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PAB 2024

DRILLING ENGINEERING

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
OBJECTIVES
 At the end of this session, student will be able
to:

 Describe the applications of directional drilling


techniques
 Define the terms: KOP, BUR, Tangent section of
the well trajectory
 Perform calculation for well trajectory operation

FMN – July07
CONTENTS
 Introduction

 Applications

 Reference Systems

 Profile Planning

FMN – July07
INTRODUCTION
 It is easy to drill a vertical well from the rig. But how
to drill at location far away from the rig?

MEAN SEA LEVEL

SEABED

WELL 3
WELL 1

WELL 2

FMN – July07
INTRODUCTION

 Directional or deviated drilling is the science of


directing a wellbore along a predetermined
trajectory to intersect a designated sub-surface
target

 There are many reasons for drilling a deviated


well:
 Multiwell Platform drilling
 Fault drilling
 Inaccessible Location
 Sidetracking
 Salt dome Drilling
 Relief Wells

FMN – July07
APPLICATION

Multiwell Drilling Fault Drilling Inaccessible Location

Sidetracking Salt Dome Drilling Relief Drilling

FMN – July07
REFERENCE SYSTEM
 The position of the target must be expressed with
respect to a 3D reference system:
 The vertical depth below the reference point (i.e. platform)
 The horizontal distance traversed from the wellhead in a
Northerly direction
 The distance traversed from the wellhead in an Easterly
direction

FMN – July07
REFERENCE SYSTEM (cont’d)
Depth Reference:
 Datum: RTE /RKB
MSL
• Mean Sea Level (MSL)
• Rotary Table Elevation
(RTE) or Rotary Kelly
Bushing (RKB)
TVD
 Depth of a point:
• Along Hole Depth (AHD)
• True Vertical Depth (TVD) AHD

FMN – July07
REFERENCE SYSTEM (cont’d)
Geographical Reference:
 Lateral displacement in
terms of:
• Feet or Meter from WH in
Northerly and Easterly
direction
• Degrees of latitude or
longitude
 Coordinates
• Local origin will be selected
as 0,0

FMN – July07
DEVIATED WELL PROFILE
 There are three types of deviated well
profile:
Deep Kick Off
Build and Hold
S-shaped

FMN – July07
WELLPATH PARAMETERS
 There are 3
parameters which
must be considered
while planning

 Kick-Off Point (KOP)


α
 Build-Up Rate
(BUR) or Drop-Off
Rate (DOR)
 Tangent Angle α

FMN – July07
KICK-OFF POINT (KOP)

 KOP is the AHD at which a change in inclination of the well


is initiated and the well is orientated in a particular direction
(in terms of N, S, E, W)

 Generally, it is easier to kick off a well in shallow formations


than in deep formations

 Kick off should also be initiated in a stable formation and not


likely to cause drilling problems, i.e. unconsolidated clay

FMN – July07
BUILD-UP RATE / DROP-OFF RATE
 BUR and DOR are the rates at which the well deviates from
the vertical - usually in degrees per 100 ft drilled (θ°/100 ft)

 The rate is chosen based on the drilling experience in the


location and tools available

 Normally, in conventional well, the rate between 1o – 3o/100 ft


are used

 Since the rate is constant, these section of the well form the
arc of a circle

 BUR more than 3o/100 ft is often called dogleg


FMN – July07
TANGENT or DRIFT ANGLE
 Tangent (drift) angle is the inclination of the long
straight section of the well after the BU or DO
section of the well – in degrees from the vertical

 Generally, the tangent angle will be between 10o to 60o.


Why?
• Difficult to control the trajectory of the well at angles
below 10o
• Difficult to run wireline tools into wells at angles
greater than 60o

FMN – July07
PLANNING A WELL PROFILE
 Take a common well trajectory – Build and Hold
Profile

 Required information:
 AHD of the KOP
 TVD and horizontal displacement of the target
 BUR for the BU section
 TVD and horizontal displacement at which the BU stops
and tangent section commences
 Direction in which the well is to be drilled after the KOP,
in degrees from North (defined by position of rig and
target)
FMN – July07
EXAMPLE
The planning procedure for the build and hole
trajectory is best illustrated by considering the
following example

Basic Data:
KOP - 2,000 ft
TVD of target - 10,000 ft
Horizontal Disp of Target - 3,000 ft
BUR - 2 degrees/100 ft

FMN – July07
EXAMPLE (cont’d)
1. Find radius or R of the build up
section:

36000 36000
R= = = 2866.24 ft
2π (BUR ) 2π (2 )

2. Note that angle TEY = BOE.


From this information the distances
BX, XE, BE, EY can be calculated.

FMN – July07
EXAMPLE (cont’d)
3. Calculate the tangent angle, α
of the well (angle TEY):

3000 − R
tan x =
8000
⇒ x = 0.96°
α
R cos x
sin y =
8000
⇒ y = 20.99°

∴ α = x + y = 21.95°
FMN – July07
EXAMPLE (cont’d)
A
4. Calculate AHD at the end of
build section, AE = AB + BE

 2πR 
BE =   × α = 1097.5 ft
 360  E

∴ AE = 2000 + 1097.5 = 3097.5 ft

5. Calculate TVD at the end of


build section, AX = AB + BX X

BX = R sin α = 1071.39 ft
∴ AX = 2000 + 1071.39 = 3071.39 ft

FMN – July07
EXAMPLE (cont’d)
A
6. Calculate displacement at the
end of build, XE

XE = OB − OP = R − R cos α
= 207.77 ft E

7. Calculate AHD of target,


AT = AE + ET X

3000 − XE
ET = = 7470.3 ft
sin α
T
∴ AT = 3097.5 + 7470.3 = 10567.8 ft
FMN – July07
EXERCISE
A well will be drilled with a Type 1(Build & Hold)
profile.

KOP - 2500 ft
TVD of target - 8000 ft
Horizontal Disp of Target - 3500 ft
BUR - 2.5 degrees/100 ft

Calculate drift angle, TVD and horizontal


displacement at the end of build up section, and
the AHD of the target.
FMN – July07