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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение


высшего образования «Алтайский государственный университет»
Кафедра германского языкознания и иностранных языков

ФОНД
ОЦЕНОЧНЫХ СРЕДСТВ
по дисциплине (модулю)
Основы теории английского языка
(наименование дисциплины/модуля)

45.02.03 Лингвистика
(код и наименование направления)

Перевод и переводоведение
(профиль/специализация)

Разработчики:

к.ф.н., доцент
/____________/ Дьяченко И.Н.
к.ф.н., доцент
/____________/ Медведева Т.В.
к.ф.н., доцент
/____________/ Савочкина Е.А.
к.ф.н., доцент
/____________/ Широких И.А.

Барнаул 2017
Визирование ФОС для исполнения в очередном учебном году

Фонд оценочных средств пересмотрен, обсужден и одобрен для исполнения


в _______-_______ учебном году на заседании кафедры __________________

Внесены следующие изменения и Протокол от___________ №____


дополнения: Зав.кафедрой ________________________
фио, должность

Визирование ФОС для исполнения в очередном учебном году

Фонд оценочных средств пересмотрен, обсужден и одобрен для исполнения


в _______-_______ учебном году на заседании кафедры __________________

Внесены следующие изменения и Протокол от___________ №____


дополнения: Зав.кафедрой ________________________
фио, должность

Визирование ФОС для исполнения в очередном учебном году

Фонд оценочных средств пересмотрен, обсужден и одобрен для исполнения


в _______-_______ учебном году на заседании кафедры __________________

Внесены следующие изменения и Протокол от___________ №____


дополнения: Зав.кафедрой ________________________
фио, должность

Визирование ФОС для исполнения в очередном учебном году

Фонд оценочных средств пересмотрен, обсужден и одобрен для исполнения


в _______-_______ учебном году на заседании кафедры __________________

Внесены следующие изменения и Протокол от___________ №____


дополнения: Зав.кафедрой ________________________
фио, должность
1. Перечень компетенций, с указанием этапов их формирования в процессе освоения
образовательной программы
Перечень формируемых компетенций:
ОПК-3: владение системой лингвистических знаний, включающей в себя знание основных
фонетических, лексических, грамматических словообразовательных явлений и закономерностей
функционирования изучаемого иностранного языка, его функциональных разновидностей.
ПК-8: владение методикой подготовки к выполнению перевода, включая поиск информации в
справочной, специальной литературе и компьютерных сетях.

Компетенции/контролируемы Показатели Наименование


е этапы оценочного средства
Начальный этап формирования компетенции (ий) осуществляется в период освоения
учебной дисциплины и характеризуется освоением учебного материала
ОПК 3 – владение системой Знает: основные разделы, основной
лингвистических знаний, понятийно-терминологический
включающей в себя знание аппарат лингвистики;
основных фонетических, Умеет: приводить определения
лексических, грамматических, основных терминов и понятий; Тесты, практические
словообразовательных Владеет: навыком построения задания
явлений и закономерностей научного высказывания с
функционирования изучаемого использованием научного стиля и
языка, его функциональных освоенной терминологии.
разновидностей
ПК 8 – владение методикой Знает: маркеры фонетических,
подготовки к переводу, лексических, грамматических и
включая поиск информации в стилистических явлений в тексте;
справочной, специальной Умеет: переводить единицы разных Практические
литературе и компьютерных языковых уровней; задания
сетях Владеет: методиками фонетического,
лексического, грамматического,
стилистического анализа.
Базовый этап формирования компетенции (ий) (формируется по окончании изучения
дисциплины (модуля))
ОПК 3, ПК 8 Знает: основные фонетические, Вопросы к
лексические, грамматические, зачету/экзамену
словообразовательные явления
английского языка;
Умеет: свободно выражать свои
мысли, адекватно используя
разнообразные языковые средства с
целью выделения релевантной
информации;
Владеет: основными дискурсивными
способами реализации
коммуникативных целей научного
высказывания.
Знает: особенности зависимости
единицы текста от горизонтального и
вертикального контекста;
Умеет: использовать переводческие
трансформации;
Владеет: навыками контекстного
анализа явлений разного языкового
уровня
Заключительный этап формирования компетенций направлен на закрепление определенных
компетенций в период прохождения практик, НИР, ГИА
ОПК 3, ПК 8 Знает: закономерности ГИА (см. программу ГИА)
функционирования
английского языка как
сложной системы;
Умеет: осуществлять поиск
информации в справочной,
специальной литературе,
электронных словарях и
других информационных
ресурсах;
Владеет: распознавать
отражение особенностей
национального мышления в
фонетическом, лексическом,
грамматическом строе
изучаемого иностранного
языка и стиле высказывания.
Знает: способы перевода
явлений различных уровней
языка;
Умеет: давать переводческие
комментарии переводческих
решений;
Владеет: навыками замены
при переводе явлений разных
языковых уровней
(грамматичесих
лексическими, фонетических
силистическими и т.д.)

2. Описание показателей и критериев оценивания компетенций на различных этапах их


формирования, описание шкал оценивания

Количество таблиц с критериями оценивания зависит от количества используемых оценочных


средств (типовых контрольных заданий) и определяется преподавателем самостоятельно.

Сопоставление шкал оценивания


4-балльная Отлично Хорошо Удовлетворитель Неудовлетворительн
шкала (повышенный (базовый но о
(уровень освоения) уровень) уровень) (пороговый (уровень не
уровень) сформирован)
100-балльная 85-100 70-84 50-69 0-49
шкала
Бинарная шкала Зачтено Не зачтено

Оценивание устного выступления на семинаре / ответа на практическом занятии


4-балльная шкала Показатели Критерии
(уровень освоения)
Отлично 1. Знание терминологии Студент уверенно ориентируется в категориально-
(повышенный дисциплины. понятийном аппарате теории английского языка,
уровень) 2. Умение реферировать понимает теоретическую парадигму данной
научный материал на предметной области, знает отличительные черты
родном и английском научных школ и их представителей; умеет грамотно
языках. и логично давать определения понятиям и терминам;
3. Способность умеет реферировать научный материал на родном и
сформулировать английском языке; способен самостоятельно
собственное научное сформулировать научное высказывание; у него
высказывание. сформировано умение осуществлять поиск
4. Умение осуществлять информации в справочной, специальной литературу
поиск информации в и компьютерных сетях; имеет сформировавшееся
справочной, специальной систематическое умение осуществлять поиск
литературе и информации с справочной, специальной литературе
компьютерных сетях и компьютерных сетях, владеет современными
5. Владение методиками выполнения перевода.
Хорошо современными Студент понимает структуру терминологической
(базовый уровень) методиками выполнения системы, но допускает некоторые неточности в
перевода. трактовке отдельных терминов, испытывает
затруднения в определении отличительных черт
научных школ и их представителей; допускает
незначительные ошибки в дефинициях и в целом
оформляет научное высказывание достаточно
грамотно, при реферировании допускает большой
процент компиляции; способен грамотно выстроить
научное высказывание, но допускает
незначительные ошибки; в целом умеет
осуществлять поиск информации в справочной,
специальной литературе и компьютерных сетях, в
целом владеет современными методиками перевода.
Удовлетворительно Студент знаком с базовой терминологией, но слабо
(пороговый ориентируется в теоретической парадигме
уровень) предметной области, в основном умеет давать
определения основным понятиям, умеет
формулировать высказывание на научную
проблематику, но допускает многочисленные
ошибки в логике и стиле высказывания; неуверенно
может осуществлять поиск информации в
справочной, специальной литературе и
компьютерных сетях, фрагментарно владеет
современными методиками выполнения перевода.
Неудовлетвори- Студент дает определения некоторым терминам с
тельно многочисленными неточностями, не умеет
(уровень не реферировать научный материал, не владеет
сформирован) навыком построения научного высказывания, не
умеет анализировать языковые явления; не умеет
осуществлять поиск информации в справочной,
специальной литературе и компьютерных сетях, не
владеет современными методиками выполнения
перевода.

Оценивание выполнения тестов

4-балльная шкала Показатели Критерии


(уровень
освоения)
Отлично 1. Полнота выполнения выполнено 27-30 заданий предложенного теста, в
(повышенный тестовых заданий; заданиях открытого типа дан полный, развернутый
уровень) 2. Своевременность ответ на поставленный вопрос;
Хорошо выполнения; выполнено 22-26 заданий предложенного теста, в
(базовый уровень) 3. Правильность ответов заданиях открытого типа дан полный, развернутый
на вопросы; ответ на поставленный вопрос; однако были
4. Самостоятельность допущены неточности в определении понятий,
тестирования; терминов и др.
Удовлетворительно 5. и т.д. выполнено 19-21 заданий предложенного теста, в
(пороговый заданиях открытого типа дан неполный ответ на
уровень) поставленный вопрос, в ответе не присутствуют
доказательные примеры, текст со стилистическими и
орфографическими ошибками.
Неудовлетвори- выполнено 1-18 заданий предложенного теста, на
тельно поставленные вопросы ответ отсутствует или
(уровень не неполный, допущены существенные ошибки в
сформирован) теоретическом материале (терминах, понятиях).

Оценивание ответа на экзамене


4-балльная шкала Показатели Критерии
(уровень освоения)
Отлично 1. Полнота изложения Студентом дан полный, в логической
(повышенный теоретического последовательности развернутый ответ на
уровень) материала; поставленный вопрос, где он продемонстрировал
2. Полнота и знания предмета в полном объеме учебной
правильность решения программы, достаточно глубоко осмысливает
практического задания; дисциплину, самостоятельно, и исчерпывающе
3. Правильность и/или отвечает на дополнительные вопросы, приводит
аргументированность собственные примеры по проблематике
изложения поставленного вопроса, решил предложенные
(последовательность практические задания без ошибок.
Хорошо действий); Студентом дан развернутый ответ на поставленный
(базовый уровень) 4. Самостоятельность вопрос, где студент демонстрирует знания,
ответа; приобретенные на лекционных и семинарских
5. Культура речи; занятиях, а также полученные посредством изучения
6. и т.д. обязательных учебных материалов по курсу, дает
аргументированные ответы, приводит примеры, в
ответе присутствует свободное владение
монологической речью, логичность и
последовательность ответа. Однако допускается
неточность в ответе. Решил предложенные
практические задания с небольшими неточностями.
Удовлетворительно Студентом дан ответ, свидетельствующий в
(пороговый основном о знании процессов изучаемой
уровень) дисциплины, отличающийся недостаточной
глубиной и полнотой раскрытия темы, знанием
основных вопросов теории, слабо сформированными
навыками анализа явлений, процессов,
недостаточным умением давать аргументированные
ответы и приводить примеры, недостаточно
свободным владением монологической речью,
логичностью и последовательностью ответа.
Допускается несколько ошибок в содержании ответа
и решении практических заданий.
Неудовлетвори- Студентом дан ответ, который содержит ряд
тельно серьезных неточностей, обнаруживающий незнание
(уровень не процессов изучаемой предметной области,
сформирован) отличающийся неглубоким раскрытием темы,
незнанием основных вопросов теории,
несформированными навыками анализа явлений,
процессов, неумением давать аргументированные
ответы, слабым владением монологической речью,
отсутствием логичности и последовательности.
Выводы поверхностны. Решение практических
заданий не выполнено, т.е студент не способен
ответить на вопросы даже при дополнительных
наводящих вопросах преподавателя.

3. Типовые контрольные задания или иные материалы, необходимые для оценки


планируемых результатов обучения по дисциплине, характеризующих этапы формирования
компетенций в процессе освоения образовательной программы

1-2 семестры (теоретическая фонетика)


Примеры практических заданий:
SEMINAR 1

CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS

I. Choose which is the right definition of the term. Name the consonants which answer the
definition.
1. Occlusive-constrictive consonants (affricates)
a) sounds which are produced with an incomplete obstruction,
b) sounds which are produced with a complete obstruction which is then slowly released,
c) sounds which are produced with a complete obstruction which is not released;
2. Constrictive noise consonants (fricatives)
a) sounds which are produced with a complete obstruction which is then quickly released;
b) sounds which are produced with a complete obstruction which is then slowly released;
c) sounds which are produced with an incomplete obstruction, the air passes with audible
friction;
3. Constrictive sonorants
a) sounds which are produced with an incomplete obstruction,
b) sounds which are produced with a complete obstruction,
c) sounds which are produced with an incomplete obstruction, the air passes with audible
friction;
4. Dental consonants
a) sounds produced with the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge,
b) sounds produced with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth,
c) sounds produced with the tip of the tongue doesn’t touch the alveolar ridge and is curved back;
5. Apical consonants
a) sounds articulated by the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge,
b) sounds articulated when the blade of the tongue is raised to the hard palate;
6. Forelingual consonants
a) sounds articulated with the front of the tongue against the hard palate,
b) sounds articulated by the blade or tip of the tongue against the upper teeth or the alveolar
ridge;
7. Bilabial consonants
a) sounds articulated by the two lips,
b) sounds articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth;
8. Lenis consonants
a) sounds produced with great muscular tension,
b) sounds which are relatively week.
II. Choose the correct answer to the question:

1. What is the difference in articulation of the sounds [s] and [z]?


a) in the position of the tongue,
b) in the position of the soft palate,
c)in the work of the vocal cords;
2. What is the difference in articulation of the sounds [ð] and [d]?
a) in the position of the active organ of speech,
b) in the work of the vocal cords,
c) in the position of the soft palate;
3. What is the difference in articulation of the sounds [p] and [w]?
a) in the active organ of speech,
b) in the position of the soft palate,
c) in the type of obstruction.
4. What is the difference in articulation of the sounds[ ʃ ] and [h]?
a) in the position of the soft palate,
b) in the type of obstruction,
c) in the in the active organ of speech;
5. What is the difference in articulation of the sounds [ m ] and [b]?
a) in the position of the soft palate,
b) in the active organ of speech,
c) in the work of the vocal cords.
III. Cross out the wrong characteristics of the sound
1. [t] a) plosive b) voiceless c) labio-dental;
2. [ʒ] a)post-alveolar b) voiced c) fricative
3. [θ] a) voiceless b) apical c) occlusive
4. [v] a) labio-dental b) nasal c) fricative
5. [ʤ] a) post-alveolar b) affricate c) lenis
6. [l] a) apical b) lenis c) alveolar
7. [r] a) constrictive b) mediolingual c) oral
8. [g] a) backlingual b) affricate c) lenis

IV. Which sounds do not belong to the groups:


1. occlusive voiced plosives [k], [g], [m], [n], [p], [b], [t],[d]
2. constrictive [f], [v], [w], [ʤ] , [ ʧ ]
3. constrictive sonorants [w], [j], [l], [n]
4. occlusive-constrictive [ʤ] , [ ʧ ], [ʒ], [ ʃ ]
5. palate-alveolar [ʒ], [ ʃ ], [s], [z]
6. bilabial [w], [m], [n], [p], [b]
7. forelingual apical [n], [r], [s], [z], [l], [d]
SEMINAR 5

Syllable structure

I. Transcribe the following words and define the number of syllables. Say what sound is
syllabic.
a) narrate, drawer, stupid, experiment, dragon, Germany;
b) parcel, level, puzzle, ruffle, trouble, twelfth, apple;
c) lesson, reason, person, kitchen, often, even, twenty, fashion;
d) bluish, freer, chaos, diary, coward, diamond
II. Transcribe the words. Split them into syllables. Read them.
a) people, army, certainly, starvation, defend, thirteen;
b) city, pity, butter, bitter, goggles, mingle, squirrel
c) repeat, engage, react, complete, machine, behave, moustache
III. Read the following pairs of sentences. Concentrate your attention on correct syllable
division at the junction of words.

One must have a name. ------ One must have an aim.

They lived in a nice house. ----- They lived in an ice house.

His black tie disagreed with his appearance. ----- His blacked eye disagreed with his appearance.

It was just the time to support the peace talks. ----- It was just the time to support the pea stalks.

If you see Mable, tell me about it. -----If you seem able, tell me about it.

I saw the meat in the kitchen. ------- I saw them eat in the kitchen.

IV. Transcribe the words below. Arrange them in columns according to their accentual
pattern.
a) aberrate, aberration, actualize, actualization, modify, modification, dominate, domination, clarify,
clarification
b) accentuate, accentuation, accommodate, accommodation, Americanize, Americanization,
administrate, administration
V. Read the following sentences. Mind word stress in compound nouns and in word
combinations:
1. He is in the greenhouse. (a building made of glass used for flowers and plants) – He is in the
green house.
2. We saw some blackbirds. (a kind of wild bird) – We saw some black birds.
3. Do you need a blackboard? (a large piece of wood pained black to write with chalk on it) – Do
you need a black board?
4. He is in the darkroom. (a room used in photography)- He is in the dark room.
5. He lives in a lighthouse. (a tall tower with a light to warn ships)-He lives in a light house.
6. Does he live in the White House? (the residence of the President of the USA) – Does he live in the
white house?
7. Have you ever seen a horsefly? (a particular kind of fly) – Have you ever seen a horse fly?
VI. Read the sentences aloud.
1. This article is for export only. This country exports much wool.
2. Where’s my gramophone record? These instruments record weather conditions.
3. I disapprove of his conduct. He will conduct the meeting tomorrow.
4. You have made slow progress in English, I am sorry. The work will progress gradually.
5. He speaks with a perfect accent. You are to accent the words correctly.
6. Where’s the object in these sentence? I object to your last remark.
7. You need a permit to go there. Will you permit me to say a few words?
8. Rain is quite frequent here. I used to frequent the park there.
9. You could see every detail of the picture. He couldn’t detail all the facts.
QUESTIONS
1. What is a syllable?
2. What sounds can form the peak of a syllable?
3. What sonorous sounds are syllabic?
4. When does a sonorant lose its syllabic character?
5. Why is it important to know the syllable boundaries in a word?
6. Where does the syllable boundary go in words with an intervocalic consonant? Give examples.
7. What is the peculiarity of the syllable boundary with two consonants?
8. What is the difference between English and Russian in respect of degrees of word stress?
9. What is the difference in the accentual structure of compound nouns, adjectives, verbs?
10. What kind of accentual oppositions are capable of differentiating the meaning?

Образец тестового задания:


1. Say whether the following statement is true (T) or false (F):
The higher a speaker’s social status and the more formal a speech situation, the less likely dialect forms are.
2. What are the two dialect continua dialectologists speak about?
a) Geographical and ethnical,
b) Geographical and social,
c) Social and economic.
3. Name the main division of Traditional Dialects of England.

4. Correct the following wrong statement:


The smaller the geographical separation, the greater the difficulty of comprehension.
5. A situation of communication is defined by:
a) Social status, age, time of the day ,
b) Geographical separation, social status, degree of spontaneity,
c) Purpose, participants, setting.
6. Correct the following wrong statement:
The majority of Informants in dialect studies have always consisted of mobile, older, rural females.
7. Attach definitions SOUND SYMBOLISM, FILLERS, REPETITIONS to the 3 sets of examples :
a) well, well, well;
b) you see; you know; let me think;
c) oops, ouch, achoo.
8. Onomatopea is …
a) Vocalization of consonants,
b) Sound-imitating,
c) Making speech sound nice to the ear.
9. Chose the phonetic stylistic device used in a fragment:
She sells sea-shells down by the sea shore.
a) Assonance b)alliteration c) cacophony
10. Chose the phonetic stylistic device used in a fragment:
…and gleaming and streaming and steaming and beaming, and rushing and flushing and blushing and
gushing…
a) Assonance b) alliteration c) cacophony
11. National variant is:
a) variety of language spoken by socially or locally limited number of people;
b) the language determined by political and economic conditions of the nation formation;
c) dialect used by most educated members of population.
12. RP is:
a) accepted or approved pronunciation;
b) English spoken along the river Thames;
c) working class English.
13. Fill in the missing pronunciation standard:

English English American English Australian English


General American (GA) Educated Australian

14. Which of the languages doesn’t have native speakers:


a) a Creole,
b) a Pidgine.

15. What is NOT typical of Cockney dialect:


a) h-dropping,
b) loss of central fricatives,
c) vowel drawling.

16. Isogloss is the line which marks boundaries between two regions which differ in:
a) temperature,
b) landscape,
c) dialect.
17. Translate the sentences into Russian minding the terminal tones:
Have you seen him?
a) ̍ Not ̖once.
̖ b) ̍ Not once.

18. Three main types of cultivated speech in the USA are:


a) the Northern type, the Southern Type, the Eastern Type,
b) the Eastern Type, the Southern Type, the Western Type,
c) the Eastern Type, the Central Type, the Northern type.
19. American twang is:
a) nasalization of vowels when they are preceded or followed by a nasal consonant,
b) pronouncing [r] between a vowel and a consonant,
c) diphthongization of a monophthong.
20.Vowel drawl is:
a) diphthongization of a monophthong,
b) more open articulation,
c) yod dropping.
21. Retroflex pronunciation of R is when:
a) the pronunciation is closer to French and German [r],
b) [r] is dropped out,
c) tip of the tongue is bent backwards more than in EE.
22. In AE [t] in intervocalic position is pronounced:
a) d b)t
23. In AE [s] in final weak syllables ending with –ion, -ia like Asia, version is pronounced:
a) [ʃ ] b)[ ʒ ]
24. What is not true about Conversational style:
a) lack of planning,
b) slips of tongue,
c) slow tempo.
25. What is not true about Declamatory style:
a) use of parenthetic “you know”, “I mean”,
b) stable rhythmicality,
c) slow tempo.
26. What is not true about Publicistic style:
a) increased loudness,
b) long pauses,
c) great number of level tones.
27. What is not true about Academic style:
a) very low degree of speech preparedness ,
b) contrasts of tempo,
c) alteration of pauses, types of heads, terminal tones.
28. What is not true about Informational style:
a) normal or slow tempo,
b) speaker seems passionate,
c) medium or long pauses.
29. What is not true about an intonational style:
a) used in a certain social sphere,
b) serves a definite aim in communication,
c) used by representatives of a social class.
30.Match an antonym: speech can be:
a) formal- b) prepared - c) dialogical-

Примерные вопросы к зачету (семестр1):


1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics.
2. Phonemes and their functions.
3. Classification of English consonants.
4. Classification of English vowels.
5. Changes of English sounds in speech.
6. Syllable. Syllable formation and division.
7. Stress.
8. Intonation.
9. Intonation functional styles.

Примерные вопросы к зачету (семестр2):

1. Dialects. Methods of dialectology.


2. Traditional dialects of England.
3. Modern dialects of England.
4. Posh English, BBC English, Cockney.
5. Irish English.
6. Scottish English.
8. Standard American vs. British English.
9. Modern American Dialects.

Темы курсовых работ по теорфонетике

1. Органы речи и их работа.


2. Английские согласные и принципы их классификации.
3. Английские гласные и принципы их классификации.
4. Изменения английских согласных и гласных в потоке речи.
5. Слогообразование и слогоделение в английском языке.
6. Ударение в английском языке.
7. Английская интонация.
8. Интонационные группы О’ Коннора
9. Стилистическое использование интонации. Интонационные стили.
10. Традиционные диалекты Англии.
11. Современные диалекты Англии.
12. Шотландский вариант английского языка.
13. Ирландский вариант английского языка.
14. Американский английский. Современные диалекты.
15. Австралийский вариант английского языка.

Зачет:
В билет на зачете включено два вопроса, соответствующие содержанию формируемых
компетенций. Зачет проводится в устной форме. На ответ студенту отводится 35 минут. За ответ на
каждый теоретический вопрос студент может получить максимально 50 баллов. Перевод баллов в
оценку:
0-49 баллов – не зачтено
50-100 – зачтено.

3-4 семестры (лексикология)


ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
Перечень заданий /вопросов
Банк тестовых заданий по отдельным разделам и темам для самостоятельной работы студентов и
составления тестов промежуточного и итогового контроля

Origin of English Words


Ex. 1
Translate the following into Russian. State from what languages the following expressions and shortenings are
borrowed.
Coup d’état, kindergarten, tête-à-tête, Blitzkrieg, enfant terrible, persona grata, beau monde, leitmotiv, bon mot,
prima donna, ottava rima, Hun, nazi, etc., e. g., a. m., p. m.
Ex. 2
Group the following words according to their origin.
Caftan, operetta, machine, vanilla, waltz, skipper, algebra, telephone, dollar, wigwam, mazurka, pagoda, kangaroo,
taboo, gorilla, tobacco, chauffeur, beauty, umbrella, squaw, nun, sputnik, cosmodrome.
Ex. 3
Compare the meaning of the following Russian and English words. Use them in sentences of your own.
Характер – character, реализовать - realize, агитатор - agitator, кондуктор - conductor, магазин - magazine,
спекулировать - speculate, инцидент - incident, объект - object, принципиальный – principal
Ex. 4
Explain the etymology of the following words. Write them out in three columns: a) fully assimilated words; b)
partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words. Explain the reasons for your choice in each case.
ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, monk, garage, phenomenon, wine, large, lesson, criterion, nice, coup
d’état, river, loose, skirt.
Ex. 5
Give 5 own examples of words which could be translator’s false friends.

Affixation
Ex.1
Pick out words with noun-building suffixes. Explain the meaning of the words.
1.He did not know how the officialdom would end the scandal. 2. Gemma’s friendship, her charm, her simple
comradeship were the brightest things in his life. 3. Gabriel’s wife served out spoonfuls of the pudding and passed
the plates down the table. 4. It was a dull, respectable, uninspired townlet, but scarcely a hole. 5. The grey
changelessness of things got hold of me. 6. The cat is a splendid mouser. 7. When he returned to the palace the
marketing began. 8. “Please,” auntie says, “will you try a piece of our Mayday cake?” 9. The pavement of the road
took two months. 10. Shall I tell the receptionist that Mrs. Baird is a regular case and open an account for her?
Ex. 2
Read the following sentences. Translate the words in bold type into Russian.
1. In a thoughtless moment he put his hand in his pocket. 2. She seemed resistless. 3. He continued in his honeyed
voice. 4. The coffee was so sweetish, it made her shudder. 5. He passed a curtained corridor. 6. The boy was still
standing there, peering trainward. 7. These professions are only in seasonal demand. 8. Can’t you see she is edgy
after being up all night? 9. “No sense in getting panicky,” she assured herself. 10. She was more spiteful than all
the rest put together. 11. His words were playful but his look became grave.
Ex. 3
State the origin and explain the meaning of the suffixes in: childhood, hardship, freedom, toward, brotherly,
granny, hatred, hireling, village, drunkard, limitation.
Ex. 4
Explain the difference between the meanings of the following words produced from the same root by means of
different affixes. Translate them into Russian: watery – waterish, embarrassed – embarrassing, colourful –
coloured, respected – respectful, respectable, manly – mannish.

Conversion
Ex.1
Read the following sentences, translate them. Define what part of speech the words in bold type are and what part
of speech they are derived from.
1. Her heart hungered for action. 2. The road was mined. 3. The cows are milking well now. 4. His face chilled
suddenly. 5. Cal voiced his dream. 6. The pages had yellowed with age. 7. He slowly corked the bottle. 8. A
butterfly winged its way into the air. 9. He weekended with us. 10. She carefully bandaged the arm.
Ex. 2
Explain the meanings of the verbs in bold type. Translate the verbs into Russian.
to powder one’s nose, to elbow one’s way, to head a delegation, to parrot the grown-ups, to nurse the wounded,
to boss the job, to dock the ship, to garage the car, to barrel beer, to torture the prisoner, to anger the mother, to
inconvenience the host
Ex. 3
Supply the verbs which the nouns in bold type are derived from. Translate the original and the converted words into
Russian. Comment on the semantic character of the derived nouns.
1. She is an awful tease. 2. The boy happened to be a cheat. 3. She is the well-know gossip of the town. 4. The
night watch rushed to his help. 5. Then followed an interminable wait. 6. His long hunt for the book resulted in a
failure. 7. The station is a half-an-hour walk from our house. 8. Christine had the run of Mrs. Herbert’s kitchen. 9.
With his heavy bag and torn shoes he looked like a tramp. 10. He was certainly on the move.
Ex. 4
Comment on relations within the conversion pairs. Use the verbs in your own sentences: dog – to dog, finger – to
finger, dress– to dress, pocket– to pocket, back– to back, monkey – to monkey
Ex. 5
Translate and explain the following cases of conversion: to pirate, to worm, to up, to engineer, to oh-oh, to thou.

Composition
Ex.1
Read the following sentences. Explain the meaning of the adjectives in bold type in English.
1. He was wearing a brand-new overcoat and hat. 2. His hair was a bit reddish before he went piebald. 3. It was a
snowy pitch-black night. 4. The colour deepened in her rain-wet cheeks. 5. She never said she was homesick. 6.
He ignored the red light as if he were colour-blind. 7. Don’t be so blood-thirsty, father! 8. He acted with pride,
which one could not expect from such a lackey-minded person. 9. She is a tall woman with black hair and eyes
and an ivory-white face. 10. The woman stared at her papers with sleep-filmed eyes. 11. He held his hands for a
moment against his deep-lined cheeks.
Ex. 2
Comment on the meanings of the following compound nouns. Translate them into Russian.
thumb-nail, nerve-knot, danger-point, daylight, cream-puff, corner-room, breast-pocket, side-door, egg-plant, jelly-
fish, box-car, air-brake, inkstain, love-quarrel, girl-page, restaurant-car, money-box, hand-shake, stop-light, sun-
light
Ex. 3
Arrange the following compounds into three groups according to their motivation: fully or partially-motivated and
unmotivated: light-hearted, butterfly, cabman, blackberry, wolf-dog, dragon-fly, looking-glass, bluestocking,
necklace, earthquake.
Ex. 4
Form as many compounds as possible with grass-, hand-, tree-, -looking.
Shortening
Ex. 1
Write out in full the following shortened words:
A.T., UNO, ad, comfy, U-boat, cycle, para troops, prep, props, sub, B-girl, B.M.O.C.
Ex. 2
Translate the following shortenings and comment on the type of them, give their full form:
H-bomb, mike, tec, comfy, UNESCO, Bella, cause, para troops, props.

Word-building
Ex. 1
Read the following sentences. Define the means by which the words in bold type are built. Translate the words into
Russian.
1. She steeled herself to endure the bumping over the rough road. 2. She looked after the nurse with a doglike
expression and slowly began to put on her dressing-gown. 3. Feelings continually voiced cease to be feelings and
feelings never voiced deepen with their dumbness. 4. Life had rooted these ideas firmly in their minds. 5. He
glanced at the clock and edged nearer to the door. 6. He was going to have tea with his aunties. 6. She had no
intention of being sidetracked from the subject. 7. Then her mind pictured the layout. 8. “Frightfully bad roads!
The bus was ditched in that narrow turning.” 9. He took the hours-old dish away. 10. He was heart-sore over the
sudden collapse of a promising career. 11. I need not say that such a breach of confidence is unthinkable. 12. Then
she catfooted to the opening, pausing for another second to listen. 13. It was a long hall papered and carpeted in
dark green. 14. I’m always called “Mother” at home, because I’ve mothered him ever since my dear mother died.

Semaseology
Ex. 1
State the semes of the following words: baby, monkey.
Ex. 2
Give the denotational and connotational meaning of the following words:
granny, to pass away, to feather-bed, to soft-soap, to cosmeticize.

Phraseology
Ex. 1
Pick out all the phraseological units from the following sentences and classify them. Translate all the passages into
Russian.
1. … “I’d like to have a day or two in which to think it over… .” “Why, certainly, certainly, Mr. Cowperwood,”
replied Stener genially. “That’s all right. Take you time.” 2. Jos, a clumsy and timid horseman, did not look to
advantage in the saddle. “Look at him, Amelia dear… . Such a bull in a china shop I never saw.” 3. In the end he
parted friends with both Tighe and Rivers. “That’s a smart young fellow,” observed Tighe, ruefully. “He’ll make
his mark,” rejoined Rivers. 4. There was no reason why Anna should not make a splendid match. Joe and Ed might
also marry since they were not destined to set the world on fire in commerce. 5. And he concluded … that no man
could tell what he would do if he were in the shoes of another man. 6. A simple cold, caught in the room with
double windows … and James was in deep waters. 7. “Jo,” he said. “I should like to hear what sort of water you’re
in. I suppose you’re in debt?” 8. He was not vastly interested in Clare. She had always been to him one of those
women who took the bit between their teeth and were bound to fetch up now and again with broken knees. 9. … the
sooner you are gone bag and baggage, the better for all parties. 10. This lady knew all the Forsytes, and having
been at June’s “at home,” was not at a loss to see with whom she had to deal. 11. The sea run high and the boat
may be dashed to pieces on the rocks. 12. I guess I’ll pop outside and have a word with Miss Bunting. 13. The
matter with her is that I played the fool with her, that’s all. 14. If you cry I will give Miss Wilson a piece of my
mind for worrying you. 15. I know that we cut a very poor figure beside you.
Ex. 2
Complete the following phrases so that they make English proverbs and phraseological units. Explain the meaning
of the given part.
1.A bird in the hand. 2. The last straw. 3. To eat one’s cake and have it. 4. Old bird. 5. The early bird. 6. Half the
battle. 7. A silver lining. 8. Fine feathers. 9. A new broom. 10. A bee in one’s bonnet. 11. Spilt milk. 12. A mare’s
nest.
Ex. 3
Give as many phraseological units as possible, using any of the following words:
to beat, to catch, to mind, bone, love, mouth, dead, ready

Transfer of meaning
Ex. 1
Explain the logic of the transfer of meaning.
1.The wings of a bird, of a plane, of a mill; on wings of joy.
2.The foot of a man, of a hill, of a bottle.
3.Tongues of flame; The child’s tongue is coated.
4.The neck of a girl, of a bottle.
5.Moscow is the heart of the country; My heart is beating with excitement.
6.The mouth of a pot, of a river, of a cave.
Ex. 2
Discuss the following cases of metonymy:
1. He is the hope of the family. 2. She was the pride of her school. 3. I have never read Balzac in the original. 4.
My sister is fond of old china. 5. The coffee-pot is boiling. 6. The pit loudly applauded. 7. He succeeded to the
crown.

Polysemy
Ex. 1
Give all the meanings you know of the following words, illustrating them with examples:
to take, to feel, to let, power, drift, institute, to dress
Homonyms
Ex. 1
Spell the following homophones. Translate them into Russian and use them in sentences of your own.
[´siəriəl], [´fa:ðə], [lein], [meiz], [diə], [pleit], [prei], [Θroun], [bi:t], [´beri], [seil], [sent], [pi:s]
Ex. 2
Transcribe the following homographs. State their different meaning.
lead, compact, row, invalid, polish, desert, wind, bow, tear, close
Ex. 3
Choose the right word:
1)Our team will (loose, lose) unless it learns to pass the ball.
2)After dinner we all (set, sat) round the table.
3)Ann will clean all the carpets (accept, except) this one.
4)Liz (quite, quiet, quit) likes her job and spends a lot of time at work.
5)Nick is not sure (weather, whether) Jeff is going with us.
6)Kim (through, threw) the javelin a record distance.
Ex. 4
Speak about the type of homonyms and explain the difference:
1) proceed – precede
2) affect – effect
3) access – excess
4) principal – principle
5) stationary – stationery
6) dessert – desert n – desert v
7) cite – site – sight
8) persecute – procecute
9) peace - piece
Ex. 5
Translate paying attention to homonyms:
1) After an incident in Croydon involving a prison van and a concrete mixer, police are looking for eighteen
hardened criminals.
2) Eth: A professional burglar! Mr. Glum, you told me Ron’s Uncle Charlie was a biologist.
3) Mr. Glum: All I said was, he studies cell structures.
Ex. 6
Explain what stylistic device is used in these proverbs and sayings, what it is based upon.
1) A clean fast is better than a dirty breakfast.
2) Who feasts till he is sick, must fast till he is well.
3) Feast today and fast tomorrow.
4) – Is life worth living? - It depends upon the liver.
5) – What do you do with the fruit? -We eat what we can, and what we can’t eat we can.
6) Her nose was sharp, but not so sharp as her voice or the suspiciousness, with which she faced me.
7) Nowadays all of us are so hard up, that only pleasant things to pay are compliments, it’s the only thing we pay.
8) O’Henry about a café: It’s atmosphere was thick, it’s napery and soup were thin.

Synonyms and Antonyms


Ex. 1
Translate the following words into English and give as many synonyms to them as you can.
просить, возможно, глупый, веселый, несчастье, начинать, выбирать, путешествие
Ex. 2
In what respects do the following synonyms differ?
1.policeman, bobby, cop
2.master, owner, head, proprietor, possessor
3.worker, labourer, toiler, hand
4.fabricate, construct, frame, invent, forge, manufacture, feign
5.mansion, house, habitation, residence, abode
Ex. 3
Change the following sentences so that they express the contrary meaning by using antonyms. State whether they
are absolute or derivational antonyms.
1. All the seats were occupied. 2. The room was lighted by the strong rays of the sun. 3. He added three hundred
to the sum. 4. I came in while you were asleep. 5. A lamp is a necessary thing in this room. 6. The door was closed
and locked. 7. In the second year of their residence the company seemed especially to increase. 8. The little boy
was outside the car. 9. He drew two crooked lines. 10. Light curtains hung in the dining-room windows; therefore
it was light.
Ex. 4
Are the following words synonyms? Prove your point of view.
n. pillow, cushion
sink, basin
desktop, laptop
stove, vent,
linen, underwear
mustache, whiskers
reck, shelf
clock, watch
rocket, missile
mirror, looking glass
jetty, port
fireplace, mantelpiece
watch, clock
v. sail, float, swim
hurt, ache
cut, slice, chop
clean, peel
adj. eatable, edible
private, personal
Ex. 5
Remember 5 titles of different types of pieces of fiction (stories, novels, plays), based on antonymy.

American English
Ex. 1
Translate the following words into English, giving two variants – British and American:
каникулы, бензин, вата, детская коляска, плащ, консервная банка, студент 2 курса, почтальон, шашки,
очередь, бумажник, справочное бюро
Ex. 2
Point out words: 1) the meaning of which in American English is entirely different from that in British English, 2)
the general meaning of which is the same in both American and British English, but which have acquired an
additional specific meaning in American English.
apartment, tardy, guess, homely, mad, sick, billion, corn, dessert, commute, lunch, cane
Ex. 3
Translate the following, using the prepositions current in America and then in England.
стоять на углу, ездить на поезде, сходить с поезда, жить на улице Н., без четверти девять, четверть
десятого, заполнить бланк
Ex. 4
Give the English spelling of the following words:
thru, humor, apologize, center, pretense, inflexion, jewelry, quarreled, woolen, harbor, pijamas, gipsy, program 53

ТЕСТОВЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
Типовые тесты
Fundamentals.
1. What does lexicology study?
a) the grammar of a language
b) the vocabulary of a language
c) different stylistic devices
d) spelling rules
2. What branch of lexicology studies common features of vocabularies of different languages?
a) special lexicology
b) contrastive lexicology
c) general lexicology
d) ethymology
3. What is not included into the subject of ethymology?
a) the origin of different words
b) the linguistic and extralinguistic forces, modifying word structure, meaning and usage
c) the vocabulary of a language from the angle of its sound system
d) changes and development of words
4. What does semantics study?
a) meanings of words
b) history of words
c) sound forms of words
d) word concessions
5. What approach to vocabulary studies is mainly used by descriptive lexicology?
a) historical
b) synchronical
c) diachronical
6. What branch of linguistics deals with causal relations between the way the language works and develops and the
facts of social life?
a) psycholinguistics
b) general linguistics
c) sociolinguistics
d) lexicology
7. What is definied as a «lexical opposition»?
a) the semantically relevant relationship of partial difference between two partially similar words
b) the semantically relevant relationship of partial similarity between two different words
c) the relationship of two words of one root
d) the relationship of equality of words
8. The capacity of words to combine with one another is called:
a) a polydimensional opposition
b) combinatorial possibilities
c) a lexical distinctive feature
9. The basis of a lexical opposition is:
a) the feature two contrasted words posess in common
b) a lexical distinctive feature
c) all the features of a word
10. Relationships based on the linear character of speech, on the influence of the context are called:
a) syntagmatic
b) paradigmatic
c) semantic
11. The term «lexicolization» means that:
a) connotations are used in the process of word-building
b) grammar means become lexical means to form new words
c) sound interchanges help to. build new words
12. The elements of a lexical system are:
a) independent from each other
b) interdependent
c) dependent on their consequence
13. A set is called structured when:
a) the number of its elements is greater than the number of the rules according to which these elements can be
constructed
b) the number of the elements is constant
c) there are no subsets within the set
14. A lexical system is:
a) probabilistic
b) deterministic
c) closed
15. The relation between the elements based on the common feature due to which they belong to the same set is
called:
a) equality
b) identity
c) equivalence
d) adequacy
16. Every lexical unit is:
a) independent
b) context-dependent
c) meaning-dependent
17. The system showing a word in all its word-forms is called:
a) a paradigm
b) a syntagm
c) a class
d) a part of speech
18. The unity of a form and a meaning is:
a) an absolute property of a word
b) a special property of a word
c) a relative property of a word
19. What language unit is capable of functioning alone?
a) a morpheme
b) a phoneme
c) a word
20. What kind of relations is based on the interdependence of words within the vocabulary?
a) syntagmatic
b) paradigmatic
c) semantic
21. Which of these sign systems is universal?
a) the deaf-and-dumb language
b) the language of colors
c) any natural language
22. Any language sign is a:
a) a unilateral unit
b) a bilateral unit
c) a casual formation
23. A phoneme is always:
a) a unilateral unit
b) a bilateral unit
c) a casual formation
24. To what group of properties does the ability of words to form a universal system belong?
a) to absolute properties
b) to special properties
c) to relative properties
25. According to the principle of novelty we can divide all the words into:
a) ready-made and newly-formed signs
b) archaisms and neologisms
c) neutral and obsolete words
26. What do we call newly-formed words?
a) occasionalisms
b) obsolete words
c) rotating words
27. What language units can be newly-formed at the present stage of language development?
a) phonemes
b) words
c) morphemes
28. The most recurrent words are:
a) simple
b) stylistically marked
c) historisms
29. Neutral words usually are not:
a) frequent
b) simple
c) archaic
d) native
30. Which of the following word properties does not belong to absolute?
a) reference to style
b) reference to time
c) ability to be combined with one another
d) frequency of usage
31. Words that have dropped out of the language altogether are called:
a) archaic
b) neologisms
c) obsolete
d) historisms
32. Words that are now used only in poetry and theological style are called:
a) historisms
b) obsolete
c) neologisms
d) archaisms
33. Words formed according to productive patterns are called:
a) historisms
b) obsolete
c) neologisms
d) archaisms
34. Words denoting notions that have disappeared out of modern life are called:
a) historisms
b) obsolete
c) neologisms
d) archaisms
35. What properties permit words to be united in any aspect?
a) absolute properties
b) special properties
c) relative properties
36. How do we call word relations based on association?
a) homonymy
b) metonymy
c) synonymy
d) historisms
37. Words that have different forms but meanings similar to a certain degree are called:
a) antonyms
b) synonyms
c) homonyms
d) polysemantic words
38. Words opposite in meaning are called:
a) antonyms
b) synonyms
c) homonyms
d) polysemantic words
39. Words having one and the same form but different meanings are called:
a) antonyms
b) synonyms
c) homonyms
d) polysemantic words
40. Words which meanings differ only by stylistic connotations are called:
a) stylistic synonyms
b) stylistic antonyms
c) polycemantic words
41. Homonyms having the same pronunciation are called:
a) homographes
b) homophones
c) homoforms
42. What does lexicography study?
a) the semantic of a word
b) theory and practice of dictionary compiling
c) dialect forms of words d) word-building
43. Choose an archaism:
a) blitzkrieg
b) agrobiology
c) realmleader
d) brine
44. Choose a neologism:
a) maiden
b) chemurgy
c) kine
d) billow
45. Choose the most neutral word:
a) wench
b) damsel
c) girl
d) gal
46. Which word falls out of the synonymic row?
a) fawny
b) obsequious
c) guileless
d) sniveling
47. Find a synonymic dominant:
a) brisk
b) quick
c) alert
d) agile
48. Which words can be called homographs?
a) night (ночь) - knight (рыцарь)
b) minute (минута) - minute (мелкий)
c) pick (поднимать) - pick (кирка)
49. To which group of homonyms do the words «club (дубинка) - club (клуб)» belong?
a) homoforms
d) homographs
c) perfect homonyms
d) homophones
50. To which group of homonyms do the words «lift - to lift» belong?
a) homoforms
d) homographs
c) perfect homonyms
d) homophones

Слово как основная единица лексической системы.


The Theory of the Word. The Inner Structure.
1. What type of morphemes is the most recurrent in English words?
a) derivational affixes
b) roots
c) functional affixes
d) markers
2. What type of morphemes did E. Nida call outer formatives?
a) derivational affixes
b) roots
c) functional affixes
d) markers
3. The morpheme “map" in the word "seaman" refers to:
a) unique morphemes
b) semi-affixes
c) root morphemes
4. Affixes used to form new words in the period in question are called:
a) newly-formed
b) productive
c) active
5. The term "hybrids" denotes:
a) words referring to different classes
b) words derived from two or more stems
c) elements derived from two or more different languages
6. In a derived word with a functional affix the following morpheme will end the word:
a) functional affixes
b) the second root
c) a derivational affix
7. Suffixes having no relevance for the present stage of a language are called:
a) obsolete suffixes
b) non-used suffixes
c) dead suffixes
8. Borrowed affixes are always received:
a) as independent parts
b) as derivatives from other morphemes
c) as parts of loan words
9. The notion of the traditional theory "a compound derived word" corresponds to the following class of the mor-
phemic theory:
a) words consisting of two or more stems
b) words consisting of one root and one or more affixes
c) words consisting of one root
d) words consisting of two or more stems plus a common affix
10. What is not a drawback of the morphemic theory?
a) the defect of the definition
b) the process of cutting words into morphemes
c) linear character of cutting .
11. A morpheme can be defined as a:
a) minimum unilateral language unit
b) minimum unit of speech
c) minimum two-facet unit
d) minimum syntactical unit
12. What is not a type of morphemic segmentability?
a) complete segmentability
b) defective segmentability
c) conditional segmentability
d) pseudo-segmentability
13. Pseudo morphemes make up words of:
a) complete segmentability
b) defective segmentability
c) conditional segmentability
d) non-segmentability
14. Unique morphemes make up words of:
a) complete segmentability
b) defective segmentability
c) conditional segmentability
d) non-segmentability
15. The lexical nucleus of any word is:
a) a root morpheme
b) a stem morpheme
c) a prefix
d) an affix
16. Morphemes carrying only grammatical meaning are called:
a) inflexions
b) affixes
c) root morphemes
17. The system of grammatical forms characteristic of a word is called:
a) word-form
b) paradygm
c) stem
18. Derivational affixes help to:
a) build different word-forms
b) denote grammatical meaning
c) form new words
19. The capability of an affix to combine with a stem is called:
a) derivation
b) valency
c) motivation
20. Which class of words accounts for the least number of words?
a) compound words
b) derived words
c) simple words
d) compound derived words
21. Indivisible parts of an analyzed word are called:
a) immediate constituents
b) ultimate constituents
c) markers
22. Analysis into immediate constituents has a:
a) linear character
b) hierarchical character
c) syntagmatic character
23. Originally analysis into immediate constituents was applied to:
a) syntax
b) morphology
c) phonetics
24. Who was the first scientist to introduce analysis into immediate constituents?
a) E. Nida
b) L. Bloomfield
c) Ch. Rocket
25. Constituents that can be substituted for one another are called:
a) endocentric
b) exocentric
c) coordinative
26. Constructions in which one element is an attribution to the other are called:
a) coordinative
b) exocentric
c) subordinative
27. The way of wordbuilding when a word is formed by joining two or more stems to form one word is called:
a) affixation
b) derivation
c) composition
28. By what means is the word "rope-ripe" built?
a) reduplication
b) back formation
c) conversion
29. By what means is the word "to kidnap" built?
a) reduplication
b) back formation
c) conversion
30. Transformation of a word of one class into the word of another class without changing its form is called:
a) reduplication
b) back formation
c) conversion
31. Prefixes un-, over-, under- belong to:
a) Romanic
b) Germanic
c) Greek
32. Prefixes in-, de-, re-, ex- belong to:
a) Romanic
b) Germanic
c) Greek
33. Prefixes sym-, hyper- belong to:
a) Romanic
b) Germanic
c) Greek
34. Such parts as tele-, maxi-, -burger are called:
a) roots
b) stems
c) splinters
35.Suffixes -er, -ent denote:
a) nationality
b) diminutiveness
c) the agent of the action
d) collectivity
36. Suffixes -ese, -ian, -ish denote:
a) nationality
b) diminutiveness
c) the agent of the action
d) collectivity
37. Suffixes -dom, -ry, -ship denote:
a) nationality
b) diminutiveness
c) the agent of the action
d) collectivity
38. Suffixes -let, -ette, -ling denote:
a) nationality
b) diminutiveness
c) the agent of the action
d) collectivity
39.Today the suffixes -ard (drunkard), -th (length, heigth) are:
a) productive
b) semi-productive
c) non-productive
40. In English prefixes are characteristic for forming:
a) nouns
b) adverbs
c) verbs
41. Compounds where the components are joined by means of form-word stems (free-for-all) are called:
a) syntactical
b) neutral
c) morphological
42. Compounds where the components are joined without any linking element are called:
a) syntactical
b) neutral
c) morphological
43. Compounds where the components are joined by a linking element are called:
a) syntactical
b) neutral
c) morphological
44. Subordinative relations in compounds "breast-high", "knee-deep" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
45. Subordinative relations in compounds "eggshell-thin", "honey-sweet" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
46. Subordinative relations in compound "gold-rich" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
47. Subordinative relations in compound "top-heavy" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
48. Subordinative relations in compound "dog-cheap" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
49. Subordinative relations in compound "love-sick" can be characterized as:
a) objective
b) comparative
c) emphatic
d) limiting
e) space
f) cause
50. The most logical theory of the inner structure of the word is:
a) the immedite and ultimate constituents theory
b) the traditional theory
c) the association-definition theory
d) the morphemic theory

Словарный состав в этимологическом аспекте.


The Etymology of the English Words.
Test 1
1. A word which belongs to the original English stock is:
a) a native word
b) a loan word
c) assimilation of a loan
d) a semantic loan
2. A word taken over from another language and modified according to the standards of the English language is:
a) a native word
b) a loan word
c) a semantic word
d) a etymological doublet
3. The native words are further subdivided into those of:
a) Indo-European stock and common Germanic original
b) Latin and Roman original
c) Greek and German origin
4. The term "source of borrowing" should be distinguished from the term:
a) a native word
b) an evaluatory word
c) an origin of borrowing
5. The term denoting the development in an English word of a new meaning due to the influence of a related word
in another language is:
a) translation loan
b) loan translation
c) semantic loan
6. The initial position of the sounds [v], [dз], [з] is a sign that the word is:
a) of native stock
b) not of native stock
c) of common German origin
7. ... depends upon the length of period during which the word has been used in the receiving language:
a) the frequency of using
b) degree of assimilation
c) the quality of monosyllabic words
8. ... are found in all the layers of older borrowings:
a) completely assimilated words
b) partially assimilated words
c) barbarisms
9. Words from other languages used by English people in conversation or in writing but not assimilated in any way
are:
a) completely assimilated words
b) partially assimilated words
c) barbarisms
10. Two or more words of the same language which were derived by different routes from the same basic words
are:
a) international words
b) barbarisms
c) etymological doublets

Семантика слова.
The Semantic Structure of a word.
Test 1
1. What branch of lexicology studies the meaning of words?
a) phraseology
b) semasiology
c) descriptive lexicology
2. With what kind of meaning does semasiology deal?
a) with lexical meaning only
b) with grammatical meaning
c) with meaning of borrowed words only
3. What does semasiology study diachronically?
a) word meaning at a given moment of time
b) the change in meaning the words undergo
c) assimilation of borrowed words
4. What does synchronic approach study?
a) meanings of individual words
b) semantic structures typical of the language studied
c) the change in meaning the words undergo
5. What is excluded from the object of semasiology?
a) semantic development of words, its causes and classification
b) relevant distinctive features and types of lexical meaning
c) semantic grouping of words
d) grammatical structure of words
6. What is the operational analysis concerned with?
a) placing words into larger units such as phrases and sentences
b) the study of words individually
c) the study of phraseological units
7. What does not semantics mean?
a) the branch of the study of language concerned with the meaning of the
words
b) the phenomena studied
c) all sign systems
d) a branch of symbolic or mathematical logic
8. The study of signs and languages in general is called:
a) semasiology
b) semantics
c) semiotics
9. What is the subject of pure semantics?
a) formalized language
b) real languages
c) all sorts of codes
10. What is meaning according to disciples of F. De Saussure?
a) it is the object or notion named
b) it is the relation between the object or notion named and the name itself
c) it is the concept reflected in the language
11. What is meaning according to disciples of L. Bloomfield?
a) the situation in which the word is uttered
b) the basis of lexicology
c) it is the relation between the object or notion named and the name itself
12. What is lexical meaning according to Soviet linguists?
a) it is the object or notion named
b) the realization of the notion by means of a definite language system
c) concepts of mental activity only
13. What expresses the notional content of a word?
a) semantic component
b) significative meaning
c) denotative meaning
14. What do we call a notion or an actually existing individual thing to which
reference is made?
a) denotatum (referent)
b) semantic component
c) meaning
15. What do we call connotations of words?
a) the notional content of a word
b) the mental content of a word
c) the emotional or expressive counterpart of meaning
16. What is not a type of denotative meaning?
a) demonstrative meaning
b) affecting meaning
c) significative meaning
17. If a word evokes a general idea its function is:
a) demonstrative
b) affecting
c) significative
18. The function of demonstrative words is:
a) affecting
b) identifying
c) explanatory
19. Which element in the lexical meaning is not optional?
a) denotative
b) stylistic
c) connotative
20. What cannot be expressed by the connotative component?
a) stylistic coloring
b) emotion
c) evaluation
d) intensity
e) valency
21. What do we call an expression in speech of relationship between words based on contrastive features of ar-
rangements in which they occur?
a) valency
b) grammatical meaning
c) lexical meaning
22. What do we call elements of meaning, which can be combined in different ways with other such elements?
a) semantic components
b) lexical components
c) denotata
23. A word that has more than one meaning is called:
a) homonyms
b) polysemantic words
c) synonyms
24. The lexical meaning is:
a) the generalization of several traits of the object
b) the list of all the traits of the named object
c) the reflection of only one trait of the named object
25. The greater the relative frequancy of the word, the greater the number of elements that constitute its semantic
structure:
a) the less polysemantic it is
b) the more polysemantic it is
c) the more homonymous forms it has
26. The unity of one of the word's meaning and its form is called:
a) polycemy
b) homonymy
c) a lexico-grammatical variant
27. The usage of a word in a meaning that is not registered in the dictionary is called:
a) replication
b) unique usage
c) nonce usage
28. The meaning in speech is always:
a) contextual
b) original
c) independent of its dictionary meaning
29. What do we call the reflection in the mind of real objects and phenomena in their essential features and rela-
tions?
a) a referent
b) a notion
c) a class
30. According to S. Ulmann personal names are characterizes as:
a) identifying
b) signifying
c) one-facet
31. Notions are:
a) always emotionally colored
b) emotionally colored or neutral
c) always emotionally neutral
32. Notions are:
a) always stylistically marked
b) stylistically marked or neutral
c) always stylistically neutral
33. Words that can substitute any word of their class are called:
a) generic terms
b) primary lexico-grammatical variants
c) secondary lexico- grammatical variants
34. What do we call the procedure helping to determine elements of each meaning?
a) operation analysis
b) componential analysis
c) cutting
35. Most notions are:
a) international
b) culturally-motivated
c) referring to one single outlook
36. What do we call a meaning which nominates the object without the help of context?
a) figurative
b) direct
c) abstract
37. When an object is named and at the same time characterized through its similarity with another object, the
mean-ing is:
a) figurative
b) direct
c) abstract
38. What is the main meaning of a word?
a) its concrete meaning
b) its direct meaning
c) the meaning that at the present stage of the word's development possesses the highest frequency
39. Which style cannot be referred to the bookish styles?
a) poetical
b) general
c) scientific
d) professional
40. Which style cannot be referred to the colloquial styles?
a) general
b) literary colloquial
c) familiar
d) slang
41. The earliest known meaning is called:
a) archaic
b) original
c) etymological
42. The meaning superseded at the present day by another one is called:
a) archaic
b) original
c) etymological
43. The meaning serving as basis for derived ones is called:
a) archaic
b) original
c) etymological
44. What do we call the semantic change characterized by narrowing in meaning?
a) specification
b) specialization
c) generalization
45. What do we call the process reverse to the narrowing of meaning?
a) specialization
b) nominalization
c) generalization
46. What do we call a transfer of name based upon the association of similarity, a hidden comparison?
a) metaphor
b) metonymy
c) epithet
47. What do we call a transfer based on the association of contiguity?
a) metaphor
b) metonymy
c) epithet
48. An exaggerated statement expressing an intensely emotional attitude of the speaker to what he is speaking
about is called:
a) euphemism
b) hyperbole
c) litotes
49. A figure of speech characterized as expression of the affirmative by negating its opposite is called:
a) euphemism
b) hyperbole
c) litotes
50. What do we call a semantic shift undergone by words due to their referents coming up the social scale?
a) pejoration
b) amelioration
c) degradation

ТЕМЫ КУРСОВЫХ РАБОТ


Перечень тем
Примерная тематика курсовых работ по лексикологии английского языка
Словообразование
1.Аббревиация как продуктивный способ словообразования (на мат. газетных текстов)
2.Сокращения в газетных заголовках (на мат. газетных текстов)
3.Составные слова и способы их перевода на русский язык (на мат. газетных текстов)
4.Продуктивные модели словообразования (на мат. газетных текстов)
Семасиология
5.Развитие семантической структуры слова “head”.
6.Развитие семантической структуры слова “eye”.
7.Развитие семантической структуры слова “foot”.
8.Развитие семантической структуры слова “hand”.
9.Анализ ЛСГ прилагательных со значением ‘beautiful”.
10.Анализ ЛСГ существительных со значением “love”.
11.Анализ ЛСГ глаголов со значением “to say”.
12.Опыт компонентного анализа синонимического ряда с синонимической доминантой «умный» в
английском языке.
13. Опыт компонентного анализа синонимического ряда с синонимической доминантой «деньги» в
английском языке.
14. Опыт компонентного анализа синонимического ряда с синонимической доминантой «идти» в
английском языке.
15.Роль метафоры и метонимии в газетных заголовках (на мат. английского языка)
Заимствование
16.Англицизмы в тексте русской газеты.
17.Англицизмы в тексте русской рекламы.
18.Английские заимствования в области моды (на мат. русского языка).
19.Интернациональная лексика английского и русского языков.
Фразеология
20.ФЕ как источник страноведческой информации (на мат английского языка)
21.ФЕ с компонентом-именем собственным (женским) в английском языке.
22. ФЕ с компонентом-именем собственным (мужским) в английском языке.
23.ФЕ с компонентом-топонимом в английском языке.
24.Спортивные ФЕ в английском языке.
25.ФА лексических единиц со значением «деньги, денежные отношения».
26.ФА лексических единиц со значением «еда».
27.Десемантизация цветообозначений в английских пословицах.
28.Использование зооморфной метафоры при описании человека английских пословицах.

ТЕМЫ РЕФЕРАТОВ
Не предусмотрены

ЗАДАНИЯ К ЗАЧЕТУ/ЭКЗАМЕНУ
Перечень заданий /вопросов
1.Lexicology as a branch of linguistics..
2.The connection of lexicology with other branches of linguistics.
3.The characteristic features of the English vocabulary.
4.The etymological background of the English vocabulary. Native words in English.
5.The characteristic features of borrowings. Main groups of loan words.
6.Assimilation of borrowings in English.
7.Etymological doublets and international words.
8.Interrelation between native and borrowed words in English.
9.The morphological structure of English words.
10.The morphological analysis of English words.
11.Affixation in English. Types of affixes.
12.Conversion in English. Semantic relations within a converted pair.
13.Composition in English. The criteria of distinguishing word groups and compounds.
14.Shortening in English.
15.Minor types of word-building in English.
16.Semasiology. Main trends of semasiology.
17. The types of meaning.
18. Polysemy in English.
19. The main semantic processes of the development and change of meaning.
20. Homonymy in English.
21. Antonymy in English.
22. Synonymy in English.
23. Antonymy in English.
24. Specific features of free (variable) word-combinations and phraseological units in English.
25. The problem of classifying phraseological units.
26. The formal vocabulary in English.
27. The informal vocabulary in English.
28. Peculiarities of English in the USA.
29. Lexicography.

5-6 семестры (теоретическая грамматика)


ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
Раздел 1. Образец задания.
Single out cases of phatic communication and explain the functions of the phatic elements:
1. “Nice day again, isn’t it? Hm-hm. By the way, Jones … wouldn’t you do me a favour? The fact is, I’m sorry of
hard up. So… could you? I mean, I need a few shillings… Could you lend me – say – ten bob?”
2. “Good morning, Missis Partridge! How’s your leg, better?” “If you want to ask me money again, I am not
inclined to give you any more!” “No –no, I just wanted to ask how’s your leg, that’s all.” “Much better, thank
you.”

Раздел 2. Образец задания.


Do the morphemic analysis of the words on the lines of the traditional and distributional classifications.
MODEL: Do the morphemic analysis of the word inseparable:
On the lines of the traditional classification the word inseparable is treated as a three-morpheme word
consisting of the root -separ-, the prefix in- and the lexical suffix –able.
On the lines of the distributional analysis the root –separ- is a bound, overt, continuous, additive morpheme;
the prefix in- is bound, overt continuous, additive; the suffix –able is bound, overt, continuous, additive.
unmistakable, children’s (books), disfigured, underspecified, surroundings, presume, kingdom, brotherhood,
plentiful, imperishable, unprecedented, oxen, embodiment, outlandish.

Раздел 3. Образец задания.


Point out in the given situations the reduced grammatical forms, state the type of the oppositional reduction:
MODEL: You must remember that your son will be a what-you-call-him.
In this sentence we observe a transponized use of the phrase (the opposition is word-phrase) accompanied by a
stylistic effect: a what-you-call-him conveys a connotation of contempt and belongs to a colloquial register.
1. Did you ever see such a thing in your lives?
2. She had been brought out of her simple yeses and noes and had grown used to fulsome explanations.
3. She is too good, too kind, too clever, too learned, too accomplished, too everything.
4. That evening at knocking-off time she sends for me to come up to her apartment. I expected to have to
typewrite about 2,000 words of notes-of-hand, liens, and contracts, with a ten-cent tip in sight; but I went.
5. It was a wild, cold, unreasonable night of March, with a pale moon, lying on her back as though the wind had
tilted her.
Раздел 4. Образец задания.
Define part-of-speech characteristics of the underlined words:
1. I don’t know why it should be, I am sure; but the sight of another man asleep in bed when I am up, maddens
me.
2. He did not Madame anybody, even good customers like Mrs. Moore.
3. If ifs and ans were pots and pans there’d be no needs of tinkers.
4. Poor dears, they were always worrying about examinations …
5. “After all, I married you for better or for worse and Aunt Ada is decidedly the worse.

Раздел 5. Образец задания.


Comment on the oppositional reduction of the categorial nounal forms:
The category of number
1. Yet, every dim little star revolving around her, from her maid to the manager of the Italian Opera, knows her
weaknesses, prejudices, follies, haughtinesses, and caprices…
2. He won’t be retiring for another eighteen months.
3. In her grace, at once exquisite and hardy, she was that perfect type of American girl that makes one wonder if
the male is not being sacrificed to it, much as, in the last century, the lower strata in England were sacrificed to
produce the governing class.
4. He opened a second window and got into bed to shut his eyes on that night, but as soon as they were shut – as
soon as he had dropped off to sleep – the girl entered his mind, moving with perfect freedom through its shut
doors and filling chamber after chamber with her light, her perfume, and the music of her voice.
5. Man has a right to expect living passion and beauty in a woman.

Раздел 6. Образец задания.


Define the modal meanings actualized by the infinitive and infinitival complexes (possibility, necessity, desire,
expression of an actual fact):
1. There is Mr. Anthony Rizzoli here to see you.
2. I have a regiment of guards to do my bidding.
3. I never saw anybody to touch him in looks.
4. There is nothing in that picture to indicate that she was soon to be one of the most famous persons in France.
5. It was a sound to remember.

Раздел 7. Образец задания.


Define the syntagmatic meaning of the agentless passive form:
1. The entry was made through the door.
2. The definite article is used in the following cases.
3. Some mistakes in the foreign policy have been made.
4. Could we possibly have the TV switched off?
5. The devil isn’t so black as he is painted.

Раздел 8. Образец задания.


Comment on the use of the forms of superlative degree of the adjective and on the use of the words “more” and
“most” in the following sentences:
MODEL: It was a most unpleasant telephone call. This is the case of the elative “Most-construction”. The
morphological form “a most unpleasant” is not a superlative degree of the adjective but and elative form expressing
a high degree of the quality in question.
1. She who had been most upset and terrified at the morning’s discovery now seemed to regard the whole thing as
a personal insult (James).
2. The Fifth Symphony by Beethoven is a most beautiful piece of music.
3. I have been with good people, far better than you (CH. Bronte).
4. Sure, it’s difficult to do about in the wrongest way possible (Wilson).
5. The more we go into the thing, the more complex the matter becomes (Wilson).

Раздел 9. Образец задания.


Account for the peculiarity of the underlined word-forms:
1. I am the more bad because I realize where my badness lies.
2. Wimbledon will be yet more hot tomorrow.
3. The economies are such more vulnerable, such more weak.
4. Certainly, Ann was doing nothing to prevent Pride’s finally coming out of the everything into the here.
5. He turned out to be even more odd than I had expected.

Раздел 10. Образец задания.


Define the semantic type of the following sentences:
1. Once upon a time, there lived a boy, named Jack.
2. And one morning, he started to seek his fortune.
3. He is the best conference interpreter who knows 5 languages.
4. Meet my friend, he is Jack Brown, no, just Jack.
5. There must be some translation to do.

Раздел 11. Образец задания.


Account for the peculiarity of the following sentences:
1. You might write to Miss What’s-her-name and say we’re coming.
2. It’s the “Save Mrs. Lancaster” that I’m going to be busy with.
3. He felt much less vulnerable in jeans and a MEET ME IN FAIR VIEW T-shirt…
4. The idea that such off-the-wall-things as gypsy curses exist at all … is anathema to everything Michael
Houston has ever believed in.
5. This last was in a lower I’m-talking-to-myself voice, and was followed by a thump as Ginelli threw his
shoulder against the door.

Раздел 12. Образец задания.


Define the predicate of the sentence and its type:
1. You’ve come home such a beautiful lady. (Taylor)
2. He was said to be a great actor.
3. Catherine’s blood ran cold with the horrid suggestions which naturally sprang from these words. (J. Austen)
4. Wind southerly, later veering westward, sea slight.
5. “Splendid game, cricket,” remarked Mr. Barbecue-Smith heartily to no one in particular; “so thoroughly
English.” (Huxley
Раздел 13. Образец задания.
Restore the omitted parts of the following elliptical sentences:
1. He was fined for driving while under the influence.
2. Come as quick as poss.
3. - “Been married before?” - “Once.”
4. He was your father and a gentleman.
5. Four of them are ex-members of the party: one still a member.

Раздел 14. Образец задания.


Define the rheme of the sentence:
1. I made the trip out of here for curiosity, just to see where you were intending to go.
2. For it is the emotion that matters.
3. But it was sister Janet’s house that he considered his home.
4. It was here, though the place was shadeless and one breathed hot, dry perfume instead of air – it was here that
Mr. Scogan elected to sit.
5. Mr. Scogan liked to sit here, though the place was shadeless and one breathed hot, dry perfume instead of air.

Раздел 15. Образец задания.


Define the types of clauses constituting the following sentences:
1. And he uttered a groan which made a nursemaid turn and stare.
2. It was about the period of the Celtic awakening, and the discovery that there was Celtic blood about this family
had excited one who believed that he was a Celt himself.
3. As her invitation was so pressing, and observing that Carrie wished to go, we promised we would visit her the
next Saturday week.
4. Lupine, whose back was towards me, did not hear me come in.
5. I rather disapprove of his wearing a check suit on a Sunday, and I think he ought to have gone to church this
morning.
Раздел 16. Образец задания.
Define the types of clauses constituting the following sentences:
1. She was looking for a place where they might lunch, for Ashurst never looked for anything.
2. They were fleeting as one of the glimmering or golden visions one had of its remote and brooding spirits.
3. But in the last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the
wisest.
4. Can you ask me, then, whether I am ready to look into any new problem, however trivial it may prove?
5. I am about to write your cheque, however unwelcome the information which you have gained may be to
me.

Раздел 17. Образец задания.


Dwell on the means of cohesion in the given text fragments:
From O. Wilde “Lord Arthur Seville’s Crime”
MODEL: Ten minutes later, with face blanched by terror, and eyes wild with grief, Lord Arthur Seville rushed
from Bentinck House, crushing his way through the crowd of fur-coated footmen that stood round the large striped
awning, and seeming not to see or hear anything. The night was bitter cold, and the gas-lamps round the square
flared and flickered in the keen wind; but his hands were hot with fever, and his forehead burned like fire. On and
on he went, almost with the gait of a drunken man. A Policeman looked curiously at him as he passed, and a
beggar, who slouched from and archway to ask for alms, grew frightened, seeing misery greater than his own. Once
he stopped under a lamp, and looked at his hands. He thought he could detect the stain of blood already upon them,
and a faint cry broke from his trembling lips.
Murder! That is what the cheiromantist had seen there. Murder! The very night seemed to know it, and the
desolate wind to howl it in his ear. The dark corners of the streets were full of it. It grinned at him from the roof of
the houses.
First he came to the Park, whose sombre woodland seemed to fascinate him. He leaned wearily up to the
tremulous silence of the trees. “Murder! murder! He kept repeating, as though iteration could dim the horror of the
word. The sound of his voice made him shudder, yet he almost hoped that Echo might hear him, and wake the
slumbering city from its dreams. He felt a mad desire to stop the casual passer-by, and tell him everything,
The principal means of textual cohesion in this fragment is repetition of different kinds:
1) lexical repetition (repetition of the key word): “Murder! That is what the cheiromantist had seen there.
Murder!, the repetition of the pronouns: “he” and “it” (substituting “the murder”); repetition of the words used
to describe the background: “night”, “dark”, “wind”;
2) lexical synonymic repetition: “ with face blanched by terror”, “ the horror of the word”, “eyes wild with
grief”, “ seeing misery greater than his own”;
3) repetition of the verbs of motion: “ rushed, crashed the way through, on and on he went, he passed, came to
the Park”.
Among other means we find substitution (Lord Arthur Savile – he, his; the murder – it, the word,
everything) and representation: “Murder! murder! Her kept repeating” – “iteration”.
Besides, the function of connectors is performed by conjunctions (but, and, yet). Another means of textual
cohesion is contrast: “the night was bitter cold, and the gas-lams round the square flare and flickered in the keen
wind; but his hands were hot with fever, and his forehead burned like fire.”

ЗАДАНИЯ К ЗАЧЕТУ/ЭКЗАМЕНУ

Перечень заданий /вопросов


1. The levels of the language and the relations between them.
2. General characteristic of the grammatical structure of the English language.
3. The definition of the morpheme, types of morphemes.
4. The grammatical category, its types. The grammatical form.
5. The functional semantic category and its structure.
6. The criteria of classifying the lexicon into parts of speech.
7. The system of parts of speech in English. The field structure of parts of speech.
8. The English noun and its categories. The category of article determination.
9. Verb as a part of speech. Subclasses of verbs.
10. The grammatical category of tense. The grammatical category of aspect.
11. The grammatical category of mood.
12. The grammatical category of time correlation. The grammatical category of voice.
13. Adjective as a part of speech. The prototypical structure of the class of adjectives.
14. Adverb as a part of speech. Subclasses of adverbs.
15. The problem of the sentence definition and its level belonging.
16. The main categories of the sentence: predicativity, modality, negation.
17. The structural aspect of the sentence.
18. The semantic aspect of the sentence. The correlation of the structure and the semantics of the
sentence.
19. The communicative aspect of the sentence. Communicative types of the sentence.
20. The actual division of the sentence.
21. The syntax of the phrase.
22. The compound sentence and its types. The semi-compound sentence.
23. The complex sentence and its types. The semi-complex sentence.
24. The grammar of the text.

7-8 семестры (стилистика)

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ
К каждому из практических занятий по курсу «Основы теории английского языка» разработана
система теоретико-практических вопросов, выполняя которые, студент осваивает учебный материал
по дисциплине.

Список теоретико-практических заданий для практических и лабораторных занятий по дисциплине


прилагается.

Семестр 1.
Practice 1
ASSIGNMENTS
1. What is the origin of the word style?
2. What are the main trends in style study?
3. What is functional study?
4. What functional styles do you know?
5. What do you about individual style study?
6. What is the main concern of practical stylistics.
7. What is common to all of the trends in style study?
8. What does "foregrounding" mean?
9. What types of lexical meanings do you know?
10. Name the major stylistic groups of the vocabulary.
11. What are the main subgroups of special literary words?
12. What are the main subgroups of the special colloquial words?

Литература
1. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка. М., Просвещение, 1990.
2. Арнольд И.В., Дьяконова Н.Я. Аналитическое чтение. Английская проза 18-20 веков. Л.,
Просвещение, 1967.

Practice 2
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What can you say about the meaning of a word and its relation to the concept of an entity?
2. What types of lexical meaning do you know and what stipulates their existence and differentiation?
3. What connotational meanings do you know? Dwell on each of them, providing your own examples.
4. What is the role of the context in meaning actualization?
5. What registers of communication are reflected in the stylistic differentiation of the vocabulary?
6. Speak about general literary words illustrating your elaboration with examples from nineteenth- and twentieth-
century prose.
7. What are the main subgroups of special literary words?
8. What do you know of terms, their structure, meaning, functions?
9. What are the fields of application of archaic words and forms?
10. Can you recognize general colloquial words in a literary text? Where do they mainly occur?
11. What are the main characterictics of slang?
12. What do you know of professional and social jargonisms?
13. What connects the stock of vulgarisms and social history?
14. What is the place and the role of dialectal words in the national language? in the literary text?
15. To provide answers to the above questions find words belonging to different stylistic groups and subgroups: a)
in the dictionary, specifying its stylistic mark ("label"); b) in your reading material, specifying the type of
discourse, where you found it-authorial speech (dialogue, narration), description, etc.

Литература
1. Гальперин И.Р. Стилистика английского языка. М., Высшая школа, 1981.
2. Гюббенет И.В. Основы филологической интерпретации литературно-художественного текста. М.,
Изд. МГУ, 1991.

Practice 3
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What is sound-instrumenting?
2. What cases of sound-instrumenting do you know?
3. What is graphon?
4. What types and functions of graphon do you know?
5. What is achieved by the graphical changes of writing-its type, the spacing of graphemes and lines?
6. Which phono-graphical means are predominantly used in prose and which ones in poetry?

Литература
1. Иванова Т.П., Брандес О.Н. Стилистическая интерпретация текста. М., Высшая школа, 1991.
2. Кузнец М.Д., Скребнев Ю.М. Стилистика английского языка. Л., Учпедгиз, 1960.

Practice 4
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What is sound-instrumenting?
2. What cases of sound-instrumenting do you know?
3. What is graphon?
4. What types and functions of graphon do you know?
5. What is achieved by the graphical changes of writing-its type, the spacing of graphemes and lines?
6. Which phono-graphical means are predominantly used in prose and which ones in poetry?

Литература
1. Кухаренко В.А. Практикум по стилистике английского языка. М., Высшая школа, 1986.
2. Пелевина Н.Ф. Стилистический анализ художественного текста. Л., Просвещение, 1980.

Семестр 2
Practice 1
ASSIGNMENTS
1. What is a metaphor?
2. What is the difference between fresh and trite metaphors?
3. What is a metonymy?
4. What are antonomasia and synecdoche?
5. What is a pun?
6. What is a zeugma?
7. What is the bask effect achieved by the play on words?
8. What is a hyperbole?
9. What is understatement? In what way does it differ from hyperbole?
10. What is an oxymoron? What meanings are foregrounded in its formation?
Литература
1. Раевская Н.Н. Очерки по стилистической грамматике английского языка. Киев, Изд-во Киевского
ун-та, 1973.
2. Разинкина Н.М. Функциональная стилистика английского языка. М., Высшая школа, 1989.

Practice 2
ASSIGNMENTS
1.What are the upper limit and the lower mark of sentence length?
2. Is there any correlation between the length and the structure of the sentence?
3. Name the types of complex sentence structures and characterize them.
4. What punctuation marks do you know and what is their stylistic potential?
5. What is a rhetorical question?
6. What is repetition?
7. What types of repetition do you know?
8. What is inversion?
9. What is suspense?
10. How is suspense arranged and what is its function?
11. What do you know about detachment ?
12. What punctuation marks are used with detached sentence members?

Литература
1. Скребнев Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка. М., Астрель, 2000.
2. Akhmanova O., Rolandas F. What is the English we use? A course in Practical Stylistics. M., University
Press, 1978.

Practice 3
Assignments for Self-Control
1. What types of language communication do you know?
2. What are the main characteristics of oral speech?
3. Enumerate functional styles of contemporary English.|
4. What do you know about the scientific style?
5. Characterize the official style.
6. Discuss the peculiarities of the newspaper style.
7. What are the main features of the publicist style?
8. What is the status of belles-lettres style among other functional styles?
9. What dichotomies between the types and the forms of language communication do you know? Do they
correlate?
10. Can you think of any intermediate styles, boasting of qualities of two or even more "regular" styles?

Литература
1. Galperin I.R. An essay in stylistic analysis. M., Higher School Publishing House, 1968.
2.Kukharenko V.A. Seminars in style. M., Higher school. 1971.
3.Soshalskaya E.G., Prokhorova V.I. Stylistic analysis. M., Higher school, 1976.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ЗАЧЕТУ (7 семестр)


Do the stylistic analysis of the following texts according to this plan:

1. Read the passage given for analysis to the end.


2. Be sure you understand not only its general content but every single word and construction, too.
3. Paying due respect to linguistic intuition which is an indispensable part of all linguistic work, be sure to look for
the source of your "feeling of the text" in the material reality of the latter.

1. My dad had a small insurance agency in Newport. He had moved there because his sister had married old
Newport money and was a big wheel in the Preservation Society, At fifteen I'm an orphan, and Vie moves in,
"From now on you'll do as I tell you," he says. It impressed me. Vie had never really shown any muscle before,
(N.Travis)
2. And out of the quiet it came to Abramovici that the battle was over, it had left him alive; it had been a battle - a
battle! You know where people go out and push little buttons and pull little triggers and figure out targets and aim
with the intention to kill, to tear your guts, to blow out your brains, to put great ragged holes in the body you've
been taking care of and feeding and washing all your life, holes out of which your blood comes pouring, more
blood than you ever could wash off, hold back, stop with all the bandages in the world! (St. Heym)

3. From that day on, thundering trains loomed in his dreams - hurtling, sleek, black monsters whose stack pipes
belched gobs of serpentine smoke, whose seething fireboxes coughed out clouds of pink stars, whose pushing
pistons sprayed jets of hissing steam-panting trains that roared yammeringly over farflung, gleaming rails only to
come to limp and convulsive halts - long, fearful trains that were hauled brutally forward by red-eyed locomotives
that you loved watching as they (and you trembling) crashed past (and you longing to run but finding your feet
strangely glued to the ground). (R. Wright)

4. "This is Willie Stark, gents. From up home at Mason City. Me and Willie was in school together. Yeah, and
Willie, he was a bookworm, and he was teacher's pet. Wuzn't you, Willie?" And Alex nudged the teacher's pet in
the ribs. (R. W.)

ЗАДАНИЯ К ЭКЗАМЕНУ (8 семестр)


Examination questions
1. Main Trends in Style Study. Functional Stylistic. Stylistics of Artistic Speech. Individual Style Study.
Decoding Stylistics. Practical Stylistics.
2. Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary. Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words. Neutral Words.
3. Graphical and phonetic means. Graphon. Italics. Capitalization. Hyphenation. Multiplication. Phoneme.
Sound instrumenting. Alliteration. Assonance.
4. Trope as a stylistic device. Semantic structure of Metaphor. Personification.
5. Epithet as lexico-semantic trope. Types of epithets.
6. Lexico-syntactical Stylistic Devices. Antithesis. Simile. Disguised similes. Litotes. Specific structure of
Litotes. Periphrasis. Climax. Its types.
7. Syntactical Stylistic Devices. Sentence. Main characteristics of the sentence. Sentence structure. Sentence
length. One-word sentences. Intonation. Punctuation. Rhetorical question. Repetition and its types.
Inversion. Partial and complete inversion. Suspence. Detachment. Attechment. Polysyndeton. Asyndeton.
8. Functional Styles. Colloquial and literary type of communication. Functional styles: scientific, official,
publicist, newspaper, belles-lettres styles.
9. Metonymy. Its structure. Synecdoche.

4. Методические материалы, определяющие процедуры оценивания знаний, умений,


навыков и (или) опыта деятельности, характеризующих этапы формирования компетенций

Методические указания студентам по изучению дисциплины «Основы теории английского


языка»
Основным видом учебных занятий по курсу «Основы теории английского языка» являются
лекционные и практические занятия.
Основная цель курса – ознакомить студентов с основными положениями теории английского языка
(учитываются как традиционные, так и современные подходы к проблемам теории языка).

Работа на лекции
На лекциях студенты получают самые необходимые данные, во многом дополняющие учебники
(или их заменяющие с последними достижениями науки).
Запись лекций рекомендуется вести по возможности собственными формулировками. Желательно
запись осуществлять на одной странице, а следующую оставлять для проработки учебного материала
самостоятельно в домашних условиях. Конспект лучше подразделять на пункты, параграфы, соблюдая
красную строку. Принципиальные места, определения, формулы следует сопровождать замечаниями:
"важно", "особо важно", "хорошо запомнить" и т.п. Целесообразно разработать собственную
"маркографию" (значки, символы), сокращения слов.
Подготовка к практическим занятиям.
Приступая к подготовке темы практического занятия, студенты должны, прежде всего, внимательно
ознакомиться с его планом (по планам практических занятий), а также учебной программой по данной
теме. Необходимо далее изучить соответствующие конспекты лекций и главы учебников, ознакомиться
с дополнительной литературой, рекомендованной к этому занятию. Предлагается к наиболее важным и
сложным вопросам темы составлять конспекты ответов. Студенты должны готовить все вопросы
соответствующего занятия и, кроме того, обязаны уметь давать определения основным категориям и
понятиям, предложенным для запоминания к каждой теме семинаров.
Отвечать на тот или иной вопрос учащимся рекомендуется наиболее полно и точно, при этом нужно
уметь логически грамотно выражать и обосновывать свою точку зрения, свободно оперировать
научными понятиями и категориями.
Практические занятия преподаватель может проводить в различных формах: обсуждение вопросов
темы, выполнение письменных работ, заслушивание докладов по отдельным вопросам и их обсуждение на
занятии.

Контроль
4 семестр (экзамен)
В экзаменационный билет включено два теоретических вопроса и практическое
задание, соответствующие содержанию формируемых компетенций. Экзамен проводится в
устной форме. На ответ и выполнение практического задания студенту отводится 45 минут. За
ответ на теоретические вопросы студент может получить максимально 66 баллов, за
выполнение практического задания 34 балла. Перевод баллов в оценку: 85-100 баллов =
отлично, 70-84 баллов = хорошо, 50-69 = удовлетворительно, 0-49 баллов =
неудовлетворительно.
Тестирование проводится после освоения каждой темы. На тестирование отводится 10
– 50 (в зависимости от темы) минут. Каждый вариант тестовых заданий включает от 10 до 50
вопросов. За каждый правильно отвеченный вопрос дается 1 балл. Перевод баллов в оценку:
85-100% = отлично, 70-84% = хорошо, 50-69% = удовлетворительно, 0-49% =
неудовлетворительно.

7 семестр (зачет)
В билет на зачете включено два теоретических вопроса, соответствующие содержанию
формируемых компетенций. Зачет проводится в устной форме. На ответ студенту отводится 35 минут.
За ответ на каждый теоретический вопрос студент может получить максимально 50 баллов. Перевод
баллов в оценку:
0-49 баллов – не зачтено
50-100 – зачтено.

8 семестр (экзамен)
В экзаменационный билет включено два теоретических вопроса, соответствующие содержанию
формируемых компетенций. Экзамен проводится в устной форме. На ответ студенту отводится 35
минут. За ответ на каждый теоретический вопрос студент может получить максимально 50 баллов.
Перевод баллов в оценку:
0-49 баллов – неудовлетворительно
50-69 – удовлетворительно
70-84 – хорошо
85-100 – отлично.