 0 P2n , 0 (sin ϕ ). (2.44)
r  n =1  r   b0 = fM ; b2 = 5 fM a 2c20 ; b4 = 3 fM a 4c40 .

164 165
b0, b2, b4 - (2.44)
, - , b4,
( ) , -
, . ,
: .
; -
r
α; . -
γ ; *)
-
-
ω;
W ; .
fM ;
, - 2.4.2.
I2*).
W W -
. -
: , -
 3 15   -
b0 = e a 2 1 − + q − q ;  T=U-U.
 2 14   -
4 2 1 10   ,
b2 = e a  − q− + 2
q ;  (2.46)
3 3 7   .
4 2 4   ,
b4 = e a 6  − q ,  -
5 7   ,
2 −
q=a .
n n
n
a 
∑ (c cos mλ + snm sin mλ )Pnm (sin ϕ ). (2.47)
fM
- T=
r
∑  
n=2  r  m= 0
nm

.
,
b0, b2, b4 20 40

4( . .4.1). (2.47) ,

*)
-
*)
I2 , -
, -
. 5…7 ,
.

166 167
.
n n
mi
T = f∑ ∑
,
20 T = fM i
, (2.48)
20 . i =1 i i =1 i

, ,
40
εi i
40 , - M.
40 =0 (2.47)
∆ 40 = 40 − 40 . , ,
(2.47) - -
, , -
, ( - . ,
- ,
). . ,
- -
- -
. .
- -
. -
- , -
( , n = 36 - –
N = (n +1)2 = 1369). (
. ). -
, , -
, - ( ). ,
,
- .
.
, . -
. - -
-
( ) .
, - -
, , . -

, . -
(2.40), c n :

168 169
20
. - . . .
, -
, -
T=T +T +T . (2.49) . – -
, -
-
,
- .
. ,
, - 28 . ,
, 3…4 - 42 . , , -
, .
- .
. . -
99% (78% )
2.5. (21% ). 1% -
, .
, , -
2.5.1. . , -
.
2,5% -
, - 4% . -
. -
- . ,
. , 10…15 -
- .
.
, , . :
, , ;
, ; , ; -
, 5,3 1018 . ; .
.
, . -
. , . .
5 , 3/4 - 10 , 9/10 – 20 . 100
- -
10-5. - . -

170 171
- , -
. 25 .
: , , , .
( . 2.5). ( )
– 10…15 , ,
80% . - .
0,650 - 85…90 -
100 . -
. - . , , -
, , , 99,5 % .
. -
, , - . -
. , -
9 , - 80…100 .
– 10…12 , – 15…17 , - – ,
. 90…500 500
50…55 - , -
, - -
, - . , -
Hγ, - .
. ( )
100
, -
80 ( - 150 . ,
1…2 )
- 150 .
60
. -
- ( -
40 . - ), , ,
- .
20 25 , . 2.5. -
-
-80 -40 0 +40 , - , -
T 0,C
, 3 50 - , .
0 0,4 0,8 1,2 1,6
. ,
.2.5 ,
( 10 50
). -

172 173
2.5.2. . p
p+dp -
- , -
p, - . - -(p+dp)
H +dH
ρ. ,
- dH
, , p, p
: , - H
– -gT dH
p = ρR T , (2.50) p+dp, p
.2.6
. -
R = Rµ /µ - ; , ,
Rµ = 8314,32 2 -2 -1
- ; .
- ,
, GT ,
1/16 .
GT = gT ρdH , (2.51)

, , . - gT - .
.
, ,
85 ,
H, p (p + dp) – GT = 0, -
,
. (2.51)
R = R 0 = 287,052 87 2
· -2 –1
. ( -
):
- dp = − gT ρdH (2.52)

R = R 0 (1 + 0,608 S), dp / dH = − gT ρ . (2.53)

S- , . -
1 . ,
, , -
, . -
( ). .
( - .
), H H + dH
. 2.6). p p + dp.
174 175
, - µ(H ), gT(H ) T(H ).
( -
, , ,
. .), ,
, , .
, -
, - .
2.5.3.
dp µg dH
=− T .
p Rµ T
.
-
µ, gT . - . -
γ .
H -
-
H: ( ) .
1

( ) ( )
µ H γ gT H γ
ln p − ln p0 = −
Rµ ∫ T Hγ( ) dH . -
Hγ -
-
, , -
 1
p = p0 exp −

( ) ( )
µ H γ gT H γ 
dH .
, ,
Rµ ∫ ( )
γ T H γ
(2.54)
. ,
 H 
-
, - -
: ,
. -

( )
T0 µ H γ

 1
H γ
( ) ( )
µ H γ gT H γ



. -
ρ = ρ0  − R
( ) γ
T H µ0
exp

µ H 0γ
T H( )
γ
dH .

(2.55)
-
.

.
H , , -
p0, ρ0, 0 , µ0, ,

176 177
, , - .
. . -
( -
) - ( , -
. - , ),
. , -
. -
, -

[1, 20]. , -
, - , , .
, - , -
, -
. - , . 2.7.
- -
. ,
- -
, .
( , - , -
, ) , ,
, , -
. , - -
, - , .
,
. )
, 1 .
, - .
- -
. ( ) -
. -
. -
- . -
( ) . - .
, , -
, , , , ( « »
. ), -
-
- .

178 179
, - . , -
( ). -
, , -
. ,

, -
, , -
.

2.6.
( ) ( ) 2.6.1.

. -
- - - - , -
- - - , -
, -
. , -
.2.7 ,

- H 0γ Hγ , . T( H γ ) = T( H 0γ ) = const.
( ) , µ =µ0 = const,
. - 95 ,
, - γ
g ( H ) = g 0 = const,
.
0 100
, -
.
-
( ) .
-
-
:
-
 µg 
p = p0 exp − 0 0 (H γ − H 0γ );
-
. -
,  Rµ T0 
 µ g 
, ,  RµT0
(
ρ = ρ 0 exp − 0 0 H γ − H 0γ  .

)
 
, -

180 181
-
µ0 g 0
hM−1 =
RµT0 ( )= g
gT H γ
T0
-
, . h . -
. ,
-
, -1
 Hγ 
.  µ g
ρ = ρ 0 exp − 0 T 0 ∫γ T
g H γ
dH ( )

.
-  RµT0 gT 0
 H0 

∫ g (H )dH = g
γ γ
H γ −H 0 H γ −H 0 1 γ W
− − H = , W –
p = p0e hM
; ρ = ρ0e hM
. (2.56) gT 0 H 0γ
T
T0

, -
-
-
.
, -
, -
h , . , ,
. - , . -
, . -
.2.8. - mgT0 H .
hM, , -
0 100 , Hγ
( )
30
m ∫ gT H γ dH . -
-
20 H 0γ
,
-
10 - ,
. -
, 7,11 , -
30 60 90 120 150 . - , , .
.2.8 -
- H , .
, - -
γ
. , gT ( ) = const,
-

182 183
 H − H0  2.6.2.
ρ = ρ0 exp − , (2.57) , -
 hM  , -
,
, - ,
. , [3]. -
, . -
- ( ),
g (H ). - .
, - , , -
. -
2
 R 
( )
-
gT H γ = g 0  ,
γ  .
 R + H 

R – . ,
-
: . -
-
R , . -
H = Hγ . (2.58)
R + Hγ –4401–81, -
81, -
: 4401– 64 4401–73.
: ( –4401–81) -
γ R
H =H . (2.59) -
R −H -2000 1200000 . -
, , -
, , - 450 32 33 . , -
. , ,
- , -
- (2.58) (2.59).
, . -
(2.54) (2.55) -
30%, – ( -
50%, , , ) ( ) -
. µ . , -

184 185
- 2.1
:
µ (H ),
T = TM (2.60) - - , - ,
µ0 , , , ,
H , H, , , β, µ,
0, (H ) –
. 1 - 2000 -1999 301,15 301,15 - 28,96442
94 2 0 0 288,15 288,15 - 0,0065 28,96442
. 3 11000 11019 216,65 216,65 0 28,96442
4 20000 20063 216,65 216,65 + 0, 0010 28,96442
: 5 32000 32162 228,65 228,65 + 0,0028 28,96442
6 47000 47350 270,65 270,65 0 28,96442
1. –
7 51000 51412 270,65 270,65 - 0,0028 28,96442
R = 287,039 2/ ( 2.
). 8 71000 71802 214,65 214,65 - 0,0020 28,96442
2
2. g 0 = 9,80665 . 9 85000 86152 186,65 186,65 0 28,96442
3. , - 10 94000 95411 186,525 186,65 + 0,0030 28,96442
: p = 101325,0 , ρ = 1,225 3
, 11 102450 104128 203,81 212,00 + 0,0110 27,84600
12 117777 120000 334,417 380,60 - 0,0113 25,45000
= 288,150 .
4. = 94
-
µ = 29,96442 , 94
. H,
- 70
5. - .2.9.
H : T - 60
t - 50
TM (H )=T M, j + β j (H − H j ), (2.61)
T = T0 + t, 40
Hj , M,j - -
T0 – - 30
; - 20
j- - -
, 10
273,150 . 0
0
,
TM , j +1 − TM , j -
βj = . (2.62) -
100 200 300
H j +1 − H j .2.9
-
, - (2.54)
(2.55) -
- 2000 120000 . 2.1. :

186 187
   (2.63) …(2.66) R
 p j exp  −
g0
(H − H j ) = 0, 0 120 -
 R TM (H ) j
  , -
p (H ) =  −
g 0 (2.63) , , -
  TM ( H )  R β j (2.60).
pj   β j ≠ 0;
  TM j 
, -
.
  
 ρ j exp  −
g 0
(H − H j ) β j = 0, -
  R TM (H )  ,
ρ (H ) =  −
g 0 2.64 ) (2.63)…(2.66). (2.64)
  TM (H )  R β j (2.66)
ρ j   β j ≠ 0. (2.50).
  TM j  -
-
5
–2 80 .
:
TM + β j (H − H j ) 2.6.3.
 g 0
lg p j − lg j β j ≠ 0,
 R βj TM j . -
lg p =  (2.65) , -
lg p − 0,434294 g 0 (H − H ) β j = 0.
R TM (H )
,
 j j
 .
-
 g 0  TM j + β j (H − H j ) -

lg ρ j − 1 +  lg β j ≠ 0, . . . . .
  R β j  TM j
lg ρ =   (2.66) [1, 26, 29].
,

lgρ j − R T (H ) (H − H j )
 0,434294 g 0
β j = 0. -
 M -
, (u1) -
- (u2) -
, , 0 27 -
0 120 . 0 70 .
-
(2.60).

188 189
6 , - , -
. 2.10. - I- :
= T2 ( X 2 ); = T3 ( X 1 )T1 ( X 2 );
.
0 = T0 ; 5 10

1 = T1 ( X 1 ); 6 = T2 ( X 1 )T1 ( X 2 ); 11 = T3 ( X 1 )T2 ( X 2 );
L=3200
IV
0
L=200 2 = T1 ( X 2 ); 7 = T2 ( X 2 )T1 ( X 1 ); 12 = T3 ( X 2 );
-
- 3 = T1 ( X 1 )T1 ( X 2 ); 8 = T2 ( X 1 )T2 ( X 2 ); 13 = T1 ( X 1 )T3 ( X 2 );
I

0 0 0 N
I . -
4 = T2 ( X 1 ); 9 = T3 ( X 1 ); 14 = T2 ( X 1 )T3 ( X 2 );
B=0 30 70 -
-
T0 = 1; T1 ( X ) = X ; T2 ( X ) = 2 X 2 − 1; T3 ( X ) = 4 X 3 − 3 X ;
0
L=0 II III
V
L, -
VI
- B − B1m L′ − L1m
- X 1 = cos π; X 2 = cos π;
- B2m − B m1 ( Lm2 )′ − L1m
L,  Lm2 , Lm2 ≠ 1800 ;
0
L=80
. L ≥ 1800 ;
. 2.10 - L′ =  ( Lm
)′ = 
L + 3600 , 4400 ,
2
- L < 1800 ; Lm2 = 1800 ;
0 24 3 . - B1m , B2m , L1m , Lm2 - «m».

. 27
4401-64) 24 27 ,

, 27 qk = qkCT + ∆qk ,
. -
3360 . qkCT - , -
.
, L
H iγ (i = 1,2,…, 9) - L -
.
14 -
∆qk(i ) = ∑ ( Akim )l l, k = 1, 2, 3, 4, (2.67) -
l =1 .
∆q1 = ∆T, ∆q2 = ∆ρ, ∆q3 = u1, ∆q4 = u2; « -
Akim - - » -
γ
– ,
«m» H ; i .

190 191
, . -
, ,
. - ,
,
, .
, . .
2.6.4. -
, -
,
.
. -
-
, . -
, ,
, .
. -
-
-
,
, -
[1].
-
, -
, -
, , .
, , . .
-
-
. , -
, -
-

, . -
( – ) -
. -
-
. -
-
-
.
,
-
-
-
,
. ,
.
.
. -
, , -
-
.
( , , -
-
) -
.
,

192 193
- 
. 1, m = 1;
, 
 π
Tm =  cos (t − 1) ,
m
« », . - m = 2 , 4 ,..., 12 ;
, , , .  6 2
 π m −1
sin 6 (t − 1) 2 , m = 3,5 ,..., 11;
, -
,
. - 
0 24 1, n = 1;
, 
 πL n
. Rn = cos 0
, n = 2,4,...,12;
 180 2
. , -  πL n − 1
, , , - sin 1800 2 , n = 3,5,...,11;
-

( )
.
π B + 800
-
Gl = cos (l − 1), l = 1,2,...,17;
0…24 : 1600
- -
; m, l, n - ;
- ; B - ( -900 ≤ ≤ 900);
β1, β2 - , L - (00 < L ≤ 3600);
: 0 t- .
ji -
24 ; .
3 - 3 ( « » ). , -
j (j = 1,…,5), -
. -
, . -
,
Nj . « » -
x j (B, L, t ) = ∑ C jiTmGl Rn , (2.68)
i =1 .
-
Nj - j- ; 0…24
Cji - j- ; , -
( . . 2.5.2). -

194 195
24 , -
- . -
. : -
, - .
- .
- -
, .
. -
- .
[1]. -
- [1]:
, -
. 1 ∂p 1 ∂p
u1 = − ; u2 = ,
2.6.5. 2ω sin Bρ ∂xN 2ω sin Bρ ∂xN

u1, u2 - -
;
. xN, zN - , -
,
[20], , - .
, -
, ,
B L:
1 ∂p 1 ∂p
u1 = - ; u2 =
( )
. -
2ω sin Bρ R + H ∂B 2ω sin Bρ (R + H )cos B ∂L .
,
1…1,5 . -

, . - (2.50),
1  ∂ρ ∂T 
u1 = −  T+ ρ ;
2ω sin Bρ (R + H )  ∂B ∂B 
. (2.69)

.
- 1  ∂ρ ∂T 
u2 =  T+ ρ .
2ω sin Bρ (R + H )cos B  ∂L ∂L 
. - (2.70)
,
, ,

196 197
- , -
, , -
. .
.
(
) . :
, , ,
[1]: u1 (H , B, L, t ) u2 (H , B, L, t ) .

R   ρ 2  -
u1 = − T2 − T1  2 −  ; (2.71) -
2ω∆ sin B1   ρ1  
. -
R   ρ3  
u2 = T3 − T1 2 −  , (2.72) -
2ω∆ sin B1   ρ1  
.
∆- , - .
- ,
;
1, 2,T3 - : 1, L 1; 2 , . , -
L1 ; 1, L3 ; .
ρ1, ρ2, ρ3 - ;
∆ - 2.7.

100 . B 2 L3 ,
, ,
-
B2 = ∆ / R + B1; L3 = ∆ /( R cos B1 ) + L1. .

-
,
. -
,
.
. -
, -
. -
.
, , -
, -

198 199
30 , -
, N .
. - i Fi -
, .
, , -
, . N

, , - ∆Fi (H ) = ∑ ϕij (H )Vij , (2.73)


j =1
-
, , - ϕij - ;
- Vij - -
. .
-
- V1, V2, , VN
, ϕ1( H ), ϕ2( H ),…, ϕN( H ).
. . . -
- , , V1, V2, , VN
- .
- , -
[13],
- . -
. , -
2.7.1. -
, . . .
[23], , - -
. ,
. -
Vϕ(H ), V , ,
– ; ϕ(H ) – ( ) Fi( H ) -
.
. .
: ,
V, – - -
. -
ϕ(H ).
,
, [23]. -
. -
-

200 201
[25]. - V1j, V2j ,V3j -
. .
- ,

,
: -

) = ∑ ∆ρ j (H )V1 j ;
∆ρ
NT .
(H
ρ j =1 ρ 

∆p ∆p j
NT
 .
p
(H )=
p∑ (H )V1 j ;  (2.74, ) -
j =1  , -
NT 
∆T (H ) = ∆T j (H )V1 j ; 
-
∑  :
j =1 
(H ) = ∑ ∆T
NT
σ 2 2
;
∆u1 (H ) = ∑ ∆u j (H )V2 j ; ∆u2 (H ) = ∑ ∆u j (H )V3 j ,
Nu Nu
T j
(2.74, ) j =1
j =1 j =1
K TT (H1 , H 2 ) = ∑ ∆T j (H 1 )∆T j (H 2 );
NT

∆ρ ∆p
, , ∆T - - j =1
ρ p
(H , H 2 ) = ∑ ∆T j (H1 ) ∆ρ (H ).
NT
, ; K
j
∆ρ
ρ
1 2
∆u1, ∆u2 - - T
ρ j =1
;
∆ρ j ∆p j
, , ∆T j - -
ρ p -
. -
- -
; , -
∆uj - - , , -
; , ,
N , Nu - , , - ).
; -
V1j, V2j,V3j - - ,
-
. .
-
. , . -

202 203
, .
. - r
xi x yk.
- , -
, - r
x -
- «m» ,
. -
xi, , (N - m) -
, -
. r
x.
2.7.2. -
- , -
– - , :
[28].
, - N
r
x = {x1 , x2 ,..., x N } c ,
∆Fi ( H , B, t ) = σ Fi ( H , B, t )∑ X ij ( H ) Z ij , (2.76)
j =1

σ Fi -
K x (xi , x j ), (i = 1,...,N; j = 1,...,N )
i ;
-
Xij - ;
N . Zij - -
yk - ( -
( ) );
r
x N- .
N
-
yk = ∑ cki xi , k = 1,..., N , (2.75) ,
i =1
.
-
, .
, .
. -
. -
. -
, –
-
. [28] ,
.
k , ,
Kx(xi,xj), cki xi - – , ,
(2.75) - . -
r
Kx(xi,xj). - « » -
yk , (2.75) - ,
. ,

204 205
- -
, , -
, . -
. , – -
,
. - , -
R2, «m» , - .
:
,
 m  [1], 6.
R 2 =  ∑ λ j  / N , -
 j =1  , -
, -
λj - ; ,
N - . -
, . -
. .
, -
,
. - .
- [1],
. - . -
. , , -
,
, - ( 80%) .
. - -
, - . -
Fi -
: .
N -
rFi ( H1 , H 2 ) = ∑ X ij ( H1 ) X ij ( H 2 ). .
j =1
,
-
. .

, -
, , . -
206 207
.
3. ,
3.1.1. . .
-
. . 1897 .
.
. - -
, - , -
. - .
, -
. .
,
. -
, : - . , -
. -
, - .
, . , , t m,
-
r
. , - V. (t + ∆t) -
. r r
(m - ∆m) ( V + ∆ V ). -
r
, . ∆m V1 -
, - .
, , - , -
, , t m, (t + ∆t) -
, . (m - ∆m) ∆m.
3.1.
,
.
r r
∆L = F∆t , (3.1)
. -
,
. - ∆L – ∆t ;
r
, - F ⋅ ∆t - , -
. , , ∆t.
.

208 209
r r r
r r
m(t )
t L =mV, - dV
= F + PM . (3.4)
(t + ∆t) dt
( )
r r r r r
L + ∆L = (m − ∆m ) ⋅ V + ∆V + ∆mV1.
, ,
: -
( )
r r r r r -
∆L = m∆V + ∆m V1 − V − ∆V . ,
, ,
(3.1) , .
r
( )
r r r r r PM -
m∆V = F∆t − ∆m V1 − V + ∆m∆V .
r .
∆m∆V (3.2), -
∆t, ,
.
∆t → 0 :
-
r
r dm r
m(t )
dV , . -
=F− ⋅U , (3.2)
dt dt ,
.
m(t) - ; -
r r r , -
U = V1 - V - -
; ,
dm / dt - . .
- -
. , -
(3.2), dm / dt .
m& = dm / dt . . , -

, .
. ,
:
r r
PM = − m& U . (3.3) . -
, -
(3.2) , . -

210 211
- 3.1.2.
.
- -
. - . -
-
, [14]: ,
1. - , , . -
. .
2. , - S,
, p ,
, . -
3. ,
Sp ( .3.1). ,
, -
, . -
,
.
.
,
” ”
[14, 18], : - P = m& U + Sa pa (3.5)

, .
. , -
, - p = 0.
. -
p, . -
, ,
, .
r , . 3.1.
PM , -
, -
, , (- p S ). ,
. -
.
. Pcm = S a ( pa − p )
, , .
.

212 213
P = m& U + Sa ( pa − p ). (3.6) P0 = m& U + S a ( pa − p0 ), (3.7)

, , - p0 - .
, -
(3.5).
-
p p Sa pHSa
Sa Sa -
, . -
-
pH . -
.3.1 Sa po:
P = m& U + S a ( pa − p ) + S a p − S a p .
, -
-
. - ,
,
Sa . , P = [m& U + S a ( pa − p0 )] + Sa ( p0 − p ),
,
. P= 0 + Sa p0 (1 − p / p0 ) . (3.8)
-
, .
, -
, ,
,
, .
0 ,
, , -
. - δP , -
= 0,3... 0,4 . -
, , Sa p0 . -
. - 20 .
,
, = 0,6... 0,8 . , . . 3.2 -
-
(p < p ) , , .
. - . 3.2,
(p > p ) . ( t ), -
, - . t0 G0 -
. . -
.

214 215
t1 - U = U − S a pa / m& ,
-
. -
t2
P
P , U 0
= U + S a ( pa − p0 ) / m& .
PH -
P0 . -
, ,
-
G0 .
t3.
t3
t I = ∫ P(t )dt ∆U = U − U 0
= Sa ( p0 − p ) / m&
t t0 t1 t2 t3 t2
.3.2 - (15 ... 20) U 0.
, 15
[18]. .
3.1.3. . 1973 . 17655-72 « -
» -
,
.
. . , -
U , -
: -
[6].
P = m& U + S a ( pa − p ) = m& U , -
,
. -
:
U = U + S a ( pa − p ) / m& . (3.9)
P = P / G& = P / m& g 0 , (3.10)
-
gT0 - .
, - (3.10) -
, - « ».
m& , . - , , ,
:

216 217
P0 + S a ( p0 − p )= U 3.1
P = . (3.11)
m& g 0 g 0
[ ] P .
I -5 7930 300
: II -5 1050 422
I -2 1074 288
P0 + S a p0 U
P . = = . II -2 454 316
m& g 0 g 0 I 770 250
II 250 246
- II 160 253
: I 363 245
P .0 = P0 / m& g 0 = U 0 / g 0. II - 250

, -
-
(3.6) (3.8), , -
,
:
, ,
:
P = m& U = m& P g 0 (3.12)
tK tK

I = ∫ P(t )dt / ∫ m& dt.


r r
0 0
P = Px10 ,
I . , r
m& x10 - , -
.
P =I . 3.2.
3.2.1.
,
, - -
1 . , - -
, .
. .
300...460 , - 250...300 . 0 100 -
. 3.1. -
[9]. , . -

218 219
- , -
, . .
-
r
, R, . -
, -
r
V ,r - -
∆p - . , -
r , -
f ( .3.3).
, , -
, -
S.
r r . r
∆p x10 R , -
r
n0 ∆p .
r
R S V f -

r ( , , -
f - .) .
d
d
- ,
-
.3.3 . - C d = ld / l ,
(dσ) - ld - ;
.
l- .
,
Cd
, -
0,5...0,7.
:
r
(
r r
R = ∫∫ pn 0 + f ) , :
,

1) , (
∆p - , , .);
; 2) ( -
0
n - , ; , -
r );
f- ; 3) , .
σ- . . -

. - - .

220 221
, - -
, . ,
. ( . 3.6), .
r
R [10],
,
. r r r
- R = Rx1 x10 + Ry yc0 .
( .3.4) - y1 yV
− Rx1 = X1 α
r r r r
R = RxV xV0 + RyV yV0 + RzV zV0 . Ry = Y yc
. .
-
: r
( ) Ry
- RxV = Q - ; c r
. S Rx x1
1
R yV = Y - ; α α
RzV = Z - . β
β xV
- α. zV z1
( . 3.5): .3.6
r r r r
R = Rx1 x10 + Ry1 y10 + Rz1 z10 . α α.
-
yV x1 x1 :
r y1
Y α
r Q= x q Sm ; Y = Cy q Sm ; Z = Cz q Sm ; ( 3.13 )
r β Y1 β
Q S r xV S r
zV V r V X1 = C x1 q Sm ; Y1 = C y1 q Sm ; Z1 = C z1 q Sm , ( 3.14 )
d r r z1
X1 Z1
Z
Cx,Cy,Cz - -
.3.4 .3.5 ,
;
:
C x1 ,C y1 ,Cz1 - -
− Rx1 = X1 - ;
, ;
R y1 = Y1 - ;
q = ρV 2 / 2 - ;
Rz1 = Z1 - . ρ - ;

222 223
V - ; , , , .
Sm - , -
.
M = V/a,
, -
. a = 20,046796 T - ;
.
- .
-
-
( , ,
. , -
.) -
. ,

( )
-
, C x = C x0 (M ) + C αα
x (M ) ⋅ α + ∆C x M , H ,
2 γ
( 3.15 )
,
.
C x0 (M ), C αα
x (M ), ∆C x M , H
γ
- ( ) -
3.2.2.
, -
- ;
, - .
-
-
. - .
, -
.
C (M, α ) α
, , -
, -
, , α :
, . -
C x (M ,α ) = C x ( M ) + ∂C x ( M , α ) α +
1 ∂ 2C x (M ,α ) ⋅ α 2 + ...
- 0
∂α 2 ∂α 2
.
-
, -
. -
. α , ( ,α )

. α . ,
, , - , :
, -
,

224 225
C x (M ,α ) = C x (M ) + αα
(M ) ⋅ α 2 ,
C αy (M ) -
0 x
,

(M ) = 1 ∂ Cx (M2,α ) .
αα
2 .
∂α
x
2
Cy = y ( ,α) α -
:
C x 0 (M ) , -
, - ∂C y (M ,α ) 1 ∂ C y (M ,α ) 2
2

C x 0 (M ) αα
(M ) C y (M ,α ) = C y 0 (M ) + α+ ⋅ ⋅ α + ... .
. x ∂α 2 ∂α 2
,
. ,
. 3.7 3.8.
0,4
∆C xH ( M , H γ )
C x0 ,
C xαα , 1 / 2
0,5 0,005 0,3
0,4 0,004
-
. 0,2
0,3 0,003 H =50
,
0,2 0,002 0,1
y(M,α)
0,1 0,001
H =10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
.3.7 .3.8 - .3.9
α -
∆C x M ,( γ
) -
. ,

. ∂C y (M , α )
) - Cy = ⋅ α = C αy (M ) ⋅ α
∂α
( . 3.9).
y ,
, - ,
, - α.
C (M )
. α
y . 3.10.
y

C y = C αy (M ) ⋅ α , (3.16)

226 227
(
Y = Yα V , H γ ⋅α , ) (3.17) C x1 = C x10 (M ) + C αα γ
x1 ( M ) + ∆C x1 ( M , H );
(3.20)
ρV 2
(
Y α V , H γ = C αy ) 2
Sm - . C y1 = C αy1 ( M ) ⋅ α ; C z1 = −C zβ1 ( M ) ⋅ β .

α
,
3
y 1/ C zβ = C αy . ,
,
2 . -

1
C z = −C (M )β .
β
z (3.18) M x1 ← xV ( β , α ).
, -
M
“ “ -
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
,
.3.10 - − X 1  − Q
β , -  Y =M  
 1  x1 ← xV ( β , α )  Y .
, ,
. 3.11.  Z1   Z 

r x1 xV
Z q Sm ,
S β<0
β>0
S r
xV x1  − C x1 
Z − C x 
Z<0 zV Z>0    
 C y1  = M x1 ← xV (β , α )  C y .
zV    C 
. 3.11  C z1   z

α β

Z = −Z β V , H γ ⋅ β , ( ) (3.19) − C x1 = −C x + C αy α 2 + C zβ β 2 ;
C y1 = (C αy + C x )α ; (3.21)
ρV
( )
2

( )
β γ β
Z V,H =C Sm -
z .
C z1 = − C zβ + C x β .
2
,
, : -
.

228 229
3.2.3. M x1 , M y1 , M z1
-
, - , . 3.13.
, , -
, , ( . 3.13),
.
r , C S = lS / l .
R
, - -
r
R. . Cd CS .
- .
. - 3.13, y1 x1
. 3.12 - r My >0
r X1 Y1 1
R′ , , ld
r r S ls
, R, R′′ , - l
d
x1 - . Y1
r r M < 0 z1
r R M . Z1, - Z1 z1
r
R - X1
S , -
V - -
d , .3.13
R -
Sz1 Sy1 .

M x1 = 0; M y1 = Z1 (ld − lS ); M z1 = −Y1 (ld − lS ).


.3.12
, . . -
-
, , . Z1 Y1 :
,
M x1 = 0; M y1 = −CZβ qS m (ld − lS ); M z1 = −C αy qS m (ld − lS ). (3.22)
, . -
-
.
, -
: .
r r r r
M = M x1 x10 + M y1 y10 + M z1 z10 , α β
. -
.
M x1 , M y1 , M z1 - , . , -

230 231
-
, .
- , .
. .
, - , -
. - -
, . “ “ , . -
, - , ,
. (ld − l )
S
(Cd CS) - .
r
, -
. MT .
, -
[2]. ,
- .
,
. - :
, -
. r r r r
M T = M xT1 x10 + M Ty1 y10 + M zT1 z10 .
(3.22) :

( )
M y1 = − M yβ1 V , H γ β ; M z1 = − M zα1 V , H γ α , ( ) (3.23)
,
,
-
, , Sz1
M yβ1 , M αz1 - .3.14) Ω z1 [2].
∆ , -
M yβ1 = C zβ1 qSm (ld − lS ) ; M zα1 = −C αy1 qS m (ld − lS ) . (3.24) ∆l .
V, -
-
∆V = Ω z1 ∆l ,

(
Y1 = Q + Y α α ; ) (
Z1 = − Q + Z β β , ) .
r
-
α V, ∆ -
α M = α + ∆α , .
« » . ∆α
(
M y1 = − Q + Z β
)(l d (
− lS )β ; M z1 = Q + Y α
)(l d − lS )β . (3.25) ∆Y1 , -

232 233
r r r
z1 ∆l, . ∆V = Ω z1 × ∆l . M xΩ1 , M yΩ1 , M zΩ1 - -
- Sx1 , Sy1, Sz1 .
r
y1
x1 ∆M , -
α Ω Ω Ω
∆l S m x1 , m y1 , m -
r
V ,
z1
′ r , , -

z1 ∆l.
∆σ ∆α
Ω z1 -
r . ,
V Ω
m =m . Ω
-
, - y1 z1

- . 3.15.
. 3.14 , - , mxΩ1 , mzΩ1
: 0,03
- mzΩ1
0,02
Ω z1 mxΩ1
M zT1 = −mzΩ1 ⋅ q ⋅ S m ⋅ l2, (3.26) . - 0,01
V -
M
Ω 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
m
z1 - -
.3.15
Sz1 .
, , ,
,
:
.
Ω Ω x1
M z1 = −mx1 ⋅ q ⋅ S m
T
⋅l ; 2
(3.27) ,
V .
Ω y1
M Ty1 = −m yΩ1 ⋅ q ⋅ Sm ⋅ l 2. (3.28) ,
V
, . .
, (3.23)
:
3.3. ,
M xT1 = − M xΩ1 V , ( )Ω γ
x1 ;
3.3.1.
M yT1 = − M Ω (V , )Ω
y1
γ
y1 ; (3.29)
M z1 T
= − M Ω (V , )Ω
z1
γ
z1 , ,

. -
234 235
, , « -
. , , ».
-
. ,
, .
- , ,
- , , , -
, . ,
.
, , ,
: , - .
[11, 19]. , -
,
- , -
, . , ,
( ), - . -
( ). - , , ,
, , - .
( ) .
, , - , ,
. ( ) -
, -
, , . .
, - , ,
. :
; . -
, -
- »( - .
); 3.3.2. ,
( );
;
-
,
-
;
-
-
.
.
,
, , , -
-
, . 3.1.
, -

236 237
Sy1 Sz1
- I – III II - IV.
, . 3.16. Sx1 -
M y1 (δ1, δ 3 ) .
y1 M x1 (δ1, δ 2 , δ 3 , δ 4 )
x1
, ,
r
S M z (δ 2 , δ 4 )
1 . -
P
z1 .
III r
, -
Py
1 r lp , ,
Px
II 1 .
IV . 3.17 ,
.
I lp
r v y1 r
δ2 > 0 P Mz r My
δ4 > 0 y1 1
Pz
P 1
ls
.3.16 1
r x1 r
II, IV S ls I, III S x1
, , - δ2,4>0 x1
lp δ1,3>0 x1
z1
. ) )
-
lp, .3.17
, h .
-
δi - , . Sy1 Sz1 .
. -
, -
, δi = 0 , -
.
, . Sx1
: .
:
r r0 r0 r0
= x1 ⋅ x1 + y1 ⋅ y1 + z1 ⋅ z1 ,
Px1 = P I cos δ1 + P II cos δ 2 + P III cos δ 3 + P IV cos δ 4 ;
M x1 , M y1 , M z1 - - Py1 = P II sin δ 2 + P IV sin δ 4 ;
. Pz1 = − P I sin δ1 − P III sin δ 3 .

238 239
Pz1 - M z1 = −2 P (lP − lS )δ T = − M zδ1 t , ( )δ ; γ
T

(t, )δ
(3.33)
.
M y1 = −2 P (lP − lS )δ P = − M δ
y1
γ
P,
-
:
M zδ1 , M δy1 -
) P I = P II = P III = P IV = P ; Sz1 Sy1.
)δi − , . cos δ i ≈ 1; sin δ i ≈ δ i . -

δi. -
: hp ( .3.18), -
M x1
Px1 = 4 P ; Py1 = P (δ 2 + δ1 ) ; Pz1 = − P (δ1 + δ 3 ). :
M x1 = − P (− sin δ1 + sin δ 3 − sin δ 2 + sin δ 4 )hP ≈
≈ − P hP (δ 3 − δ1 + δ 4 − δ 2 ).
δ2 + δ4 δ1 + δ 3
δT = δP = , (3.30) δ BP = (δ 3 − δ1 ) / 2 =
2 2
= (δ 4 − δ 2 ) / 2,
: :

Px1 = 4 P ; Py1 = 2 P δ ; Pz1 = −2 P δ P . (3.31) M x1 = −4 P hPδ BP = − M xδ1 t , ( γ


)δ BP , (3.34)
r r 4 r
PΣ = P + ∑P , M xδ1 - -
i =1 (Pr )
III
y1
δ3
(Pr )
z1
. IV
Sx1.
δ2
y1
S
z1
PxΣ1 = P + 4 P ; PyΣ1 = 2 P ⋅ δ T ; PzΣ1 = −2 P ⋅ δ P . (3.32)
( )
r
P II
hP δ4
- y1
δ1 (Pr )
I
z1
(3.31) . 3.16 - .
- - .3.18
Sz1 Sy1 :
.
.

240 241
3.3.3. ,
, -
, , ,
-
. :
ρV 2
, ,
-
- ∆X 1 = C ⋅ δδ
x1
2
(
⋅ S m δ12 + δ 22 + δ 32 + δ 42 ; )
,
ρV 2
,
.
∆Y1 = C δy1 ⋅
2
(
⋅ Sm δ 2 + δ 4 ; ) (3.35)

ρV 2
( )
,
, , - ∆Z1 = −C zδ1 ⋅ ⋅ S m δ1 + δ 3 ,
.3.19. 2
- C xδδ1 , C δy1 , C zδ1 - -
, -
y1 x1 . - ;
I III - 1, 2, 3, 4- ,
a3
a2 III S , (3.35)
II 1 3 (3.14).
z1
lp Sy1 -
hp
IV , II IV - , ,
I a1 a4
.3.19 2 4 C δy1 = C zδ1 . (3.36)
Sz1 . -
- ,
. ,
- , , , , -
, .
, -
. - ,
-
lP -
-
. - hp ( .3.19).
- -
, . (lP ls) hp.

242 243
M xδ1 , M yδ1 , M zδ1 - , -
∆Y1 ∆Z1. -
∆ 1, , .
, -
- , -
. -
, , -
: .
-
(
M x1 = − ∆Z1I + ∆Y1II + ∆Z1III − ∆Y1IV ⋅ hP ; ) .
( )
M y1 = ∆Z1I + ∆Z1III (lP − lS ); (3.37)
, -
-
M z1 = − (∆Y 1
II
)
+ ∆Y1IV (l − lS ). , -
(3.35), -
, -
∆Y1II , ∆Y1IV , ∆Z1I , ∆Z1III - - . -
, I ,II, III IV , -
. , , .

3.4.
δ T = (δ 2 + δ 4 ) / 2;
3.4.1.
δ P = (δ 1 + δ 3 ) / 2; -
δ BP = (δ 4 − δ 2 ) / 2 = (δ 3 − δ1 ) / 2, -
, -
(3.37) (3.35) (3.36), - . -

. -
δ
M x1 = −4C 1 ⋅ ρ
V2
2
(
S m hPδ BP = − M xδ1 V , H γ δ BP ; ) . ,

M y1 = −2C δ1 ⋅ ρ
V2
(
S m (lP − lS )δ P = − M yδ1 V , H γ δ P ; ) (3.38) r ∂U r 0 ∂U r 0 ∂U r0
2 g = gradU ( x, y, z ) = x + y + z , (3.39)
∂x ∂y ∂z
M z1 = −2C δ1 ⋅ ρ
V2
2
(
Sm (lP − lS )δ T = − M zδ1 V , H γ δ T , )
r r r
x0 , y0, z 0 - ;
U( x,y,z) - .

244 245
- , -
ϕ, r λ, (3.39) -
: -
.
1 ∂U r0
) = 1 ∂U ϕr 0 + ∂U rr 0 +
r 3.4.2.
g = gradU (ϕ, r, , (3.40)
r ∂ϕ ∂r rcosϕ ∂
( . . 2.2.3), -
r r r
ϕ0, r 0, 0 - , - , (2.45)
- :
.
U (ϕ , r ) = + 3 P2 (sin ϕ ) + 45 P4 (sin ϕ ).
b0 b2 b
r r r (3.41)
ϕ0,r 0, 0