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Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢
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à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ® ¬ë ¤®ª § «¨ ª ª®¥-â® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮, ¤«ï ­ ç -


«  çâ®-­¨¡ã¤ì ᮢᥬ ¯à®á⮥, ­ ¯à¨¬¥à, ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ …¢ª«¨¤ 
a2 + b2 > 2ab :
ˆ ¤®¯ãá⨬, ¬ë ­¥ ⮫쪮 ¥£® ¤®ª § «¨, ­® ¥é¥ ¨ ãáâ ­®¢¨«¨, çâ®
à ¢¥­á⢮ ¢ ­¥¬ ¤®á⨣ ¥âáï «¨èì ª®£¤  a = b. ®¯à®¡ã¥¬ 㧭 âì,
ª®£¤  ¢ ­ è¥¬ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ ¬®¦­® §­ ª > § ¬¥­¨âì ­  6. ‚ â ª®¬
¢¨¤¥ ¢®¯à®á ª ¦¥âáï £«ã¯ë¬. …᫨ ¤«ï ª ª¨å-â® ç¨á¥« a ¨ b ¢ë¯®«-
­ï¥âáï \®¡à â­®¥" ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
a2 + b2 6 2ab ;
â® íâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ®¡ï§ â¥«ì­® ¯à¥¢à â¨âìáï ¢ à ¢¥­á⢮, ¯®áª®«ì-
ªã \¯àאַ¥" ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ a2 + b2 > 2ab ¢¥à­® ¤«ï «î¡ëå ç¨á¥« a ¨ b.
‘â «® ¡ëâì, a2 + b2 = 2ab, ®âªã¤  a = b. ® ¥á«¨ ¬ë § ¬¥­¨¬ ¤¢®©-
ªã ­  âனªã ¨«¨ ¢®®¡é¥ ­  ª ªãî-⮠䨪á¨à®¢ ­­ãî ª®­áâ ­âã 2L
¨ ¯®¯ëâ ¥¬áï ¢ëïá­¨âì, ¯à¨ ª ª¨å a ¨ b á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
a2 + b2 6 2L  ab; ()
â® § ¤ ç  㦥 áâ ­¥â ªã¤  ¡®«¥¥ ᮤ¥à¦ â¥«ì­®©.
Ÿá­®, çâ® ç¨á«  ¤®«¦­ë ¡ëâì ª ª ¬¨­¨¬ã¬ ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ë¬¨,
­® ¨ ¯à¨ ¢á¥å ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå ç¨á« å ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¢ë¯®«­ïâìáï ­¥
¬®¦¥â.  ¯à¨¬¥à, ¥á«¨ ¬ë ¢®§ì¬¥¬ a = 2L ¨ b = 1, â®
a2 + b2 = 4L2 + 1 > 4L2 = 2L  ab:
®í⮬㠤«ï ⮣®, çâ®¡ë ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ () ¡ë«® á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢ë¬, ­ã¦-
­® ­  ç¨á«  a ¨ b ­ «®¦¨âì ª ª¨¥-­¨¡ã¤ì ¡®«¥¥ áãé¥á⢥­­ë¥ ®£à -
­¨ç¥­¨ï. „«ï ⮣®, ç⮡ë ãáâ ­®¢¨âì, ª ª¨¥ ¨¬¥­­® ®£à ­¨ç¥­¨ï
­ã¦­® ­ ª« ¤ë¢ âì, ¤ ¢ ©â¥ ¯®¤¥«¨¬ ®¡¥ ç á⨠­  b2 ¨ § ¬¥­¨¬ ®â-
­®è¥­¨¥ a=b ­  x. ‚ १ã«ìâ â¥ ¯®«ã稬 ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
x2 2Lx + 1 6 0:
Ž­® ¨¬¥¥â ¬¥áâ®, «¨èì ª®£¤  x «¥¦¨â ­  ®â१ª¥, ª®­æë ª®â®à®£®
ïîâáï ª®à­ï¬¨ ãà ¢­¥­¨ï x2 2Lx + 1 = 0. â¨ ª®à­¨ «¥£ª®
2 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

p
­ ©â¨, ®­¨ à ¢­ë L + L2 1 ¨ L+p1L2 1 . ’ ª¨¬ ®¡à §®¬, ¬ë ãáâ -
­®¢¨«¨, çâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ () ¡ã¤¥â á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢ë¬, ¥á«¨
p
p1 2 6 ab 6 L + L2 1:
L+ L 1
€­ «®£¨ç­® ¤®ª §ë¢ ¥âáï, çâ® ¯à¨ ãá«®¢¨¨ 0 < m 6 a; b 6 M
¢¥à­® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
a + b 6 m2 + M 2 : ()
b a mM
à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¢¨¤ 
f (x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) > g(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn )
á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢® ¯à¨ ¢á¥å ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå x1 , x2 , : : : , xn . Ž¡à â­ë¬ ª
­¥¬ã ¬ë ¡ã¤¥¬ ­ §ë¢ âì ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
f (x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn ) 6 L  g(x1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn );
ª®â®à®¥ 㦥 ¬®¦¥â ¡ëâì á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢ë¬ «¨èì ¯à¨ ­ «®¦¥­¨¨ ­¥ª®-
â®àëå ®£à ­¨ç¥­¨© ­  ç¨á«  x1 , x2 , : : : , xn . ‘ ¬®¥ ¯à®á⮥ ¨§ á¥-
ਨ ®¡à â­ëå ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠| ®¡à â­®¥ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ …¢ª«¨¤  | ¬ë
㦥 ¤®ª § «¨. ¥à¥©¤¥¬ ª ®¡à é¥­¨î ¡®«¥¥ á«®¦­ëå ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢.
à¨¢®¤¨¬ë¥ ­¨¦¥ ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢠ ¯àï¬ëå ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢, ª ª ¯à ¢¨-
«®, âà ¤¨æ¨®­­ë1.
Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ¯¥à¢®¥
„«ï «î¡ëå ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå ç¨á¥« a1 a2 : : : an
, , , ¨¬¥¥â ¬¥áâ®

­¥à ¢¥­á⢮  
(a1 + a2 +    + an ) a1 + a1 +    + a1 > n2 :
1 2 n
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮. ‡ ¬¥â¨¬, çâ®
1 1 1
 X ak =
(a1 + a2 +    + an ) a + a +    + a =
1 2 n 16i;k6n ai

X ak ai 
=n+ a + a > n + n(n 1) = n2 :
16i<k6n i k
1 ¥çâ® ¯®å®¦¥¥ ¬®¦­® ­ ©â¨ ¢ ª­¨£¥ ˜ª«ïà᪨© „. Ž., —¥­æ®¢ . .,
Ÿ£«®¬ ˆ. Œ. ˆ§¡à ­­ë¥ § ¤ ç¨ ¨ ⥮६ë í«¥¬¥­â à­®© ¬ â¥¬ â¨ª¨. €à¨ä¬¥-
⨪  ¨  «£¥¡à . 4-¥ ¨§¤., Œ., 1965, £«. 11.
€. ˆ. •à ¡à®¢ 3
®á«¥¤­¥¥ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ á«¥¤ã¥â ¨§ ⮣®, çâ® aa + aa > 2.  ¢¥­á⢮
k i


i k
¤®á⨣ ¥âáï, ª®£¤  ¢á¥ ç¨á«  à ¢­ë ¬¥¦¤ã ᮡ®©.
Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ í⮣® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠, ¨áâ®à¨ç¥áª¨ á ¬®¥ ¯¥à¢®¥ ¨§ á¥à¨¨
®¡à â­ëå ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢, ¯à¨­ ¤«¥¦¨â ˜¢¥©æ¥àã2 .
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ˜¢¥©æ¥à .
…᫨ M > ak > m ¯à¨ k =1 , 2, ::: n
, , â®

1 
+ M )2  n2 :
(a1 + a2 +    + an ) a + a1 +    + a1 6 (m4mM
1 2 n
‡¤¥áì ¬ë ¯à¨¢¥¤¥¬ ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ í⮣® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠, ª®â®à®¥
¡ë«® ¯à¨¤ã¬ ­® ¢ ­ ç «¥ XX ¢¥ª . ®«¥¥ ¯à®á⮥ ¨ ᮢ६¥­­®¥
¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ ¯®«ãç¨âáï, ¥á«¨ ¯®«®¦¨âì ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ Š ­â®à®-
¢¨ç  ­¨¦¥ uk = 1.
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮. Œë ¬®¦¥¬ áç¨â âì, çâ® ç¨á«  㯮à冷祭ë
¯® ¢®§à áâ ­¨î (a1 6 a2 6 a3 6    6 an ). ‚롥६ ¢á¯®¬®£ â¥«ì-
­ë¥ ç¨á«  pk ¨ qk , ¨áå®¤ï ¨§ ᮮ⭮襭¨©
 ak = pk a1 + qk an
1 p q
a = a1 + a :
k k
k n

Ÿ¢­ë¥ ä®à¬ã«ë ¤«ï pk ¨ qk ¡ã¤ãâ â ª¨¬¨:


2 2 2 2
pk = aa1  aan2 aak2 ¨ qk = aan  aa2k aa12 :
k n 1 k n 1
®«®¦¨¬
P = p1 + p2 +    + pn ¨ Q = q1 + q2 +    + qn :
ˆ§ å®à®è® ¨§¢¥áâ­®£® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠
p p p
ac + bd 6 (a + b)(c + d)
¬®¦­® § ª«îç¨âì, çâ® pk + qk 6 1 ¨«¨, ¯®á«¥ á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨ï ¯® k,
çâ® P + Q 6 n. Žâá ¯® ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢ã ® á।­¨å ¤«ï ¤¢ãå ç¨á¥«
2 Schweitzer P. An inequality concerning the arithmetic mean. Math. 
es. Phys.
Lapok 23, 1914, 257{261 (­  ¢¥­£¥à᪮¬ ï§ëª¥).
4 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

PQ 6 n2 =4. ¥à¥¯¨è¥¬ á ¨á¯®«ì§®¢ ­¨¥¬ ¢¢¥¤¥­­ëå ®¡®§­ ç¥­¨©


«¥¢ãî ç áâì ¤®ª §ë¢ ¥¬®£® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠
   
(a1 + a2 +    + an ) a1 + a1 +    + a1 = (Pa1 + Qan ) aP + aQ =
1 2 n 1 n
   
= P 2 + Q2 + PQ  aa1 + aan 6 P 2 + Q2 + PQ  m + M ; M m
n 1
¯®á«¥¤­¥¥ ¯® ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢ã (). à¥®¡à §ã¥¬ ¯®«ã祭­®¥ ¢ëà ¦¥­¨¥
¤ «¥¥:
  r r !2
P 2 + Q2 + PQ  m + M M m = (P + Q)2 + PQ  m
M
M
m 6
2 r r !2 2 r r !2 2
6 n2 + n 4
m
M
M
m =n 
4
m+ M
M m = (m4mM
+ M ) n2 :


Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ¢â®à®¥
„«ï «î¡ëå ¢¥é¥á⢥­­ëå ç¨á¥« a1 a2 : : : an b1 b2 : : : bn
, , , ¨ , , ,

á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮

(a1 b1 + a2 b2 +    + an bn )2 6 (a21 + a22 +    + a2n )(b21 + b22 +    + b2n ):


â® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ­ §ë¢ îâ «¨¡® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮¬ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢á-
ª®£®, «¨¡® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮¬ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£®{˜¢ àæ ,   ¨­®£¤  ¨
¯à®áâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮¬ ˜¢ àæ . ‚ ¬ â¥¬ â¨ç¥áª®© «¨â¥à âãॠ¢áâà¥-
ç îâáï ¢á¥ á¥¬ì ¢®§¬®¦­ëå ¢ à¨ ­â®¢ ­ §¢ ­¨ï í⮣® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠,
¥áâ¥á⢥­­®, ¯à¨ í⮬ ¢ à §­ëå áâà ­ å ¯à¨­ïâ à §­ë© ¯®à冷ª á«¥-
¤®¢ ­¨ï ä ¬¨«¨©.
¥à¢®¥ ¯®ï¢«¥­¨¥ í⮣® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠, ¢¨¤¨¬®, ¡ë«® ¢ \Šãàᥠ ­ -
«¨§ " Š®è¨3. ã­ïª®¢áª¨© ¢¯¥à¢ë¥ áä®à¬ã«¨à®¢ «  ­ «®£¨ç­®¥
­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¤«ï ¨­â¥£à «®¢4. ‚ § ¯ ¤­®© «¨â¥à âãॠç é¥ ¢á¯®¬¨-
 cole Royal Polytechnique, I partie. Analyse
3 Cauchy A. L. Cours d'analyse de l'E
algebrique. Paris, 1821.
4 Bunyakovski V. Ja. Sur quelques in egalites concernant les integrales aux
di erences nies Memoires de l'Acad. de St. Petersbourg (VII) }9, 1859
€. ˆ. •à ¡à®¢ 5
­ îâ ¯® í⮬㠯®¢®¤ã ˜¢ àæ , áä®à¬ã«¨à®¢ ¢è¥£® ¨­â¥£à «ì­ë©
 ­ «®£ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Š®è¨ ­¥áª®«ìª® ¯®§¦¥5 .
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮. ®áª®«ìªã á㬬  ª¢ ¤à â®¢ ¢¥é¥á⢥­­ëå
ç¨á¥« ­¥®âà¨æ â¥«ì­ , ¯à¨ ¢á¥å t ¡ã¤¥â á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
(a1 tb1 )2 + (a2 tb2 )2 +    + (an tbn )2 > 0:
 áªà®¥¬ ¢á¥ ᪮¡ª¨ ¨ á£à㯯¨à㥬 á« £ ¥¬ë¥ ¯à¨ ®¤¨­ ª®¢ëå áâ¥-
¯¥­ïå t, ¢ १ã«ìâ â¥ ¯®«ã稬
(a21 + a22 +    + a2n ) 2(a1 b1 + a2b2 +    + an bn )t +(b21 + b22 +    + b2n )t2 > 0:
’ ª¨¬ ®¡à §®¬, ª¢ ¤à â­ë© âà¥åç«¥­ At2 2Bt + C á ¯®«®¦¨-
⥫ì­ë¬ áâ à訬 ª®íää¨æ¨¥­â®¬ (§¤¥áì A = b21 + b22 +    + b2n,
B = a1 b1 + a2 b2 +    + an bn ¨ C = a21 + a22 +    + a2n ) ¯à¨ ¢á¥å ¢¥-
é¥á⢥­­ëå t ¯à¨­¨¬ ¥â ­¥®âà¨æ â¥«ì­ë¥ §­ ç¥­¨ï. ‘«¥¤®¢ â¥«ì-
­®, ª¢ ¤à â­®¥ ãà ¢­¥­¨¥ At2 2Bt + C = 0 ­¥ ¨¬¥¥â ª®à­¥©. ‘â «®
¡ëâì, ¥£® ¤¨áªà¨¬¨­ ­â 4B 2 4AC ­¥¯®«®¦¨â¥«¥­, ¨­ë¬¨ á«®¢ ¬¨
B 2 6 AC . ® íâ® ¢ â®ç­®á⨠­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£®.
“áâ ­®¢¨¬, ª®£¤  ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£® ¤®á⨣ ¥âáï
à ¢¥­á⢮. ‚ í⮬ á«ãç ¥ ª¢ ¤à â­ë© âà¥åç«¥­ At2 2Bt + C ¨¬¥¥â
­ã«¥¢®© ¤¨áªà¨¬¨­ ­â ¨, á«¥¤®¢ â¥«ì­®, ¨¬¥¥â ª®à¥­ì t0 . ®í⮬ã
0 = (a1 t0 b1 )2 + (a2 t0 b2 )2 +    + (an t0 bn )2 > (ak t0 bk )2 > 0:
’ ª¨¬ ®¡à §®¬, ª ¦¤ ï ᪮¡ª  ¤®«¦­  ®¡à â¨âìáï ¢ ­ã«ì, ®âªã¤ 
a1 = a2 =    = an = t ;
b b b 0
2 1 n
¨­ë¬¨ á«®¢ ¬¨, ç¨á«  ak ¨ bk ¯à®¯®à樮­ «ì­ë. 
“ ¯ à   ¦ ­ ¥ ­ ¨ ¥ 1. „®ª ¦¨â¥ ⮦¤¥á⢮ ‹ £à ­¦ 
X
n Xn X
n !2 X
n X
n
a2k  b2k ak bk = (ai bk ak bi )2
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1 i=k+1
¨ ¢ë¢¥¤¥â¥ ¨§ ­¥£® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£®.
¥à¢®¥ ®¡à é¥­¨¥ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£® ¯à¨­ ¤«¥-
¦¨â ®«¨  ¨ ‘¥£¥.
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ®«¨ {‘¥£
¥.

5 Schwarz H. A. U  ber ein die Flachen kleinsten Flacheininhalts betre endes


Problem der Variationsrechnung, Acta soc. scient. Fenn. 15, 1885, pp. 315{362
6 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

ɇǬ M1 > ak > m1 > 0 M2 > bk > m2 > 0


¨ ¯à¨ ¢á¥å k=1 , 2,

::: n 0s s 12
, , â®

X
n X
n X
n !2
a2k  b2k 6 41 @ M
m
1 M2 + m1 m2 A ak bk :
k=1 k=1 1 m2 M1 M2 k=1
¥à¢®­ ç «ì­®¥ ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ í⮣® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ¤®¢®«ì­® § -
ª®¢ëà¨á⮥ ¨ ¯à¥¤áâ ¢«ï¥â ᮡ®© ¬®¤¨ä¨ª æ¨î ¯à¨¢¥¤¥­­®£® §¤¥áì
¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢠ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ˜¢¥©æ¥à .
“ ¯ à   ¦ ­ ¥ ­ ¨ ¥ 2. à®¤¥« ©â¥ í⨠¨§¬¥­¥­¨ï ¨ ¤®ª ¦¨â¥ ­¥à -
¢¥­á⢮ ®«¨ -‘¥£¥.
‹î¡®¯ëâ­ë© ç¨â â¥«ì ¬®¦¥â ®§­ ª®¬¨âìáï á í⨬ ¤®ª § â¥«ì-
á⢮¬ ¯® ª­¨£¥ ®«¨  ƒ., ‘¥£¥ ƒ. ‡ ¤ ç¨ ¨ â¥®à¥¬ë ¨§  ­ «¨§ .
— áâì ¯¥à¢ ï. Œ.,  ãª , 1978 (§ ¤ ç  II.92)6 . ’ ¬ ¦¥ ®¡á㦤 ¥â-
áï á«ãç © à ¢¥­á⢠.
‘«¥¤ãîé ï ¢¥àá¨ï ®¡à é¥­¨ï ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£®
¡ë«  ¯à¥¤«®¦¥­  ‹. ‚. Š ­â®à®¢¨ç¥¬ ¢ 1948 £®¤ã7 .
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ Š ­â®à®¢¨ç .
M > pk > m > 0 k = 1 ::: n
r !2 X n !2
…᫨ ¯à¨ ¢á¥å , 2, , , â®

X
n X
n r
pk u2k  1 2
uk 6 41 M+ m u2k :
k=1 k=1 pk m M k=1
…é¥ ç¥à¥§ ­¥ª®â®à®¥ ¢à¥¬ï ¯®ï¢¨«®áì
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ “®âá®­ 8 .
à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ® M1 > ak > m1 > 0 M2 > bk > m2 > 0
¨ ¯à¨

k=1 ::: n
0s 12
¢á¥å , 2, , . ’®£¤ 

s !2
X
n X
n X
n
a2k x2k  b2k x2k 6 41 @ M 1 M2 + m1 m2 A
m1 m2 M1 M2 ak bk x2k :
k=1 k=1 k=1
6 „«ï «î¡¨â¥«¥© ¯¥à¢®¨áâ®ç­¨ª®¢: P olya G., Szego G. Aufgaben und Lehrsatze
aus der Analysis, I, Berlin, Springer, 1925
7 Š ­â®à®¢¨ç ‹. ‚. ”㭪樮­ «ì­ë©  ­ «¨§ ¨ ¯à¨ª« ¤­ ï ¬ â¥¬ â¨ª ,
“Œ, 6(28), 1948, 89{185.
8 Watson G. S. Serial correlation in regression analysis, I, Biometrica, 42,
1955, 327{341 ¨«¨ Greub W, Rheinboldt W. On generalization of an inequality of
L. V. Kantorovich, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 10, 1959, p. 407{415.
€. ˆ. •à ¡à®¢ 7
‚ᥠí⨠­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ¬®£ãâ ¡ëâì ¢ë¢¥¤¥­ë ¤à㣠¨§ ¤à㣠. ˆå ®à¨-
£¨­ «ì­ë¥ ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢠ ¤®áâ â®ç­® á«®¦­ë. «¥¬¥­â à­®¥ ¤®ª -
§ â¥«ìá⢮ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Š ­â®à®¢¨ç  ¡ë«® ¤ ­® „¨ §®¬ ¨ Œ¥âª «-
䮬. Ž ­¥¬ ¬ë ᥩç á ¨ à á᪠¦¥¬.
 ç­¥¬ á ®ç¥­ì ¯à®á⮣®, ­® ç१¢ëç ©­® ¯®«¥§­®£® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠,
¯®«ã祭­®£® ¢ 1963 £®¤ã ¯®ç⨠®¤­®¢à¥¬¥­­® „¨ §®¬, Œ¥âª «ä®¬9
¨ ¥­ì¥10 .
ãáâì 0 < m 6 ab k 6 M k = 1 ::: n
¯à¨ ¢á¥å , 2, , , ⮣¤ 

Xn k Xn Xn
a2k + mM b2k 6 (m + M ) ak bk :
k=1 k=1 k=1
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮. ˆ§ ãá«®¢¨©, ­ «®¦¥­­ëå ­  ak ¨ bk , á«¥¤ã¥â,
çâ® ¯à¨ ¢á¥å k ç¨á«  ak =bk m ¨ M ak =bk ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ë, ®âá
¨¬¥¥¬ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
   
(m + M )ak bk a2k mMb2k = ab k m  M ab k  b2k > 0:
k k
®á«¥ á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨ï ¯® k ¯®«ã稬 âॡ㥬®¥. 
®«®¦¨¬ ak = ppk  uk ¨ bk = p1p  uk . ˆ§ à ¢¥­á⢠ ak =bk = pk
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Š ­â®à®¢¨ç .

k
á«¥¤ã¥â, çâ® m 6 ak =bk 6 M . ®¤áâ ¢¨¬ ç¨á«  ak ¨ bk ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
¥­ì¥ ¨ ¯®«ã稬
Xn Xn Xn 1
(M + m) u2 > p u2 + mM
k k k u2 > k
k=1 k=1 k=1 pk
v
u v
u
p u
t X
n
2 u
tXn 1
2
> 2 mM  pk uk  pk uk :
k=1 k=1
®á«¥¤­¥¥ á«¥¤ã¥â ¨§ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ …¢ª«¨¤  ¤«ï ç¨á¥« pk u2k ¨
Pn
Pn k =1
mM p1 u2k . „«ï § ¢¥à襭¨ï ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢠ ®áâ «®áì ¯®¤¥«¨âì
k=1 k
p
«¥¢ãî ç áâì ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ­  2 mM ¨ ¢®§¢¥á⨠¢ ª¢ ¤à â. 
9 Diaz J. B., Metcalf F. T. Stronger forms of class of inequalities of G. P
olya-
G. Szego and L. V. Kantorovich, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc., 69, 1963, p. 415{418.
10 Rennie B. C. An inequality which includes that of Kantorovich, Amer. Math.
Monthly, 70, 1963, 982.
8 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ “®âá®­ .


p
®«®¦¨¬ pk = ak =bk , uk = ak bk xk ¨ ¯®¤áâ ¢¨¬ ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
Š ­â®à®¢¨ç . ®á«¥ ᮪à é¥­¨ï, ãç¨â뢠ï à ¢¥­á⢠ m = m1 =M2
¨ M = M1 =m2 , ¯®«ã稬 âॡ㥬®¥. 
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ®«¨ -‘¥£
¥.
®«®¦¨¬ ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ Š ­â®à®¢¨ç  pk = ak =bk ¨ uk = ak bk . 
p
Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ âà¥âì¥
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ Œ¨­ª®¢áª®£®11 .
„«ï «î¡ëå ¢¥é¥á⢥­­ëå ç¨á¥« a1 a2 : : : an b1 b2 : : : bn
, , , ¨ , , ,

¢¥à­® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
v
u v
u v
uX
uXn uX
t (ak + bk )2 6 t a2k + u
n n
t b2k :
k=1 k=1 k=1
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮. Œ®¦­® áç¨â âì, çâ® ¢á¥ ç¨á«  ­¥®âà¨æ â¥«ì-
­ë. ‚ ¯à®â¨¢­®¬ á«ãç ¥ § ¬¥­¨¬ ®âà¨æ â¥«ì­ë¥ ç¨á«  ­  ¨å ¬®-
¤ã«¨, ¯à¨ í⮬ ¯à ¢ ï ç áâì ­¥ ¨§¬¥­¨âáï,   «¥¢ ï «¨èì ¢®§à áâ¥â.
 áᬮâਬ à ¢¥­á⢮
X
n X
n X
n
(ak + bk )2 = ak (ak + bk ) + bk (ak + bk )
k=1 k=1 k=1
¨ ¯à¨¬¥­¨¬ ª ª ¦¤®¬ã á« £ ¥¬®¬ã ¯à ¢®© ç á⨠­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
Š®è¨{ã­ïª®¢áª®£®. ®«ã稬
v
u v
u v
u v
u
X
n
2 u
tXn
2 u
tXn u
tXn
2 u
t Xn
(ak + bk ) 6 ak  2
(ak + bk ) + bk  (ak + bk )2 :
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1
sn
‘®ªà é ï ­ 
P (a + b )2, ¯à¨¤¥¬ ª ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢ã Œ¨­ª®¢áª®£®.
k k
k=1
® ¨­¤ãªæ¨¨ «¥£ª® ¤®ª § âì ®¡®¡é¥­¨¥ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ Œ¨­ª®¢áª®£®:
faki gn;m
k;i=1
v v v v
à¨ ¢á¥å ¢¥é¥á⢥­­ëå ç¨á« å ¨¬¥¥â ¬¥áâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮

u
u X u X uX uX
t (ak1 + ak2 +    + akm)2 6 t a2k1 + t a2k2 +    + u
u u
n n n n
t a2km:
k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1
11 Minkowski H. Geometrie der Zahlen, I, Leipzig, Teubner, 1896
€. ˆ. •à ¡à®¢ 9
‚ § ¤ ç¥ 64 ¯® áã⨠¯à¥¤« £ «®áì ¤®ª § âì ®¡à é¥­¨¥ ­¥à ¢¥­-
á⢠ Œ¨­ª®¢áª®£® ¤«ï n = 3. ‚ ®¡é¥© ä®à¬ã«¨à®¢ª¥ íâ® ®¡à é¥-
­¨¥ ¨¬¥¥â ¢¨¤
à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ® ç¨á«  aki k = 1 ::: n
­¥®âà¨æ â¥«ì­ë ¯à¨ , 2, ,

i = 1 ::: m
¨ , 2,
v
,

u
. ’®£¤ 

p uX n
minfm; ng  t (ak1 + ak2 +    + akm )2 >
k=1
v
u v
u v
u
u
t Xn u
t Xn uXn
> 2
ak 1 + ak2 +    + t a2km :
2
k=1 k=1 k=1
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮.
s à áᬮâਬ á«ãç © m 6 n. ®«®-
‘­ ç « 
¦¨¬ ¤«ï ªà âª®á⨠Ai =
Pn
a2ki . ˆ§ ­¥®âà¨æ â¥«ì­®á⨠ç¨á¥« § -
k=1
ª«îç ¥¬, çâ®
(ak1 + ak2 +    + akm )2 > a2k1 + a2k2 +    + a2km :
Žâªã¤ 
v
u v
u v
u
u Xn uXn X m uX m
t (ak1 + ak2 +    + akm)2 > t a2ki = t A2i >
k=1 k=1 i=1 i=1
0v
u v
u 1
1 1 u Xn u X
n
> p (A1 +A2 +  +Am ) = p @t a2k1 +    + t a2km A :
m m k=1 k=1
‚ ¯®á«¥¤­¥¬ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ ¬ë ¢®á¯®«ì§®¢ «¨áì ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮¬ ¬¥¦¤ã
á।­¨¬  à¨ä¬¥â¨ç¥áª¨¬ ¨ á।­¨¬ ª¢ ¤à â¨ç¥áª¨¬.
¥à¥©¤¥¬ ¤ «¥¥ ª á«ãç î m > n. ãáâì Bk = ak1 + ak2 +    + akm.
‡ ¬¥â¨¬, çâ® ¯à¨ «î¡®¬ i = 1, 2, : : : , m
q
a1i + a2i +    + ami > a21i + a22i +    + a2mi :
‘«¥¤®¢ â¥«ì­®,
v
u v
u v
uX
Xn u X
n
t a2km 6 X X aki = X Bk :
t a2k1 + t a2k2 +    + u
u n m n n

k=1 k=1 k=1 i=1 k=1 k=1


10 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

à¨¬¥­¨¬ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¬¥¦¤ã á।­¨¬  à¨ä¬¥â¨ç¥áª¨¬ ¨ á।­¨¬


ª¢ ¤à â¨ç¥áª¨¬ ¤«ï ç¨á¥« B1 , B2 , : : : , Bn , ¯®«ã稬
v
u v
u v
uX
u Xn uXn
t a2km 6 X Bk 6
t a2k1 + t a2k2 +    + u
n n

k=1 k=1 k=1 k=1


v
u v
u
uXn p uX n
6 pn  t Bk2 = minfm; ng  t (ak1 + ak2 +    + akm )2 : 
k=1 k=1

Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ç¥â¢¥à⮥
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¬¥¦¤ã á।­¨¬¨ á⥯¥­­ë¬¨.
„«ï ­ ¡®à  ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå ç¨á¥« a1 a2 : : : an
, , , ¯®«®¦¨¬

 1=r
Mr = ar1 + ar2 +n    + arn :
¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ¬¥¦¤ã á।­¨¬¨ á⥯¥­­ë¬¨ ã⢥ত ¥â, çâ® ¯à¨ r>s
¨ rs 6= 0
Mr > Ms:
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮.  áᬮâਬ ⮫쪮 á«ãç © r > s > 0. ‘«ã-
ç ¨ r > 0 > s ¨ s < r < 0  ­ «®£¨ç­ë. ‘­ ç «  ¯à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ®
Ms =1. ‚®§¢¥¤ï à ¢¥­á⢮ ¢ á⥯¥­ìs
s, ¯®«ã稬 as1 + as2 +    + asn = n.
®áª®«ìªã ak > 0, â® ç¨á«® ak ¬®¦­® ¯à¥¤áâ ¢¨âì ¢ ¢¨¤¥ 1 + xk ,
£¤¥ xk > 1. à¨ í⮬ ¨§ à ¢¥­á⢠ Ms = 1 á«¥¤ã¥â, çâ®
x1 + x2 + : : :+ xn =0. ® ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢ã ¥à­ã««¨ ¨¬¥¥¬
ark = (1 + xk )r=s > 1 + sr  xk :
®á«¥ á㬬¨à®¢ ­¨ï ¯® k ®â 1 ¤® n ¯®«ã稬 ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
     
ar1 + ar2 +    + arn > 1 + rs  x1 + 1 + sr  x2 +    + 1 + sr  xn = n;
®âªã¤  Mr > 1 = Ms .
„ «¥¥ § ¬¥â¨¬, çâ® ¯à¨ «î¡®¬ ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­®¬ ¨ «î¡®¬ p 6= 0
( ap1 + ap2 +    + apn )1=p = (ap1 + ap2 +    + apn )1=p
€. ˆ. •à ¡à®¢ 11
‚®á¯®«ì§ã¥¬áï í⨬ ᢮©á⢮¬ ¤«ï § ¢¥à襭¨ï ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢠.
 áᬮâਬ ¢á¯®¬®£ â¥«ì­ë© ­ ¡®à ç¨á¥« b1 , b2 , : : : , bn , £¤¥
bk = ak =Ms . Ž­ 㤮¢«¥â¢®àï¥â ãá«®¢¨î bs1 + bs2 +    + bsn = 1. Žâªã¤ 
(br1 + br2 +    + brn )1=r > (bs1 + bs2 +    + bsn )1=s = 1:
„®¬­®¦¨¬ ¯à ¢ãî ¨ «¥¢ãî ç á⨠­  Ms ¨ ¯®«ã稬
(ar1 + ar2 +    + arn )1=r = Ms  (br1 + br2 +    + brn )1=r > Ms  1 =
= (as1 + as2 +    + asn )1=s :
 ¢¥­á⢮ ¢®§¬®¦­® «¨èì ª®£¤ 
 a r
k
Ms = (1 + xk )r=s = 1 + rs  xk :
‘«¥¤®¢ â¥«ì­®, xk = 0 ¨ ak = Ms , ¯®í⮬㠢ᥠç¨á«  à ¢­ë ¬¥¦¤ã
ᮡ®©. 
Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ¬¥¦¤ã á।­¨¬¨ á⥯¥­­ë¬¨ ¡ë«® ¤®ª -
§ ­® ˜¯à¥å⮬12 . „à㣮¥ ¤®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ ¯à¨­ ¤«¥¦¨â ƒ®«ì¤¬ -
­ã13 , ¨ ¥­ì¥14 .
a1 a2 : : : an
à¥¤¯®«®¦¨¬, çâ® ç¨á«  , , , 㤮¢«¥â¢®àïîâ ãá«®¢¨ï¬

0 < m 6 ak 6 M s>r>0
. ’®£¤  ¯à¨ á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮


Ms 6 r  1 
M ms
s  1  M smr M r ms  1 1

: ()
s r s r

Mr M r mr s s r
„®ª § â¥«ìá⢮ í⮣® ã⢥ত¥­¨ï ¢ë室¨â §  à ¬ª¨ ­ è¥£® ¨§-
«®¦¥­¨ï, ¬ë ᤥ« ¥¬ «¨èì ªà âª¨© ­ ¡à®á®ª.
1. „«ï «î¡ëå ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå ç¨á¥« x, y , z , 㤮¢«¥â¢®àïîé¨å
ãá«®¢¨î x > y > z ¨ p > 1 ¨¬¥¥â ¬¥áâ® ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮
xp (y z ) + yp (z x) + z p (x y) > 0:
® áã⨠®­® ï¥âáï ¯¥à¥ä®à¬ã«¨à®¢ª®© ᢮©á⢠ ¢ë¯ãª«®áâ¨,
ª®â®àë¬ ®¡« ¤ ¥â äã­ªæ¨ï xp .
12 Sprecht W. Zum Theorie der elementaren Mittel, Math. Z. 74, 1960, 91{98
13 Goldman A. J. A generalization of Rennie's inequality, Journ. Res. Nat. Bur.
Standarts Setc. B, 68, 1964, 59{63
14 Rennie B. C. On a class of inequalities, Journ. Austral. Math. Soc. 3, 1963,
442{448, á¬. â ª¦¥ Marshall A. M., Olkin I., Reversal of the Lyapunov, Holder and
Minkowski inequalities and other extensions of the Kantorovich inequality, Journ.
Math. Anal. Appl. 8, 1964, 503{514.
12 Ž¡à é¥­¨¥ ª« áá¨ç¥áª¨å ­¥à ¢¥­áâ¢

®¤áâ ­®¢ª  x = M r , y = ark , z = ms ¨ p = sr ¤ ¥â ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮:


2.

(M s ms )  ark > (M r mr )  ask + (M s mr M r ms );


¢ë¯®«­¥­­®¥ ¯à¨ s > r > 0 ¨ «î¡®¬ k.
3. ‘㬬¨à®¢ ­¨¥ íâ¨å ­¥à ¢¥­á⢠¯® k ®â 1 ¤® n ¯à¨¢®¤¨â ­ á ª
«¥¬¬¥ ¥­ì¥:
à¨ 0 < m 6 ak 6 M ¨ rs > 0
(M s ms )  Mrr > (M r mr )  Mss + (M s mr M r ms ):
4. …᫨ ¢ ­¥à ¢¥­á⢥ ž­£ 
xp + yq > xy;
p q
á¯à ¢¥¤«¨¢®¬ ¯à¨ ¯®«®¦¨â¥«ì­ëå p, q, x, y ¨ p1 + 1q = 1, ¯®«®¦¨âì
p q
p = rs ; xp = (M r mr )  Mss ; yq = (M s mr M r ms );
¯à¨¬¥­¨âì ª ¯à ¢®© ç á⨠­¥à ¢¥­á⢠ ¨§ «¥¬¬ë ¥­ì¥ ¨ ¨§¢«¥çì
ª®à¥­ì r-®© á⥯¥­¨ ¯®«ãç¨âáï ­¥à ¢¥­á⢮ ().