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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

Multicultural Approach and Information Communication Technology


In Arabic Language Teaching: Research on Indonesian Pesantren
MAIMUN AQSHA LUBIS, ISMAIL SUARDI WEKKE,
MELOR MD. YUNUS, NORAZAH MOHD. NORDIN
Faculty of Education,
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,
43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor
MALAYSIA
mal@ukm.my

Abstract: - Multicultural Education Is One The Most Popular Term Used To Describe Education For Pluralism.
On the other hand, one of the best platform to bring excellences in education is information and communication
technology (ICT). Through applying ICT in the language learning would enhance students’ capacity and
accelerate language pedagogy. This research tries to explain various practices and processes in the pesantren
that constructed to reduce prejudice and discrimination with ICT assistance. In addition, it tries to explain the
curriculum is organized around concepts basic to each ethnic from several different group. The pesantrens are
located in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The research design is qualitative approach. Data collected from
conducting interview and observational field data. Furthermore, data elaborated on grounded theories analysis.
The study is ongoing research to pursue PhD in education at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This study
shows that stakeholders in pesantren work with content integration and various practices deal with the extent to
which teachers use examples and content from a variety of culture to illustrate key concepts, principles and
theories in their subject area or discipline. Then, teachers conceptualize multicultural education as content
related to various ethnic and cultural group. Furthermore, the processes on learning through ICT point out that
it help students a mean to learn language. Finally, ICT extends learning processes and knowledge of the subject
and the same time improves their proficiency in the language.

Key-words:- pesantren, multicultural education, language learning, ICT and education

1 Introduction This research was designed to investigate the


In the recent millenium, it cannot be denied that all multicultural part role in pesantren curriculum and
of the part of the world are multicultural. It can be pedagogy. In this regard, the research focused on
seen in the reality of society that there are diverse how multicultural issues are defined through a
cultural backgrounds. The conclusion also can be curriculum and pedagogy practices process of
seen in Indonesian society. Indonesian society is a education. This paper synthesizes some key
truly multicultural society. Indonesian society has concepts that have emerged in recent discussions on
multiple ethnic groups, social status groups, multicultural in the larger fields of education and
economic groups and educational groups Islam and applies these concepts to exploring issues
background. One of the multicultural groups in of education. Critiques of binaries and essentialism
Indonesia is pesantren as instrumental part of in various forms constitute an important part of
educational religion. Therefore, it is a strategic pilar post-process approaches that attempt to uncover
for supporting development of human resources. power, politics and ideologies underlying various
The pesantren (Islamic boarding school) is not a social relations. Given the wide range of topics to
new institution in Indonesia. It has a long tradition cover in this paper, the focus here is not to provide a
that plays an imperative role in enhancing education comprehensive review of education in relation to
process. There is a substantial and growing body of multicultural topics, but to survey some key
evidence suggesting that pesantren is one of a concepts and use them to explore some future
values-based and are able to engage in Indonesian directions for education in South Sulawesi Province.
community. Obviously, one of the most important In the past, a call for a ‘‘global conversation’’
features in social and culture its attention to question might invoke images of top-down commissions
of multicultural. populated only by the voices of the global elites. But
the rapid spread of information communications

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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

technology (ICT) and the internet offer humanity participate in social change (Schmid, 2007)[2]. It is
something it has never had before—an open, imperative that teachers learn how to recognize,
horizontally distributed, interconnected hyperlinked honor and incorporate the personal abilities of
global agora, within which matters of human students into their teaching strategies (Mariani,
concern can be discussed, debated, negotiated and 2009)[3]. If this is done, then school achievement
about which shared understandings can be found. will improve. This site is designed to assist
The present paper is therefore an attempt to preservice and practicing teachers in becoming
widen the scope of education studies by looking at multicultural educators. It should not be considered
pesantren and ICT. There are many questions to be a single source to understanding multicultural
answered about this phenomenon, as we hope to education, but rather a supplement to multicultural
demonstrate later; however, in this paper is my studies. It is divided into nine sections: school
major concern is with the multicultural value in the wide considerations, studying ethnic and cultural
educational engagement and how the apply ICT groups, curriculum considerations, using media to
through language learning and teaching. support multiculturalism, resources, evaluation,
build a case study, watch a video with probing
questions and bibliography.
2 Literature Review Multicultural education movement can be seen
Since its earliest conceptualizations in the 1960s, as a reform movement of the 1960s in the both
multicultural education has been transformed, Europe and America in effort to removing the lack
refocused and reconceptualized in a constant state of of educational system for the minorities.
evolution both in theory and in practice. It is rare Multicultural education has their educational
that any two classroom teachers or education foundation from a child-centred educational
scholars will have the same definition for philosophy which relating educational provision and
multicultural education. As with any dialogue on strategies to students' need and experiences. One of
education, individuals tend to mold concepts to fit the pioneer of child centred education is American
their particular focus. Some discuss multicultural philosopher and educator, John Dewey who lived in
education as a shift in curriculum, perhaps as simple the last century.
as adding new and diverse materials and In the period of 1970's development of
perspectives to be more inclusive of traditionally multicultural education was continuing with a wide
underrepresented groups. range of initiatives, some superficial and others
Multicultural education is a progressive approach more radical relying on teacher's situation and their
for transforming education that holistically critiques own personal educational philosophies. In this
and addresses current shortcomings, failings and period the multicultural education was working
discriminatory practices in education. It is grounded through exploratory stage which was characterized
in ideals of social justice, education equity and a by their interest to transmit positive personal and
dedication to facilitating educational experiences in social behaviour about cultural diversity in the
which all students reach their full potential as classroom context. During the 1970's the ideas about
learners and as socially aware and active beings, student's cultural multicultural background in the
locally, nationally and globally. Multicultural school reform context were tried and developed in
education acknowledges that schools are essential to many school. The society's understanding and
laying the foundation for the transformation of consciousness about their multicultural diversity in
society and the elimination of oppression and the period can be seen through these following
injustice. The underlying goal of multicultural social phenomena: "Ethnic groups all round the
education is to affect social change. The pathway United States developed expression of their heritage
toward this goal incorporates three strands of and identity. The women's movement got well under
transformation: the transformation of self; the way. Court cases and federal legislation supported
transformation of schools and schooling; and the diversity, such as the Lau decision supporting
transformation of society. bilingual education, the Ethnic Heritage Act funding
Demographic, social and economic trends have multiethnic curriculum development and the
important implications for education (Usun, adoption by many states of goals statements
2009)[1]. Multicultural education is intended to supporting teaching for cultural pluralism" (Sleeter
decrease race, ethnicity, class and gender divisions & Grant, 1988: 139)[4].
by helping all students attain the knowledge, The development of the multicultural education
attitudes and skills that they need in order to become was continuing in the 1980s together with the
active citizens in a democratic society and dynamic of social and political context of the

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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

decade. This approach is a new method to enhance background can increase the interracial and cross-
the process of leraning process Abdul Razak gender friendship patterns and develop a stronger
(2001)[5]. The multicultural education is basically sense of self-esteem, a more positive attitude toward
education for a multicultural society. Multicultural school and more internal locus of control. In line
education is type of education that enables people in with the social psychological theory, clearly
diverse background to accept and cope their prejudice can be reduced by direct interpersonal
difference, to be non judgemental and to accept the contact (Baron & Byrne, 1997)[9].
right of all people developing their linguistic, In conclusion, multicultural education can be
cultural and religious expression. In addition, seen as the type of education which try to prepare
multicultural education also can be defined as students living in the society with variety of cultural
educational policies and practices that recognize, background. The basic objective of multicultural
accept and affirm human differences and similarities education is to develop students' ability living in the
related to gender, race, handicap and class (Sleeter context of multicultural society. Task of
& Grant, 1988)[4]. Clearly a multicultural society multicultural education is to help students to achieve
has a number of elements. They are the existence of a higher stage of ethnic and cultural existence so
diversity, at least minimal sharing and interaction, that there exist a sufficient cultural and social
equal access to economic and educational resources, overlap for society to function. Ideology of
political and civil rights, valuing of cultural multicultural education has aim to develop social
diversity and shared commitment to one nation change in our society to be society that regards
(McLean,1991)[6]. Multicultural education as cultural pluralism, equal opportunity, diversity and
educational concepts, theories and practices try to social justice.
encompass problem of race, culture, language, Many studies have investigated the use of
social class and gender inequality in the area of information and communication technology in
education. language teaching and learning. One of the
Furthermore, there are three main goals of objectives of learning a language is mainly an
multicultural education: first is to provide education attempt to write for academic purpose. Because
for a shared political and economical value system. effective teaching is based on the objective that the
Second is to provide education for cultural and course will reach, the goal of teaching a language is
ethnic diversity. Third is to provide education for exactly the same, namely to develop the ability of
greater equality of educational opportunity. In students to have skills and interact with people in a
addition, according to Gollnich (In Sleeter & Grant, new language in real world situations (Widdowson,
1988)[4] there are five goals of multicultural 1978) [10].
education. The first goal is to promote the strength
and value of cultural diversity. The second goal is to 2.1 Pesantren
promote human rights and respect for those who are A pesantren in Indonesia is a centre of learning and
different from oneself. The third goal is to promote teaching. They has played important role because it
alternative life choice for people. The fourth goal is is the oldest system of learning and education.
to promote social justice and equal opportunity for Before Dutch colonialization established the modern
all people. Finally the fifth goal is to promote equity education system, pesantren was the only one
in the distribution of power among difference educational institution available. It should be noted
groups. that the pesantren still plays its role as an education
One of the most relevance and effective methods centre, but it has also to compete with modern
in teaching multicultural education is a cooperative educational institutions. The pesantren system, on
learning method (Garrett, 1991)[7]. This method of the other hand, does not have such strong authority
cooperative learning can develop students’ and position. It is just a medium by which Islamic
understanding others through interdependency task learning is developed and Islamic belief and norms
(Hanurawan & Diponegoro, 2005)[8]. Theories, are maintained. Islamic cultural identity as a critical
research and practices from group social psychology discourse distinctive from the notion of ‘Islamic
can contribute the development of cooperative identity’ is a recent concern in the intellectual
learning, e.g. theories, research and practices milieu. Islam has an exclusive cultural feature which
interdependency psychology. The theory of group shapes the supreme practices upheld by Muslims.
cohesiveness, social loafing and social facilitation Islamic cultural identity is a unique trait in Muslims
can be applied to cooperative learning in due to its link with the religious value system.
multicultural education. Through the use of Leader of pesantren called kiyai or ustadz. A
cooperative learning, students from diverse cultural kiyai is children or family of pesantrens’ founder or

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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

acquire Islamic knowledge. In addition, kiyai status not been resolved amicably (Rosnani Hashim,
is named by respected knowledge. Kiyai plays an 2004:228-232)[14]. The similarities on these
important role in the community as a religious education system in many countries that pesantren is
leader. Some of them become political leader in running they are teaching belief and faith of every
political party as advisor. In East Java, three districts teacher and student that teaching and learning as a
are leaded by kiyai as a major. A former president of process of ibadah (worship). Education system is
Indonesia, Abdurrahman Wahid is one of a great provided to protect believes and faith and heritage
kiyai that turn to not only in pesantren as education them to society. Modern pesantren in Indonesia are
system but also go to political activities in micro loking to implement three characteristic, they are
and macro level. He received formal and nonformal Islamic value, nationalism and knowledge
education from pesantren. Furthermore, house of (Yasmadi, 2002:121-140)[15].
representative speaker is Hidayat Nurwahid. He Therefore, in Nurcholish’s view that pesantren is
completed his high school for six years in pesantren. a tool to raise nationalism during colonialism era.
Many professor earned their degrees in excellent US Finally, pesantren system in Indonesia shows an
and Europe universities were graduated from unique practiced that can not be found in other
pesantren. This fact lead us to conclusion that as a muslim countries. Pesantren is not only found in
part of Indonesian society system, pesantren play a muslim countries but also in Thailand and
significant role in developing communities. Philippines where muslim are minority. Islamic
There are many types of pesantren. First is salafy education in the muslim community of Patani,
(traditional) pesantren. this pesantren doesn’t Southern part of Thailand preserves characteristics
involve in formal education. They are practising in keeping Islamic intellectual traditions (Hasan
badongan and sorongan system. Badongan system is Madmarn, 2002:123)[16]. Then, in Philippines,
practised through teaching a kitab (book) that read Filipino muslims are exposed to two types of formal
by kiyai. All students read the same kitab and kiyai schooling, madrasah and western type of
only focuses on one paragraph or chapter. Kiyai will Philippines. The madrasah type of education got
explain and go through this kitab day by day untill official cognize from the Ministry of Education,
the end of a kitab. Second is sorongan system. This Culture and Sports (MECS) of the Philippines
system practiced for santri (student) in the (Lacar, Puno and Moner, 1986:125-127)[17].
beginning level that though in small group, three to
five students. Sorongan system is leading by senior
santri for junior those who acquire in certain 3 Methodology
subject. The level system is based on knowledge, This was a qualitative study using
not by age. Sometime, after completing one kitab, phenomenological approach, with the object of
santri move to other kitab or pesantren. study the pesantren in five South Sulawesi. They are
In pesantren type, we do not see traditional Pesantren IMMIM, Makassar; Pesantren DDI
pesantren only. We easily can find modern Mangkoso, Barru; Pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah,
pesantren. As Zamakhsyari Dhofier (1986)[11] Takalar; Pesantren Babul Khaer, Bulukumba and
explains that there is another system of pesantren is Pesantren Biru, Watampone. Data taken were the
modern pesantren. This type of pesantren involve in confession of each pesantren regarding its
madrassah (school) system. They are practicing curriculum, which were obtained using depth
curriculum and rank of class based on age. In interview and non participant observation to the
addition, we find pesantren in India, Brunei stake holder such as kiyai (leader) and santri
Darussalam and Malaysia. Indian madrasas has a (students) to appraise and confirm the curriculum
significant contribution on nationality, the content of the pesantren.
differences between Indian madrasah and The research methodology used in this research
contemporary school that madrasa environment is was grounded theory analysis. The main instrument
pure from unnatural acts. They sit in the class used in this research was the interview and
respectfully, they never go for protest and they hate observation guideline. In addition to these studies,
nudity and immodesty (Qasmi, 2005:162-163)[12]. which focused on qualitative variation there have
In Brunai Darussalam context, madrasah (religion been a number of studies which set out to examine
education system) was started to teach religion the multicultural enrolment in education. Five
practices in formal school (Awang Haji Abdul pesantrens were included in the current study, 3 of
Hamid, 2004:8)[13]. For Malaysia, Islamic religious which were In capital city and 2 of which outside of
school system tend to be controlled and integrate capital city. Data for this study draws on
them to the national school system and this issue has ethnographic and fieldwork carried out in schools

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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

and other pesantren community contexts. Classroom how as a nation we fit into the world society. It
discourse was audiotapes in a classroom. I was also allows students to better understand that the actions
able to attend a school and classroom for a period of of a nation must not only be viewed in terms of the
2 months. implications for that nation but what are the effects
For the most part I adopted a traditional on the whole world. Children who have developed
grounded theory approach to data collection and both a strong ethnic and national identity should
analysis. I used a wide range of data collection have the perspective to also develop a global
methods to collect rich and reasonably identification which should in turn make them better
comprehensive data during the second half of 2008 citizens of the world community.
and April and June 2008. These included written At this point, it is important to realize that the
questionnaires to elicit demographic and other identifications discussed above are hierarchical. In
contextual information, which we asked the other words, the curriculum and the learning need to
principals of schools to complete ahead of time. I proceed by first recognizing the ethnic identity, then
did this so that this contextual information could the national and finally the global. The development
inform my analysis of data collected by other of the latter is dependent upon the development of
methods including observation interviews with the former. It is also important that the individual
principals and teachers (which were also audio identities are not static but continually evolving and
recorded). I also collected documents that we so it is important for the curriculum to emphasize all
suspected might give insights into the ethos of each three types of identities as learning progresses. The
school, such as brochures for parents who might metaphor of the melting pot is no longer functional.
wish to enroll their children, school magazines, We have to switch to either the toss salad or the
codes of conduct and so on. stew. It allows us to focus both on the differences in
the ingredients while at the same time the beauty of
the whole. A good salad does not have a bunch of
4 Findings and Discussions components that look, taste or have the same
Every child comes to school with an ethnic identity texture. The success of the salad depends not only
whether these identifications are conscious or on its looks but also on a lot of other factors
unconscious. This identification must be recognized including the taste, the freshness of the ingredients,
and respected by the teacher. It must be the basis for the smells, the textures and the mixture itself.
the learning activities in the classroom. The point Multicultural approach is applied to help reverse
here is to acknowledge differences rather than these trends and attitudes by teaching students about
ignore them. It is equally critical that the children culturally different groups and by providing
recognize and appreciate their own ethnicity and opportunities for individuals from diverse
learn to appreciate those of the other children in the backgrounds to learn, live and work together.
class. This recognition of individual ethnic identities Although laws exist to prohibit discrimination based
is the beginning point, it is a connector of both the on race, color, gender, age and creed. The society of
teacher to the student and the students to each other. the South Sulawesi continues to be plagued by
It is the basic building block in the learning process attitudes and behaviors that are derogatory to some
which requires knowing where the child is relative ethnic, cultural and social groups, and preferential to
to him/herself and the content to be addressed. others. Thus, unofficial inequality flourishes,
This ethnic identification is a continual point of manifesting itself in racism, ethnocentrism,
focus throughout the education process and is the prejudices, favoritism, discrimination, cultural
basis for developing the next level of identification appropriation and cultural hegemony. One revealing
which is a national identification. The national sign of such inequality is the frequency with which
identity of the individual requires his/her racial hostilities are reported in headline news.
understanding and commitment to the democratic South Sulawesi is extremely culturally
ideals such as human dignity, justice and equality. pluralistic, socially stratified and racially divided.
Here the focus is on becoming effective members of Diversity of race, culture, ethnicity, social class,
a democratic society. An individual's strong national religion, language and ethnic origin is a fundamental
identification is essential to his/her development of feature of interpersonal interactions and community
a global identity. As our society becomes more and structures. However, in the more formal aspects of
more dependent on other societies, it is critical that society, such as institutional policies, practices and
the schools address the problems of the world as a power allocation. The organization and government
whole. The development of the global identification of schools provides one illustration of this condition.
provides the students with the opportunity to see Most school structures and procedures are grounded

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in mainstream cultural conceptions of law, order, deliberately mediated, can jeopardize the
reason and rationality. Another illustration of effectiveness of the instructional process.
pesantren, middleclass culture is that the significant The psychological underpinnings of multicultural
power positions in politics and economics tend to be approach explain its emphasis on developing greater
held by people from this cultural background. A self understanding, positive self concepts and pride
third illustration of this predominance is the extent in one's ethnic identity. Emphasizing these areas is
to which intimate relationships are established along part of multicultural education's goal of contributing
ethnic, racial and social lines in South Sulawesi. The to the personal development of students, which
population tends to be separated along economic contends that a better sense of self contributes to the
lines, so that members of the middle, upper and overall intellectual, academic and social
lower social classes within and across ethnic groups achievement of students. Students who feel good
do not interact with one another on substantive or about themselves are likely to be more open and
egalitarian levels. The divisions between these receptive to interaction with others and to respect
groups are increasing instead of diminishing. their cultures and identities. This argument is further
Separation along racial and economic lines is justified by claims made about the reciprocal
pronounced in South Sulawesi even in regions that relationship between self-concept, academic
appear to have racially mixed residential areas. This achievement, ethnicity, culture and individual
mixture only appears on the surface; in reality, these identity. Many students have internalized the
apparently desegregated communities contain negative and distorted conceptions of their own and
insulated ethnic and racial pockets. Similarly, even other ethnic groups, a process that has been
in many legally desegregated schools, the students promoted in larger society. Students from groups of
tend to resegregate themselves in social interactions color may be convinced that their heritages have
and friendship choices. The relative physical little of value to offer, while those from dominant
isolation of ethnic groups in the South Sulawesi groups may have inflated notions about their
means that individuals in these groups are much significance. Developing a better understanding of
more likely to engage in qualitative interactions their own and other ethnic groups and cultural
with people who are like themselves than with experiences can correct these distortions.
people from different ethnic groups. Interactions Multicultural approach also helps educators to fulfill
with people who are different are transitory and the goals of maximizing human potential, meeting
perfunctory. The absence of close and significant individual needs and teaching the whole child by
interactions across ethnic, social and cultural lines enhancing feelings of personal worth, confidence
may reinforce stereotypes and cause individuals to and competence. It creates a psychosocial state of
be suspicious and distrustful, even fearful, of those readiness in individuals and learning environments,
who are different. which has a positive effect upon academic efforts
One fact of multicultural education is that and task mastery.
teaching and learning are cultural processes that take It is imperative that students learn how to interact
place in a social context. To make teaching and with and understand people who are ethnically,
learning more accessible and equitable for a wide racially and culturally different from themselves.
variety of students, students' cultures need to be South Sulawesi and Indonesia are becoming
more clearly understood. Such an understanding can increasingly more diverse, compact and
be achieved by analyzing education from multiple interdependent. Yet, for most students, the
cultural perspectives and thereby removing the formative years of their lives are spent in ethnically
blindness imposed on education by the dominant and culturally isolated or encapsulated enclaves.
cultural experience. Schools are microcosms of This existence does not adequately prepare them to
mainstream society. In their procedural norms, function effectively in ethnically different
codes of behavior, structural arrangements and environments and multicultural settings. Attempts at
distribution of power, privilege and responsibility. crosscultural interactions are often stymied by
Just as classroom teachers, school administrators negative attitudes, values and expectations; cultural
and policymakers carry their cultural experiences blunders; and by trying to impose rules of social
and perspectives into their educational decisions and etiquette from one cultural system onto another. The
actions, students from various ethnic and cultural results are often heightened interracial and
backgrounds do likewise in their learning attitudes interethnic group frustrations, anxiety, fears, failures
and behaviors. The inevitable result when these and hostilities.
different systems encounter each other in pluralistic Multicultural approach can ease these tensions
classrooms is cultural conflict that, when not by teaching skills in crosscultural communication,

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interpersonal relations, perspective taking, educational process more effective for ethnically
contextual analysis, understanding alternative points diverse students is a fundamental principle of
of view and frames of reference and analyzing how multicultural education.
cultural conditions affect values, attitudes, beliefs, The findings indicate that internet based
preferences, expectations and behaviors. It also can language learning entrants are likely to be
help students learn how to understand cultural influenced by their perceptions of the expected
differences without making hasty and arbitrary earnings associated with a course. However, it must
value judgments about their intrinsic worth. be noted that the perception of a positive gained
Attaining these goals can be expedited by providing differential in favour will not necessarily lead to a
wide varieties of opportunities for students to good mark. Several non-education variables have
practice their cultural competence and to interact also been linked to have language skill including
with different ethnic peoples, experiences and psychological and sociological.
situations. The most important concern in home study
A major approach of multicultural approach is to support is inspiring student interest and motivation.
facilitate the teaching and learning of basic literacy It was helpful in providing ideas about the kind of
skills of ethnically different students. Its importance environment teachers should establish for the
evolves from the persistence and magnitude of students. There are several home study support
school failure of Mandar, Enrekang, Toraja and methods that involve connecting computers. In
Luwu; the relationships among relevance of taking the internet route, pesantren provides
instructional materials, academic efforts and wireless internet and computer facilities.
achievement; and the fact that multicultural Furthermore, another important point that
education includes content and process, ideology equipment in home study support is providing
and methodology. It builds on the premise that some students adequate communication with others. There
of this failure is due to methodological or is also evidence that the web can promote improved
pedagogical inadequacies of schools and teaching learning, but not just by virtue of using this medium
instead of the intellectual abilities of students of itself. One of the student states:
color. "No medium in and of itself is likely to improve
Multicultural approach improve mastery of learning in a significant way when it is used as a
reading and writing skills; subject matter content tool to deliver instruction. Nor is it realistic to
and intellectual process skills such as problem expect the web, when used as a tool, to develop
solving, critical thinking and conflict resolution by in students any unique skills. The key to
providing content and techniques that are more promoting learning with the web appears to lie in
meaningful to the lives and frames of reference of how effectively the medium is exploited in the
ethnically different students. Using ethnic materials, teaching and learning situation".
experiences and examples as the contexts for Instructional goals and objectives should be
teaching, practicing and demonstrating mastery of determined first and then the technology to support
academic and subject matter skills increases the them should be located. i.e. Technological resources
appeal of the tools of instruction, heightens the must be chosen to fit the curriculum, not vice-versa.
practical relevance of the skills to be learned and Another student stated:
improves students' time on task. This combination "Technology is the servant, and the message, the
of conditions leads to greater focused efforts, task idea, the matter". As with any teaching tool,
persistence, skill mastery and academic technology should be implemented only where
achievement. Another aspect of multicultural appropriate. There will be a tremendous waste
approach that contributes directly to the attainment that students all rush to "get everything on the
of higher levels of basic skills achievement is Web".
matching teaching and learning styles. Disjuncture The kinds of social climates that exist in
in how different students learn in their cultural classrooms also affect students' performances on
communities and how they are expected to learn in academic tasks. This influence is particularly true
school cause much time and attention to be devoted for ethnic groups that consider social relationships
to resolving these conflicts instead of concentrating and informal settings imperative to the learning
on academic tasks. Teaching students as they are process. When teachers respond to these needs by
accustomed to learning minimizes these conflicts including ethnic symbols, images and information in
and channels more energy and effort directly into the classroom decorations, curriculum content and
the academic tasks to be accomplished. Thus, interpersonal interactions, ethnic students feel
culturally contextualized teaching for making the validated, at ease and have greater affiliation with

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the school. These feelings of personal affirmation and continuing struggle for the struggling with
and comfort create the backdrop of personal very little hope of upward mobility. "Informal"
connectedness that is essential to students' taking tracking, standardized testing, discrepancies in
ownership in learning, which, in turn, leads to more the quality of schools within and across regions
sustained attention, effort, time on task and and other practices remain from the industrial-
improved task mastery and academic achievement. age model of schools.
At least, there are two concern of transformation
that formed by multicultural approach, they are:
5 Conclusion
[1] First, the Transformation of Self. In education, These features provide the conceptual directions and
there is a dual responsibility to engage in a parameters of reform initiatives for implementation
critical and continual process to examine how of multicultural education in school practice.
my prejudices, biases and assumptions inform Effective multicultural education (1) requires total
my teaching and thus affect the educational school reform; (2) is for all students in all grades
experiences of my students. It has a and subjects; (3) involves acquiring knowledge,
responsibility to study and understand the clarifying attitudes and values, and developing
lenses through which to understand the people social actions and skills about ethnic and cultural
and happenings around. Only when it has a pluralism; and (4) includes recognizing, accepting,
sense for how my own perceptions are and celebrating diversity as a fundamental fact and
developed in relation to life experiences can salient feature in human life, South Sulawesi
truly understand the world around and society, Indonesia nation-state and world
effectively navigate my relationships with communities.
colleagues. Education also have a responsibility These conditions are necessary if schools are to
to my students to work toward eliminating my prepare all students for the realities of living in a
prejudices, examining who is (and is not) being racially, ethnically, socially and culturally pluralistic
reached by my teaching style and relearning world, and to become change agents to transform
how my own identity affects their learning society so that it will be more humane, egalitarian
experiences. To be an effective multicultural and openly receptive to pluralism of all kinds. In
educator and indeed an effective facilitator, content, spirit, intent and emphasis, multicultural
education must be in a constant process of self- education is highly compatible with the democratic
examination and transformation. ideals of Indonesia, principles of good pedagogy
and conceptions of educational equity. It has both
[2] Second, the Transformation of Society. intrinsic and instrumental value for improving the
Ultimately, the goal of multicultural education overall quality, relevance and effectiveness of
is to contribute progressively and proactively to education in the Indonesia for all students.
the transformation of society and to the Much remains to be done before the promise and
application and maintenance of social justice potential of multicultural education are fully
and equity. This stands to reason, as the realized. Its theoretical conceptualization is
transformation of schools necessarily progressing nicely. Pesantren practice and
transforms a society that puts so much stock in establishing the effects of multicultural approach are
educational attainment, degrees and test scores. not nearly as advanced. Both of these steps offer
In fact, it is particularly this competitive, numerous challenges and opportunities for
capitalistic framing of the dominant mentality committed education to make a difference. Many
of Indonesia (and increasingly, with the "help" action and research possibilities are embedded in the
of Indonesia, the world) that multicultural theory of multicultural education. Their potential is
education aims to challenge, shake, expose and virtually limitless on many different levels as a way
critique. This is precisely the reason that it is to reform Indonesia education; as a means of
not enough to continue working within an renewing and revitalizing society; as a mechanism
ailing, oppressive and outdated system to make for making democratic ideals more meaningful in a
changes. When the problems in education are culturally pluralistic societal context; and as a tool
themselves symptoms of a system that for making education more effective for culturally
continues to be controlled by the economic different students. The question now is whether we
elite. One does not need to study education too have the courage and will to rise to the challenge
closely to recognize that schools consistently and embrace the invitation to transform Indonesia
provide continuing privilege to the privileged

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Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS/IASME International Conference on EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES (EDUTE' 09)

education so that it really does serve the needs of all whiteboard technology. System, 35 (2007) 119-
students. 133.
We can definitely state that at the beginning of [3] Mariani, J. (2007). Reserach infrastructures for
the learning process students like learning with the human langauge technolgies: A vision from
interactive learning facilities. Learning, whether France. Speech Communication. 51 (2009) 569-
with or without a tool, is hard and subsequently 584.
motivation decreased. It was therefore necessary to [4] Sleeter, C.E. & Grant, C.A. (1988). Making
create something, which combined the following Choices For Multicultural Education, Fife
attributes: motivating the students and providing Approaches To Race, Class, And Gender. New
technologies, which is enjoyable and does not feel York:Macmillan Publishing Company.
like learning. [5] Abdul Razak (2001). Online delivery systems:
Setting baseline for professional development
6 Recommendation of educators. Malaysian Journal of Educational
Only the terminology has changed -- and the Technology, 1(2) 47-52.
practices are not quite as overt. Educators, [6] Mclean, B. (1991). Multicultural Studies. In
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inside and out of the classroom. We must not allow language learning: Trends and issues. The
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are well-intentioned to lead us to assume that our [8] Hanurawan, F. & Diponogoro, A.M. (2005).
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We must explore and deconstruct structures of Ahmad Dahlan Press.
power and privilege that serve to maintain the status [9] Baron, R.A. and Byrne, D. (1997). Social
quo. In a sense, multicultural education uses the Psychology: Understanding Human
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Ultimately, social justice and equity in schools can as communication. London: Oxford University
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Only then will the purpose of multicultural [11] Zamakhsyari Dhofier. (1986). Tradisi
education be fully achieved. Pesantren Studi Tentang Pandangan Hidup
Multicultural education has become a regular Kyai. Six Edition. Jakarta:LP3ES.
part of education in pesantren for three major [12] Qasmi, M. S. (2005). Madrasa Education
reasons: the social realities of Indonesia society, the Framework. India: Manak Publications PVT.
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and development and the conditions of effective [13] Awang Haji Abdul Hamid, Dato Seri Setia.
teaching and learning. These reasons explain not (2004). Perkembangan Persekolahan Agama di
only the need for multicultural education, but also Negara Brunai Darussalam dari Tahun 1956 –
what its content emphasis should be and how it 1984 Masihi. Berakasa: Dewan Bahasa dan
should be taught. Each reason plays an important Pustaka Brunei.
and unique role in establishing the justifications, [14] Rosnani Hashim. (2004). Educational Dualism
parameters and directions for multicultural in Malaysia. Second Edition. Kuala
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[15] Yasmadi. (2002). Modernisasi Pesantren.
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ISSN: 1790-5109 135 ISBN: 978-960-474-092-5