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Журнал для тех,

No. 11 кто преподает


и изучает английский язык
eng.1september.ru Учебно-методический журнал Английский язык

A smiling face
is half the meal.
Proverb

Topic:
FOOD
ноябрь
1september.ru
20
013
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК Подписка по каталогу “Почта России”. Индексы: 79002 (бумажная версия), 12630 (электронная)
INSIDE
NEWS IN BRIEF
выходит
'Sleep – Key to Tackling Obesity' ........................ 3 1 раз в месяц Издание основано в 1992 г.
TEXTS FOR READING
Breakfast at Work Is Главный редактор: Алёна Громушкина
'Growing Trend Calling for More Innovation' ......... 4 Консультанты: Stephen Lapeyrouse, Erin Bouma
British, American and Russian Cuisine................ 50 Научный редактор: Г.Гумовская
Корректура: М.Гардер
The American Fast Food Industry ...................... 54
Набор, верстка: Г.Струкова
Food Rules ........................................................ 54
METHODS OF TEACHING ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ДОМ “ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ”
Discipline Problems: Reasons and Solutions .......... 5 Главный редактор
А.Соловейчик (генеральный директор)
Применение средств ИКТ для обучения Коммерческая деятельность
чтению английских буквосочетаний .................... 7 К.Шмарковский (финансовый директор)
Развитие, IT и координация проектов
Облако слов как средство совершенствования С.Островский (исполнительный директор)
навыков монологической и диалогической речи Реклама, конференции и техническое обеспечение
на уроках английского языка .............................. 8 П.Кузнецов
Производство
This is very confusing, isn't it? .............................10 С.Савельев
Проект “Юный повар” .....................................12 Административно-хозяйственное обеспечение
А.Ушков
Прививаем вкус к английскому Педагогический университет
на примере шоколадного перфекта ................... 59 В.Арсланьян (ректор)
CREATIVE WRITING ГАЗЕТА ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО ДОМА:
Food for Thought ...............................................13 Первое сентября – Е.Бирюкова
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
ЖУРНАЛЫ ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО ДОМА:
Фрукты и овощи ...............................................14 Английский язык – А.Громушкина,
The Club of Merry Библиотека в школе – О.Громова,
and Quick-Witted Children ............................... 42 Биология – Н.Иванова,
География – О.Коротова,
Food. Брейн-ринг ............................................. 45 Дошкольное образование – Д.Тюттерин,
FOCUS ON LANGUAGE Здоровье детей – Н.Сёмина,
Информатика – С.Островский,
Cooking Instructions ...........................................17 Искусство – О.Волкова,
Fruit Idioms .......................................................17 История – А.Савельев,
Food Vocabulary Game .......................................18 Классное руководство
и воспитание школьников – М.Битянова,
Food Vocabulary Quiz ........................................18 Литература – С.Волков,
LESSON PLANS Математика – Л.Рослова,
Начальная школа – М.Соловейчик,
Tasty Journey with Billy.......................................19 Немецкий язык – М.Бузоева,
Food ..................................................................21 ОБЖ – А.Митрофанов,
Food: Fruits and Vegetables ............................... 23 Русский язык – Л.Гончар,
Спорт в школе – О.Леонтьева,
Daily Life.......................................................... 25 Технология – А.Митрофанов,
TOPICAL JOURNEY Управление школой – Е.Рачевский,
Физика – Н.Козлова,
Food ................................................................. 27 Французский язык – Г.Чесновицкая,
SCHOOL THEATRE Химия – О.Блохина,
The Turnip .........................................................41 Школа для родителей – Д.Тюттерин,
Школьный психолог – И.Вачков
FOR YOUNG READERS
Champion Game "Food" .................................... 46 Подписные индексы
PREPARING FOR EXAMS По каталогу Почта России:
бумажная версия 79002; электронная версия 12630
Food ................................................................. 47
TESTS Учредитель: ООО “Чистые пруды”
Зарегистрировано ПИ № ФС77-44339 от 21.03.11
Five-Minute Tests ............................................. 47 в Министерстве РФ по делам печати
FOCUS ON LITERATURE Подписано в печать: по графику 15.10.13, фактически 15.10.13
Отпечатано в ОАО “Первая Образцовая типография”
Chocolat ............................................................55 Филиал “Чеховский Печатный Двор”
YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION ул. Полиграфистов, д. 1, Московская область, г. Чехов, 142300
Сайт: www.chpd.ru. E-mail: sales@chpk.ru
Cultural Diversity and Food Styles Факс: 8(496)-726-54-10, 8(495)-988-63-76
to Complement the Participants Цена свободная Заказ № Тираж 21875 экз.
of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics .................... 58
Between the Continents: Адрес редакции и издателя:
American Reality with Russian Eyes ................... 60 ул. Киевская, д. 24, Москва, 121165
Телефон: (499) 249-0640 Тел./факс: (499) 249-3138
E-mail: eng@1september.ru
Отдел рекламы: (499) 249-9870
This sign indicates additional materials on CD.
www.1september.ru
Front page: Giuseppe Arcimboldo. Rudolf II as Vertumnus. Издательская подписка: (499) 249-4758
Unless otherwise indicated images in this issue are from shutterstock.com E-mail: podpiska@1september.ru
NEWS IN BRIEF English

Teaching ‘SLEEP – KEY TO 3


November2013

TACKLING OBESITY’
Is Like Cooking The focus in the fight to tackle obesity tends to be diet
and exercise. But what about sleep?
Dr. Neil Stanley argues getting a good night’s rest is just
Browsing the net in search for materials on topic as important.
“Food” (a tasty part of our Topical Journey) we It is an undeniable fact that we have a problem with obesity
came across an article by an English teacher. We be- in the UK. The government and the NHS rightly believe that for
the health of the nation, levels of obesity need to be reduced.
lieve it will ring the bell with many of our readers. So we have campaigns based on eating less and more
healthily, such as “5-a-day” and exercise - “10,000 steps a
The hardest part about teaching is the monotony. It is
day” and the “Change for Life” initiative.
hard work coming up with new lessons day after day. But
However, given recent reports, these efforts, whilst very
teaching is only monotonous while the teacher is uncre- well-meaning, are seemingly having absolutely no effect on
ative, unadventurous, and inexperienced (I hope!). Re- reducing levels of obesity or increasing rates of exercising.
ally, teaching is just like cooking. The conventional line is that this is because we are all vic-
At first, I felt like there was but one ingredient: infor- tims of the “aggressive advertising” and “easy availability” of
mation. I was given a pile of information. The information sugary and fatty foods and/or that we are addicted to computer
looked all the same: black words on white paper. My in- games/TV/Facebook etc.
stinct was to feed it to the children raw, in a lecture. I didn’t It is possibly true that in the past we did move a bit more than
know any better. I didn’t know what else to do. My interac- modern children, but I seem to remember that sugary and fatty
tion with the information was embarrassingly rudimentary. foods were just as “aggressively” advertised and easily avail-
I chewed the information on my own, then regurgitated the able.
information before the class and said, “Isn’t this delicious?” Perhaps there is some other reason why the “eat less,
The class was not impressed, but they were content be- move more” advice is not working. What if we simply cannot
cause at least they did not have to think very hard. help ourselves? And that, from a physiological point of view,
Later on, I learned to be more objective. I would say, we actually crave junk food and don’t want to exercise?
“Note the different textures. See the different shades of So what might be the answer?
color. Sometimes, here, the information is bitter. This in- Numerous studies have shown a significant association be-
formation is very sweet.” I would ask, “Which parts do you tween short sleep duration and being overweight or obese in
think are the most delicious?” Ambitiously I would add, “… both children and adults.
and why?” The good students had opinions. These were And I believe that it is more than coincidence that, over the
my favorite students. I loved them. I blessed their parents. last 40 years, as there has been a reduction in our sleep dura-
The cheeky students said, “The whole thing is disgusting.” tion, there has also been a rise in the number of people who
I loved them, too. Some students bothered me. These are overweight or obese.
students did not say anything at all. They were not even Using FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), poor
sleep has been shown to affect the brain areas responsible for
listening.
complex decision-making and response to rewards causing us
One day, in a horrifying moment of self-realization, I
to favour unhealthy foods. Poor sleep also causes changes in
realized I was feeding my students vats of ketchup like it
the levels of our hunger hormones.
was soup. It was not the students’ fault that they were not
There is a decrease in the level of leptin – which regulates
paying attention. They were right to be disgusted. I was a food intake and signals when we have enough food, while the
horrible cook. level of ghrelin – which stimulates appetite, fat production and
I tried to spice things up by putting the information in dif- body growth – rises.
ferent packages, like smearing ketchup on toast. I disguised Research suggests this causes 24% higher feelings of hun-
the information as a game. Even the students who never ger, a 23% increase in overall appetite but a 33% increased
listened perked up at that novelty. I baked the ketchup into desire for high-fat, high-carbohydrate foods making us feel
cupcakes and had the students work in small groups. Over that we have had insufficient food and thus encouraging us
several weeks, I designed an entire ketchup buffet, with stu- to increase food intake. Short sleep has also been shown to
dents reciting and presenting and talking. Once or twice I increase our urge to snack between meals and causes us to
cooked up a ketchup sensation, as harmonious as ketchup excessively season our food, eat fewer vegetables, buy more
and french fries. But occasionally I would cook up a ketchup junk food and buy more food overall. So the availability and
disaster. My disgusting novelty ketchup treats were mak- advertising of junk food is seen as the problem.
ing my students wary of ketchup. And now that my lessons However, the simple fact is that because of poor sleep,
were more demanding, my students couldn’t just zone out; you may actually physiologically want to eat these foods re-
they had to work and think. My students started getting rest- gardless of the efforts of the multi-national purveyors of junk
less. food – though this is in no way trying to absolve them of their
The good news is that after trying all those experimen- responsibilities. But be honest – when you are sleepy, which
tal techniques, I now have a stack of them at my disposal. would you prefer: an apple or a cupcake?
I just have to match them up with the proper ingredients. The “eat less, move more” message, no matter how it is
Then I have to learn how to serve them in the right order. presented and how much money is spent on its promotion, is
obviously not working – and I would contend that, in isolation, it
cannot work. Up until now, there has been no serious govern-
We hope that materials collected in this issue will ment or NHS advice or guidance about sleep, no multi-million
supply you with good ingredients and save your time pound campaigns – they haven’t even appointed a scientist off
when you are cooking up lessons in the future. the telly as a “Sleep Tsar”.
We wish your students will come to class hungry
By Dr. Neil Stanley, Independent sleep expert
and excited to eat, and every lesson will be deli-
Source: BBC News
cious!
English TEXTS FOR READING

4 BREAKFAST AT WORK IS ‘GROWING


November 2013

TREND CALLING FOR MORE INNOVATION’


Consumer research has revealed the latest cuit or bar option which could be nibbled away at
data on the first meal of the day and urges food until lunchtime, for example.
brands to offer more convenience, portability and “Alternatively, manufacturers could look to de-
easily stored products for the workplace. velop male consumers’ take-up of breakfast prod-
This latest research has made it clear that busy ucts. Women currently consume five times more
lifestyles are having a major impact on the way breakfast biscuit products than men. With biscuit
that people in the United Kingdom eat breakfast. campaigns focusing heavily on weight loss, for ex-
The food and drink research group MMR Re- ample, this is hardly surprising. A breakfast biscuit
search Worldwide says that one in seven people or cereal bar option which appealed to male oc-
now eats breakfast outside the home. casions and interests could really cut through the
market,” added Adam Curtis.
MMR Research Worldwide is a leading re-
search partner for food, drink and household and
personal care companies with offices in the UK,
United States, Singapore and China.
With expertise in sensory research, product test-
ing, packaging innovation and emotion-based re-
search, MMR provides innovative, creative and sci-
entifically robust research and is a trusted adviser on
all product, brand and packaging strategy decisions.
MMR’s clients have access to a variety of unique
proprietary research assets including Brandphonics
– an approach to identify what influences consumer
choice – and in-house sensory facilities.
One of MMR’s recent developments is a system
to identify early rules of success (Eros) for a new
product, putting customers at the forefront of ear-
ly-stage product development to help shape suc-
cessful products quickly and “right first time”. MMR
has developed Eros as a one-day workshop-style
research technique that puts switched-on con-
sumers together with a company’s marketing and
research and development (R&D) teams. These
groups work closely together through a structured
process, reaching a detailed understanding of
Recipe for research: MMR’s research, which targeted nearly 500 what a product needs to deliver to appeal strongly
consumer testing helps to consumers via a Smartphone app, also found that to consumers and fit perfectly against a brand’s
shape manifacturers’ product, most of breakfasts enjoyed outside of the home intended market position.
brand and packaging are eaten in the workplace (69 per cent). “We see many companies bringing the con-
strategy decisions. Adam Curtis, associate director at MMR, ex- sumer in towards the end of the product develop-
plained the implications for manufacturers, say- ment process to simply validate a product or to
Image: MMR ing: “The ‘breakfast at work’ occasion is becoming score their ‘most liked’ formulation from a final
hard to ignore, as more workers choose to eat the shortlist,” said Mat Lintern, MMR’s managing di-
first meal of their day at their work station. rector. “This is too late.
“This has created an increased demand for “In today’s competitive markets, a successful
breakfast options to be convenient, easily storable product is often one that represents the best pos-
and portable. For many manufacturers, breakfast sible match between the sensory experience of a
biscuits have provided the answer to these needs. product and the intended positioning of a brand.
“We have already seen Weetabix following the It’s about more than liking, and Eros really helps
likes of Kellogg’s – with Nutri-Grain, and Kraft – our clients to understand how to design products
with Belvita – with the launch of Weetabix On The to leverage emotional connections and create truly
Go Breakfast biscuits, and Kellogg’s is continuing differentiated and rewarding propositions.”
to proliferate its range of snacking options with tar- MMR has already completed Eros projects for
geted products such as Special K Cracker Crisps some food, drink and personal care manufactur-
and Biscuit Moments. With one in ten consum- ers. Food and drink brands are realising its po-
ers already regularly purchasing breakfast biscuit tential not only for new product development, but
options, this relatively new category is already also for product renovation and better category
quickly catching up more established cereal bar understanding.
options,” said Curtis. MMR is part of the MMR Group that is a privately
“We see the breakfast-at-work occasion repre- owned research company employing 130 people.
senting a real focus for manufacturers this year, Founded in 1989 by Professor David Thomson, the
but there is still vast scope to develop this market. group is headquartered in Oxfordshire, England.
We see potential for products to cater for both the
breakfast and mid-morning snack windows; a bis- By Elizabeth Strong
METHODS OF TEACHING English

DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS:
5
November2013

REASONS AND SOLUTIONS


When I first started working at school, I was • We teachers may seem incompetent, boring,
already the mother of three children, and a uni- strict, or plain ugly to them.
versity lecturer with years of experience behind • Children’s attitude and behaviour towards their
me. My maternal grandmother became a teacher teachers may change swiftly, depending on
at the age of fifteen, and a school headmistress the grades they get from us, and the current
at the age of 24. A family gathering for me meant theme.
a large number of people getting together, with
many adults and a dozen children. Since birth, The list is endless. I would suggest that we
I absorbed two very important facts: one, a lot look at ourselves as teachers first. Any beginning
of children means a lot of noise; and two, when teacher knows how hard it is to open that door
someone starts speaking, other people stop talk- and face a new class. What should one do if the
ing and listen. My Granny never raised her voice, children act out, shout, run around, and refuse to
yet we all heard her. What I also remember is the cooperate?
feeling of intense happiness when she came in,
and the feeling was always reflected on her face Be Prepared
when she looked at us. Her pupils used to tell us Before entering a classroom for the first time
how she greeted them daily, and taught them to ever, and for the first time at the beginning of the
greet her in the same way. Later in life, I adopted new academic year or term, sit down and think:
many of her methods. “This is my classroom, these are my rules”. I
come in and say, “Hello children, I am so happy
There are many factors which influence a pu- to see you!” It takes one or two lessons before
pil’s behaviour at school. they begin to respond, “Hello teacher, we are
• If a child comes from a dysfunctional family, happy to see you!” I do this exercise with teach-
has an abusive or too strict parent, then this ers at various courses and seminars; they do not
child may act out at school as a way of re- reply at once either, which shows me that this
venge against all adults, or any authority fig- type of greeting is not too common in the edu-
ure. cational field. Yet it is very effective. The main
• Bullying is another problem. If a student is bul- problem, of course, is to persuade ourselves that
lied, they may take it out on anybody, or simply we are, indeed, happy to see our students. The
“lose it” one day. If their own sibling is the bully, emotion translates well. You may wish to work
we may never learn about the problem, a child out your own formula, which is absolutely fine, as
will just clam up, because they have no escape long as it works for you.
from it. I have had a challenging class which made me
• It pays to learn what subjects are difficult for feel a bit apprehensive each time we met. All my
your class, and to check if your lesson comes colleagues complained about their noisy behav-
right after, say, geometry or physics, or even iour, their tardiness, and their inability to take in
PE. If the class flunked a test right before your the simplest topics. It is one thing to believe that
lesson, they would need some time to calm I inherited my grandmother’s gift, and a totally
down. different thing to face a group of rambunctious
• Your students may have forgotten to do their teenagers daily. Yet we worked well together, their
homework, or maybe they forgot their note- grades improved, and there were no discipline
books, or could not cope with a task. problems.
• A student may be rattled after quarreling with Once, I stayed at the computer lab in my free
their best friend. hour, while the same class had an IT lesson with
• Modern psychologists list anxiety as a factor: another teacher. Good God! She yelled at them,
when even young children happen to watch and they yelled back, laughed loudly, jeered and
the news and see scenes of destruction af- sneered, ran around and tossed paper bombs at
ter an explosion, or hear about yet another each other. A few were quietly doing their own
instance of school shooting, they may start stuff on computers, with earphones discreetly
worrying that the same thing will happen at plugged into their ears. At the end of the lesson,
their school. in front of the students, the IT teacher said loudly
• Sometimes, students are simply tired or hun- to me, “I don’t understand how you can work with
gry. those dumb heads!” I asked my best student after-
• There are children with real psychological and wards why they misbehaved at her classes, and
health problems in every class. he grinned at me: “Well, you know, she is never
• All of us have to deal with multi-level groups: happy to see us, she is not you!”
unfortunately, an ideal student who “must” ab- Look at yourself and see if something should
sorb the whole national curriculum and show be changed. Never, ever yell at children.
good results at the end of study often does not
exist. So far, so good, but what can one do if the stu-
• A class may have a ringleader who will keep dents are too noisy? How does one start a lesson
trying to assert his or her power in the class- if they refuse to calm down and listen? From my
room. course of psychology, and thanks to my experi-
English METHODS OF TEACHING

6
November 2013

ence as a mother, I know that almost all children type of warm-up should not go on for more than
like certain things. 3 minutes. Start distributing handouts, write
• They respect coherent structure. I would something on the board.
write a lesson plan on the board, or project it Be sure to have HOMETASK prominently writ-
on a screen. In the very beginning of my work ten in the same familiar spot of the board at the
at school, since I was specifically told by the beginning of every lesson. If after five minutes
department head that one class was “really you still face discipline problems, add an exercise
slow, and to take it slowly”, I pointed at an to the HOMETASK list. Calmly explain, pointedly
exercise and informed the class that it could looking at your watch, that they “stole” five min-
be too difficult for them, so it was all right if utes from the lesson, so they (not you) would have
they did not manage to do it. Rather to my to do some extra work at home. I never had to do
surprise, the children attacked the exercise it more than twice a year; and the second time, it
energetically. True, they shouted questions was enough to just come up to that corner of the
to each other, and ran from desk to desk, but board and start writing.
it was all work. I realized a very important If we suspect that there is a ringleader who tries
thing: to disrupt our lessons for the fun of it, we should
• Children love challenges. If they cope, be sure try to identify them, and get help. Both the school
to say a kind word. If they don’t manage, pro- administration and the parents can be appealed
vide some encouragement. to. Sometimes, a quiet talk with the culprit after
• Students observe the rules you set up if they hours may help.
are understandable and reasonable. If a student has developmental problems,
• Keep students occupied, but allow a minute for one should consult a member of the school ad-
a joke occasionally. ministration. Children may act out because they
really cannot understand the material we teach,
Suppose you come into a classroom, and and it is not always easy to understand such a
the group pays no attention to you. Conversely, problem if one is not a specialist. Another ex-
they may rush into your classroom with an on- treme case is a genius, a child prodigy who is
going conflict and loudly demand that you help simply bored. Quite often, a gifted child may act
them AT ONCE! Spend a minute on trying to out because he or she is the only one in the
understand what the problem is. You may tell class who can do all the tasks with the speed of
them that you need to think about it while they summer lightning.
do some exercises. Rather than trying to shout I do not pretend to know all the answers, nor
louder than they do, in order to begin your les- can I classify all the problems. I believe that some
son, click or push a button. Modern children difficulties arise due to the fact that universal edu-
are conditioned to pay attention when some- cation is a relatively new phenomenon in human
one clicks on a computer, a TV, a player. Let history. Never before was it possible for any and
a recording of a story or an exercise play, or a every child to attend school. Yet all children are
video roll on screen. If you do not have any ma- just that, children. They deserve their chance at a
chinery, have some large pictures ready, start good life, and we teachers can play a large role in
to unroll one. You may pretend that you cannot their achieving their goals.
do it by yourself and wave to a trusted pupil to
come and help you hang it up. “Forget” what By Nina M. Koptyug,
to click and stare at them helplessly. NB: this Ph.D., Novosibirsk
METHODS OF TEACHING English

7
ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ СРЕДСТВ ИКТ November 2013

для обучения чтению английских буквосочетаний


Как известно, овладение чтением на ан- закрепления в памяти учащихся правил чтения
глийском языке, в том числе в силу его графи- учитель может составить список слов с данны-
ческих и орфографических особенностей, вы- ми буквами или буквосочетаниями в зависимо-
зывает много трудностей у учащихся, родным сти от того, по какому учебно-методическому
языком которых является русский. Одним из комплексу ведётся преподавание английского
препятствий на пути овладения чтением яв- языка.
ляются английские буквосочетания. Ученики С использованием пособия значительно
должны быстро и точно установить буквенно- расширились возможности работы по обуче-
звуковые соответствия, правильно озвучить нию чтению английских буквосочетаний. Ани-
графический образ буквы, буквосочетания. мационные эффекты и красочные картинки
Стремление помочь начинающим преодолеть оживляют подсказки, привлекают внимание,
трудности, связанные с чтением английских что способствует лучшему запоминанию пред-
буквосочетаний, побуждает учителя созда- лагаемых буквосочетаний. Всегда есть воз-
вать наглядные пособия, дидактические ма- можность возврата к предыдущей подсказке.
териалы, таблицы, сочинять стихи, рифмовки, Одновременная работа учеников, их сосредо-
сказки. точенность на рифмовке не отвлекает их, ког-
Чтобы облегчить учащимся запоминание да учитель заслушивает отдельных учеников.
английских буквосочетаний, возникла идея Ученики могут совершенствовать свои знания
создать подсказки для чтения. Подсказки пред- повторением подсказок дома. Предлагаемые
ставляют собой рифмовки на русском языке, рифмовки могут быть изменены, дополнены в
в которых представлены английские слова с процессе творческих поисков учителя совмест-
данными буквосочетаниями. но с учащимися.
Например,
Рекомендуемый алгоритм работы
Как-то утром N и G с подсказками
повстречались на дорожке. 1. Учитель показывает буквы и буквосочета-
“Morning!”, враз они сказали, ния.
и с тех пор друзьями стали. 2. Учащиеся называют их.
3. Учитель показывает рисунок и называет
Заучивание подсказок – увлекательное и слова к нему.
легкое занятие для детей. Подсказки можно 4. Учитель показывает буквы, буквосочета-
написать на листе ватмана, и тогда ученики ния и произносит звуки.
увидят графические образы букв, буквосоче- 5. Учитель даёт необходимые пояснения по
таний и слов с данными буквосочетаниями. артикуляции звуков.
Если добавить к рифмовкам соответствую- 6. Учащиеся слушают, хором, индивидуаль-
щие рисунки, возрастет эффективность за- но произносят звуки.
поминания. Однако с помощью современных 7. Учитель читает рифмовку.
информационных технологий можно ускорить 8. Учитель произносит слова из рифмовки.
процесс непроизвольного запоминания бук- 9. Учащиеся повторяют хором, индивидуаль-
восочетаний и слов и сохранения их в памяти но.
учащихся, так как, по данным современных 10. Учитель читает рифмовку повторно.
исследований, в памяти человека остается 11. Учащиеся повторяют хором, индивидуаль-
1/4 часть услышанного материала, 1/3 часть но.
увиденного, 1/2 часть услышанного и уви- 12. Учащиеся получают буквы и инсценируют
денного одновременно, 3/4 части материа- рифмовку.
ла, если ко всему прочему ученик вовлечен 13. Учитель предлагает учащимся вспомнить
в активные действия в процессе обучения. слова с данными звуками.
Компьютер позволяет создать максимально 14. Учитель подбирает заранее слова с дан-
эффективные условия для обучения чтению ной буквой или буквосочетанием и пред-
английских буквосочетаний. С помощью про- лагает учащимся прочитать их.
граммного средства Microsoft Power Point
было создано электронное пособие “Под- Опыт работы с подсказками показывает, что
сказки”. (См. справа примеры) учащиеся легко и непринужденно заучивают
Буквы и буквосочетания снабжены звуковы- английские буквосочетания и охотно повторя-
ми образами – транскрипциями – включены в ют рифмовки вне урока.
слова, объединённые в рифмовки. Картинка В дальнейшем дети пытаются сами состав-
наглядно иллюстрирует употребление данной лять подсказки, рифмуя слова, и создавать
буквы или буквосочетания. красочные слайды с помощью учителя, роди-
Подсказки обеспечивают оптимальное за- телей.
поминание буквы или буквосочетания, вызы-
вая интерес у учащихся к правилам чтения, Ольга Ивановна Лапшина,
повышают мотивацию для изучения англий- МОУ Первомайская СОШ
ского языка, способствуют непроизвольному Агаповского района
запоминанию английских буквосочетаний. Для Челябинской области
English METHODS OF TEACHING

8
November 2013
ОБЛАКО СЛОВ
как средство совершенствования навыков монологической
и диалогической речи на уроках английского языка
Одним из лидирующих направлений ИКТ в современном Tagxedo – Creator (http://www.tagxedo.com/) также не тре-
образовании являются социальные сервисы Web 2.0. Сегод- бует регистрации. Созданное облако можно представить в
ня сервисы Web 2.0 активно используются в педагогической любом виде, например, птички, сердечка или карты. Есть
практике. возможность изменения цвета, размера, положения, формы,
Применение социальных сервисов в учебном процессе по- фона и расстояния между словами. Каждое слово в облаке
зволяет организовать урок на новом, более высоком уровне: при наведении на него курсора, также как и у сервиса Tagul,
сделать его интересным, интерактивным, личностно ориенти- выделяется и представляется как гиперссылка. Облако мож-
рованным, результативным. Одно из направлений социаль- но сохранить как изображение на ПК.
ных сервисов – Интернет-инструменты, при помощи которых ABCya.com (http://www.abcya.com/word_clouds.htm) –
участники образовательного процесса – педагоги и учащиеся Очень простой сервис для создания облаков. Предназначен
– могут создавать необходимые для обучения материалы. Со- для учащихся начальной школы. Есть возможность изменить
циальные сервисы позволяют структурировать и визуализи- шрифт, цветовую гамму, распечатать облако.
ровать информацию, встраивать изображения и видео, при- Tagcrowd (http://tagcrowd.com/) – вебсервис, очень похо-
вязывать ссылки, отмечать даты, создавать образы и т.д. жий на Wordle.
Разработанные современными средствами методические Word Mosaic (http://www.imagechef.com/ic/word_mosaic/)
и дидактические материалы могут стать благоприятным усло- – русскоязычный сервис, который генерирует облака в виде
вием для развития пространственного и критического мышле- сердечек, смайликов, стрелочек, цветочков. Больше под-
ния, аналитических способностей учащихся, способствовать ходит для генерации облаков слов для особых случаев –
формированию сенсорных, эмоциональных, ценностных со- праздников и поздравлений.
ставляющих развития, способствуют приобретению навыков Wordsift (http://wordsift.com/) – сервис, который отлича-
использования информации в различных форматах, навыков ется от других тем, что предоставляет дополнительную воз-
схематизации и структурирования, классификации и модели- можность визуализации значения слова в разных контекстах
рования, умения выделять главное, формулировать логиче- (синонимы слова, антонимы, словосочетания).
ские выводы, развивают творческое самовыражение и спо-
собность к непрерывному самообразованию. Облако слов, созданное при помощи Интернет-сервисов,
Данные средства позволяют создавать эстетичные, увлека- успешно применяется в практике обучения английскому
тельные, познавательные, проблемные материалы и тем самым языку на разных этапах формирования речемыслительной
повышать мотивацию и познавательный интерес учащихся. деятельности. Сгенерированное облако можно встроить на
Одним из инструментов социальных сервисов Web 2.0 яв- сайт или в блог, распечатать и использовать как раздаточный
ляются Word clouds. Как показывает практика, облако слов материал, вывести на доску или экран. Необходимыми тех-
может применяться на уроках для решения различных учеб- ническими средствами для подготовки такого рода упражне-
ных задач. ний являются ПК, выход в Интернет, ИД или экран, принтер.
Облако слов – это графический способ визуализации Облака слов могут быть созданы учителем и использоваться
наиболее часто используемых или наиболее значимых слов как один из приёмов, применяемых на уроке, и самими уча-
в речи, в стихотворении, в книге, в историческом докумен- щимися самостоятельно дома при подготовке к уроку или на
те, тексте и т. д. Сервисы выделяют более крупно слова, уроке при наличии технической возможности.
которые чаще встречаются в текстах. В процессе создания Рассмотрим некоторые примеры использования Word
облака можно настраивать цветовую гамму, использовать clouds в качестве упражнений, направленных на формиро-
шрифты по вашему усмотрению, выбирать форму облака, вание и развитие коммуникативных навыков.
расположение и направление слов. Все сервисы бесплат-
ные, лёгкие в использовании. 1. На уроках по формированию лексических навыков.
Знакомство с возможностями использования облака слов Использование сервисов, генерирующих облако слов,
в образовательном процессе необходимо начать с представ- возможно на разных этапах работы над лексическим матери-
ления сервисов Интернета, генерирующих облака слов и алом по любой теме. Облака слов могут выступать в данном
описания их особенностей. случае в качестве зрительной опоры, что облегчит выполне-
Сервис Wordle.net (http://www.wordle.net/) – один из наи- ние задания, вызовет интерес у всех учащихся и окажется
более популярных веб-сервисов, используемых для генера- особенно полезным и эффективным для детей-визуалов.
ции облака из слов. Для воспроизведения созданного облака • УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English 5–6”. Unit 3. Learning
требуется Java. Есть возможность менять шрифт, цветовую more about each other
гамму, но нет разнообразия в формах облака. Облако можно Задание: расскажите одноклассникам о своей семье.
встроить в блог или на сайт, но для сохранения на ПК не- Используйте следующие прилагательные и аргумен-
обходимо сделать скриншот облака и сохранить его как кар- тируйте свой ответ.
тинку, так как функция сохранения в форматах изображения – My family is getting along well. We love our mum and dad.
отсутствует. Регистрации не требуется. We enjoy doing things together.
Tagul (http://tagul.com/) – веб-сервис, позволяющий создать Облако слов также поможет учащимся дать характери-
облако слов из текста, взятого с указанного URL (адрес веб- стику членов семьи, своего характера и т.д. Такое необыч-
страницы) или введенного (скопированного) пользователем. ное упражнение может не только развивать монологическую
Облако может быть представлено в различных формах и речь учащихся, но и формировать навыки диалогической
цветовых гаммах. Каждое слово в облаке при наведении на речи. Одноклассники могут задавать вопросы рассказчику:
него курсора выделяется и представляется как гиперссылка. – What do you do together?
Облако смотрится очень эффектно из-за своей интерактив- – Has your family got many friends?
ности. Облако можно встроить на сайт или в блог, сохранить – Have you got a sister or a brother?
в формате PNG, распечатать, послать по электронной почте. • УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English 5–6 класс”. Unit 3.
Требуется регистрация. Learning more about each other
Word It Out (http://worditout.com/) – создает облако из тек- Задание: Найдите слова с одинаковым или противопо-
ста, который вводит (копирует) пользователь, хотя можно пи- ложным (синонимы или антонимы) значением, составь-
сать самому в шаблоне облака. Цвет фона, текста и размер те с ними предложения и аргументируйте своё мнение.
слов легко меняется. Облако можно загрузить на ПК как изо- – My sister is talkative and intelligent. She talks from early
бражение. Регистрации не требуется. morning till late at night. She is good at Maths and English.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

9November2013

Таким образом, учитель использует облако слов для раз- – Have you ever been to the Zoo? – Yes, I have. I was at the
вития умений аргументированного высказывания. Для фор- Zoo last year. I saw a funny monkey. The monkey jumped and
мирования навыков построения вопросительных предложе- ate bananas. I liked it there.
ний можно попросить учащихся задать вопросы с данными Данное упражнение позволило не только отработать
словами: грамматическую конструкцию в Present Perfect, но и повто-
– Who is healthy? рить употребление Past Simple, провести сопоставление
– Is your sister clever? употребления времён английского языка.
– Are you creative?
• При изучении числительных: показать и назвать 3. Упражнения на развитие навыков критического мышления
числительные по порядку. Это очевидно, что облака слов очень удобны для зада-
• УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English-11”. Unit 3. Heading ний, где учащимся предлагается предсказать развитие со-
for a better new world. Section 1. How dependant you are on бытий (Prediction). Можно показать облако слов учащимся и
modern technologies. попросить их предположить, о чём пойдёт речь на уроке или
В начале урока учитель может показать облако слов уча- в тексте, который вы собираетесь прочитать.
щимся и попросить их догадаться, о чём пойдёт речь на уроке. • УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English-8”. Unit1. It’s a
E.g. I guess we’ll speak about modern technologies and wonderful planet we live on! Section 5. Is the Earth a dangerous
electronic devices. place? Ex. 89, p. 26.
Задание: образуйте словосочетания со словами tech- Текст был отсканирован программой ABBYY Fine Reader,
nologies, devices, составьте предложения с данными сохранён как Word Doc, скопирован и вставлен в текстовое
словосочетаниями. поле для генерации облака слов.
Составленные словосочетания записываются в рабочей • УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English-11”. Unit 3. Heading
тетради. Данный вид упражнения расширяет лексический for a better new world. Section 6. Modern technologies and the
запас учащихся, развивает языковую интуицию, позволяет environment. Ex. 101 p. 110
поработать над коллокациями английского языка. Задание: Прочитайте вопросы и расскажите о состоя-
• Использовать облака слов можно и при работе над нии окружающей среды в вашем городе/деревне, ис-
алфавитом. пользуя опорные слова.
Задания могут быть самыми разными: назовите (запиши- • УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English-8”. Unit 3. Mass
те) буквы в алфавитном порядке, Напишите пары букв (про- media: good or bad? Section 7. Try yourself a writer.
писную и строчную), найдите и покажите букву … и т.д. Задание: Какие книги вы любите читать и почему? По-
Ключевые и опорные слова, сгенерированные в облако работайте в парах и выясните у своих одноклассников, ка-
слов, помогут учащимся составить собственное монологиче- кие книги любят читать они. Расскажите об этом классу.
ское высказывание на английском языке по любой теме учеб- E.g. I like detective stories. At the beginning of the story I am
ного курса. Возможности использования облака слов на уро- always full of ideas who the murderer is. And I can find out at the
ках неисчерпаемы. Облака слов – замечательное средство, end if I am right or wrong.
которое можно применять на этапах актуализации знаний – Do you like reading detective stories? Why?
(повторение лексики), активизации лексики и её закрепления. – Mike enjoys reading detective stories because...
Творчески работающий учитель без труда увидит возмож-
ность применения данного инструмента на своём уроке, со- Итак, сервисы по генерированию облака слов могут
ставит задания в соответствии с целями и задачами урока. успешно применяться на уроках английского языка. Как ре-
зультат, упражнения, представленные в образе облака слов,
2. На уроках формирования лексико-грамматических навы- будут способствовать развитию языковой интуиции, крити-
ков ческого мышления и речемыслительной деятельности в це-
Облака слов можно использовать при работе над словоо- лом. Совместная творческая работа учителя и учащихся по
бразованием и грамматическими конструкциями. Приведу использованию облака слов на уроке позволит активизиро-
несколько примеров. вать мыслительные процессы, познавательный интерес уча-
• УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English-8”. Unit 3. Mass щихся, облегчить такой отрицательный фактор, как боязнь
media: good or bad? Section 7. Try yourself a writer. Ex. 99, 100 ответа, реализовать личностно-ориентированный подход на
p. 82 уроке. Облака слов могут быть использованы в разных фор-
Задание: Образуйте прилагательные с суффиксом мах организации работы на уроке: индивидуальной, парной,
– less, запишите получившиеся слова в рабочую те- групповой. Сгенерированное облако можно проецировать на
традь, составьте словосочетания и переведите их на экран или ИД во время урока. В отсутствие технической воз-
русский язык. можности использовать ИКТ средства на уроке учитель рас-
Яркое, красочное, необычно представленное задание без печатывает облако и использует как раздаточный материал.
сомнения вызовет интерес у учащихся. Облака слов можно
использовать не только на уроках по словообразованию, но Дополнительная и использованная литература:
и при работе со словарным ядром. http://wiki.pippkro.ru/index.php/Web_2.0_в_образовании
Облако слов может помочь учителю при работе над грамма- Word Clouds in the Differentiated Classroom – http://suite101.com/
тическими конструкциями. Например, чтобы активизировать в article/word-clouds-in-the-differentiated-classroom-a143143
употреблении грамматическую структуру Have you ever been Wordle Inspiring Critical Thinking with Word Clouds – http://www.
to …?, было сгенерировано облако слов. Учащиеся работали web2teachingtools.com/wordle.html
в парах. Таким образом учащиеся с опорой на облако слов со- How to Use Wordle – http://youtu.be/Fo5q386cWuc
ставляли вопросы и давали краткие и развёрнутые ответы. Waysof Wordle – http://www.slideshare.net/kathywalker/waysof-wordle
• УМК М.З. Биболетовой “Enjoy English 5-6 класс”. Unit 5.
Faces of London. Section 1. ”When a man is tired of London he By Yelena Nikiforova,
is tired of life”. School No. 2, Andreapol, Tver region
English METHODS OF TEACHING

10 This is very confusing, isn’t it?


November 2013

Кексы, пай и мит болсы, котлеты, стейки, чопсы, безе Вспоминается спор Эренбурга с неким французом. По-
и меренги, чипсы, айс ти и смузи – сколько премудро- следний посмеивался: вы, русские, едите гречку, которой
стей! На каком это языке? у нас только скот кормят. Писатель парировал: а вы едите
Тема еды сегодня одна из самых популярных на уро- лягушачьи лапки, которые у нас даже скот есть не станет.
ках английского языка, и трудно найти такой современ- Видела своими глазами в американском магазине вы-
ный учебник, где не было бы раздела, посвященного ставленную гречку под названием kasha. Но это был ма-
кулинарным рецептам, биографиям знаменитых поваров газин в еврейском квартале для выходцев из восточной
и полезным диетам. Кроме очевидных причин неизмен- Европы. У Хемингуэя встречается buckwheat pancakes.
ного внимания авторов к этой теме – пускай не все мы Но не вареная гречка!
читатели, но уж точно едоки, – есть и еще одна, весьма В наше школьной столовой американка не могла
существенная. Если актуальные проблемы современно- разобрать, что такое компот. Спросила по-русски: “Что
сти нас часто огорчают и разделяют, то на этом поле мы есть компот?” Его, пожалуй, тоже можно отнести к на-
вряд ли поссоримся, это ведь не политика. Разнообраз- циональному напитку, несмотря на французское проис-
ные блюда можно преподнести под соусом знакомства с хождение самого слова? Южный узвар – нечто иное.
национальной культурой, то есть страноведения. И дей- Все наши иностранные гости в школьной столовой с
ствительно: патриотизм, как известно, это то, что ел и аппетитом накидывались на выпечку с привычным для
пил в детстве. Бывает квасной, бывает и кокакольный. нас названием: КЕКСЫ! Спросили учительницу из Ан-
Несмотря на буйство фантазии Джоан Роулинг, ребятиш- глии: как бы вы это назвали? Ответ: fruit cake. Теперь
ки в школе волшебства неизменно завтракают как истин- в кафе можно встретить “кейки”. Это, наверное, пирож-
ные англичане яичницей с беконом и сосисками. А если ные и торты сразу. Как всегда, английское слово короче
устраивается пир, то тут уж подается любимое детское и вытесняет словосочетания. (Так и “дайвинг” легко за-
блюдо – картофель в самом разнообразном виде – и пече- меняет “подводное плавание”, а “саммит” – “встречу на
ный, и жареный, и “фри”, – baked, roasted and fried, – ну высшем уровне” и даже “встречу в верхах”.).
почти как в Белоруссии. Наши кексы – не единственный пример двойного
Кстати о картофельных чипсах. В Америке это одно, в множественного – cake–cakes. Еще мы имеем у себя на
Англии совсем другое. Популярнейшее английское блю- родине и бутсы – boot–boots.
до – fish and chips – рыба с жареной картошкой, она же С котлетами тоже интересно. Когда дети пытаются
French fries. А когда говорим “чипсы” на русском, пред- рассказать, что ели они на обед, эти котлеты непремен-
ставляем пакетик, например, “Lays”, potato chips, как у но всплывают. Так как же их назвать по-английски по-
американцев. точнее? Не просто. Cutlets – это отбивные с косточкой.
А чопсы, они же pork chops, по-нашему – свиные от- Шведские meat balls – маленькие и без добавления хле-
бивные. ба. Hamburgers? Словарь говорит: a flat round piece of
Стандартный вопрос учебника: какое в вашей стране finely cut beef which is cooked and eaten in a bread bun.
национальное блюдо? Тут наши детки задумываются. Есть и еще одно значение: AmE Beef that has been cut
Многие дружно: “борщ”? Какой-нибудь знаток попра- into very small pieces. Можем пойти от фарша: to mince
вит: “Нет, борщ – украинского происхождения”. Бли- something up – to cut food, especially meat, into very small
ны? Нет, блины есть у всех народов. Что тогда? Я всегда pieces, usually using a machine. Mince – meat, especially
предлагаю гречневую кашу и окрошку, от которых чуже- beef, that has been cut into small pieces using a special
земцы шарахаются в испуге. Ну и его величество квас, machine. И тут мы натыкаемся не на мясной фарш, ко-
само собой. торый нам нужен для приготовления котлет, а на что-
то несуразное на наш взгляд: mincemeat – a mixture of
dried fruits that you use to make sweet dishes. Mince pie
– a pie filled with mincemeat, especially one that people eat
at Christmas.
Пожалуй, годится вот это: meat ball – a small round
ball made from small pieces of meat, herbs, and egg or
breadcrumbs pressed together.
Но лучше уточнить: Russian meat balls.
А вот что такое бургеры? Спросила официантку. Ну,
это бутерброды, в общем, сэндвичи.
Словарь объясняет: burger – a round flat cake mainly of
meat, often in a bread roll.
Когда уточняем наполнение булочки, говорим a ham-
burger, a cheeseburger, a nutburger, a soyaburger, veggie-
burger.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

11
November2013

с десертом, и порывисто устремился к подносу, на кото-


ром высилась bombe a la Sardanapale из превосходного
разноцветного мороженого и наложил себе его целую
хрустальную тарелочку.” В.П. Бурнашев Восп. (1872).
3. У Тэффи читаем:
“В названии блюд тоже видно стремление сбить че-
ловека с толку. Так, например, самый дерзкий мечтатель
никогда не додумался бы, что “бомб а ля Сарданапал” –
Теперь, когда все флаги приплыли к нам в гости, по-
не что иное, как обыкновенный картофель”.
явилось множество заморских блюд. Мафины и смузи
4. А когда во время нэпа голодный, еще не очень из-
знакомы уже всем. Меренги вытеснили привычные пи-
вестный журналист Михаил Кольцов выбрал в меню
рожные безе (от французского “поцелуй”), как англий-
бомб а ля Сарданапал как самое дешевое блюдо, ему
ский боулинг, в свою очередь, заменил немецкий кегель-
принесли… вареный картофель в мундире! Какова
бан.
трансформация!
Бывают анекдотичные случаи. “Можно мне этот пи-
Какова же мораль? Будем продолжать наше увлека-
рожок?” В ответ очень важно: “Это не пирожок, это пай”.
тельное занятие: гоняться за меняющимися смыслами в
– Ну надо же...
вечно меняющемся мире.
В ресторане вам могут предложить “мит болсы” и
У Тэффи в том же фельетоне:
“айс ти”. Спрашиваю: Почему “айс ти”, когда можно на-
“По поводу поварских названий я знаю очень печаль-
писать холодный чай? Ответ исчерпывающий: “Айс ти”
ную историю.
круче.
Одна милая провинциалочка вышла замуж и приехала
Если практическая направленность уроков по теме
с мужем повеселиться в Петербург. В программу удо-
“Еда” – подготовить учащихся к пониманию меню за
вольствий входило, прежде всего, завтракать каждый
границей на тот случай, если вдруг они окажутся в таком
день в новом ресторане. Это было очень весело.
ресторане, где все по-английски и растеряются перед за-
Первый раз, выбирая себе блюдо на завтрак, она оста-
гадочными названиями блюд, – то мы должны немедлен-
новилась на самом звонком и замысловатом названии.
но сдаться и отступить. Никогда-никогда нам не дога-
Ей подали телячью почку. Она не особенно любила это
даться, какое яство скрывается за словами Prince Edward
кушанье, но не хотела признаться перед мужем, что не
или Romanoff или бомб а ля сарданапал. Cottage pie, или
понимала, что заказывала.
shepherd’s pie, оказывается на поверку картофельной за-
На другой день она выбрала что-то еще более звонкое
пеканкой с мясом. А вот rice pudding из стихотворения
и многообещающее. Ей опять подали телячью почку.
Милна – всего лишь рисовая каша! Вот уж действитель-
На третий день, наученная горьким опытом, она уже
но the proof of the pudding is in the eating.
не гналась за пышностью названия. Заказала что-то про-
Бомб а ля сарданапал имеет занятную историю.
стое, из двух слов. Ей снова подали телячью почку.
1. Потемкинские обеды. По преданию, “светлейший”
Молодой муж удивился:
фаворит Ее Величества князь Григорий Александрович
– Какой у тебя странный вкус, милочка! Неужели же
Потемкин держал посуду только из чистого серебра и
тебе не надоело каждый день есть одно и то же.
чаны-кастрюли, в которые входило по двадцать ведер
Она вспыхнула и отвечала дрожащим голосом:
жидкости. В таких кастрюлях князю готовили, напри-
– Нет, я уже привыкла к этому блюду, а менять при-
мер, уху из аршинных (70 см) стерлядей и кронштадт-
вычки, говорят, вредно.
ских ершей. Стол его считался в екатерининскую эпоху
На четвертый день муж уже сам заказал ей телячью
баснословным, а повара – “чудотворцами”. [В постный
почку, а на пятый она вдруг горько заплакала и на рас-
день подавали рыбные блюда, ни вкусом, ни запахом не
спросы мужа отвечала, что ей Петербург надоел, и она
отличимые от жаркого из дичи, баранины или свинины.]
хочет сегодня же уехать домой.
Его повар француз изобрел блюдо, ставшее уже в ту пору
Муж согласился, но раз навсегда решил, что у жены
легендарным: “бомбу а-ля Сарданапал” – своеобразную
его скверный и тяжелый характер. Так думает он и до
котлету, сделанную из фарша всевозможной дичи.
сих пор.
2. Вид кулинарных изделий – круглые или кону-
Вот теперь и решайте, что лучше: “тьма низких ис-
сообразные фигуры мороженого и т.п. Замороженный
тин” – дохлые утки на стенах столовой, или “нас возвы-
десерт, приготавливаемый в виде желе в шарообразной
шающий обман” – величественное “бомб а ля Сардана-
вазочке или просто с округлым верхом, подают с мо-
пал”, вместо пошлого, но честного картофеля?”
роженым и разнообразными начинками. “Возвратясь с
На уроке английского языка можно попытаться пере-
мороза в теплые комнаты, ветреный Коля вместо того,
сказать этот анекдот на английском.
чтобы тотчас выпить чего-нибудь горячего, отказался от
чашки шоколада, разносимого в это время гостям, вместе
Ольга Свенцицкая
English METHODS OF TEACHING

12 Проект “ЮНЫЙ ПОВАР”


November 2013

Иногда я закрываю глаза и вспоминаю свой первый урок в all sorts, especially apples, oranges, berries, cherries, grapes,
8 классе, многие учащиеся которого были из неблагополуч- peaches, plums and melon, as freely as you like without anxi-
ных семей. Летающие бумажные самолетики. Безразличные, ety.
уже уставшие от нелегкой жизни лица детей. Мое полное от- If more people ate more fruit, the curse of constipation, which
чаяние и казавшаяся мне тогда безысходность. В тот самый brings all kinds of diseases in its train, would be overcome. If
момент я и задумалась, как можно помочь детям преодолеть more apples were eaten, not only would constipation cease to
раздражительность, чрезмерную эмоциональность, кон- exist, but we should have sounder teeth and gums. For apples
фликтность, отсутствие интереса к творчеству и обучению. are a first-class dentifrice. Briefly, a fruit diet purifies the blood
И у меня возникла идея об использовании разнообразной and pure blood prevents disease.
проектной деятельности в изучении английского языка. Так To return to daily meals, when fresh fruit is not available for
был разработан проект “Юный повар”. В этом проекте мы breakfast, stewed fruit, followed by brown bread and butter, is
совместили приятное с полезным, как для здоровья, так и the next best substitute. Then be sure to have at least one fruit
для ума. Главной задачей, поставленной перед учащимися, course for lunch or supper and dinner, or make fruit part of one
было нахождение рецептов, как на русском, так и на англий- course. If you introduce fruit to your diet in this way, and either
ском языках, и их перевод. Затем в качестве практической start your day with a glass of orange or lemon juice, or a glass of
части наши юные поварята должны были приготовить блюдо half-and-half, all you need to do to court good health and beauty
по найденному ими рецепту. Это отличный способ не только is to drink a nightcap to match.
рассказать детям о здоровом питании, обратить их внима- Eat fruit every day and your doctor and dentist bills will not be
ние на эту проблему, но и выучить всю необходимую лексику worth talking about.
по теме “Кулинария”. Рады будем представить вашему вни-
манию один из наших любимых рецептов и наше мнение о CHRISTMAS PUDDING
пользе фруктов. Utensils: basin, wooden spoon, grater, knife, chopping board,
mould, teaspoon, tablespoon, pudding-cloth, saucepan, sugar
FRUIT FOR HEALTH sifter.
You can eat fruit any way you like, so long as you eat it every
day. The best way to take it is ripe, between meals. Cooked or You need
tinned fruit is not as good for the health as raw fruit. 3 oz.*flour
Always begin breakfast with fruit – preferably fresh. Grapefruit, 6 oz. suet (нутряное сало)
oranges and apples are best, but when they are unavailable, use You can put a stick of butter in the freezer and then grate it into
any fruit you like, so long as you are not suffering from any illness the mixture in place of the suet.
in which fruit is forbidden. For example, tinned and dried fruits, 3 oz. breadcrumbs
dates, figs, prunes and raisins are not healthy for those suffering 6 oz. currants
from digestive troubles, from diabetes, and to the stout, but they 4 oz. minced apple
are good for the problem of constipation. Raw and cooked fresh 5 oz. sugar
fruits, while good for anemia and constipation, should be taken 3 eggs
in moderation in cases of diabetes, with the exception of grapes, 2 oz. candied orange peel
figs, prunes, dates and raisins. ½ teaspoonful spice
Anyone wanting to reduce weight should avoid all stewed, a pinch of salt.
tinned, preserved or sweetened fruit, as well as bananas, grapes, oz.*= ounce= 28,3 gram
raisins, jams and jellies; but raw apples, cherries, apricots, figs, (Enough for 6 or 7 persons)
peaches, pears, plums, grapefruit, melon and oranges, and un-
sweetened berries can be eaten. When you are hungry, and are Directions
fighting your appetite, do not reach for anything except fruit. An 1. Mix together the flour, white breadcrumbs, beef kidney suet,
apple, an orange, or a slice of melon will stave off hunger without stoned raisins, well-cleaned currants, minced apples, sugar,
adding to your weight. When reducing, you can eat juicy fruit of peel (minced small), half a teaspoonful of nutmeg mixed with
the pounded mace, a pinch of salt, all the eggs.
2. Mix and beat these ingredients well together.
3. Pour them into a well-buttered mould or basin.
4. Spread a buttered paper over, and then tie a cloth firmly over
the top.
5. Boil for 4 hours, keeping the pudding well covered with boiling
water.
6. Turn it out on a plate.
7. Sift icing sugar thickly over the top.

NOTE: At Christmas time a piece of holly can be stuck in the


centre.
Yelena Savenkova,
School No. 7, Kaliningrad

Photo taken by the author


CREATIVE WRITING English

FOOD FOR THOUGHT 13


November 2013

The belly rules the mind, suggests a Spanish proverb. And 2. Detail an evening in which you create the perfect meal,
this is often true, whatever the country. Eating can be a pleas- the perfect ambiance, and invite the perfect people.
ure as well as a necessity, that’s why it has inspired many Elaborate greatly on the preparations made and the reac-
artists, from painters to poets. Feel free to use the following tions of your esteemed guests. It may be a wedding party
creative writing prompts to encourage your students to ex- of your dreams, a birthday party, some anniversary, or
plore the subject of food. simply a party that you throw for fun!

1. Describe the most memorable meal you’ve ever had in 3. Write about eating the most exotic food (e.g. fruit, sea-
your whole life (good or bad). Go into detail telling of food, dessert). What did it taste like? How did it feel in
the people who were there with you (if any), the courses your mouth? What was the smell? Play on the use of all
that were served, the venue, and how you felt before and five senses with this exercise.
after.
4. Your significant other (or a good friend) has invited you
over for...pretty much the worst smelling and tasting
meal you’ve ever experienced. Describe the entire en-
counter including every stomach-churning bite.

5. There’s always that dish that your mother makes better


than anybody else. It’s something that you can’t help but
associate with home. Talk about the meal (or meals) that
she created and what the memory of those meals means
to you.

6. Tell the story of the first meal you cooked by yourself,


without your mother’s help. You may call it “How I
learnt to cook”.

7. Write about some experimental dish that you made up


when you were following your instinct and not some
recipe. Describe all the ingredients and what came out
of it.

8. As they say, you are what you eat. Write about your fa-
vourite food and analyse what it reveals about your char-
acter.

9. Let’s play Robinson Crusoe and imagine that you are on


a desert island, with no ready-made food and no shops
around. Write about how you would procure and cook
something to eat.

10. Finally, let’s not forget about recipes in the figurative


sense. Write your own recipe for a happy life!

I hope these prompts have stirred your artistic appetite


and made your creative juices flow. Bon appetite!

More Suggestions:
• describe the meal on a desert island, play Robinson Cru-
soe;
• write a story about someone addicted to a certain kind
of food (chocolate, pastry, pasta, fish and chips, what-
ever).

By Yulia Klimenova, MSU


English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

14 ФРУКТЫ И ОВОЩИ
November 2013
Мероприятие по теме “Праздник урожая”
В нашей школе большое внимание уделяется изучению ХОД ПРАЗДНИКА
иностранного языка: проводятся дни открытых дверей для ро-
дителей, тематические и сезонные праздники, работают круж-
I ЧАСТЬ
ки английского и немецкого языка. Мы работаем синхронно, в
тесном творческом контакте, совместно планируем и прово- Первые 30 минут учащиеся работают по подгруппам.
дим нашу методическую работу, что делает наш труд более Классы празднично украшены: на столах стоят вазы с
продуктивным. Вместе организуем различные внеклассные овощами и фруктами, на стенах развешены творческие
мероприятия, таккак это для детей интересно и мотивирует их работы детей, посвящённые празднику. На данном эта-
более ответственно подходить к изучению иностранного язы- пе работы присутствуют учителя.
ка.
Мы не случайно выбрали такую тему для нашего меро-
приятия, как “Праздник урожая”, потому что она кажется нам 1 этап: Приветствие
важной и лежит в сфере интересов детей. У этого праздника
глубокие народные традиции, как у русского, так и английского 2 этап: Речевая зарядка
и немецкого народов. В процессе подготовки и участия в этом Цель: активизация лексики по теме “Фрукты и овощи”.
празднике дети видят близость культур разных наций и при-
общаются к их традициям. Таким образом, у учеников посте-
На доске – иллюстративный материал по темам
пенно вырабатывается толерантное отношение к иноязычной “Осень” и “Дары природы”, опираясь на который дети
культуре, уважение и более глубокое понимание изучаемого отвечают на вопросы учителя. У каждого ребёнка на-
языка и народа, который изначально говорит на нём. бор карточек с изображением овощей и фруктов.
Наше мероприятие проходит в 2 этапа: сначала дети по Примеры вопросов: Какое сейчас время года? Что
подгруппам (английская и немецкая подгруппы) занимают-
люди делают осенью? Какие осенние фрукты и овощи
ся отдельно в разных классах, а потом они встречаются за
празднично накрытыми столами, где ученики демонстриру- вы знаете? Какой твой любимый фрукт и овощ? Какие
ют друг другу свои знания по теме “Фрукты и овощи” в игро- фрукты и овощи сладкие, а какие кислые? Покажите со-
вой развлекательной форме. Первый этап работы (по под- ответствующую карточку. Назовите красные фрукты.
группам) позволяет ученикам подготовиться к совместному Покажите соответствующую карточку. (И другие вопро-
двуязычному празднику: идёт погружение в иноязычную сы). А какой праздник мы сегодня отмечаем?
атмосферу и активизируются имеющиеся знания по изуча-
емой теме, такая форма работы позволяет проверить сте-
В ходе ответов на вопросы ученики должны назвать
пень владения языковым материалом по теме и выставить все 19 изученных фруктов и овощей.
контрольные оценки, так как это занятие является конечным
в серии уроков по теме “Фрукты и овощи”. Таким образом, 3 этап: “Фруктово-овощные загадки”
время проведения нашего мероприятия составляет около 60 Цель: совершенствование навыков чтения, слушания и
минут, включая угощение.
Данное мероприятие проводится в 3 классах по учебникам
говорения.
М.З. Биболетовой “Английский язык для начальной школы” и На доске – дерево с листьями, с обратной стороны ко-
И.Л. Бим “Немецкий язык. Первые шаги”. торых написаны загадки (количество загадок равно ко-
личеству детей).
Цель праздника: используя полученные знания по теме Ученики по очереди выходят к доске, снимают по ли-
“Фрукты и овощи”, учащиеся должны включиться в диалог
сточку и читают загадку вслух всему классу. Остальные
культур и показать свои коммуникативные умения.
Задачи: ученики должны отгадать, задавая вопросы типа “Это
• закрепить изученный материал по теме “Фрукты и овощи” и яблоко?” А задающий вопрос ученик должен отреаги-
совершенствовать речевые умения и навыки (чтение, пись- ровать соответствующим образом, например: “Нет, это
мо, аудирование, речь); не яблоко”, “Да, это яблоко” или “Да, это правильно”.
• развивать детское творчество, воображение и способство- Таким образом, на уроке создаётся реальная ситуация
вать формированию гармонично развитой личности ребён-
ка; общения. После того, как загадка была разгадана, зада-
• воспитать у учащихся толерантное отношение к иноязычной вавший вопрос ученик получает шапочку с изображени-
культуре, познакомить их с народными традициями стран ем загаданного фрукта или овоща. А отгадавший загадку
изучаемого языка; ученик получает жетон.
• задействовать каждого ученика на каждом этапе работы в Такая форма работы делает каждого ученика актив-
течение всего мероприятия;
• использовать разные приёмы работы для развития языко-
ным участником учебного процесса, мотивирует его и
вой догадки; помогает сохранить интерес на протяжении всего урока.
• повышать мотивацию к дальнейшему изучению иностран-
ного языка. 4 этап: Игра “Комические блюда”
Оборудование: картинки с изображением фруктов и овощей Цель: закрепление умения составлять сложносоставные
и картинки по теме “Осень”; шапочки с фруктами и овощами;
слова (нем. яз.) и словосочетания (англ. яз.) на изучен-
свежие фрукты и овощи; сделанное из картона дерево с ли-
стами, на которых написаны загадки; флажки; иллюстрирован- ном материале.
ные словарные странички с изображением фруктов и овощей На доске список “странных блюд”, например, луковый
“I like …” и “Ich mag …”; музыкальный центр и аудиозаписи с компот, помидорный мармелад, ананасовый суп и дру-
песнями. гие.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

15
November2013

Ученики должны переставить части слов и словосо- носит: “Фруктовый салат” / “Овощной суп”, все ученики
четаний так, чтобы получились слова и словосочетания, меняются местами.
которые действительно существуют.
4 этап: Музыкальная пауза
5 этап: Подведение итогов Цель: приобщение к культуре стран изучаемых языков;
Благодарим детей за активную работу и приглашаем развитие языковой догадки; дать детям возможность от-
их показать свои знания и умения английской/немецкой дохнуть и расслабиться, не выключаясь из работы.
группе. После этого группы объединяются в актовом Сначала выходит ученик из немецкой группы и чита-
зале для продолжения праздника. ет стихотворение о дарах природы, а два других учени-
ка во время его чтения показывают называемые овощи
II ЧАСТЬ и фрукты. Таким образом, стихотворение понятно всей
Дети собираются в актовом зале за накрытыми сто- аудитории.
лами, которые расставлены кругом, английская группа Затем выходят ученики английской группы и читают
напротив немецкой. Зал также празднично украшен. На речёвку о еде. Девочки держат в руках набор карточек с
этом этапе праздника присутствуют родители и дру- продуктами, хором читают строчку речёвки и предлага-
гие учителя. ют мальчикам тот или иной продукт. А мальчики, в свою
очередь, соглашаются и принимают угощение.
1 этап: Приветствие Снова выходит немецкая группа и поёт песню “У
меня есть банан…”. Каждый куплет песни сопровожда-
2 этап: Игра “Попробуй” ется показом фрукта или овоща на флажке.
Цель: в игровой форме продемонстрировать владение
лексикой по теме, развивать языковую догадку учеников 5 этап: Обмен рецептами
с опорой на зрительную наглядность и звучащий рече- Цель: продемонстрировать всем творческое домашнее
вой образец, а также дать детям почувствовать близость задание, в котором сочетались навыки грамотного пись-
языков и культур. ма и знание лексики с возможностью проявить свою
Учащиеся по одному выходят к отдельно стоящему фантазию и воображение.
столу, на котором находятся тарелки с кусочками овощей Дети совместно просматривают рецепты и составля-
и фруктов. Вышедший ученик закрывает глаза, берёт ют кулинарную книгу класса, выделяя в ней следующие
один из кусочков и отгадывает, что же он съел. При этом разделы: “Рыбные супы”, “Мясные супы”, “Овощные
он должен произнести правильную речевую конструк- супы”, “Овощные салаты”, “Фруктовые салаты”.
цию “Это яблоко” (It is an apple. Das ist ein Apfel.). Если
он прав, то прикрепляет на свою часть доски картинку с 6 этап: Рефлексия
угаданным фруктом или овощем (доска поделена на две Цель: дать возможность детям оценить прошедшее ме-
части для каждой из языковых подгрупп). Выигрывает роприятие и свою роль в нём.
команда, набравшая больше карточек. На выходе из актового зала стоит коробка. Дети, ухо-
дя домой, должны положить в неё один из флажков:
3 этап: Подвижная игра “Фрукт/овощ, займи место!” яблоко – “мне очень понравилось”, банан – “кое-что
Цель: тренировка навыков аудирования в игровой фор- понравилось, кое-что нет”, помидор – “мне было неин-
ме и смена вида деятельности, что соответствует требо- тересно”.
ваниям стандарта, здоровьесберегающим технологиям в По результатам рефлексии мы пришли к выводу, что
образовании. ученики оценили проведённый праздник достаточно вы-
Все ученики встают в круг, на головах у них “шапоч- соко. В коробку ими было положено большинство флаж-
ки” с изображением фруктов и овощей, которые они по- ков “Яблоко”, несколько флажков “Банан” и ни одного
лучили на первой части праздника. Учителя встают в флажка “Помидор”. Таким образом, поставленная нами
центр круга и поочерёдно дают команду каждому овощу цель была достигнута. На наш взгляд, мероприятие про-
и фрукту сменить своё место. А один из учителей так- шло успешно.
же старается занять освободившееся место в круге. Тот, Через несколько дней совместно с детьми была оформ-
кому не хватило места, встаёт в центр круга. Например, лена языковая стенгазета, куда были включены лучшие ра-
“Apple! Apfel” Дети в “шапочке” с яблоком быстро меня- боты, мини-проекты и вклеены фотографии с праздника.
ются местами. Постепенно игра усложняется. Учителя
дают команду фруктам встать слева, а овощам справа. Анна Александровна Антипина,
Учитель английского языка подходит к группе фруктов, учитель английского языка,
а учитель немецкого – к группе овощей. Формируются Ирина Николаевна Волкова,
два круга, “Фруктовый салат” и “Овощной суп”. Игра учитель немецкого языка,
проходит по тому же принципу, но когда учитель произ- МОУ НОШ № 6, г. Ростов Великий, Ярославская обл.
English РЕКЛАМА

16
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FOCUS ON LANGUAGE English

17
November2013

COOKING INSTRUCTIONS FRUIT IDIOMS

The following verbs frequently appear when reading the cooking instruc- I’ll give you a hand if you’re interested in
tions in recipes. idioms.
add: to put ingredients together; to put one ingredient with the others
bake: to cook in an oven by using heat Sour grapes – to despise what you cannot
barbecue: to cook foods (primarily meat) on a grill by using fire or hot coals have.
baste: to moisten (with pan drippings) meat or other foods to prevent it drying out A (real) lemon (something) – defective and
while cooking and to add flavour unsatisfactory.
beat: to mix quickly and continually, commonly used with eggs
blend: to combine two or more ingredients together thoroughly Another bite of the cherry – to get a sec-
boil: to heat water until little bubbles form ond chance.
bread: to coat with flour, then dip into beaten egg or milk, then coat with crumbs
from crushed stale bread, cereal or crackers
break: to separate into smaller parts by force
broil: to cook meat or vegetables on a rack with an extremely high temperature
brown: to cook over medium or high heat until surface of food browns or darkens
carve: to cut meat into slices
chop: to cut into small pieces, generally used with vegetables
combine: to put two or more things together
cook: to prepare food by heating it, so the food is not raw
cream: to make butter or margarine, soft and smooth by beating it with a spoon
or mixing with a mixer or combining it with sugar until the mixture is light and
fluffy
crush: to cause to separate or flatten by extreme force, often used with garlic
cube: to cut a solid food into squares of about 1 cm in size or larger
cut: to separate or divide by using a knife
dice: to cut into small squares
drain: to remove all the liquid using a colander, strainer, or by pressing a plate Someone or something is a real peach –
against the food while tilting the container
fillet: to remove the bones someone or something is wonderful.
fry: to cook by putting the food into extremely hot oil A tree is known by its fruit – a) what you
grate: to divide into small parts by rubbing on a serrated surface, usually used do (your deeds) show who you are more
with cheese than anything else, b) to identify an apple
grease: to coat with oil or butter
grill: to cook by putting the food on a grill; similar to barbecue tree by its own apples.
grind: to reduce a food to fine particles using a blender or food processor To bear fruit – to produce results for your
knead: to press and stretch dough, usually used with making bread efforts.
marinate: to soak food in a liquid to tenderize or add flavour to it To drive somebody bananas – to cause
mash: to squash food with a fork, spoon or masher
measure: to obtain an exact quantity them to go mad, crazy, insane.
melt: to make something become liquid through heating To be the apple of someone’s eye – a thing
microwave: to heat up food in a microwave oven or person most cherished above others.
mince: to grind food, normally meat, into small pieces. A machine is often used To upset the apple cart – to ruin some-
to do this
mix: to combine two or more things using a spoon, spatula, or electric mixer thing.
open: to remove the top from a can or jar Forbidden fruit – something desirable one
peel: to take the skin off fruits or vegetables is not allowed to have.
pour: to transfer liquid from one container to another To be a rotten apple – the one bad person
preheat: to turn oven on ahead of time so that it is at the desired temperature
when needed who can spoil things for everyone else.
roast: to cook in the oven or over a fire A bowl of cherries – when everything is
sauté: to quickly fry food by placing it in hot oil in a frying pan going well and life is carefree.
scramble: to mix the white and yellow parts of eggs together while cooking them Get as brown as a berry – to darken (by
in a pan
simmer: to cook in liquid that is just below the boiling point the sun) like a blackberry.
slice: to cut into thin, wide portions Adam’s apple – the bone sticking out at the
steam: to cook by placing the food above boiling water. Steam is the vapor that front of men’s throats.
comes from hot water Fruit of one’s labours – results of one’s
stew: to simmer slowly in enough liquid to cover
stir: to mix liquid ingredients by moving a spoon around in a circular motion work.
toast: to brown with dry heat in an oven or toaster
wash: to immerse food in water and make sure it becomes clean Compiled by Svetlana Myakisheva,
weigh: to measure the weight (grams or pounds) of something School No. 1862, Moscow
whip: to beat rapidly with a wire whisk or mixer to lighten and increase volume
Source: www.linguaspectrum.com
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina
Source: http://www.vocabulary.cl See audio file on CD.
English FOCUS ON LANGUAGE

18
November 2013
FOOD VOCABULARY GAME
With your partner, write as many different English words or expressions as
you can in the categories below. If there is something you don’t know the
word for but can explain by drawing, miming or describing the function, you
FOOD VOCABULARY can ask your teacher for help.
QUIZ
KITCHEN EQUIPMENT WAYS OF COOKING OTHER THINGS YOU
I. Complete the sentences.
FOOD DO TO FOOD
• A lemon or an unripe apple tastes ___________

• After eating a lot or when something can’t have


more put in it, we say ____________________

• What word means not having enough water, liq-


uid, or moisture? ________________________

• This word is most often heard when talking of


wealth. When a cake or sauce contains a lot of
dairy products such as butter, cream or eggs we
say it is _______________________

• When a person wants a drink they are ______


_________________________ Using your bilingual dictionaries, try to add at least three words or expres-
sions to each column.
• What word is used favourably about cakes and
bread and is the opposite of dry? ___________ Put these words into the three categories on the previous page:

• The real meaning of this word is to die or suffer bake cling film boil
from hunger, but we use it colloquially to describe
aluminium foil can opener corkscrew
being very hungry. This word is ___________
fry bottle opener measuring cup
• A word used when talking about fruit or meat that
means it is juicy and tastes good is __________ potato peeler grill cooker/ stove

• Something that taste like unsweetened cocoa or measuring spoon oven fridge
beer is said to be _____________________
stir fry mixing bowl freezer
• The opposite of sour that means something kitchen roll fish slice poach
tastes of sugar or honey is _______________
chop roast slice
II. Match the vocabulary words on the left with
the definitions on the right. rolling pin dice kitchen knife

mix bread knife squeeze


A substance that is not organ-
1. dry spoon separate spatula
ic, that is found within nature.
The feeling of needing to drink grind steam dishwasher
2. moist
liquids.
The power or capacity for egg timer wooden spoon sieve
3. sour
activity.
cooking chopsticks colander chopping board
Something that is damp, not
4. mineral whisk peel food processor
dry.
A taste that is sharp and often grate kitchen scales cheese grater
5. hungry
unpleasant.
Free from wetness, dampness, frying pan spread saucepan
6. vitamin
or moisture. apron mash serving spoon
7. salty An acidic tasting substance.
toast stew pickle
To struggle greatly because of
8. thirsty
hunger. wash oven glove crush
When something tastes like
9. energy press smoke wrap
sugar or honey.
10. bitter Something that has salt in it. roll tongs pepper grinder
Certain substances that are coffee grinder stir microwave (oven)
11. sweet crucial for the proper growth
and development of the body. Use your monolingual dictionaries to check your answers.
The feeling of emptiness cre-
12. starve
ated from lack of nutrients. Source: UsingEnglish.com
See answer key on CD.
Submitted by Tatyana Makhrina
LESSON PLANS English

TASTY JOURNEY WITH BILLY 19 November2013


Урок-путешествие с элементами игры в 3-м классе
Цель: изучение и использование лексической единицы столовую. Она в лесной школе. Здесь, как и в
как средства социализации ученика на уроке. обычной школе, вкусно кормят.
Задачи: Посмотрите, какая весёлая и довольная ждёт нас
Образовательная: закрепление пройденного лексиче- буфетчица. Она говорит только на английском язы-
ского материала по теме “Еда” через применение данно- ке. Попросите у неё…
го материала в вопросе “Любишь ли ты…?”, “Не хочешь Pupils: I would like some… (cake/cheese/milk/tea/bananas/
ли ты…?” и в фразах: “Я люблю…”, “Я не люблю…”. oranges).
Развивающая: развитие навыков речи через сюжетно- Teacher: Well done. Молодцы. Все раскупили.
ролевую игру; развитие воображения, навыков чтения;
закрепление произношения в сложных буквосочетаниях Закрепление навыков чтения, понимание текста
th в разных словах. Teacher: Пока мы делали покупки, Билли прислал нам
Практическая: применение изученной лексики в во- по электронной почте письмо. Пользуется компью-
просах и ответах в диалогической речи. тером он недавно, и поэтому многие слова остались
Воспитательная: приобщение к культуре английского над текстом. Помогите мне восстановить текст.
языка, манере общения, вежливому обращению.
Оборудование: наглядный раздаточный материал с изо- Ученики открывают стр.15, упр. 2 (Слайд 3)
бражением продуктов, карточки с грамматическим и Nice, corn, have, go, forest, sweets, like
фонетическим заданием, кубики Зайцева, магнитофон, I am Billy. I live in the English …
аудиокассета № 1 к УМК (М.З. Биболетова, О.А. Де- I think I am very …
нисенко, Н.Н. Трубанева. Английский с удовольствием. I … got a lot of friends.
Учебник для 3 класса. – Обнинск: Титул, 2007. – 144 с.), I … to school. I can write.
интерактивная доска, компьютер. I like …, honey, jam and cakes.
But I don’t like cabbage and …
ХОД УРОКА Do you … honey and sweets?

I. ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННЫЙ МОМЕНТ На экране вписываются слова по мере угадывания деть-


Фонетическая зарядка ми правильных ответов. (Слайд 4)
Teacher: Hello boys and girls! How are you?
Pupils: Fine, thank you. And you? Построение вопросов и ответов. Do, Does.
Teacher: Fine, thank you. Sit down. Teacher: Любопытный Билли очень хочет узнать любите
ли вы то же, что и он – мёд и конфеты (honey and
II. Основной этап sweets).
Teacher: Before we start our lesson let’s do some phonetic Pupils: Do you like honey and sweets? (по цепочке)
exercises. Repeat after me. – Yes, I do. – No, I don’t.
Teacher: Well done. Ваши успехи очень радуют Билли.
Введение в тему Вы ему очень понравились, и он хочет получше
Teacher: Медвежонок Билли решил стать фермером. Он узнать и о ваших друзьях.
начнёт наше путешествие со своего огорода. От-
кройте стр. 14, рис. 14, упр. 1. Какие замечательные
продукты у него на огороде. Помогите мне назвать
все овощи и фрукты на английском языке: карто-
фель, кукуруза, яблоки, капуста, помидоры, орехи,
морковь.
Pupils: Potatoes, corn, apples, tomatoes, nuts, carrots.
Teacher: Он не только угощает, но и хочет, чтобы и вы
угостили своих друзей.
Вам поможет фраза: “Would you like some…?”

Дети по цепочке задают друг другу вопрос: “Would you like


some…?” и отвечают: “Yes, please.”/“No, thank you.”

Закрепление фразы “I would like…” (Слайд 2)

Teacher: Билли доволен тем, как вы хорошо освоили


новые слова и фразы, приглашает нас в необычную
English LESSON PLANS

20
November 2013

Раздаточный материал по стр.18 упр. 6 (Слайд 5)


Does he/she like…?
Yes, he/she does.
No, he/she doesn’t.

Teacher: Я даю вам время спросить друг у друга и


заполнить пустующие клетки. Если да, ставим V,
если нет – X.
Saturday,
Каждому ученику выдается таблица с вопросами. Sunday
Come with me.

Дети хором повторяют за учителем.

Teacher: Билли гордится своими друзьями. Давайте рас-


скажем, чем они занимаются в разные дни недели.
(Слайд 6)
Pupils: They swim on Sunday.
They play football on Monday.
They sing on Tuesday.
They write on Wednesday.
They dance on Thursday.
They read on Friday.

Teacher: Let’s guess what they can do on Saturday.

Дети заполняют таблицу, устно отвечают на вопрос Дети по очереди отвечают на вопрос.
о друге:
Yes, he/she does. Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
No, he/she doesn’t. Teacher: На уроке мы много узнали о друзьях Билли. А
теперь кто-то почитает, а кто-то будет переводчи-
Развитие навыков диалогической речи ком.
Утро в английской семье. Диалог между Билли и мамой
(диалоги в паре, стр. 17-18, упр.4). Дети открывают учебник: стр. 21, упр. 6. Одни ученики
1. soap читают, а другие переводят.
2. tea
3. porridge II. Подведение итогов. Домашнее задание
4. coffee Teacher: Молодцы, ребята! Завершаем наш урок и про-
5. tomato щаемся с Билли. Чтобы порадовать его еще больше
6. orange и лучше знать английский язык, надо работать и
7. sandwich дома. Д/З: S.b. p. 29 ex. 2,3,4; W.B. p. 18.
Now your marks. Show me your cards (по количеству
Повторение темы “Дни недели” карточек за верный ответ: 5 и более – 5; 3–4 – 4;
Teacher: Еда, конечно же, играет важную роль в нашей 1–3 – 3).
жизни, но ведь залогом нашего здоровья и успехов А теперь те, у кого хорошее настроение, пусть под-
являются и другие моменты: движение, обучение нимут красные сердечки, а у кого не очень хорошее
и т.д. – то, что происходит изо дня в день. Давайте – синие.
прежде вспомним дни недели. Thank you for your work. Goodbye!
Monday,
Tuesday, А.В. Даниелова,
Wednesday, МОУ гимназия № 2, Чехов
Thursday, Фотографии предоставлены автором
Friday
One, two, three. См. презентацию и приложение на CD.
LESSON PLANS English

FOOD 21
November2013

Урок в 3-м классе (“Enjoy English 3”, авт. Биболетова М.З. и др.)
Цель урока: создать условия для обобщения материа- Из коврика: [t], [t], [t]
ла по теме “Еда” с помощью лексических упражнений, (tea, butter, sweets, meat)
текстов для чтения, аудирования и монологических вы- Обезьянка звонит в колокольчик: [n], [n], [n]
сказываний. (lemon, banana, sandwich, honey)
Задачи урока: Она потягивается: [L], [L], [L],
Образовательные: систематизировать знания уча- (porridge, corn, or, short)
щихся по теме “Еда”; активизировать употребление Обезьянка греет лапки: [h], [h], [h]
изученных лексических единиц по теме “Еда” в речи (honey, hungry, have)
учащихся.
Развивающие: развивать лексические навыки говорения; Teacher: Excellent. Молодцы.
развивать навыки аудирования с извлечением конкрет-
ной информации и детального понимания содержания; III. Активизация изученных лексических единиц
развивать мышление, внимание, память; развивать на- Teacher: Look at the board and name what you see. (Слайды
выки чтения. 5–6)
Воспитательные: воспитывать уважение к мнению дру-
гих людей; прививать любовь и желание изучать ино- На доске изображены продукты, учащиеся называют,
странный язык через разные формы работы. что они видят.
Практическая: умение оценивать себя в разных видах
речевой деятельности. Teacher: Listen to me and finish the rhymes (Слайды 7–15)
Оборудование: презентация по теме “Еда”, загадки, кар-
точки, картинки. Всегда ты сладкий Что как рыба ты Любит мед
ждешь сюрприз, молчишь? братишка Даня,
ХОД УРОКА Конфеты по- Рыба по- Мед конечно
английски .... английски …. будет ….
I. Организационный момент (Слайд 1) Чаем с сахаром Кило сыра съел При виде мяса кот
Teacher: Hello! Sit down, please! Let’s greet each other. угощу я друга, кот Маркиз, урчит,
Ребята, перед уроком я получила письмо от Винни- Сахар по- Сыр, сырочек Мясо по-
Пуха, давайте посмотрим, что он нам прислал. английски … будет …. английски …
Смотрите, у него в письме картинки с изображени- Молоко я пить Очень любит хлеб И сказал нам дядя
ем продуктов питания, какие-то задания на чтение, привык, Фред, Круз:
карточки со словами. А вы догадались, что мы се- Молоко иначе …. Хлеб по- Сок отличный,
годня будем делать? (Слайд 2) английски …. сок ….

Учащиеся говорят, что они сегодня будут делать на Teacher: What other food words can you name?
уроке.
Учащиеся называют слова, которые не были названы.
Teacher: Today we have an interesting lesson. We have a
guest, Winnie-the-Pooh, he prepared a lot of tasks for Teacher: Ребята, Винни-Пух сейчас будет называть свои
us to revise our vocabulary on “Food” and train our любимые звуки. Скажите, в каких продуктах эти
reading and listening skills. (Слайд 3) звуки спрятались.
Pupils: [t] – tea, carrot, sweets, butter, [b] – bread, butter,
II. Фонетическая зарядка cabbage, banana, [s] – sandwich, soup, sweets, sau-
Teacher: You know that Winnie-the-Pooh is from England, sage, [f] – fish, coffee, [m] – lemon, meat, milk.
he speaks English well. Do you want to speak English Teacher: (Слайд 16) Wow! Who is this? (Гном – gnome)
well too? Of course, yes. To do it, we should train our I have an electronic letter for you from Goomy. I will
tongues, and a monkey, a friend of Winnie-the Pooh, read it. Listen to me.
will help us: (Слайд 4)
(Cлайд 17)
Бежит водичка: [s], [s], [s], “Hello, boys and girls!
(sweets, juice, sausage, some, soup) I’m a gnome. My name is Goomy. I like to jump, dance
Жужжат комарики: [z], [z], [z,] and run. And I like to eat very much. I have a riddle for you.
(cheese, lemons, doesn’t, dogs) Guess what I like to eat. The exercise in your sheets of paper
Обезьянка вытряхивает пыль из диванчика: [d], [d], [d] will help you. Write me back, please.
(bread, porridge, sandwich) Your friend, Goomy.”
English LESSON PLANS

22
November 2013

У учащихся на столе лежат листки с заданием: 3 буква VI. Развитие навыка аудирования
в слове “fish”, 2 буква в слове “carrot”, 5 буква в слове Teacher: Listen to the poem and find out how many Food
“lemon”, 6 буква в слове “porridge”, 2 буква в слове words there are in the poem and name them.
“sweets”, 2 буква в слове “milk”, 1 буква в слове “coffee”, Sandwich for breakfast,
1 буква в слове “honey”. Ученики складывают буквы, и у Tea and milk for lunch.
них получается слово “sandwich” (Слайд 18). Honey for dinner,
I like it very much.
Teacher: Ребята, а вы знаете, почему такой бутерброд на- Listen to the story of Winnie-the-Pooh and choose the
зывается именно так – сэндвич? Конечно, нет. best answer (Cлайд 22).
Послушайте немного из истории происхождения это- Winnie-the-Pooh: Hello, I am Winnie. I am fat because I
го слова. В 18 веке жил граф Сэндвичский. Он любил like to eat. For breakfast I like honey and sugar. For
играть в карты на деньги. Он мог играть круглосуточ- lunch I like sweets and orange juice, but I don’t like
но. Слуги приносили ему еду – мясо и хлеб. Граф не cabbage and carrots. For dinner I drink tea with sugar
хотел останавливать игру для того, чтобы поесть, и and milk.
между двумя кусочками хлеба клал мясо. Таким обра-
зом, он мог играть без остановки. И именно от имени 1. I am fat because I like to …. (a. fly; b. eat; c. jump)
этого человека произошло слово “sandwich”. 2. For breakfast I like …. (a. sweets; b. milk; c. honey)
3. For lunch I like …. (a. sweets; b. carrot; c. sugar)
IV. Физминутка (Слайд 19) 4. I don’t like …. (a. milk; b. cabbage; c. sandwich)
Teacher: It’s time to have a rest. Look at the board. 5. For dinner I drink …. (a. tea; b. coffee; c. juice)

V. Развитие навыка чтения VII. Развитие навыка говорения


Teacher: Winnie-the-Pooh can not only speak English but Teacher: You know a lot of words on the topic “Food”. What
also he can read (Слайд 20). Can you read English? do you like most of all? (Слайд 23)
Of course, you can. Winnie-the-Pooh wants to know What would you like now? Be attentive, you shouldn’t
how well you can read and translate. The text is on the repeat the food named by your classmates. (Слайд 24)
board. (Слайд 21)
Winnie-the-Pooh: I am Winnie. I am very nice. I am not VIII. Подведение итогов
very fat. But I am not slim. I live in the forest. I like Teacher: I’m quite satisfied with your work at our lesson.
sweets. I can jump and fly. I have many friends. Now I would like you to give a mark to yourself and
Teacher: Do you know why Winnie is fat? Find the answer your classmates.
in the text.
Учитель предлагает учащимся оценить свою работу на
Учащиеся зачитывают предложение из текста “I like уроке и работу своих одноклассников.
sweets”.
Teacher: Look at the board and see what Winnie-the-Pooh
Teacher: Read the text, put in the words instead of pictures says to you about your work. (Слайд 25)
and write them on the blackboard.
IX. Домашнее задание
My friend is not big. She has a short . She has a green Нарисовать любимое животное или сказочного героя и
его любимую еду.
. She can and . She likes her .
X. Рефлексия
Teacher: Now I want to know how attentive you are. At your Teacher: Did you like our lesson? What did you like at our
desks you have a sheet of paper with a word. I will lesson? Did you like your work at our lesson? (Cлайд
read a sentence with a word and if you have this word 26)
in your sheet of paper, stand up and read the word and Ребята, мне очень понравилась ваша работа на уро-
translate it. Let’s start. ке, и я хочу подарить вам картинки с изображением
продуктов питания.
1. A girl is nice. 7. I run in the park.
2. The shirt is dirty. 8. I have a nice cockerel. Ольга Сергеевна Зинченко,
3. I would like some milk. 9. I have a friend. МБОУ “Гимназия № 3”,
4. He can jump and fly. 10. His nose is not long. Локтевской р-н, Алтайский край
5. Winnie is short and fat. 11. A fox lives in the forest.
6. His pet is a big black horse. См. презентацию и видео на CD.
LESSON PLANS English

FOOD: FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 23November2013


Сенсорное обучение лексике в 3-м классе
Учебник “English-3” для школ с углубленным изучением языка. Стадия вызова. Введение в тему урока – 3 мин
И.Н. Верещагина. II четверть, тема: Food. T: Now I want you to look around and guess what we shall do
Тип урока: комплексный.
Цель: используя методы сенсорного обучения, активизировать
today during our lesson. (В классе развешаны картинки
лексику учащихся по теме “Еда”. с овощами и фруктами; на столе стоит корзина с
Задачи: фруктами; на доске – плакат (см. Приложение).
Образовательные: совершенствовать умения и навыки практи- P: I think today we’ll speak about fruit and vegetables.
ческого владения языком; повторить пройденные лексические
T: You are absolutely right. We’ll not only speak about
единицы (прилагательные) и изучить новые в игровой форме.
Воспитательные: формировать умение работать в группах; them, but taste them as well. And do you know the differ-
учить детей умению уважительно относиться друг к другу. ence between fruits and vegetables?
Развивающие: развивать память, догадку, языковое мышление; P: Fruits are sweet and have seeds.
развивать умение работать в разных режимах; развивать умение T: So, tell me, please, is pumpkin a fruit or a vegetable? And
работать в группах (коллективную деятельность).
Практические: в грамматике: формировать умение употреблять
what about cucumber? I see that you know much about
like как предлог; в аудировании: учить воспринимать речь на this topic. And now get ready for a story:
слух; в говорении: учить устно описывать фрукты и овощи, ис- Sometimes my hands are at my sides,
пользуя прилагательные; в письме: написать стих по образцу. Then behind my back they hide.
Формы организации познавательной деятельности: фрон-
Sometimes I wiggle my fingers,
тальная, групповая
Оснащение урока: магнитофон, аудиозаписи, плакат, игрушки, Shake hands fast, shake them slow.
картинки с изображением овощей и фруктов; корзина с фрукта- Sometimes my hands go clap, clap, clap,
ми, одноразовая посуда, волшебный мешочек, бумага, каранда- Then I rest them in my lap.
ши, фломастеры. Now they’re quiet as quiet can be,
Because it’s story time you see.
ХОД УРОКА
I. Организационный момент (4 мин.) III. Storytelling (5 мин.)
T: Good afternoon, boys and girls. Glad to see you! Let’s Сказка с использованием названий фруктов и описа-
sing a song and say hello to everybody. (Children sing тельных прилагательных
“Good morning”.) T: There is a picture on the blackboard. Look at this woman,
Wonderful. Sit down please and get ready for the lesson. the story will be about her.
Check your books. Pens and pencils. Diaries. Is every-
thing in order? I hope so.
What date is it today?
Ps: Today is ...
T: What day of the week is it today?
P: Today is ...
T: And yesterday? What day of the week was yesterday?
P: Yesterday was ...
T: Let’s sing a song about the days of the week.

Children sing a song (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday,


Thursday, Friday, Saturday).

T: Who is absent today? Is everybody in the class?


P: V is absent (everybody is here).
T: Count, how many children are there in the class?
P: There are 13 pupils in the class. Once there was a young lady and she was very hungry.
T: What’s the weather like today? But she was on a diet, and was afraid to eat much, so she ate
Ps: It’s rather warm. It’s windy, sunny… a little green dry pea. (Ask one of the children to go to the
T: Thank you very much for your answers. teacher’s table, take a pea and put it in the lady’s mouth). But
it did not help, she was still hungry. Then she decided to eat
II. Фонетическая зарядка + речевая зарядка (2 мин.) something bigger and she ate a smooth purple plum (Ask one
T: Let’s train our tongues and remember a tongue twister. of the children to go to the teacher’s table, take a plum and
P: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. put it in the lady’s mouth). It did not help either. She decided
A peck of pickled peppers, Peter Piper picked. to eat something bigger and she ate a yellow, long and very
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, sweet banana, then a rough medium size pineapple and at
Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? last she finished with a huge juicy watermelon. Now she is
T: Great! full and happy. She is not hungry anymore.
English LESSON PLANS

24
November 2013

T: It’s a happy end of the story. Did you like the story? It
seems to me that YOU feel hungry.
Let’s sing a song “We are hungry”.

Children stand up and sing a song with movements.

T: I’ll feed you but a little bit later.

IV. Работа в группах (15 мин.) T: Very well. Hands on head, hands on hips, hands on the
T: Now I want you to be divided into 3 groups. desk, hands like this (show any), hands on shoulders,
hands up and down, hands behind the head and sit down.
Каждый ребенок берет со стола учителя карточку, на You know a lot of adjectives and if we speak about fruits
которой изображен либо ананас, либо груша, либо виш- and vegetables, what descriptive words do you know?
ня. И таким образом образуются 3 команды.
The children suggest a lot of words and the teacher writes
T: Let’s continue to speak about fruits and vegetables. But them on the blackboard (juicy, big, small, medium, sweet,
first, let’s revise human senses, because we need them to sour, bitter, soft, hard, rough, crunchy, yummy, long, round,
guess and feel fruits and vegetables. Who can name our 5 oval, rather dry).
senses? People can feel, see, hear, touch and taste.
Every team will get a task about a fruit or a vegetable and T: Now I’ll give you 5 minutes to think about your poems.
tell us: what does it look like, feel like, smell like and Use your imagination, use adjectives. You have a list of
taste like (sound like). By the end of the lesson, every adjectives on your desks and on the blackboard as well.
team has to write a poem, using your five senses. Take a sheet of paper; draw the shape of your fruit and
write a poem inside.
1. What does it look like? (Каждая команда получает
рисунок.) They say: “It looks like…” Here is an example:
2. What does it feel like? (Каждая команда получает ме- • Line 1 is one word describing how it looks
шочек, в котором находятся муляжи овощей и фрук- • Line 2 is one word describing how it feels to the touch
тов, и на ощупь определяет название.) Every team has • Line 3 is one word describing the sound when they take a
a bag with a fruit or vegetable inside. They have to guess bite
what it is by touching. They say: “It feels like…” • Line 4 is one word describing how it tastes
3. What does it smell like? (В трёх контейнерах лежат • Line 5 is one sentence describing how it leaves the mouth
кусочки бананов, огурцов и яблок. Дети, не подгля- feeling
дывая, на запах определяют название.) Children close
their eyes and smell cut fruits and vegetables. They say: T: Your time is up; let me display your works of art.
“It smells like…”
4. What does it sound like? (Дети слышат аудиозапись 1 VI. Представление своих работ (3 мин.)
– кто-то откусывает яблоко.) Children hear the sound Представитель каждой команды вывешивает на доску
of an apple being bitten. They say: “It sounds like…” свой шедевр и читает, что у них получилось. Сравниваем
5. What does it taste like? (Каждая команда получает результаты, выбираем лучший вариант.
контейнер с нарезанными овощами и фруктами и
на вкус определяет название.) There are many pieces VII. Объяснение и запись домашнего задания (2 мин.)
of fruits and vegetables. Children taste them and say: “It Every team presents their work. The teacher praises the stu-
tastes like…” dents and put marks for the lesson.

V. Стадия рефлексии (5 мин.) T: You have been working really nice and hard today and, of
Каждая команда должна написать стих, используя 5 course, you get excellent marks. At home please prepare
чувств и описательные прилагательные. your own poems about your favorite fruit or vegetable.
Open your diaries and write down your homework for
T: You are not hungry anymore, but before writing a poem I the next lesson.
want you to move. Stand up please. Raise your head, jump up high, wave
your hand, say “Good bye”. The lesson is over.
Проводим разминку с движениями, используя
прилагательные-антонимы: short – long, short – tall, fat – By Natalia Sachkova,
thin, hungry – full, happy – sad, strong – weak, heavy – light, School No. 1699, Moscow
dirty – clean, push – pull, tasty – rotten. Photos taken by the author
LESSON PLANS English

DAILY LIFE 25 November2013

Конспект урока английского языка во 2-м классе


УМК: Английский язык – 2 класс, авторы – И.Н. Вере- 5. Систематизация, совершенствование навыков
щагина, К.А. Бондаренко, Т.А. Притыкина. Учебник для письма по теме “Повседневная жизнь”
общеобр. шк. и др. – М., 2011. Учитель пишет на доске предложения по теме “Распо-
Цель: систематизация и семантизация изученного рядок дня”, состоящие из слов, которые располагаются
лексико-грамматического материала по разделу “По- вразброс. Задача учеников – написать их в правильном
вседневная жизнь”. порядке. Учитель приглашает по очереди каждого. Это
Задачи: задание можно выполнять в качестве альтернативы и
Развивающие задачи: развитие креативного и критиче- в другом виде. Учитель может раздать карточки с по-
ского мышления, памяти, внимания, языковой компетен- добным заданием каждому ученику, чтобы они выполни-
ции, интереса к культуре изучаемого языка. ли его на месте:
Образовательные задачи: совершенствование навыка • I, at, o’clock, get, 7.00, up.
говорения, аудирования, чтения, развитие навыка пись- • exercises, I, do, my, 7.15, at.
ма по разделу “Повседневная жизнь”. • hands, my, wash, I, and, face, at, 7.30.
Воспитательные задачи: развитие социокультурной • I, breakfast, have, at, 7.45.
компетенции, уважение к культуре и традициям страны • school, to, go, I, 8.00, at, o’clock.
изучаемого языка. • I, home, at, come, 2.00 (14-00), o’clock.
• have, I, 2.30 (14.30), dinner, at.
ПЛАН УРОКА • homework, I, my, o’clock, at, do, 3.00 (15.00).
• I, for a walk, with, dog, go, my, 4.00 (16.00), at, o’clock.
1. Приветствие • at, have, 6.00 (18.00), I, o’clock, supper.
2. Сообщение темы и цели урока • o’clock, a, book, at, 7.00 (19.00), read, I.
• I, to, at, 9.00 (21.00), go, bed, o’clock.
3. Семантизация, совершенствование навыков ауди-
рования, чтения и говорения по теме “Повседневная 6. Развивающее задание по теме
жизнь” Учитель предлагает ученикам составить кроссворд из
В самом начале урока на смартдоске появляются часы, числительных от 1 до 12.
и ученики должны сами сформулировать тему, которую
они будут обсуждать. Это – “Повседневная жизнь”, Вариант кроссворда:
включающая в себя распорядок дня и время. Затем дети e i g h t t w o
поют песню на английском языке про распорядок дня,
изображая свои действия. (Песня: http://learnenglishkids. w h
britishcouncil.org/en/songs/the-way.)
s e v e n f o u r
После этого на смартдоске появляются английские
фразы по распорядку дня, которые читают по очереди i l i e
ученики, вставляя время по контексту:
x v t v e
• I get up at … o’clock.
• I do my exercises at … o’clock. e l e v e n
• I wash my hands and face, clean my teeth at … o’clock.
n i
• I have breakfast at …o’clock.
• I go to school at…o’clock. n
• I come home at … o’clock.
o n e
• I have dinner at … o’clock.
• I do my homework at … o’clock.
• I go for a walk with my dog at … o’clock. 7. Подведение итогов урока
• I have supper at … o’clock. Учитель подводит итоги урока, оценивая работу каждо-
• I read a book at … o’clock. го. В качестве домашнего задания учитель предлагает
• I go to bed at … o’clock. ученикам творческую работу – создать свой постер по
распорядку дня на английском языке, в качестве иллю-
4. Физкультминутка страций могут использоваться как рисунки, так и фото
На 20-й минуте учитель проводит с учениками физ- самих учащихся. В конце урока учитель благодарит уче-
культминутку на английском языке: в песне ученики от- ников за хорошую работу.
рабатывают глаголы движения с глаголом “can”, изо-
бражая свои действия. (Песня: http://learnenglishkids. Жанна Попова,
britishcouncil.org/en/songs/i-can-run) ГБОУ СОШ № 1640, г. Москва
журнал

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TOPICAL JOURNEY English

Food Man does not live by bread alone.


27November2013


Bible
We should look for someone
What is food to one man may be to eat and drink with before
fierce poison to others.
Lucretius
The chief pleasure in eating does not consist in
looking for something to eat
and drink…

costly seasoning, or exquisite flavor, Epicurus
but in yourself.
Horace
A hungry stomach seldom scorns plain food.
Horace
Bad men live that they may eat and drink,
whereas good men eat and drink
that they may live.
Socrates
All happiness depends upon a leisurely breakfast.
John Gunther
A good meal makes a man feel more charitable
toward the world than any sermon.
Arthur Pendenys
Cookery has become a noble art, a noble science;
cooks are gentlemen.
Robert Burton
TOPICAL JOURNEY
Food History .........................................28
If more of us valued food and cheer and song
above hoarded gold, it would be a merrier world. Food around the World ..........................29
J.R.R. Tolkien Fun Facts about Food Near and Far........29
Great eaters and great sleepers are incapable of Food Idioms ..........................................30
anything else that is great. Eat, Drink and Be Merry .......................30
Henry IV Food Facts ............................................32
After a good dinner one can forgive anybody, In the Kitchen .......................................32
even one’s own relatives. At the Restaurant .................................. 33
Oscar Wilde
Food and Eating
There are few things so pleasant as a picnic eaten Conversation Questions ..........................34
in perfect comfort.
Strange British Foods .............................34
W. Somerset Maugham
Questions about Eating Etiquette
I live on good food, not fine words.
in Britain ............................................... 35
Moliere
Food Inventions .....................................36
Music with dinner is an insult both to the cook
Feast and Fast .......................................36
and the violinist.
G. K. Chesterton Smart Food, Junk Food ..........................37
History of the Club Sandwich .................37
Hunger is the best sauce in the world.
Miguel de Cervantes Literary Food ........................................38
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

28
November 2013

Food History
The most important thing to realize about food long ago is that most people never
got enough to eat, and many people starved to death. Food was expensive, and they
MEDIEVAL FOOD didn’t have food stamps or anything like that. When people could get food, the food
In the Middle Ages in Europe, what people people ate varied a good deal from time to time and from place to place. There are some
ate depended a lot on how rich they were. things all these times and places had in common, though.
Poor people (which was almost everybody) ate First, one reason food was so expensive was that there was no refrigeration or
mainly barley. Sometimes they made their bar- freezers. It was very hard to keep food from going bad. People did a lot of different
ley into bread, and sometimes into pancakes or
things to preserve food. They dried fruit to make raisins, prunes, dried peas, and dried
pizza, and sometimes into barley porridge (like
oatmeal) and sometimes into barley soup. But
apples. They pickled vegetables, meat, and fish in brine (salty water) to make pickles
every day, breakfast, lunch and dinner, most of and garum, a fermented fish sauce. They fermented grape juice and apple juice and
every meal was barley. It must have been very barley to turn them into wine and cider and beer. They made yoghurt and cheese.
boring! They smoked meat from pigs to make ham and bacon. Honey also acts as a good
preservative.
As much as they could, poor people grew
carrots and onions and cabbage and garlic to put Second, because it was so hard to carry things from one place to another without
in their soup, and they made cheese to eat with canals or trains or trucks, people usually could only eat what was available in their
their bread and melt on their pizza, and they gath- area at that time of year. If there was a shortage of food because of bad weather or crop
ered apples and pears and mushrooms as well, diseases, people starved. Even in a good year, it was impossible to get fresh vegetables
so they could make apple pies or baked apples. in the wintertime!
And they tried to get honey or sugar to sweeten Third, before Christopher Columbus came to America in 1492 AD, and even for
their treats. They grew herbs like parsley, chives, some time after that, many of the foods we eat today were not known in Europe, Af-
basil and rosemary to flavor their food. Mostly
rica, or Western Asia. They had no potatoes, no tomatoes, no corn-on-the-cob (maize).
poor people drank ale or beer in England and
Germany, wine in France and Italy and Spain. Europeans also had not yet gotten rice or citrus fruits (lemons and oranges) from India.
Even the beer was made from barley! Indian spices like cinnamon and pepper were available in Europe, but they were very
expensive.
Rich people also ate a lot of bread, but they
made their bread out of wheat so it tasted bet-
ter. And they had more choices of other things to EGYPTIAN FOOD
eat with their bread. Rich people ate meat – pork Because Egypt is in Africa, but very close to West Asia, what people ate in ancient
and roast beef and stew and lamb chops and Egypt was midway between African and West Asian food. Wheat, barley, and olive oil,
deer and rabbit. And they had spices to put on all originally from West Asia, gave Egyptians most of their calories.
their food, expensive spices that had to come all Egyptian bakers made both wheat and barley into bread and into soup and porridge
the way from India like pepper and cinnamon. (like oatmeal), and they also fermented barley to make beer. In fact, some people think
Even salt was often too expensive for poor peo-
the real reason that the Egyptians first began growing grain was to make beer. Egyptians
ple, and only rich people had it. In fact, when you
were eating in a medieval castle, the salt would made beer jars to put in your grave when you died so you would have beer in the next
be on the table in a huge fancy salt cellar, and world.
the rich people would sit near the salt so they Egyptians didn’t eat a lot of meat, but their meat also came from animals that had
could use it, while the poor people sat further been domesticated further north in West Asia or Central Asia: mostly beef and lamb.
down the long table and couldn’t use the salt. You could go to a butcher shop and buy lamb there, just as people do today, or a duck
There is an expression, “above the salt” mean- or goose. Only because it rarely rains in Egypt, they could have the meat outside in the
ing a rich person. courtyard of the store instead of inside. In the Old Kingdom, they ate pork, too. From
During the Crusades, though, the French, the New Kingdom on, though, most Egyptian people would not eat pork, because they
English and German soldiers who were fighting thought pigs were dirty and yucky.
in the Middle East ate a lot of Asian-style food But people in Egypt ate African food, too. They used palm oil for some recipes. For
while they were there, and they got to like it. dessert, they liked to eat dates and figs and honey. One archaeologists dug up some real
When they came home, a lot of them still wanted Egyptian dates which were put into somebody’s grave for them to eat in the next world,
to have fancier food than they had had before,
and they missed the oranges and lemons they
and which were preserved in the dry climate for three thousand years.
had eaten in the South. So in the Late Middle Archaeologists have also found seeds which show that the Egyptians grew water-
Ages, European cooking became a lot more melons, and other kinds of melon.
Mediterranean than it had been in the Early
Middle Ages. Sources: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/
English

Food
TOPICAL JOURNEY

29
Around the World
November2013

BOBOTIE (South African) FUN FACTS


This popular meal is made of minced lamb ABOUT FOOD NEAR AND FAR
or beef; bread, rice or potatoes, onions, and What’s bouillabaisse? It’s French for a fish
spices. The ingredients are mixed with egg and stew that combines many kinds of fish and shell-
milk and baked. fish. Here is a stew of another kind – a variety
of food facts.
CASSOULET (French)
This casserole, which means “white bean
Meal Within a Meal
stew,” is made of white beans, sausage, bacon, For special occasions, the Bedouin tribes of
tomatoes, carrots, herbs, and other vegetables Africa stuff a fish with eggs and put it inside a
and is simmered and baked. chicken. The chicken is put inside a sheep, and
DIM SUM (Chinese) the sheep is put inside a camel and roasted.
This meal is usually eaten as breakfast or Now that’s stuffed!
lunch at a restaurant. Waiters push around
trays loaded with noodles, dumplings, vegeta- Prehistoric Food
Have you ever wondered what people ate
bles, and meat. Diners are served bite-sized
before recorded time? Just like what people eat
portions in small bamboo cups. now, it depended on what plants and animals
ENCHILADA (Mexican) were available to them. According to archeo-
In this rich dish, a soft corn tortilla is logical evidence, some prehistoric people dug
stuffed with shredded cheese, onions, chilies, wild onions and radishes and searched for wild
and sometimes meat. It’s either broiled or fried squash, cabbage, mushrooms, and waterlily
seed to eat. They also ate some insects, raw.
and topped with salsa and cheese.
Certain tasty insects became extinct from being
FEIJOADA (Brazil) overhunted (or overeaten?).
This is one of the most popular dishes in
Brazil. It’s a stew of black beans, pork, and Bird’s Nest Soup
spices. Pigs’ feet and ears are sometimes in- Yes, this Asian delicacy is made from real
cluded in the mix. bird’s nests. In China, a prized food is the soup
made from the Asian swift’s nest.
MOUSSAKA (Greek)
Considered Greece’s signature dish, this
casserole is made of lamb, eggplant, tomatoes,
Breakfast in Egypt
In Egypt, breakfast is often bought and eat-
and spices. en at a street stall. Usually it is bread wrapped
PAD THAI (Thai) around assorted fried vegetables: eggplant,
This Thai staple features rice noodles stir- beans, tomatoes, and peppers.
fried with peanuts, oil, vegetables, and usually
tofu, chicken, or fish. Aborigine Food
The Aborigines of Australia call their native
RISOTTO (Italian) food “bush-tucks.” It includes game meat such
This creamy, starchy rice dish is made by as kangaroo, turkey, and goanna, which is a kind
gradually adding boiling liquid, usually broth, of lizard.
to Arborio rice and sautéed onions. It’s cooked
al dente (firm to the bite). Vegetables and sea- Pretzels and Prayers
food are often added during the cooking proc- According to folklore, pretzels were given
ess. to children who knew their prayers. The pret-
SAMOSAS (Indian) zel shape was supposed to signify arms folded
across the chest in prayer.
These snacks are made of meat, potatoes,
vegetables, and spices stuffed inside pastry
dough and fried in oil.
Gorp
The energy food of bikers and hikers is called
SUSHI (Japanese) Gorp: Good Old Raisins and Peanuts.
This popular meal typically includes cooked
rice that is either topped with raw or cooked Peanut Butter
fish or rolled into small, bite-size pieces with A favorite spread for sandwiches, peanut but-
fish and vegetables and wrapped in thin sheets ter was created by a doctor as a health food. In
of seaweed. It’s usually served in with slivered Africa, where they were first grown, peanuts are
ginger and wasabi, a spicy plant in the mustard known as groundnuts.
family.
Buffalo Wings
SUYA (Nigerian) Buffalo wings have nothing to do with bison.
This spicy dish is made of cubed chicken or They are spicy chicken wings that originated in
beef marinated in ground peanuts, hot pepper, Buffalo, New York.
garlic, ginger, and other spices and grilled on
skewers. By Beth Rowen Horseradish
The ancient Greeks believed horseradish
http://www.infoplease.com; http://www.factmonster.com was worth its weight in gold.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

30
November 2013 Eat, Drink a
FOOD IDIOMS
apple of one’s eye a person that is adored by
someone
Baby Jessica is the apple of her father’s eye.
À LA CARTE
bad egg a person who is often in trouble Meaning: On the menu, with each dish separately priced.
I don’t want my little brother hanging around with Origin: This is a French term, literally translated as ‘according to the card’ (the ‘card’
the bad eggs on the street. is the menu card). This applies to meals which are ordered in a restaurant as separate
big cheese very important person (VIP) items, each with a specified price, as distinct from a ‘table d’hôte’ meal, which has a
I thought I was just going to interview the sec- fixed inclusive price.
retary, but they let me talk to the big cheese BAKER’S DOZEN
himself. Meaning: Thirteen or, more rarely, fourteen.
bread and butter necessities, the main thing Origin: It’s widely believed that this phrase originated from the practice of medieval
Just explain the bread and butter of your report. English bakers giving an extra loaf when selling a dozen in order to avoid being penal-
You don’t have to go into details. ized for selling short weight.
bring home the bacon earn the income CORDON BLEU
My husband has had to bring home the bacon Meaning: High quality, especially of cooking.
ever since I broke my leg. Origin: French for ‘blue ribbon’. The Cordon Bleu was the highest order of chivalry
under the Bourbon kings. It has since been used for other first-class distinctions. The
butter someone up be extra nice to someone term has migrated into the language as a figurative acclamation rather than actual deco-
(usually for selfish reasons)
ration for high quality, especially for chefs.
We’ll have to butter Angie up before we tell her
the news about the broken vase. EAT DRINK AND BE MERRY
Origin: From the Bible, Ecclesiastes VIII 15 (King James Version): To eat, and to
(have one’s) cake and eat it too want more drink, and to be merry.
than your fair share or need
Rick wants to have his cake and eat it too. He EAT HUMBLE PIE
wants to be single but he doesn’t want me to Meaning: Act submissively and apologetically, especially in admitting an error.
date anyone else. Origin: In the 14th century, the numbles (or noumbles, nomblys, noubles) was the
name given to the heart, liver, entrails etc. of animals, especially of deer. By the 15th
carrot top person with red or orange hair
century this had migrated to umbles, although the words co-existed for some time. Um-
Simon is the first carrot top I’ve ever gone out
with. bles were used as an ingredient in pies, although the first record of ‘umble pie’ in print
is as late as the 17th century.
cheesy silly The adjective humble, meaning ‘of lowly rank’ or ‘having a low estimate of one-
I love reading cheesy romance novels because self’ derived separately from umbles. The similarity of the sound of the words, and
I don’t have to think. the fact that umble pie was often eaten by those of humble situation could easily
cool as a cucumber very relaxed have been the reason for ‘eat humble pie’ to have come to have its current idiomatic
I thought I was afraid of flying, but I was cool as meaning.
a cucumber all the way to England. MY CUP OF TEA
cream of the crop the best Meaning: Something or someone that one finds pleasing.
We hired the cream of the crop to entertain us Origin: ‘My cup of tea’ is just one of the many tea-related phrases that are still in
at the Christmas party. common use in the UK, such as ‘Not for all the tea in China’, ‘I could murder a cup
of tea’, ‘More tea vicar?’, ‘Tea and sympathy’, ‘Rosie Lee’, ‘Storm in a teacup’ and
(don’t) cry over spilled milk get upset over
so on.
something that has happened and cannot be
changed
In the early 20th century, a ‘cup of tea’ was such a synonym for acceptability that it
The mirror is broken and we can’t fix it. There’s became the name given to a favoured friend, especially one with a boisterous, life-
no need to cry over spilled milk. enhancing nature. People or things with which one felt an affinity began to be called
‘my cup of tea’ in the 1930s.
cup of joe cup of coffee In keeping with the high regard for tea, most of the early references to ‘a cup of tea’ as a
Let’s stop for a cup of joe before we head to
description of an acquaintance are positive ones, that is, ‘nice’, ‘good’, ‘strong’ etc. The
work.
expression is more often used in the ‘not my cup of tea’ form these days. This negative
(not my) cup of tea something you enjoy (usu- usage began in WWII.
ally used negatively) PICK ‘N’ MIX
Opera isn’t exactly my cup of tea.
Meaning: A range of sweets, chocolates, ice-creams etc., from which a selection can
egg someone on urge someone to do some- be made.
thing Origin: The ‘n’ abbreviation might lead you to think that this is an American phrase. If
The gang tried to egg us on but we didn’t want so, you would be right. It originated there in the 1950s, as a slogan to advertise sweets
to fight. – or should that be candy?
freeze one’s buns off be very cold Since around the 1970s, the use of phrase widened from food items for sale has been
used more generally to denote anything that is made up from a selection of various
I froze my buns off at the ice rink.
items.
full of beans have a lot of (silly) energy
Sources: http://www.phrases.org.uk; http://www.english-at-home.com;
The kids were full of beans after the circus.
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

k and Be Merry... 31
November2013

AS AS
alike two peas in a pod
black a skillet
busy popcorn on a skillet
gravy train extremely good pay for minimal
brown a berry
work
cool a cucumber The unionized grocers have been enjoying the-
different chalk and cheese gravy train for twenty years.
easy pie
easy duck soup (have something) handed to someone on a
flat a pancake silver platter receive without working for some-
thing
hungry a bear
The professor’s daughter had her college diplo-
keen mustard ma handed to her on a silver platter.
nutty a fruitcake
red a cherry hard nut to crack difficult to understand (often
sour vinegar a person)
sweet honey/sugar Angelo is a hard nut to crack when something
is bothering him like this.
thick pea soup
warm toast hot potato a controversial or difficult subject
Choosing a location for our new store is a hot
FOOD AND DRINK PROVERBS FROM AROUND THE WORLD potato right now.
AMERICAN PROVERBS
in a nutshell simply
• You can’t have your cake and eat it too. In a nutshell, I’m having a bad day.
• An apple pie without some cheese is like a kiss without a squeeze.
• Don’t cry over spilt milk. nuts about something, someone like a lot
BRITISH PROVERBS I’m nuts about classical music these days.
• Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper. out to lunch crazy or mad
• He that lives upon hope will die fasting. Harry has been out to lunch ever since he lost
• Deeds are fruits, words are but leaves. his job.
• A hungry man, an angry man.
one smart cookie a very intelligent person
• After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile.
Your daughter is one smart cookie. She reads
• A man without a mustache is like tea without sugar. much higher than her grade level.
• A fat kitchen makes a lean will.
• Old wine and old friends are best. peach fuzz small amount of hair growth
INDIAN PROVERBS Except for a bit of peach fuzz, the baby came
out bald.
• Don’t bargain for fishes which are still in the water.
• Fat desire, thin throat. (English Equivalent: To bite off more than one can chew). piece of cake very easy
ITALIAN PROVERBS The exam was a piece of cake.
• The one who sleeps doesn’t catch fishes.
put all of one’s eggs in a basket rely on one
• Bread and scales don’t fill the belly. single thing
• Fish and guests in three days begin to smell. Even though I’m majoring in Art, I’m taking a
• He who eats alone dies alone. maths course because my Dad says I shouldn’t
CHINESE PROVERBS put all of my eggs in one basket.
• Women, wine, game, and deceit make the wealth small, and the want great.
souped up made more powerful or stylish
• Oxen till the fields, and rats eat the corn. The car was souped up with shiny rims and a
• Half an orange tastes as sweet as a whole one. loud stereo.
• Don’t pull up your shoes in a melon field, nor adjust your hat under a plum tree. (that
is, avoid the appearance of evil). sell like hotcakes bought by many people
The new Harry Potter books sold like hot
• Ripe melons drop without plucking.
cakes.
• It is not the wine which makes a man drunk: it is the man himself.
• One needn’t devour a whole chicken to know the flavour of the bird. spice things up make something more excit-
• Cleanse your heart as you would cleanse a dish. ing
• Don’t make dumplings in a teapot. I wanted to spice things up in the office, so I
• Good or bad ’tis the wine of my country. bought some red and gold paint.
• Those who have not tasted the bitterest of life’s bitters, can never appreciate the spill the beans reveal the truth
sweetest of life’s sweets. On Monday, I’m going to spill the beans about
• Newborn calves don’t fear tigers. my travel plans.
• Do not choke yourself in eating, nor let your foot slip in walking.
• Wine will both finish and furnish business. take something with a pinch (grain) of salt
don’t consider something 100% accurate
• Wine discovers the sentiments of the heart. Take Mandy’s advice with a pinch of salt. She
• Wine for lovers, honey for married life.
doesn’t always do her research.
SPANISH PROVERBS
• Four persons are necessary to the proper preparation of a salad: a spendthrift for oil, use your noodle use your brain
a miser for vinegar, a counsellor for salt, and a madman to stir it all up. You’re going to have to really use your noodle-
on this crossword puzzle. It’s an extra difficult
http://www.tastearts.com; http://englishclub.com Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina one.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

32 In the Kitchen
November 2013

FOOD FACTS ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR THE KITCHEN


• Food can only be tasted if it is mixed with sa- Some people have a fitted kitchen, where all the kitchen units have been bought
liva. together, and they are assembled according to a plan. Other people have a kitchen where
• Rice is the chief food for half the people of the the units are free-standing: not necessarily bought together at one time.
world. In a kitchen you are likely to find cupboards (or cabinets), either at floor level,
• It takes four tons of grapes to make one ton of or at eye level. In the eye level cupboards you will probably find dry goods (such as
raisins.
flour, sugar, rice, pasta, spices) and maybe glasses and crockery (plates, bowls etc). In
• Honey is the only food that will not spoil. Hon-
ey found in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs
the floor level cupboards you might find pots and pans: saucepans for cooking pasta
has been tasted by archaeologists and found etc; frying pans for frying food; baking tins and roasting tins for cooking food in the
edible. oven; and serving dishes made from glass or china. You could also find other kitchen
• Coca-Cola was originally green. implements such as a blender (= food processor) and kitchen scales (for measuring
• Bananas are not fruit! They are a type of and weighing food). Often the top part of a floor level cupboard has a drawer, where
herb. various items are kept, such as cutlery (knives, forks and spoons); aluminium foil
• Bananas contain a natural chemical which (metal paper), cling film (thin plastic wrap), freezer bags, and other kitchen items such
can make a person happy. as a bread knife, tin opener, corkscrew (to open bottles of wine), potato peeler (to
• Smelling bananas or green apples (smelling, take the skin off potatoes), a rolling pin (to roll out pastry) and so on.
not eating) can help you lose weight! On the top of the floor level cupboards you often find a worktop or work surface,
• Coffee beans aren't beans – they're fruit pits. where you can prepare food. These surfaces are sometimes made of marble, or hard
• In its ancient form, the carrot was purple, not wood, and they can be easily cleaned. Some people keep a toaster or microwave on
orange.
the work surfaces, along with things they need frequently, such as oil, salt, or various
• Ears of corn always have an even number of
rows of kernels.
sauces.
• Onions have no flavor, only a smell.
Most kitchens also contain a cooker with an oven and four rings, (although some
• Strawberries have more vitamin C than or- modern cookers are split level, where the oven is separate from the rings), a fridge-
anges. freezer, and perhaps a dishwasher or even a washing machine. You’ll probably find a
• Sweet potatoes were grown in Peru as early kitchen sink, where you wash the plates and dishes, and larger kitchens also contain a
as 750 BC. kitchen table and chairs, so you can eat in the same room.
• Tomatoes were originally thought in Europe to
be poisonous.
• The world’s oldest piece of chewing gum is FOOD PREPARATION AND RECIPES
9,000 years old!
• You'll drink 16,000 gallons of liguids in your
life.
• Half of all coffee drinkers drink it black.
• Coffee is the world's most recognizable smell.
• To make one pound of whole milk cheese, 10
pounds of whole milk is needed.
• Broccoli is the food with the best anti-cancer
properties.
• Eating lemons makes you live longer.
• Lemons contain more sugar than strawber-
ries.
• Apples are the most popular fruit in the U.S.
• Tea is said to have been discovered in 2737 BC
by a Chinese emperor when some tea leaves
accidentally blew into a pot of boiling water.
• An average adult eats 2,000 pounds of food
each year.
• During your lifetime, you'll eat about 60,000
pounds of food, that's the weight of about 6
elephants!
• On average, a person will spend about five
years eating during his or her lifetime.
• There are about 100,000 bacteria in one litre
of drinking water.
• Instant coffee has been in existence since the
middle of the eighteenth century.
• Temperature can affect your appetite.
• There are around 2000 different plant types
that humans use to cultivate food. 1. cut (up) 6. stir 11. fill ___ with ___ 16. cook 21. steam
• Examples of popular vegetables include let- 2. chop (up) 7. beat 12. add ___ to ___ 17. bake 22. scramble
tuce, carrots, asparagus, cauliflower, broccoli, 3. slice 8. sauté 13. put ___ in ___ 18. boil 23. barbecue/grill
spinach, potatoes and onions. 4. grate 9. pour 14. combine ___ and ___ 19. broil 24. stir-fry
• The sweet potato is a root vegetable and is 5. peel 10. carve 15. mix ___ and ___ 20. fry 25. microwave
not closely related to the potato.
• The word potato comes from the Spanish Sources: http://humanism.med.ufl.edu, http://www.worldwidewords.org
word patata.
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

At the Restaurant 33November2013

FOOD GROUPS • The onion is named after a Latin word mean-


• Red Meat – Beef (Cow), Lamb, Pork (Pig), Sausages, Liver ing large pearl.
• White Meat (Poultry) – Chicken, Turkey • Cutting onions releases a gas which causes
a stinging sensation when it comes into con-
• Fish – Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Salmon, Sardines, Whitebait, Tuna, Swordfish, trout
tact with your eyes. Your body produces tears
• Shellfish – Crab, Prawns (British)/Shrimps (American), Lobster, Mussels to dilute the irritant and remove it from your
• Vegetables – Spinach, Courgettes (British)/Zucchini (American), Carrots, Potatoes, eyes.
Broccoli, Mangetouts, Peas, Green Beans • Pumpkins are usually labelled as vegetables but
HOW IS THE FOOD COOKED? they contain seeds and are technically fruit.
• Fish, meat and vegetables can be pan-fried, grilled, roasted, sautéed and baked • The name pumpkin comes from the Greek
• Fish and Vegetables can be steamed word pepon, meaning ‘large melon’.
• Vegetables can be sautéed, boiled • 99% of pumpkins are sold for decoration.
• Potatoes can be fried, baked, boiled and mashed • China is the largest producer of garlic, produc-
ing over 10 million tons in 2008 and account-
If someone wants a steak, they may ask for it to be cooked rare, medium-rare, me-
ing for over 75% of world output.
dium or well-done.
• Examples of popular fruits include apples,
DRINKS oranges, pears, strawberries, peaches, ba-
The customer has the choice of still or sparkling water. A lot of people now ask for a nanas, apricots and grapes.
jug of tap water instead of bottled water. • Technically speaking, strawberries aren't even
“Here is the menu. Would madam like to see the wine list? We have some excellent red berries!
and white wines. However, our house wines are particularly good.” • Apples were taken to North America by Euro-
After an exceptionally good meal, the customer might finish their meal with coffee and pean settlers.
liquors like brandy, whiskey and so on. • The average apple contains around 130 calo-
ries.
MENU • It is believed that the saying "An apple a day
Some people like to begin their meal with a starter followed by a main course with side- keeps the doctor away" originated in Wales in
orders of vegetables and potatoes and often finish off with dessert. Most people find that the 19th century. Sadly eating apples doesn't
a three-course meal is enough for them. However, on special occasions it’s great to have a guarantee good health but they do have nutri-
five-course meal with cold starter, soup, main course, cheese and biscuits and dessert. tional value and potential health benefits.
• India is the world’s largest producer of bananas.
THE TABLE SETTING
• In France, people eat approximately
The typical table setting in a restaurant would have a fork, a knife (steak, fish, bread or
500,000,000 snails per year.
standard), a spoon (soup, standard, dessert), glasses (water, red and white wine) and a
• Humans use many different methods for gath-
table napkin (made of cloth). There might also be a side plate for the bread. The main ering food which include farming, hunting, gar-
plate will arrive normally with food. Of course a bowl would be better if you’re having dening, foraging and fishing.
soup and a pasta bowl that is wider and flatter is recommended. • Humans eat meat from a number of differ-
ent animals; common examples include meat
from chickens, cows, sheep and pigs. Other
food products that come from animals include
milk, eggs and honey.
• Although humans are omnivores (eating both
plants and animals), many people choose not
to eat meat and fish, they are known as vege-
tarians. Those who don’t eat or use any prod-
ucts made from animals (including eggs, dairy
products and honey) are known as vegans.
• Food for human consumption is typically made
from plants and animals but we also eat other
products such as fermented foods and fungus
(mushrooms, truffles etc).
• Cooking is an important part of food prepara-
tion that involves applying heat. In most cases
this transforms the chemical makeup of food,
altering its texture, flavor, nutritional properties
and appearance.
• Types of equipment used in the cooking proc-
ess include ovens, microwaves, toasters,
grills, pots and frying pans.
• Various cooking methods include boiling, sim-
mering, steaming, sautéing, pan-frying and
deep-frying.
• Around 70 million people suffer from food
poisoning every year with around 7 million of
these cases being fatal. Careful food storage,
temperature control and preparation is neces-
sary to avoid potentially dangerous bacteria,
toxins and viruses.

http://englishwithatwist.com Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina


English TOPICAL JOURNEY

34
November 2013 Strange B
FOOD AND EATING
ODD AND UNUSUAL TRADITIONS
CONVERSATION QUESTIONS Every country has foods that seem strange to outsiders. For example, South Africans
• Do you enjoy cooking? Why or why not? eat raw dried beef called biltong which is both very tasty and considered a convenient
snack. The Chinese eat bird nest soup actually made from the nests of the White-nest
• Do you cook at home?
Swiftlet (Aerodramus Fuciphagus). In Cambodia a tarantula is considered quite accept-
• What food do you cook most often?
able for dinner and a Mopane Worm (caterpillar) stew is not uncommon in Botswana.
• Can you cook well? The British have their own collection of unusual foods that other nationalities find dis-
• Are you a good cook? turbing although sometimes it’s just in the name.
• What food can you cook the best?
• What’s the last meal you cooked for yourself? TOAD IN THE HOLE
• Do you eat bread every day? It is well known that people seeking instant hal-
• Do you eat breakfast every day? lucinations have sometimes taken to licking toads
• Do you eat fruit every day? but to cook and eat them horrifies even the French
• Do you eat lunch at school every day? who are quite happy to sit down to a plate of garlic
• Do you have coffee or tea for breakfast? snails. The very English toad-in-the-hole actually
has nothing reptilian about it and is simply pork
• Did you drink coffee this morning?
sausages baked in a Yorkshire pudding batter. To the
• Did you eat lunch today?
casual onlooker the finished meal might look a little
• Do you always eat dinner with your family? like several toads submerged in mud although many chefs and historians believe that there
• Do you always eat vegetables? must be another origin to the name. Some say it was named after a game of skill involving
• Do you like to eat a lot of food every day? the throwing of disks while others claim that during hard times actual frogs were used. The
• Do you like to eat at fast food restaurants? most likely answer is that it is a curiosity of language. The dish itself probably dates back
• Do you like to eat junk food? to the late 1600’s when batter puddings were baked under spit roasted meat and known as
• Do you like to eat some desserts after din- dripping pudding. The drips would cause holes in the batter and poor cuts of meat known as
ner? toadies were cut off and allowed to fall into the holes. Over the years the name of this dish,
• Do you like to try new food and drinks? toad-in-the-hole, has stopped many people from even trying it. This is a pity as it’s not only
traditional, it’s tasty and best served with plenty of strong onion gravy.
• Do you often eat out?
• How often do you eat out?
• Do you prefer fish or meat? HAGGIS
• Do you prefer to eat at a restaurant or at
This is an unusual Scottish meal that is
home? definitely an acquired taste. When you find out
what goes into it you can only conclude that it
• Do you prefer your own country’s food or other
kinds of food? was all they had left to use because somebody
had taken everything else worth eating. It’s
• Do you read the nutritional information on the
foods you buy? therefore not surprising that it’s appearance in
popular culture is during the 1500’s when the
• Have you ever been on a diet?
average person. Scotland was experiencing se-
• Are you allergic to any food?
vere hardships caused by their own leaders as
• How many meals do you usually eat every well as their English overlords. Haggis is made
day?
from the heart, liver and lungs of a sheep which is minced and mixed with oatmeal, ani-
• How often do you eat fresh fruit? mal fat or suet, and onions. It is flavoured with salt and pepper before being stuffed into
• How often do you eat in a restaurant? a cleaned sheep’s stomach and then boiled for a few hours. Modern versions tend to now
• How often do you go shopping for food? use artificial casings. Once cut or split the haggis has a crumbly texture and is tradition-
• If you are living abroad, what is the food that ally served with neeps and tatties (yellow turnip and potatoes). The original version may
you miss most from home? well date back to the Roman occupation of Britain during the 1st to the 4th centuries AD.
• Is there any food that you really dislike to Millions of haggis are produced every year and shipped to every part of the world where
eat? Scottish communities traditionally serve it as part of the Burns Night celebrations.
• What are some foods that are considered un-
healthy? BLACK PUDDING
• What are some foods that you know are This is the British version of blutwurst and is
healthy for your body? usually made from a mixture of congealed pigs
• What do you eat for breakfast every day? blood, lard and oatmeal. In Britain the quantity of
• What do you like to eat for your dinner? cereal used is larger than other similar products
• What do you like to drink? found around the world. Common seasonings
• What food do you hate? Why do you hate it? usually include salt, pepper, cloves and onions.
• What foods have you tasted which you will
It is generally served sliced and fried as part of
never forget for the rest of your life? a traditional English breakfast. The best black
pudding is said to come from Bury in Lancashire
• What is a typical meal from your country?
where it has been considered a local specialty since the 1800’s. In this region it is still
• What is one of your favorite foods?
common for it to be served boiled and seasoned with vinegar. In general, blood sausage
Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina originates even further back in history and it is likely that it was made before the middle
See full list on CD. Sources: http://www.britainexplorer.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

e British Foods 35
November2013

QUESTIONS ABOUT
ages and is almost always found in regions where it was common to keep pigs as live- EATING ETIQUETTE IN BRITAIN
stock. Fairly recently some fast food shops have started serving black pudding battered The British generally pay a lot of attention to
and deep fried. You will either love it or hate it. Black pudding looks greasy but has a good table manners. Even young children are
dry texture in the mouth and a strong flavour. expected to eat properly with knife and fork. We
eat most of our food with cutlery. The foods we
don’t eat with a knife, fork or spoon include sand-
PERIWINKLES wiches, crisps, corn on the cob, and fruit.
Many English wrinkle their noses at the idea of happy
French people gobbling down servings of snails doused with 1. What should I do as a guest?
If you cannot eat a certain type of food or
garlic and yet one of the great traditional foods of north-
have some special needs, tell your host several
ern England is the common periwinkle, a form of sea snail. days before the dinner party.
The winkle isn’t large and after they’ve been collected they If you are a guest, it is polite to wait until your
need to be soaked in fresh water for 12 hours to remove ex- host starts eating or indicates you should do so
cess sand and salt. Once cleaned, they are boiled and the to show consideration.
flesh is then picked out of the shell with a pin giving rise 2. How should I eat and act at the table?
to the term winkle-pickers. They are best served with salt, Always chew and swallow all the food in your
garlic and butter but can also be served soaked in vinegar if mouth before taking more or taking a drink.
a more piquant flavour is desired. They are generally found Always say thank you when served some-
on the west coast of England and other Atlantic coastlines. thing to show appreciation.
When you have finished eating, and to let
Although quite easy to harvest it takes a lot of winkles to
others know that you have, place your knife and
make a meal and many considered it simply not worth the effort. Because they are so fork together, with the prongs (tines) on the fork
small they were often measured in pints and two full beer mugs is said to be able to facing upwards, on your plate.
feed six children or four adults. Also known as Littorina littorea, this little sea snail It is ok to pour your own drink when eating with
still remains a popular treat for those who have learnt to enjoy them. other people, but it is more polite to offer pouring
drinks to the people sitting on either side of you.
It is ok to put milk and sugar in your tea and
BUBBLE & SQUEAK coffee or to drink them both without either.
As with many traditional foods from Britain and In a restaurant, it is normal to pay for your
around the world, they seem to have originated from food by putting your money on the plate the bill
necessity. Bubble and squeak is a meal made from comes on.
leftover cabbage and potato usually from a Sunday
roast. It is made by mashing either roast or boiled Informal. You may eat chicken and pizza with
your fingers if you are at a barbecue, finger buf-
potatoes into the cold cooked cabbage and then fry-
fet or very informal setting. Otherwise always
ing the mixture in a shallow pan. Other vegetables use a knife and fork.
can be added if desired but shouldn’t overwhelm the When eating rolls, break off a piece of bread be-
flavour of the main ingredients. Salt and seasonings fore buttering. Eating it whole looks tacky.
are essential and the final meal should have a strong Formal. On formal dining occasions it is good
peppery flavour. The name comes from the way that manners to take some butter from the butter
any juices quickly bubble off and the cabbage really does make a squeaking noise dish with your bread knife and put it on your side
as it touches the hot metal of the pan. An alternative origin is that the meal once plate (for the roll). Then butter pieces of the roll
using this butter. This prevents the butter in the
included lamb or goat in place of potatoes and was imported to Britain from Greece.
dish getting full of bread crumbs as it is passed
The name might then have come from cockney rhyming slang, bubble and squeak around.
– Greek. It may look a bit disturbing but bubble and squeak seasoned with salt and
3. What shouldn’t I do because it is consid-
pepper is actually delicious. Warning: may produce gaseous reactions.
ered bad manners?
Never lick or put your knife in your mouth.
LAVER BREAD It is impolite to start eating before everyone
The best way to describe this food is that it has been served unless your host says that you
is green, slimy and looks like badly boiled cab- don’t need to wait.
Never chew with your mouth open. No one
bage. And... it’s not bread at all it’s seaweed.
wants to see food being chewed or hearing it being
Welcome to the Welsh delicacy: laver bread. chomped on. Never talk with food in your mouth.
Laver grows well around the west coast of Eng- It is impolite to have your elbows on the table
land but can also be found off the coast of Ja- while you are eating.
pan and Korea. The purple variety is considered Don’t reach over someone’s plate for some-
best and after it has been washed it will need to thing, instead ask for the item to be passed.
be boiled for several hours. It is then pureed or It is impolite to put too much food in your
minced and so becomes green gelatinous mass. Apparently, it can be fried and served mouth.
Never use your fingers to push food onto
with bacon, rolled in oats to form a patty or even used as a straightforward vegetable
your spoon or fork.
accompaniment for lamb or mutton. As with many foods that look revolting it is said It is impolite to slurp your food or eat noisily.
to be very good for you as it is high vegetable protein, iodine and iron as well as Never blow your nose on a napkin. Napkins
several other important vitamins. Laver bread is known as Nori in Japan where they are for dabbing your lips and only for that.
simply can’t get enough of it. It’s a pity that laver bread looks like slimy spinach Never take food from your neighbour’s plate.
because it’s said to be tasty and very good for you. Experts claim it has undertones Never pick food out of your teeth with your
of olives and oysters. fingernails.
Compiled by Erin Bouma
Compiled by Tatyana Makhrina See more on CD.
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

36
November 2013
Feast and Fast
The New Year
• In Madrid, Spain, people count down the last minutes of the old year by popping grapes
into their mouths.
• In the southern part of the U.S., black-eyed peas are eaten on New Year’s Day for good luck.
• In Japan, New Year’s food is red snapper, which brings good luck because of its color,
which the Japanese consider lucky.
• In southern India, boiled rice is a New Year’s food.
• In Hungary, a roast pig, with a four-leaf clover in its mouth, is prepared for New Year’s.
FOOD INVENTIONS • In Greece, a cake called peta is baked with a coin inside it. The person who gets the
Great ideas that came from mistakes! slice with the coin will have special luck in the coming year.
Do you ever feel bad because you made a • The Jewish New Year is celebrated with apples dipped in honey.
mistake? Remember, some of our favorite foods • The Buddhist New Year is celebrated in Tibet with a dish called guthok, which is made
were discovered by accident.
of nine special ingredients, including a piece of charcoal. The person who gets the char-
Ice Cream Cones Ernest Hamwi was
selling Syrian pastry at the St. Louis World’s Fair
coal is said to have an evil heart.
in 1904. When a nearby ice cream vendor ran April Fools’ Day
out of dishes, Hamwi rolled some pastry into a In France, a person who is fooled on this day is called poisson d’Avril, an “April fish.”
cone so ice cream could be put inside. The ice Chocolate fish are the treats for the day. In the U.S. at one time, people poured chocolate
cream cone was a huge a hit. However, an Italian over pieces of cotton on April 1, to fool others with “cotton candy.”
immigrant named Italo Marchiony received a Halloween
patent to manufacture ice cream cones earlier In the U.S., kids dunk for apples in tubs of water, drink apple cider, and eat cakes and
that same year, suggesting more than one
cookies decorated with orange and black icing. In Ireland, where Halloween customs
person invented ice cream cones.
began, traditional foods are barm brach (a raisin bread), colcannon (baked kale and
potatoes), and oatmeal porridge.
Thanksgiving Day
The first Thanksgiving meal celebrated by the Pilgrims and the Native Americans includ-
ed turkey, venison (deer meat), lobster, fish, sweet potatoes, cranberries, and popcorn.
Hanukkah
This eight-day Jewish Festival of Lights is celebrated with doughnuts or potato pan-
cakes (latkes), which are fried in oil. This is a reminder of the oil that burned in the
temple for eight days.
Christmas
Popsicles In 1905 an eleven-year-old Frank Some traditional Christmas Eve meals are meatless. Italians eat fish soup called zuppa
Epperson was mixing powdered soda and di pesce. The Irish eat oyster stew.
water to make soda pop. Frank accidentally Christmas dinner in Denmark is traditionally roast goose. In Greece, it’s roast leg of
left the mixing bucket outside. During the night lamb, and in Hungary it’s chicken paprikash (paprika-flavored).
the mixture froze solid, with the wooden stirring In the island nation of New Zealand, the Christmas meal is a picnic eaten on one of the
stick standing straight up. But the frozen pop
beaches.
tasted great! Frank started selling Epperson
icicles for five cents, later changing the name to
Fat Tuesday
popsicles. The day before Lent is called Fat Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday, or Mardi Gras. Traditionally, peo-
Chocolate Chip Cookies In 1930, Ruth ple made pancakes to use up their butter and eggs, which were not allowed during Lent.
Wakefield was making chocolate cookies at the Kwanza
Toll House Inn in Whitman, Mass. When she ran Kwanza means “first” in Swahili, an African language. This name was picked for the
out of baking chocolate, Ruth broke a bar of semi- American feast because many African tribes celebrate the first harvest of crops.
sweet chocolate into little pieces and added them Kwanza is an African-American feast celebrated from December 26 to January 1. Sweet
to the dough. When the cookies were baked, the
potatoes and banana custard with raisins are traditional fare.
chocolate hadn’t melted. Instead there were little
chips of chocolate throughout the cookie. Ruth
was soon selling chocolate chip cookies. People can live without food for a few weeks, but they cannot live without water for
more than a few days.
To fast is not to eat at all or not to eat certain foods for a period of time. Usually people
fast for religious reasons. Some people have fasted for political or health reasons, too.
Muslims fast from dawn to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan so that their sins
will be forgiven. Before dawn they eat a meal called suhur. After sunset they eat a meal
called iflar.
Jews fast on the holy day of Yom Kippur to atone for their wrongdoings. From sunset to
sunset they do not eat or drink anything, not even water.
Potato Chips One day in 1853, a diner at Christians fast during Lent, 40 days that commemorate the 40 days Jesus fasted in the desert.
Moon Lake Lodge in Saratoga Springs, New At one time bread and water were the only foods allowed during Lent. Later, meat was the
York, refused to eat an order of French fries only forbidden food. Today, people fast in many ways, mainly by giving up favorite foods.
because they were too thick. The chef, George
Crum, fried a thinner batch, but the customer
also rejected these. Crum decided to teach the
diner a lesson. He sliced a potato paper-thin
and fried it so heavily it could not be cut with a
fork. But the customer loved them. Soon other
customers were asking for potato chips. Source: http://www.kidsrgreen.org; http://www.factmonster.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

37
November2013

Smart Food, HISTORY OF THE CLUB SANDWICH


Although eaten the world over, the club sand-
wich has always been closely associated with the
USA, where it was first conceived and served.
As with many such recipes, the exact origin

Junk Food is subject to a little speculation. However the


most popular theory suggests it was first served
around 1894 when Richard Canfield purchased
The Saratoga Club House, a private gentlemen
only gambling club in New York.
Although there are other stories including a
Food for health and well-being is not a new idea. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans
more elusive one about some gentleman some-
believed that certain foods were natural cure-alls. Poppy juice was used to kill pain,
where returning from his club late one night to
strawberry roots to treat mad-dog bites. Crocodile blood was recommended for failing find all his servants had retired. Being hungry,
eyesight. Here are some foods that are currently thought to be good for you. he just grabbed what he could from the larder
and having enjoyed it so much, then began to
Smart Food Why spread the word to other club members.
Whichever is true, the name almost certainly
Banana Contains potassium and helps to prevent ulcers.
came about due to its initial popularity at coun-
Barley Lowers cholesterol because it is high in the good fat (HDLs, high- try clubs and it definitely existed in the United
density lipoproteins). States by the late 19th century.
Cheese Fights cavities because it contains calcium. The club sandwich was also a favourite of
Chili peppers Good for bronchitis, colds, and sinusitis. the former King of England, Edward VIII and his
wife, Wallis Simpson and it is said that she took
Cucumber Breaks up cholesterol deposits. great pride in making it.
Figs Helps to stabilize blood sugar, which keeps energy levels high.
Fiber It helps to rid your body of waste and also makes you feel full. TRADITIONAL CLUB SANDWICH
Fiber is found in fruits and vegetables and whole-grain cereal. It is INGREDIENTS
not digestible. Although today there are many variations,
Horseradish It’s hot and strong, but fights colds because the root contains an the original club sandwich consisted of chicken,
antibiotic and vitamin C. bacon, tomatoes, lettuce, mayonnaise, and not
forgetting sliced bread.
Kale Contains calcium for building bones plus the same beta carotene
found in carrots that helps fight germs.
HOW TO MAKE A CLUB SANDWICH
Milk (low fat) Contains calcium, which helps to build strong teeth and bones. Although it’s believed that the original club
Prunes An excellent natural laxative because of their fiber content. sandwich was only made with two slices of
Yogurt The live culture in yogurt acidophilus helps the body to fight bread, today it’s customary to make it with three
intestine and yeast infections. which creates what is known (in other circum-
Water The best liquid to drink because it purifies your bloodstream and stances) as a “double-decker” sandwich.
The bread should be thinly sliced and toasted
cleans your cells and tissues. and the fillings should be relatively thinly sliced –
no door-steps here please. You can vary the or-
You may want these junk foods, but try to stay away! der of the ingredients according to your personal
Junk Food Why preferences but here’s a general guide.
Cakes and cookies Contain too much sugar and not enough vitamins and minerals. 1. Place some lettuce and a generous layer of
mayonnaise on the first slice of toast, top with
Colas Have lots of sugar and few nutrients; may contain caffeine, an the chicken then place another slice of toast
addictive drug. on top.
Ice cream Has many nutrients but is full of sugar and fats. 2. Place the bacon, tomato slices on the 2nd
Imitation fruit Mostly sugar and water, with artificial flavors and colors piece of toast, spread with more mayonnaise
drinks added. Contain very little pure fruit juice. if you like, then top with the last slice of toast.
Potato chips Although made from potatoes, they are deep fried and contain It’s traditional to secure the sandwich at the
lots of salt and fat. four sides by spearing through all the layers with
Sugar-coated cereal Half cereal and half sugar. long wooden toothpicks before cutting into quar-
ters which helps keep the fillings in order....and
FAST FOOD: QUICK TIPS IF YOU MUST in place.
Until recently, fast-food restaurants were a nutritional nightmare. Today you can eat
well if you are careful to order the right dishes.
Restaurant Selection Fat Calories
Burger King BK broiler (chicken sandwich) 8g 267
Hardees Real lean deluxe burger 13g 340
Kentucky Fried Chicken Skinfree crispy 12g 220
Wendy’s Grilled chicken sandwich 9g 320

http://www.wikihow.com/Be-Healthy
English TOPICAL JOURNEY

38November 2013

WHAT FAMOUS PEOPLE SAY

Literary F
ABOUT FOOD
Food is a subject of conversation more spiritually
refreshing even than the weather, for the number
of possible remarks about the weather is limited,
whereas of food you can talk on and on and on.
A. A. Milne
FOOD IN FICTION
I do think a lot of people just don’t understand Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club by Charles Dickens
the importance of where their food comes from
Mr. Pickwick and his companions have been invited by a hospitable stranger, Mr. War-
or what might have been done to it before they
buy it. It’s good to question these things. dle to join his family in a carriage and have dinner. None of the company seems to
Why is this important? Why should you have worry about dieting. The host gives commands to his servant Joe.
standards when buying? Because you’re going “Undo the hamper, Joe… Now, Joe, knives and forks. … Plates, Joe, plates. Now,
to put this food in your mouth and swallow it and Joe, the fowls. Come, hand in the eatables. The capon, now the tongue – now the pi-
you’ll do this two or three times every single day geon-pie. Take care of that veal and ham – mind the lobsters – take the salad out of the
of your life. Everything you eat contributes to you cloth – give me the dressing.” Such were the hurried orders which issued from the lips
being happy, or fit, or lethargic, or full of energy, of Mr. Wardle, as he handed in the different articles described, and placed dishes in
or susceptible to colds and flu, or being able to
everybody’s hands, and on everybody’s knees, in endless number.
think better and hold your concentration. Your
hair, your fingernails, your height, your skin, ev- “Now, ain’t this capital?” inquired that jolly personage, when the work of destruc-
erything you are is made from the food you eat. tion had commenced.
Jamie Oliver, a famous British chef “Capital!” said Mr.. Winkle, who was carving a fowl on the box.
“Glass of wine?”
Dieting makes you fat.
“With the greatest pleasure.”
Geoffrey Cannon, British journalist
How can this be true?
How to make an Irish stew by Jerome K. Jerome. (An extract from the book “Three
Cooking is an act of love. Men in a Boat to Say Nothing of the Dog”)
Alain Chapel Many readers have enjoyed this incredible version of an Irish stew.
Would you agree with this statement?
George said it was absurd to have only four potatoes in an Irish stew, so we washed
The best number for a dinner party is two – my- half-a-dozen or so more, and put them in without peeling. We also put in a cabbage and
self and a damn good head waiter. about half a peck of peas. George stirred it all up, and then he said that there seemed to
Nubar Gulbenkian, American millionaire be a lot of room to spare, so we overhauled both the hampers, and picked out all the
This attitude to a meal brings to mind a very odds and ends and the remnants, and added them to the stew. There were half a pork
popular Russian proverb that all of us heard
pie and a bit of cold boiled bacon left, and we put them in. Then George found half a
in our childhood. Can you remember it? (Ког-
да я ем, я глух и нем) tin of potted salmon, and he emptied that into the pot.
See vocabulary and tasks on CD.
All happiness depends on a leisurely breakfast.
John Gunther, American journalist Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll
What healthy rules, do you think, are behind
“What did they live on?” – said Alice, who always took a great interest in questions
this idea?
of eating and drinking.
Food is a dangerous article. Too much food “They lived on treacle,” said the Dormouse, after thinking a minute or two.
makes you fat, too little food makes you dead. “They couldn’t have done that, you know,” Alice gently remarked. “They’d have
Mike Harding, British comedian been ill.”
Are there any other dangers that food can
“So they were,” said the Dormouse, “very ill.”
contain?
Treacle = molasses
All’s well that ends with a good meal.
Arnold Lobel, American writer The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde
This one may serve as the last sentence in a These cucumber sandwiches have always puzzled Russian readers.
short story.
“...Hallo! Why all these cups? Why cucumber sandwiches? Why such reckless ex-
No man is lonely while eating spaghetti. travagance in one so young?”
Robert Morley, British actor and wit
Do you know anyone who does not like pas- The Blind Spot by Saki (Hector Hugh Munro)
ta? Who would expect an English aristocrat to express a high opinion of such a common
Everything tastes better outdoors. dish as borsch?
Claudia Roden, British cookery writer ‘Business is not my strong point at any time,’ said Sir Lulworth, ‘and certainly not
Do you enjoy picnics? Describe the last you when we’re on the immediate threshold of lunch.’
had. ‘It isn’t exactly business,’ explained Egbert, as he followed his uncle into the dining-
Undoubtedly the desire for food has been and room. ‘It’s something rather serious. Very serious.’
still is one of the main causes of great political ‘Then we can’t possibly speak about it now,’ said Sir Lulworth, ‘no one could talk
events. seriously, during a borsch. A beautifully constructed borsch, such as you are going to
Bertrand Russell, British philosopher experience presently, ought not only to banish conversation but almost to annihilate
Could you say more about the reasons of so- thought. Later on, when we arrive at the second stage of olives, I shall be quite ready to
cial upheavals? discuss that new book on Borrow, or, if you prefer it, the present situation in the Grand
Seeing isn’t believing, it’s eating that’s believing. Duchy of Luxemburg’.
James Thurber, American humorist
Jokes are not supposed to be explained. Sources: http://www.goodreads.com
TOPICAL JOURNEY English

39
November2013

FOOD IN POETRY

y Food No bread
I wish I‘d made a list,
I forgot to get the bread.
If I forget it again
Mother Goose I’ll be dead.
The Queen of Hearts,
she made some tarts, We had blank and butter pudding,
beans on zip.
All on a summer day:
Boiled eggs with deserters,
The Knave of Hearts, no chip butty: just chip.
he stole those tarts
And took them quite away! I wish I’d made a list,
The King of Hearts I forgot to get the bread.
Called for the tarts, My mam got the empty bread bin
And beat the knave full sore; and wrapped it round my head.
The Knave of Hearts
Our jam sarmies were just jam
Brought back the tarts,
Floating in the air.
And vowed he’d steal no more. We spread butter on the table
“The Queen of Hearts” forms the basis for the plot of Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adven- Cos the bread wasn’t there.
tures in Wonderland, Chapter XI. “Who Stole the Tarts?”, a chapter that mocks at the
British legal system through means of the trial of the Knave of Hearts, where the rhyme My mam says if I run away
is presented as evidence. she knows I won’t be missed,
not like the bread was…
Harry Potter. The Philosopher’s Stone by Joanne Rowling I wish I’d made a list!
Ian Mc Millan
Around half past twelve there was a great clattering outside in the corridor and a
smiling, dimpled woman slid back their door and said, “Anything off the cart, dears?” Notes:
Harry, who hadn’t had any breakfast, leapt to his feet. …He had never had any blank and butter pudding, instead of bread and
money for candy with the Dursleys, and now that he had pockets rattling with gold and butter pudding
silver he was ready to buy as many Mars Bars as he could carry – but the woman didn’t beans on zip – beans on nothing
have Mars Bars. What she did have were Bettie Bott’s Every Flavor Beans, Drooble’s boiled eggs with deserters, instead of boiled
Best Blowing Gum, Chocolate Frogs, Pumpkin Pasties, Cauldron Cakes, Licorice eggs with soldiers; soldiers are thin pieces of
Wands, and a number of other strange things Harry had never seen in his life. Not toast that eaters dipped into a boiled egg
no chip butty: just chip – chips (French fries)
wanting to miss anything, he got some of everything and paid the woman eleven silver
sarmies= sandwiches
Sickles and seven bronze Knuts.
Ron stared as Harry brought it all back in to the compartment and tipped it onto an School Dinners (“16 tons” melody)
empty seat. If you stay to school dinners
“Hungry, are you?” Better throw them aside.
“Starving,” said Harry, taking a large bite out of a pumpkin pasty. A lot of kids didn’t,
Ron had taken out a lumpy package and unwrapped it. There were four sandwiches A lot of kids died.
inside. He pulled one of them apart and said, “Mum always forgets I don’t like corned The meat is of iron,
The puds are of steel.
beef.”
If the gravy don’t get you,
…“Go on, have a pasty,” said Harry, who had never had anything to share before or, The custards will.
indeed, anyone to share it with. It was a nice feeling, sitting there with Ron, eating their Anon.
way through all Harry’s pasties, cakes, and candies (the sandwiches lay forgotten).
“What are these?” Harry asked Ron, holding up a pack of Chocolate Frogs.
“They’re not really frogs, are they?” He was starting to feel that nothing would
surprise him.
….
He finally …opened a bag of Bertie Bott’s Every Flavor Beans.
“You want to be careful with those,” Ron warned Harry. “When they say every fla-
vor, they mean every flavor – you know, you get all the ordinary ones like chocolate and
peppermint and marmalade, but then you can get spinach and liver and tripe. George
reckons he had a booger flavored one once.”
Ron picked up a green bean, looked at it carefully, and bit into a corner. “Bleaaargh
– see? Sprouts.”
They had a good time eating the Every Flavor Beans. Harry got toast, coconut,
baked bean, strawberry, curry, grass, coffee, sardine, and was even brave enough
to nibble the end off a funny gray one Ron wouldn’t touch, which turned out to be
pepper.

booger – mucus or snot, usually dried nasal mucus.

See more on CD. Compiled by Olga Sventsitskaya Photo by Dmitry Davydov.


English РЕКЛАМА

40
SCHOOL THEATRE English

THE TURNIP 41
November2013

Script for 1st Class


Оборудование: Dog: Oh! What a big turnip I see! One, two, three…!
• костюмы у всех персонажей; (Все тянут репку, но у них ничего не получается,
• декорации по возможности; собачка зовет кошку)
• магнитофон с аудиозаписями песен из сборников Cat, come here, and help us, please!
Г.Доли, Л.В.Компанейцевой; Cat: Oh! What a big turnip we have! One, two, three…!
• ноты песенок из разных сборников и пособий. (Все тянут репку, но у них ничего не получается,
кошка зовет мышку)
CHARACTERS: Mouse, come here, help me, please!
The Turnip Grandfather Grandmother Mouse: Oh! What a big turnip we have! One, two, three…!
The Dog The Cat The Mouse One, two, three…!
Turnip: Here I am!
На “грядке” ребенок в шапочке репки, все дети одеты All together: Oh!
по сценарию сказки. Репка созрела и хочет, чтобы ее Turnip: Now, friends, let’s sing a song “Clap! Clap!”
вытянули из грядки, зовет деда жалобным голосом.
Turnip: Oh! Oh! Grandfather, come here! Help me, please! Clap, clap, clap your hands,
Clap your hands together.
Stamp, stamp, stamp your feet,
Stamp your feet together.
Nod, nod, nod your head,
Nod your head together.
Dance, dance, dance a dance,
Dance a dance together.

Все зрители поют эту песенку и танцуют с персонажа-


ми сказки.

By Lyubov Magomedova,
Volgograd
Pictures from http://joymylife.org.ua

Grandfather: Oh! What a big turnip we have! One, two,


three…!
(Дед тянет репку, но у него ничего не получается,
он зовет бабку)
Grandmother, come here, help me, please!
Grandmother: Oh! What a big turnip we have! One, two,
three…!
(Бабка тянет репку, но у нее ничего не получается,
она зовет внучку)
Granddaughter, come here, help us, please!
Granddaughter: Oh! What a big turnip we have! One, two,
three…!
(Внучка тянет репку, но у нее ничего не получает-
ся, она зовет собачку)
Dog, come here, help us, please!
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

42 The Club of Merry


November 2013
and Quick-Witted Children
КВН для 3-го класса
Цели: Team 1. “Sweets”
Образовательная: расширить эрудицию учащихся и их One potato, two potatoes,
общий кругозор; обобщить и закрепить изученный мате- Three potatoes, four;
риал по теме “Еда”. I like mashed potatoes,
Развивающая: развить языковые, интеллектуальные и May I please have some more?
познавательные способности учащихся, их чувства и Ice cream for breakfast,
эмоции. Chocolate cake for lunch.
Воспитательная: привить интерес и любовь к изуче- Jelly for dinner,
нию английского языка, воспитать чувства товарище- I like them very much.
ства, коллективизма, взаимопомощи, ответственности; On Sunday, I like meat and chips.
помочь детям понять, что здоровье зависит от правиль- On Monday, bread and cheese.
ного питания, еда должна быть не только вкусной, но и On Tuesday, Coca-cola
полезной и включать разнообразные овощи и фрукты. And pizza... Mmm, yes, please.
Учебник: И.Н. Верещагина, О.В. Афанасьева. Англий- On Wednesday, it’s spaghetti,
ский язык для 3-го класса. On Thursday, pasta and fish,
On Friday, I like sandwiches,
2 команды заранее придумывают себе название, девиз And ice cream in a dish.
и эмблему на английском языке. А также заранее го- But Saturday is my favourite day.
товят домашнее задание: 1) стихи для фонетического Oh,yes. It’s very nice!
конкурса; 2) песня; 3) инсценировка диалога на англий- On Saturday it’s chicken... Mmm,
ском языке. Salad, bread and rice.

ПЛАН МЕРОПРИЯТИЯ Team 2. “Apples”


I. Introduction I eat apples –
Narrator: Good morning, dear teachers and parents! Good crunch, crunch, crunch
morning, boys and girls! I’m glad to see you. We are I eat sandwiches –
here to have some fun. Would you like to play? That’s munch, munch, munch
great! I eat lollipops –
Dear boys and girls! Welcome to the Club of Merry lick, lick, lick
and Quick-Witted Children. We gathered here to find But I eat ice cream
the most cheerful and quick-witted team. Look, we quick, quick, quick!
have two teams. Now let me introduce our jury. I like apples I can crunch.
I like biscuits I can munch.
Представление жюри – 3 человека (ученики 11 класса). I like food, I love it.

II. Teams Meet Each Other


Narrator: Our first competition is about introducing yourself..

Представление команд (название, девиз, эмблема).


Team 1. “Sweets”
Motto: Eat sweets but not too many.
Emblem: “Шоколадная конфетка” у каждого участника.

Team 2. “Apples”
Motto: An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
Emblem: “Яблоко” у каждого участника.

III. Phonetics Warm-Up


Narrator: Next, it will be the phonetic chamber. The mem-
bers of the teams will recite English poems about food.
You may begin, children!

Члены команд читают стихотворения на английском


языке.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

43
November2013

Капитаны рассказывают о себе по следующему плану:


1. Name
2. Age
3. Favorite subjects
4. Hobby
5. Favorite sport
6. Favorite animals
7. Favorite meal

Captain No. 1: Hello! My name is Polly. I am 9. I am from


Russia and I live in Moscow. I am a pupil of the third
I eat it every day, form. My favourite lesson is English and I am good at
Hot or cold, wet or dry, it and drawing. I also like to read and sing. My hobby
I eat it any way! is sport, especially swimming. I’ve got a family and
Apples in the attic, a pet cat named Vasya. I like to play with my cat. My
Apples in the hall. favourite food is pizza.
Apples in the summer,
Apples in the fall. V. Tongue-Twister Competition
Apples make you healthy. Narrator: Now the tongue-twister “Peter Piper”. Say it as
Apples make you tall. fast as possible.
I will eat some apples.
I will eat them all. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Apples, apples, one, two, three, A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
Apples for you, apples for me. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
Apples big, apples small, Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
Apple trees tiny, apple trees tall.
Apples sour, apples sweet, Narrator: Now we begin our team competition.
Apples, apples are nice to eat.
VI. Team Competition
I Like Apples Put together the food words.
Red apples, big apples, 1. ice wich
Good apples, yummy apples, 2. water burger
Any kind of apples, 3. роr ball
I like apples! 4. sand table
An apple on the tree, 5. straw cream
An apple in the basket, 6. ham late
An apple in the fridge, 7. meat ridge
An apple in a store, 8. vege apple
I like apples! 9. choco berry
10. pine melon
If I Were an Apple
If I were an apple Answer: 1. Ice cream; 2. Watermelon; 3. Porridge; 4. Sand-
And grew on a tree, wich; 5. Strawberry; 6. Hamburger; 7. Meatball; 8. Vegeta-
I think I’d drop down ble; 9. Chocolate; 10. Pineapple
On a nice boy like me.
I wouldn’t stay there VII. An Alphabet You Can Eat
Giving nobody joy, Narrator: Your team will get 8 letters. Write as many food
I’d fall down at once words as you can using them.
And say, “Eat me, my boy.”
Team 1. Letters: B, E, H, N, M, O, S, T
IV. Конкурс капитанов B – bread, biscuits, butter, banana
Narrator: Our third competition is for the team captains. E – egg
And now our captains have to tell us about themselves H – ham, hamburger, honey
in English. Are you ready? Let’s begin. N – nut
English CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

44November 2013

M – milk, melon, meat


O – orange
S – sausage, strawberry, sour cream
T – tea

Team 2. Letters: A, C, F, I, L, P, R, W
A – apple Making applesauce, making applesauce
C – chicken, cheese, chocolate, chips, cake, carrot Swish, swish, swish, swish, swish, swish
F – fish, fruit Pouring the applesauce,
I – ice cream Pouring the applesauce
L – lemon, lemonade In a dish, in a dish.
P – pear, pizza, pasta, popcorn, potatoes Eating applesauce, eating applesauce,
R – rice Yum, yum, yum; yum, yum, yum.
W – water, watermelon Eating all the applesauce,
Eating all the applesauce.
VIII. “Food” Crossword Now we’re done, now we’re done.
Complete the crossword (Приложение 1).
XI. Home Task. Act the Dialogue
IX. Wordsearch (Приложение 2). Narrator: Let us listen to the dialogues performed by our
teams. (Dialogue from “Skills Booster 1 for young
X. Home Task. Songs About Food. Singing the Songs learners”, Unit 7, p. 29)
Narrator: And the next competition is your home task.
Let us listen to the songs performed by our teams. Jack: What can we take on our picnic, Mandy? Let’s take
lots of food, because I’m very hungry!
Исполнение песен. Каждая команда исполняет заранее Mandy: OK. What do you like, Jack?
подготовленные песни. Jack: I like sandwiches.
Mandy: Ok, so do I! I also like eggs and fruit.
Team 1. “Sweets” Jack: Me too! We can make some cheese sandwiches, and
Song “On Top of Spaghetti” take some eggs. There are some at my house. Have you
On top of spaghetti, all covered with cheese, got any fruit?
I lost my poor meatball when somebody sneezed. Mandy: Yes, I’ve got some nice grapes. We must take a cake
It rolled off the table, it rolled on the floor, too! I can buy one. They aren’t expensive. But what
And then my poor meatball rolled out of the door. about drinks? Have you got any?
It rolled in the garden and under a bush, Jack: Yes, I’ve got two bottles of water and a bottle of my
And then my poor meatball was nothing but mush. favourite drink, lemonade.
The mush was as tasty as tasty could be, Mandy: Great! I’m very thirsty today!
And early next summer it grew into a tree.
The tree was all covered with beautiful moss. XII. Drawing Competition
It grew great big meatballs and tomato sauce. Конкурс рисунков. Что Робин Бобин съел вчера на обед?
So if you eat spaghetti all covered with cheese,
Hold on to your meatball and don’t ever sneeze. XIII. Let’s Cook
Make pizza and give it a name.
Team 2. “Apples” Каждая команда составляет пиццу на листе бумаге,
Song “Picking apples” даёт ей название и рассказывает, из чего она состоит.
Picking apples, picking apples,
Till we’re done, till we’re done, XIV. The Results of the Competition
Picking all the apples, Жюри подводит итоги игры, награждает победителей.
Picking all the apples,
Till we’re done, till we’re done. Narrator: We have now finished our competition. Thank
Climb a ladder, climb a ladder, you and good-bye.
In a tree, in a tree
Hello, everybody, By Tatyana Makhrina
Hello, everybody, Photos taken by the author.
Look at me, look at me. См. приложения на CD.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES English

FOOD 45
November2013

Брейн-ринг
Цели: повторение пройденного материала по теме Food; упо- 2. Do English people drink a lot of tea? (Yes, they drink a lot
требление в речи слов a lot of (much)/many; контроль граммати- of tea)
ческих навыков: Past Indefinite неправильных глаголов.
Материалы и оборудование: записи на доске; проектор; порта- 3. Do the English drink tea from cups or from glasses? (They
тивный компьютер (ноутбук); презентация в PowerPoint; карточки drink tea from cups)
с цифрами для жюри; карточки с именем каждого игрока; картин- 4. Do English people eat much bread? (No, they don’t)
ки для оформления класса. 5. English people eat bread with meat and vegetables, don’t
Описание: класс должен быть оборудован и приготовлен к игре.
Парты расставлены таким образом, что в середине класса на- they? (No, they don’t. They sometimes eat bread with soup)
ходятся два прямоугольника в виде трех составленных парт – 6. What do English people like to drink tea with? (They like
места для игроков, позади них в ряд стоят три парты – места to drink tea with milk or lemon)
для жюри. По бокам обоих прямоугольников в ряд стоят стулья
– места для посетителей и приглашенных. На партах расставле-
ны карточки с фамилиями игроков. Капитан команды также обо- Конкурс 4. Задача этого конкурса – проанализировать
значен на карточке. Жюри оценивает каждый конкурс, опираясь ответы на вопросы и составить рассказ об англичанах
на пятибалльную систему. и их привычках в еде. Кто из команды будет отвечать,
решает сама команда (как правило, эта роль отводится
ХОД МЕРОПРИЯТИЯ капитанам).
1. Приветствие и организационный момент
2. Сообщение темы и целей мероприятия Конкурс 5. На доске появляется слайд, в котором даны
T: Today we’ve got a competition. We’ve got two teams. слова через запятую. Игроки должны образовать пра-
And the first task is to give names to your teams. I’ll give вильные грамматические предложения.
you two minutes to think about it, while I introduce our I вариант
experts. 1) he, drink, tea, Did, jam, with ?
2) dinner, I, yesterday, ate.
3. Брейн-ринг 3) I, eggs, breakfast, Usually, for, eat.
Конкурс 1. На доске появляется слайд, в котором даны II вариант
слова с пропущенными буквами. Ученикам нужно вста- 1) Dad, and, week, I, Last, cake, big, bought, a.
вить эти буквы и перевести слова на русский язык. 2) cooked, My, cookies, yesterday, mother.
I вариант: f_ _d; b_n_na; su_per; mi_k; a_ _le; _ruit; so_p; 3) spaghetti, My, is, food, favourite.
s_eet; ca_ _ot
II вариант: coo_ _ _s; _orri_ _e; p_t_t_; ca_e; ju_ _e; b_ _ Конкурс 6. На доске появляется слайд, в котором даны
_d; e_g; i_e-_re_m; f_ _d слова о еде: plate, cheese, cup, food, glass, hamburger,
juice, salt, soup, sweet. Задача игроков – вписать эти сло-
Конкурс 2. На доске появляется слайд с зашифрованны- ва в соответствующие колонки much/many и поставить
ми словами. Задача учеников – узнать эти слова, поставив окончание –s там, где это необходимо.
буквы в правильном порядке, затем перевести слово. 1. many …………… 1. much ………………
I вариант: aet; effeco; tterub; kilm; team; rindk 2. many …………… 2. much ………………
II вариант: matoto; tablegeev; ssagl; sifh; eta; teeb 3. many …………… 3. much ………………
4. many …………… 4. much ………………
Конкурс 3. На доске появляется слайд с вопросами. За- 5. many …………… 5. much ………………
дача каждой команды – правильно ответить на вопросы.
I вариант Конкурс 7. На доске появляется слайд с предложениями,
1. How many meals a day do the English have? (The English которые написаны слитно. Задача игроков просегменти-
have four meals a day.) ровать предложение и перевести на русский язык.
2. Do English people like porridge? (Yes, they like porridge I вариант: Lastweekweboughtabigcake,becauseMumhadab
very much.) irthday. (Last week we bought a big cake, because Mum had
3. When do English people eat porridge? (English people eat a birthday.)
porridge for breakfast) II вариант: Schoolchildrenusuallyhadlunchat12o’clockever
4. When is breakfast time in England? (In England breakfast yday. (Schoolchildren usually had lunch at 12 o’clock every
time is between 7 and 8) day.)
5. What is the last meal of the day in Britain? (The last meal
is dinner or supper) Жюри подсчитывает баллы, дети исполняют для всех
6. Do the English eat porridge for breakfast or for dinner? песню Yesterday.
(They eat porridge for breakfast) Екатерина Нарышкина,
II вариант ГБОУ СОШ № 1133 ЭУК Школа Развития
1. What do the English sometimes eat bread with? ( They
sometimes eat bread with soup) См. презентацию и ключи на CD.
English FOR YOUNG READERS

46 CHAMPION GAME “FOOD”


November 2013

3rd Form
1. Irregular Verbs 5. Recite a Poem
2–3 ученика выходят к доске и пишут 3 формы глаго- Каждая команда читает стихотворение (“Breakfast in
лов. the morning”, “I like coffee”).

2. Who knows more? 6. Word Puzzle


Каждая команда получает по листку А4 и за 3 минуты Необходимо найти 11 слов по теме “Еда” (3 min).
пишет названия фруктов. Затем проверяем, кто напи-
сал больше. F I S H T G C G S R F R H N U
E R J A F T H V R I S M E A T
3. Arrange the Sentences in the Logical Order B U T T E R E A W C Q V N M H
Listen to the text: I D O R J U E U I E O P L M D
Stuart, the mouse, C E R E A L S S U Q Z E G G S
lives in an American
B E R D F G E J S W Q Z X D F
family. Every morning
R E M F H K V P O T A T O E S
he washes his hands and
E R I T I G F R U I T L I P N
his face, cleans his teeth,
A Y L T E D T U I O P L M D S
then he dresses and goes
for a walk about the D W K R V E G E T A B L E S G
house. He sees Snow-
ball, the cat.
“Now I want to do
my morning exercises”
says Stuart to Snowball.
“No, I don’t want it.”
“Why not? Let’s do
exercises!”
“No, I don’t like it at
all.”
“Oh, what about your teeth?” says Stuart.
“My teeth… they are OK. They are big and…”
“But they are not white… Go and clean them!”
Now Snowball is angry. He is coming toward Stuart and
7. Magic Bag
the mouse can see the cat’s big teeth.
Дети должны на ощупь найти фрукты и овощи в мешке.
“Ha, ha, ha! They look like big yellow bananas!” Stuart is
not afraid of Snowball.
8. Pantomime
Дети показывают, что они едят.
Каждая команда должна разложить предложения в ло-
гическом порядке. Кто делает это быстрее и правиль-
9. Match Two Parts of the Words
нее, тот победитель.
Каждая команда получает конверт с разрезанными на 2
• STUART TELLS SNOWBALL TO GO AND CLEAN
части словами по теме “Еда”.
HIS TEETH
pot ato
• SNOWBALL IS ANGRY WITH STUART
por ridge
• STUART SEES THAT SNOWBALL’S TEETH ARE NOT
pine apple
WHITE
water melon
• STUART LIVES IN AN AMERICAN FAMILY
cucum ber
• STUART WANTS TO DO EXERCISES BUT SNOW-
egg plant
BALL DOESN’T
corn flakes
• EVERY MORNING STUART DRESSES AND GOES
FOR A WALK
10. Results
• STUART SEES SNOWBALL
Подводим итоги, награждаем победителей.
4. Song
By Natalia Sachkova,
Каждая команда поет песню (“I am hungry”, “Apples
School No. 1699, Moscow
and bananas”).
PREPARING FOR EXAMS TESTS English

47
November2013

Food
I. READING
1. Read the text. Five-Minute Tests
VEGETARIAN 1 I
A vegetarian is someone who avoids eating the flesh of animals (meat,
poultry, or fish, including shellfish). Most vegetarians will also not eat eggs Variant 1
or cheese or use cosmetics or toiletries that may contain animal ingredients or Read the text and write it in the Past Simple.
are tested on animals. The word “vegetarian” coined around 1842, comes not (Last year…)
from “vegetable” but from the Latin word vegetus meaning “whole, fresh, We go to school five days a week. We wear
full of life”. a uniform in class. We have a lot of interest-
People are vegetarians for a number of reasons. Some think that it is wrong ing and useful subjects on the timetable. At
to keep and kill animals for use as food and in other products. Others choose the English lessons we listen to cassettes,
to be vegetarians because they believe that a vegetarian diet is healthier than write exercises, read books, sing songs and
a diet that includes meat. Indeed, a vegetarian diet fits in very well with mod- speak English.
ern medical advice to cut down on fat, salt, and sugar, and to eat more fibre
Key: went, wore, had, listened, wrote, read, sang,
and fresh vegetables. It is also cheaper than meat. Some people are vegetar- spoke.
ian because of their religious beliefs.
Some people have chosen to be vegetarian for ecological reasons. They ar- Variant 2
gue that the growing of vegetables takes up much less valuable space than the Read the text and write it in the Past Simple.
raising of livestock; moreover, it is easier to provide food for all the people (Last year…)
on Earth by growing vegetables for food rather than raising vegetable-eating We have a lot of interesting subjects on the
animals. timetable. At the Russian lessons we write ex-
ercises, learn rules and read books. At the P.E.
Livestock – домашний скот lessons we run, jump and ski in winter. After
classes we go to the playground. We do our
This paragraph summarizes the text. Put one missing word in each gap to homework in the evening.
complete the paragraph.
A vegetarian is someone who (1)_______________ eating meat. The Key: had, wrote, learnt, read, ran, jumped, skied,
went, did
word “vegetarian” comes from the Latin word vegetus (2)_______________
“whole, fresh, full of life”. According to the text, people (3)_______________
to be vegetarians for various reasons. 2 I
Here they are:
1. It’s (4)_______________ to kill animals for food. Variant 1
2. A vegetarian diet is (5)_______________ than a diet that includes meat. Write the verbs in the Past Simple.
3. A vegetarian diet is also (6)_______________ than a diet that includes 1. to try; 2. to travel; 3. to love; 4. to carry;
meat. 5. to stop; 6. to leave
4. Some vegetarians practice it because of their (7)_______________ be-
liefs. Key: 1. tried, 2. travelled, 3. loved, 4. carried,
5. Some people have (8)______________ to be vegetarian for ecological 5. stopped, 6. left
reasons.
Variant 2
6. Growing vegetables is simpler than raising herbivorous animals to
Write the verbs in the Past Simple.
(9)_______________ food for all the people.
1. to cry; 2. to speak; 3. to wear; 4. to leave;
5. to sing; 6. to hop
2. Read the text and for the questions below, choose the best answer.
Key: 1. cried, 2. spoke, 3. wore, 4. left, 5. sang,
WHAT IS A CALORIE? 6. hopped
Nowadays, it seems that everybody is “watching their calories”. There are
even restaurants which print the number of calories each dish contains right 3 I
on the menu. To understand what a calorie is and the part it plays in the body,
let’s start with the subject of nutrition in general. Variant 1
Modern science is still not able to explain exactly how a cell transforms Complete the questions.
food into energy. We just know it happens. And we also can’t explain why 1. Ann is on holiday, …?
the cell in the body needs certain foods, and not others, in order to func- 2. They were angry, …?
ª 3. Tom goes to school, …?
tion properly. ª
English TESTS PREPARING FOR EXAMS

48
November 2013

We do know that food is broken down in the body by combining with


Five-Minute Tests oxygen. We might say it is “burned” up like fuel. Now, the way we meas-
ure the work a fuel does for the body’s functioning is by means of calo-
4. We must work hard, …? ries.
5. He can’t do the exercise, …? A “gram calorie” is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature
6. He didn’t like the film, …? of one gram of water one degree centigrade. The “large calorie” is 1,000
times as great. In measuring the energy value of food, we usually use large
Key: 1. isn’t she, 2. weren’t they, 3. doesn’t he,
calorie.
4. mustn’t we, 5. can he, 6. did he
Each type of food, as it “burns up”, furnishes a certain number of calo-
ries. For instance, one gram of protein produces four calories, but one gram
Variant 2
of fat furnishes nine calories. The body doesn’t care which “fuel” is used
Complete the questions.
for the needed energy, as long as it gets enough of that energy from food to
1. Jack hasn’t got a car, …?
maintain life.
2. He was at home yesterday, …?
The amount of calories the body needs depends on the work the body is
3. We mustn’t make a noise in class, …?
doing. For example, a man who weighs 150 pounds needs only 1,680 calo-
4. He reads a lot, …?
ries per day if he is in a state of absolute rest. If he does moderate work such
5. They do their homework every day, …?
as desk work, he needs 3,360 calories per day. And if he does a heavy work,
6. You should work hard, …?
he may need as much as 6,720 calories a day to keep his body functioning
Key: 1. has he, 2. wasn’t be, 3. must we, 4. properly.
doesn’t he, 5. don’t they, 6. shouldn’t you. Children need more calories than adults, since older people can’t burn
the fuel as efficiently. Interestingly enough, we use up more calories in win-
ter than in summer. Suppose, however, we take in more fuel than we need?
4 I The body uses up what it needs and stores the remainder away for future
Variant 1 use. The body can store away about one-third of the amount it needs each
Ask questions to the following sentence. day. The rest becomes fat!
Yesterday my mother bought a nice watch in And that’s why we “watch our calories”.
a shop.
Did…? Answer the questions:
Who…? 1. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
When…? a) A caloric countdown
Where…? b) What is a calorie?
What…? c) Everybody is watching their calories

Key: 2. According to the passage, which of the following is true?


1. Did my mother buy a nice watch yesterday? a) A calorie helps us to understand why the cell in the body needs certain
2. Who bought a nice watch in a shop?
3. When did my mother buy a nice watch?
foods, and not others, in order to function properly.
4. Where did my mother buy a nice watch? b) The body cares which “fuel” is used for energy.
5. What did my mother buy in a shop yesterday? c) We don’t know how a cell transforms food into energy.

Variant 2 3. According to the passage, what happens to unneeded body fuel?


Ask questions to the following sentence. a) it becomes added weight
Yesterday the boys laughed a lot in the play- b) it is stored away for future use
ground. c) the body burns it, but not so quickly
Did…?
Who…? II. VOCABULARY
When…? 1. Match words with their equivalents.
What…? 1) to avoid a) the act or process by which organisms absorb their
Where…? proper food into their systems
Key:
2) to coin b) to keep away from
1. Did the boys laugh a lot in the playground? 3) to furnish c) to make, fabricate or invent
2. Who laughed a lot? 4) to maintain d) the sum total of two or more quantities
3. When did the boys laugh in the playground? 5) nutrition e) rightly, correctly
4. What did the boys do in the playground?
5. Where did the boys laugh a lot?
6) amount f) to provide, supply
7) properly g) to support
By Tatyana Mahkrina 8) moderate h) not extreme
PREPARING FOR EXAMS English

49
November2013

2. Make the sentences complete using the words from A. 6 diet is done balanced, you needn’t feel guilty:
1. The word “vegetarian”__________ around 1842, comes
not from “vegetable” but from the Latin word vegetus 7 are eating chocolate in moderation is fine –
meaning “whole, fresh, full of life”. 8 but don’t eat it instead of a proper meal!
2. One gram of protein __________ four calories.
3. The __________ of calories the body needs depends on 2. Choose the answer A, B, C or D that best completes each
the work the body is doing. sentence.
4. Professor Johnson specialises in the science of 1. Professor Johnson ____________________ eating habits
__________. of children since 1999.
5. The body doesn’t care which “fuel” is used for energy A. has investigated B. has been investigating
__________ life. C. is investigating D. had investigated
6. A vegetarian is someone who __________ eating meat,
poultry, or fish. 2. Though meat provides a range of proteins and vi-
7. He holds __________ rather than extreme or radical opin- tamins that are essential for a healthy body, she
ions. ____________________ it for a long time.
8. If you do heavy work, you may need as much as A. has not been eating B. has been eating
6,720 calories a day to keep your body functioning C. was eating D. wasn’t eating
______________.
3. He’s given up smoking ,____________________?
III. PHRASAL VERBS A. hasn’t he B. does he
1. Match the phrasal verbs with their Russian equivalents. C. isn’t he D. he hasn’t
1) To cut down on a) прекратить, перестать что-либо
делать, отказаться от 4. You’d better make a carrot salad and eat it with a beef-
2) to cut down b) сокращать потребление steak, ____________________?
3) to cut out c) сокращать, снижать A. would you B. hadn’t you
4) to cut up d) разрезать C. wouldn’t you C. you hadn’t

2. Complete these sentences using the correct form of one 5. He ____________________ fat if he stopped exercising.
of the phrasal verbs above. A. will be B. is
1. I had to __________ meat. C. would be D. had been
2. He’s trying to __________ cigarettes.
3. He __________ his sleep to six hours. 6. ____________________ eating habits in Russia changed
4. A child has to have his food __________ for him. recently?
A. Why B. How much
IV. USE OF ENGLISH C. Is D. Have
1. Read the texts below and look carefully at each line.
Some of the lines are correct, and some have an extra word KEY:
which shouldn’t be there. If a line is correct put a letter R. I. Reading
If a line has an extra word, write the word. 1. 1. avoids; 2. meaning; 3. choose; 4. wrong; 5. healthier; 6.
cheaper; 7. religious; 8. chosen; 9. provide.
DON’T OVER DO IT 2. 1-b; 2-c; 3- a.
II. Vocabulary
1 Many young people feel such guilty about eating 1. 1. b; 2. c; 3. f; 4. g; 5. a; 6. d; 7. e; 8. h.
too 2. 1. coined; 2. furnishes; 3. amount; 4. nutrition; 5. to main-
tain; 6. avoids; 7. moderate; 8. properly.
2 much chocolate, and some even say they are III. Phrasal verbs
addicted to it, 1. 1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. d.
3 though there is no the evidence to support this. 2. 1. 1/3; 2. 1/3; 3. 2; 4. 4.
IV. Use of English
Chocolate
1. 1. such; 2. R; 3. the; 4. R; 5. R; 6. done; 7. are; 8. R.
4 does contain a lot of fat, however, and therefore 2. 1. B; 2. A; 3. A; 4. B; 5. C; 6. D.
any
5 addicts out there would do better to eat less.
By Youdif Boyarskaya,
However, if your School No. 814, Moscow
English TEXTS FOR READING

50 BRITISH, AMERICAN
November 2013

AND RUSSIAN CUISINE


A. Say what food is traditional in Great Britain, the USA A typical British dinner consists of meat and ‘two veg’.
and Russia? One of the vegetables is almost always potatoes. However,
Fish and chips, Coca-Cola, Sunday roast, okroshka, ham- today many people prefer fast food restaurants and ready-
burger, bangers and mash, borsch, bread and butter pudding, made meals from supermarkets.
beef steak, kvas, Christmas pudding, solyanka, treacle tart, High tea is an early evening meal, typically eaten between
trifle, pancakes, fried bacon, hotdog, cherry pie, milkshake, 5-6 pm in the evening which usually consists of cold meats,
fried chicken, ukha, shchi. and eggs or fish, cakes and sandwiches. In a family, it is an
informal snack (featuring sandwiches, biscuits, pastry, etc)
B. Read the text ‘British, American and Russian Cuisine’ or else it is the main evening meal.
and say if they differ. In England, tea is usually served with milk. Some Eng-
lishmen prefer coffee which is perhaps a little less common
BRITISH, AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN CUISINE than in continental Europe.

British cuisine is sometimes called ‘unimaginative and American cuisine was primarily influenced by indigenous
heavy’. It has historically been characterized by its simplic- Native Americans who had a rich and diverse cooking style.
ity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural It has been greatly influenced by the influx of international
produce. British cuisine has been greatly influenced by in- immigrants and many European and Asian ingredients. Its
teractions with other European countries and it has absorbed characteristic feature is the fusion of different ethnic or re-
culinary ideas from all over the world. gional approaches into completely new cooking styles. Mex-
Traditional British dishes include fish and chips, the Sun- ican, Italian and Chinese cuisines have become quite com-
day roast, and bangers and mash. Fish and chips is a popular mon to Americans and they eat these foods quite frequently.
take-away food which consists of deep-fried fish in batter
or breadcrumbs with deep-fried chipped potatoes. It is usu-
ally bought ready cooked at special shops and taken away
wrapped in paper to be eaten at home. The Sunday roast is
a traditional British main meal served on Sundays which
consists of roasted meat, roast potato and vegetables. York-
shire pudding and gravy is now often served as an accompa-
niment to the main course. Bangers and mash (or sausages
and mash) is made of mashed potatoes and sausages usually
served with a rich onion gravy. The British like puddings and
desserts such as bread and butter pudding, Christmas pud-
ding, treacle tart, trifle, apple pie and many others.
The full English breakfast also remains a culinary classic.
It typically consists of fried bacon and eggs, grilled toma- Besides traditional hotdogs, hamburgers, beef steaks,
toes, black pudding (or blood sausage), baked beans, fried cherry pie, Coca-Cola, milkshakes and fried chicken, Ameri-
mushrooms, sausages, bread, fruit juice or a cup of tea or cans are also used to such foreign food as pizza, pasta, tacos,
coffee. Actually very few people eat an English breakfast. burritos, etc. Many American dishes have their origins in
Nowadays, the full English breakfast has been replaced by other countries. For example, hot dogs and hamburgers are
hot and cold cereals for many people at home. both based on traditional German dishes. The USA not only
absorbs other culinary ideas, American cooking, in turn, has
been exported around the world. Almost every country has
restaurant chains such as McDonald’s, Burger King or Ken-
tucky Fried Chicken.
Hamburger appeared in the United States near the end
of the 19th century. It is a sandwich which consists of meat
placed in an open bun. The term ‘hamburger’ originally de-
rives from the German city of Hamburg from where many
emigrants came to America. Hamburgers are served in fast
food restaurants. They are mass-produced in factories and
frozen for delivery to the site. A hot dog is a moist sausage
placed hot in a sliced hot dog bun. It is often garnished with
mustard, ketchup or mayonnaise. The name ‘hot dog’ does
not mean that sausage makers use dog meat. The fact is
TEXTS FOR READING English

51
November2013

that the term ‘dog’ has been used as a synonym for sausage 5. cereals for many people at home.
since 1884. Coca-Cola is a popular American soft drink that 6. meat and ‘two veg’.
is sold in many countries. Coca-Cola and other sweetened 7. bread and butter pudding, Christmas pudding, treacle tart,
drinks have been widely criticized by food experts as they trifle, apple pie and many others.
contain a lot of calories and caffeine so excessive consump- 8. early Slavic peoples because they were a symbol of the sun.
tion dangerous to our health.
2. Read the following proverbs and explain their meaning.
Russian cuisine is rich because of its vast and multi- • First food, then religion. (Afghan)
cultural expanse. Russian cuisine is famous for its breads, • Food tastes best when you eat it with your own spoon.
soups, pancakes, mushrooms, cereals, honey, kvas, and beer. (Danish)
The Russians have always liked to have substantial meals. • The poor man looks for food and the rich man for appe-
Many Russian dishes have been borrowed from other coun- tite. (Indian)
tries. Many of the foods that are considered to be traditional- • There is no such thing as bad food when you are really
ly Russian, actually come from the Franco-Russian cuisine hungry. (Japanese)
of the 18th and 19th centuries. • There is no bad food in a famine. (Filipino)
Porridge and soup are national Russian foods. The tradi- • God gives all birds their food but does not drop it into
tional way to serve porridge is with plenty of good butter. their nests. (Danish)
Soups are a part of any Russian meal and they have always • Where love sets the table, food tastes at its best. (French)
played an important role in this country. Ukha (fish soup), • If you watch your pot, your food will not burn. (Maurita-
okroshka (a cold soup based on kvas or sour milk), borsch, nian)
shchi and solyanka (soups based on cabbage) are popular in • The most dangerous food is a wedding cake. (United
Russia. States)
Traditional Russian pancakes (blini) date back to pre- • No matter how high a bird can fly, it still has to look for
Christian times. They had a ritual significance for early food on the ground. (Danish)
Slavic peoples because they were a symbol of the sun, due • If you want dinner, don’t insult the cook. (Chinese)
to their round form. Pancakes are traditionally prepared at • You cannot cook two meals in the same pot. (Chinese)
the end of the winter during Maslenitsa (Pancake Week).
They are usually served with butter, sour cream, jam or 3. Answer the questions.
caviar. 1) Why do some people call British cuisine ‘unimaginative
Kvas is a traditional Russian drink. It is a mildly alcoholic and heavy’?
beverage made from black rye or rye bread. But the most 2) What traditional British dishes do you know?
popular and wide-spread drink in Russia is tea, which was 3) What does the full English breakfast include?
introduced to Russia from China in the 17th century. Coffee, 4) What was American cuisine influenced by?
which was introduced to Russia by Peter the Great, is also 5) How does American cuisine influence other countries?
popular with many people. 6) What traditional American food do you know?
7) What is Russian cuisine famous for?
1. Complete each sentence (A–H) with one of the endings 8) What national Russian food do you know?
(1–8): 9) Which cuisine is healthier to your mind? Why?
A. British cuisine has historically been characterized by its… 10) What do you know about the cuisines of other countries
B. The British like puddings and desserts such as… (France, Italy, India, Japan, China, etc)?
C. Nowadays the full English breakfast has been replaced
by… 4. Match the name of some dishes with their definitions.
D. A typical British dinner consists of… 1. sushi
E. The characteristic feature of American cuisine is… 2. curry
F. Americans are also used to such foreign food as… 3. pasta
G. Traditional Russian pancakes had a ritual significance for... 4. pudding
H. Tea, which was introduced to Russia… 5. French fries
6. foie gras
1. pizza, pasta, tacos, burritos, etc. 7. ravioli
2. simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality 8. sandwich
of natural produce. 9. lasagne
3. the fusion of different ethnic or regional approaches into 10. pancake
completely new cooking styles. 11. burrito
4. from China in the 17th century... 12. tortilla
English TEXTS FOR READING

52
November 2013

A. a hot sweet dish, made from cake, rice, bread etc with 225g/8oz dark brown sugar
fruit, milk or other sweet things added 4 large eggs, beaten
B. a type of food from India, consisting of meat or vegeta- 110g/4oz self-raising flour
bles in a spicy sauce 110g/4oz fresh breadcrumbs
C. long thin pieces of potato that have been cooked in hot oil 85g/3oz chopped nuts (almonds, hazelnuts or pecans)
D. small pasta squares filled with meat or cheese 1 tsp freshly grated nutmeg
E. two pieces of bread with cheese, meat, vegetables, cooked 1 heaped tsp cinnamon
egg, etc between them
F. a boiled Italian food made from flour, eggs, and water and To Serve
cut into various shapes, usually eaten with a sauce brandy, for flaming
G. a smooth food made from the liver of a goose fresh cherries
H. a type of thin flat Mexican bread made from corn or wheat custard, thick cream or ice cream
flour
I. a thin flat round cake made from flour, milk, and eggs, that Method
has been cooked in a flat pan and is eaten hot 1. Place the dried fruit in a large bowl (cut up any large
J. a Mexican dish made with a tortilla (=flat thin bread) fold- pieces of apricot or fig so that all fruit pieces are about
ed around meat or beans with cheese the same size). Pour over the brandy or whisky.
K. a type of Italian food made with strips of flat pasta, meat, 2. Grate the zest of the orange and add to the bowl of
or vegetables, and cheese fruit.
L. a Japanese dish that consists of small cakes of cooked rice 3. Juice the orange and pour the juice over the fruit. Mix
served with raw fish the fruit and juice together well. Cover and leave in a
cool place overnight.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 4. The next day, lightly butter two 1.2 litre/2 pint pudding
bowls with the melted butter and place a disc of parch-
ment paper into the base of each.
5. In a very large mixing bowl cream together the softened
5. Read the quotations below. Choose any quotation and butter with the sugar until light and fluffy with an elec-
comment on it. tric mixer (about five minutes).
• ‘Every country possesses, it seems, the sort of cuisine it 6. Beat in the eggs, a little at a time, incorporating each ad-
deserves, which is to say the sort of cuisine it is apprecia- dition into the batter before adding the next. If the mix-
tive enough to want.’ Waverley Lewis Root ture curdles, just add a spoonful of flour.
• ‘The art of the cuisine, when fully mastered, is the one 7. When all the eggs are mixed in, add the soaked fruit with
human capability of which only good things can be said.’ all their juice and stir well.
Friedrich Durrenmatt 8. Add the flour and the breadcrumbs to the mixture.
• ‘The English contribution to world cuisine – the chip.’ 9. Add the nuts and spices and mix gently until well com-
John Cleese bined. The mixture should be of dropping consistency.
• ‘I love food and I love everything involved with food. I 10. Spoon the mixture into the prepared pudding bowls and
love the fun of it. I love restaurants. I love cooking, al- cover with a double piece of parchment paper and a sin-
though I don’t cook very much.’ Alma Guillermoprieto gle piece of foil. Tie with string.
• ‘Men do not have to cook their food; they do so for sym- 11. Prepare a steamer and steam the puddings for four hours.
bolic reasons to show they are men and not beasts.’ Ed- You can eat the puddings at this stage, or you can cool
mund Leach them completely and store them, in their bowls, for 2-3
months, in a cool dark place, re-steaming them for two
Read and translate the recipe below. Give the recipe of your hours before serving.
favourite dish. 12. Carefully remove the puddings from the bowls and turn
Christmas Pudding out onto a plate.
By Lesley Waters 13. Garnish the top of the puddings with cherries. Carefully
Description flame the brandy and pour over the puddings.
You’ll need two 1.2-litre pudding bowls 14. Garnish each serving with a few extra cherries and serve
Ingredients with custard, thick cream or ice cream.
900g/2lb mixed dried fruits, such as figs, apricots, sour cher-
ries, raisins, dates, cranberries or sultanas Source: www.bbc.co.uk/food
150ml/5fl oz brandy or whisky
1 large orange, zest and juice Светлана Юнёва,
225g/8oz butter, softened, plus extra, melted, for greasing Губернский профессиональный колледж
TEXTS FOR READING English

THE AMERICAN FAST FOOD INDUSTRY.


An Agent of Regimentation in Postindustrial Times
53
November2013

There are many recognizable examples of American food and mainly consists of taking bags out of the freezer and heating the
drink, yet there is no consistent American cuisine. Instead, the cul- contents or adding hot water in the case of dehydrated products.
tural diversity that has formed this nation has also led to a melting Finally, by targeting children, fast food chains are, according to
pot of Mexican, Chinese, Italian and German cuisine as well as doz- many, partly responsible for the growing number of overweight
ens of other styles of cooking. It is in this context that the American young people in the US.
culture has managed to break from a set of traditional dishes to One trend in the fast food industry that particularly contributes
promote an eating style matching the lifestyle of 21st century postin- to obesity is giving in to the all-American preference for big things.
dustrialism. Fast food is by far the most characteristic and predomi- Thus, portions at many restaurants in the US are said to have in-
nant feature of eating habits in America. It is constantly enhanced creased lately in an effort to beat competition. For example, a typi-
by the Americans’ need to save time, their mistrust of sophistication cal hamburger in 1957 weighed 1 ounce (28 grams) and contained
and their preference for eating out. 210 calories, while a typical hamburger today weighs 6 ounces (170
Giants like Burger King, McDonalds, Yum! Brands (which in- grams) and contains 618 calories. Moreover, producers have come
cludes Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, Long John Silvers, A&W and KFC) out on the market with products whose selling point is none other
have turned all issues related to food into pieces of a high-tech sys- than size: there is Big Mac from McDonald’s, Extreme Gulp from
tem of standardized precision. 7-Eleven, Biggie Fries from Wendy’s, Big Grab Frito-Lay (a brand
Production of meat has developed along such standardized lines. of chips), Whopper from Burger King, Bacon Ultimate Cheese-
Traditional societies once involved a relation between farmers and burger from Jack in the Box and, finally, The Beast – an 85oz./2.5
animals which, while ignoring the latter’s rights, at least implied liter drink from ARCO convenience stores.
treating them as partners or simply as God’s creatures rather than Admittedly, frozen food like that offered by fast food outlets
mere objects. Conversely, the American agriculture has now be- has the advantage of not requiring the addition of preservatives to
come extremely efficient particularly because it managed to elimi- prolong its shelf-life, but it still requires additives to gain the taste it
nate people’s involvement almost completely, in favor of machines had when it was fresh, which is what customers naively expect and
dealing with animals as products. demand. Producers even add chemicals to give a fish or beef burger
In the meatpacking industry, this has led to entrepreneurs being the pleasant aroma of pork. Consequently, customers, whether fans
willing to do anything to produce more meat, as well as tastier and of fast food or not, will admit that it is particularly tasty, but do not
more tender one to suit fast food chains. This is why cattle are often suspect how little that has to do with a kitchen and how much it
fed waste products from poultry plants such as chicken manure and depends on a chemical factory.
even sawdust and old newspapers. Although the outbreak of mad Under such circumstances, it is natural to wonder why fast food
cow disease has led to outlawing the use of dead cows and sheep is so hugely popular. As suggested above, speed and eating out are
or their wastes for feeding cattle, it is still legal to feed dead pigs, customary in the US and regional specificity is a feature going ex-
horses and poultry to livestock. tinct in the era of highways and mass communication. Furthermore,
Furthermore, the practical need to cut expenses causes meat- predictability and safety are the aspects of fast food which mil-
packers to keep cattle in crammed feedlots where they get little lions of Americans appreciate the most about fast food, especially
exercise and live amidst pools of manure, much unlike the happy since it caters for a basic human need, that of security, compared to
cows in some commercials. Even in slaughterhouses, cost effi- which originality and personal preference seem pointless. Finally,
ciency leads to poor sanitation, excessive workloads and the use of statistics show that most visits to a fast food outlet are made out of
poorly trained workers. All this would still lead to e-coli and other impulse rather than according to a plan. Therefore, it is simply by
pathogens being transmitted to humans through hamburgers if the being so omnipresent that fast food restaurants manage to be so suc-
meatpacking industry had not decided to use irradiation of meat as cessful. People choose McDonalds simply because its two golden
it goes through slaughterhouses so as to disrupt the DNA of germs arches are always near when they feel hungry.
and thus prevent their reproduction. By Ovidiu Aniculăese
The people themselves who work in fast food outlets get ef- „Al. I. Cuza University”, Iaşi, Romania
ficiency-driven treatment too. Fast food is the most affordable in
America, which is at least in part due to the fact that, if we leave Bibliography
aside Hispanic migrants’ earnings, salaries in the fast food busi- Luedtke, Luther S. (ed.) – Making America. The Society and Cul-
ness are the lowest in the entire US economy. Such cost efficiency ture of the U.S., U.S. Information Agency, Washington D.C., 1987
can only be achieved at the expense of the young, who are willing Shafrity, Jay M. – Dictionary of American Government and Poli-
tics, The Dorsey Press, Chicago, 1988
to put in the required amount of energy for so little money. Thus,
Schlosser, Erich – Fast Food Nation. The Dark Side of the All-
more than half of the nation’s fast food workers are under the age of American Meal, Perennial, New York, 2002
twenty. Many of these are teenagers who work hard to raise money Stevenson, Douglas K. – American Life and Institutions, Enst Klett
for a car, which is a must-have in the suburban sprawl of American Verlag, Stuttgart, 1987
cities. While working is credited with teaching teenagers self-disci- Wheen, Francis – How Mumbo-Jumbo Conquered the World. A
pline and a sense of responsibility, some of them gladly work over Short History of Modern Delusions, Harper Perennial, London, 2004
twenty hours a week, which puts out all enthusiasm for school and
even earns them a lifelong aversion to work. Additionally, the pres- Ovidiu Aniculăese won a PhD from „Al. I. Cuza” University in 2004
sure of working directly with customers is more than any of these with a paper on American popular novels (Books for the Many. A Cultu-
children can safely take. ral Study on Popular Novels in Postmodern America, Institutul European,
2004) and published an American culture and civilisation coursebook (Life
Children and all youth are also the target of the fast food indus-
in America. An Introduction to the Study of Contemporary American Cultu-
try when it comes to customers. Advertising campaigns create an re, Taida, 2008). He has also worked for the British Council as an IELTS and
image of non-conformity and freshness for businesses such as Mc- Cambridge ESOL examiner for all levels as well as a Cambridge presenter.
Donalds, while, in fact, they reproduce with robotic accuracy the He is on the board of the Moldavian Association of Teachers of English and
same few recipes in thousands of outlets. Here the cooking process volunteers as the managing editor of the ELT journal RATE Issues.
English TEXTS FOR READING

54 FOOD RULES
November 2013

by Kate Fox
In 1949, the Hungarian George Mikes famously declared
that ‘On the Continent people have good food; in England
they have good table manners.’ Later, in 1977, he observed
that our food had improved somewhat, while our table man-
ners had deteriorated. He still did not, however, seem im-
pressed by English food, and he acknowledged that our table
manners were still ‘fairly decent’.
Nearly thirty years on, Mikes’s comments still reflect the
general international opinion of English cooking, as the trav-
el writer Paul Richardson discovered when he told foreign
friends that he was going to spend eighteen months research-
ing a book on British gastronomy. His Spanish, French and
Italian friends, he says, informed him that there was no such
thing as British gastronomy, as this would require a passion-
ate love of food, which we clearly did not have. They implied
‘that our relationship with the food we ate was more or less a
loveless marriage’. Photo by Dmitry Davydov.
Among the litany of complaints, which I have also heard
from my own foreign friends and informants, was the fact THE AMBIVALENCE RULE
that we regard good food as a privilege, not a right. We ‘Loveless marriage’ is not an entirely unfair description
also have no proper regional cookery; families no longer of the English relationship with food, although marriage is
eat together but instead consume junk food in front of the perhaps too strong a word: our relationship with food and
television; our diet consists mainly of salty or sweet snack cooking is more like a sort of uneasy, uncommitted cohabi-
foods – chips, crisps, chocolate bars, ready-meals, micro- tation. It is ambivalent, often discordant, and highly fickle.
wave pizzas and other rubbish. Even those with an interest There are moments of affection, and even of passion, but on
in good food, and able to afford it, tend to have neither the the whole it is fair to say that we do not have the deep-seat-
time nor the energy to shop for and cook fresh ingredients ed, enduring, inborn love of food that is to be found among
in what other nations would regard as a normal or proper our European neighbours, and indeed in most other cultures.
manner. Food is just not given the same high priority in English life
These criticisms are largely justified. But they are not as it is elsewhere. Even the Americans, whose ‘generic’ (as
the whole truth. The same goes for the opposite extreme opposed to ethnic) food is arguably no better than ours, still
– the current ‘Cool Britannia’ fashion for proclaiming seem to care about it more, demanding hundreds of different
that English cooking has in recent years improved out flavours and combinations in each category of junk food, for
of all recognition, that London is now the gastronomic example, whereas we will put up with just two or three.
capital of the world, that food is the new rock’n’roll, that In most other cultures, people who care about food, and
we have become a nation of gourmets and ‘foodies’, and enjoy cooking and talking about it, are not singled out, ei-
so on. ther sneeringly or admiringly, as ‘foodies’. Keen interest in
I am not going to spend too much time here arguing food is the norm, not the exception: what the English call a
about the quality of English cooking. My impression is ‘foodie’ would just be a normal person, exhibiting a stand-
that it is neither as awful as its detractors would have us ard, healthy, appropriate degree of focus on food. What we
believe, nor as stupendous as its recent champions have see as foodie obsession is in other cultures the default mode,
claimed. It is somewhere in between. Some of it is very not something unusual or even noticeable.
good, some is quite inedible. On average, it’s probably Among the English, such an intense interest in food is re-
about fair to middling. I am only interested in the qual- garded by the majority as at best rather odd, and at worst
ity of English food in so far as it reflects our relationship somehow morally suspect – not quite proper, not quite right.
with food, the unwritten social rules governing our food- In a man, foodie tendencies may be seen as unmanly, effemi-
related behaviour, and what these tell us about our na- nate, possibly even casting doubt upon his sexual orienta-
tional identity. Every culture has its own distinctive food tion. In this context, foodieness is roughly on a par with, say,
rules – both general rules about attitudes towards food and an enthusiastic interest in fashion or soft furnishings. English
cooking, and specific rules about who may eat what, how male ‘celebrity’ chefs who appear on television tend to go
much, when, where, with whom and in what manner – and out of their way to demonstrate their masculinity and hetero-
one can learn a lot about a culture by studying its food sexuality: they use blokeish language and adopt a tough, ma-
rules. So, I am not interested in English food per se, but in cho demeanour; parade their passion for football; mention
the Englishness of English food rules. their wives, girlfriends or children (‘the wife’ and ‘the kids’
TEXTS FOR READING English

55
November2013

in bloke-speak); and dress as scruffily as possible. Jamie per-middle-class dinner parties.) Socially, you are what you
Oliver, the young TV chef who has done so much to make eat – and when, where and in what manner you eat it, and
cooking a more attractive career choice for English boys, is what you call it, and how you talk about it.
a prime example of this ‘please note how heterosexual I am’ The popular novelist Jilly Cooper, who has a much better
style, with his cool scooter, loud music, sexy model wife, understanding of the English class system than any sociolo-
Cockney brashness and laddish ‘Chuck in a bi’ o’ this an’ a gist, quotes a shopkeeper who told her, ‘When a woman asks
bi’ o’ that and you’ll be awright, mate’ approach to cookery. for “back” I call her “madam”; when she asks for “streaky” I
Foodieness is somewhat more acceptable among females, call her “dear”.’ Nowadays, in addition to these two different
but it is still noticeable, still remarked upon – and in some cuts of bacon, one would have to take into account the class
circles regarded as pretentious. No-one wishes to be seen as semiotics of extra-lean and organic bacon, lardons, prosciut-
too deeply fascinated by or passionate about food. Most of to, speck and Serrano ham (all favoured by the ‘madam’ class
us are proud to claim that we ‘eat to live, rather than living rather than the ‘dear’, but more specifically by the educated-
to eat’ – unlike some of our neighbours, the French in par- upper-middle branch of the ‘madam’ class), as well as ‘ba-
ticular, whose excellent cooking we enjoy and admire, but con bits’, pork scratchings, and bacon-flavoured crisps (all
whose shameless devotion to food we rather despise, not re- decidedly ‘dear’-class foods, rarely eaten by ‘madams’).
alizing that the two might perhaps be connected. English people of all classes love bacon sandwiches (the
northern working classes call them ‘bacon butties’), although
ANTI-EARNESTNESS AND OBSCENITY RULES some more pretentious members of the lower- and middle-
Our ambivalence about food may be due in part to the middle classes pretend to have daintier, more refined tastes, and
influence of the Importance of Not Being Earnest rule. Ex- some affectedly health-conscious upper-middles make disap-
cessive zeal on any subject is embarrassing, and getting all proving noises about fat, salt, cholesterol and heart disease.
earnest and emotional about something as trivial as food is, Other foods that come with invisible labels warning of
well, frankly rather silly. lower-class associations include:
But it seems to me that our uneasiness about food and foo- prawn cocktail (the prawns are fine, but the pink ‘cock-
dieness involves something more than this. There is a hint here tail’ sauce is lower-middle class – and, incidentally, it does
of a more general discomfort about sensual pleasures. Flaunt- not suddenly become any ‘posher’ if you call it ‘Marie-Rose’
ing one’s passion for good food, and talking openly about the sauce)
pleasure of eating it, is not embarrassing just because it is egg and chips (both ingredients are relatively classless
over-earnest but also because it is somehow a bit obscene. on their own, but working class if eaten together)
It has been said that the English have a puritanical streak, pasta salad (nothing wrong with pasta per se, but it’s
but I’m not sure this is quite accurate. Sex, for example, is ‘common’ if you serve it cold and mixed with mayonnaise)
not regarded as sinful, but as private and personal and there- rice salad (lower class in any shape or form, but particu-
fore a bit embarrassing. Jokes about sex, even quite explicit larly with sweetcorn in it)
ones, are acceptable; earnest or fervent talk about the same tinned fruit (in syrup it’s working class, in fruit juice it’s
intimate physical details is obscene. The sensual pleasures of still only about lower-middle)
eating, it seems to me, are in the same category – not exactly sliced hard-boiled eggs and/or sliced tomato in a green
a taboo subject, but one that should only be talked about in a salad (whole cherry tomatoes are just about OK, but the
light-hearted, unserious, jokey manner. class-anxious would be advised generally to keep tomatoes,
Foodies (or foreigners) who dwell too lyrically, too eroti- eggs and lettuce away from each other)
cally, on the delights of a perfectly executed, voluptuously tinned fish (all right as an ingredient in something else,
creamy sauce bearnaise, will make us squirm, blush and look such as fishcakes, but very working class if served on its own)
away. To avoid offending, all they need do is lighten up a bit, chip butties (a mainly northern tradition; even if you
laugh at themselves, not take the whole thing quite so seri- call it a chip sandwich rather than a butty, it is about as work-
ously. Without such ironic detachment, foodie-talk becomes ing-class as food can get).
a form of ‘gastro-porn’ (the term normally refers to lavishly
illustrated foodie magazines and cookbooks, with detailed, Very secure uppers and upper-middles, with the right ac-
mouth-watering descriptions of each luscious dish – but can cents and other accoutrements, can admit to loving any or all
equally be applied to over-enthusiastic foodie conversation). of these foods with impunity – they will merely be regarded
as charmingly eccentric. The more class-anxious should take
CULINARY CLASS CODES care to pick their charming eccentricity from the very bot-
Along with the lists of ingredients and calorie-counts, tom of the scale (chip butties) rather than the class nearest
almost every item of English food comes with an invisible to them (tinned fruit in juice), to avoid any possibility of a
class label. (Warning: this product may contain traces of misunderstanding.
lower-middle-class substances. Warning: this product has
petit-bourgeois associations and may not be suitable for up- From “Watching the English”
English FOCUS ON LITERATURE

56 CHOCOLAT (an excerpt)


November 2013

Joanne Michèle Sylvie Harris (born 3 July 1964, Barns- home from school, but she looked distracted, her bright face
ley, Yorkshire) is a popular British author. Born to a French unusually still. Her eyes were heavy, dark as the cloud-line
mother and an English father in her grandparents’ sweet of an oncoming storm.
shop, her family life was filled with food and folklore. Her I asked her what was wrong.
parents were both academics, teaching Modern Languages ‘It’s Jeannot.’ Her voice was toneless. ‘His mother says he
and Literature at a local grammar school. She began to write can’t play with me any more.’
at a very early age, and was strongly influenced by Grimms’ I remembered Jeannot as Wolf Suit in the Mardi Gras car-
Fairy Tales and the tales of Charles Perrault, as well as local nival, a lanky seven-year-old with shaggy hair and a sus-
folklore and Norse mythology. She was educated at Wake- picious expression. He and Anouk played together in the
field Girls High School, Barnsley Sixth Form College, and square last night, running and shouting arcane war cries, un-
St. Catharine’s College, Cambridge, where she read Modern til the light failed. His mother is Joline Drou, one of the two
and Mediaeval Languages. After a single, disastrous year as primary teachers, a crony of Caroline Clairmont.
an accountant she trained as a teacher at Sheffield University, ‘Oh?’ Neutrally. “What does she say?’
and for fifteen years she taught modern languages, mostly at ‘She says I’m a bad influence.’ She flicked a dark glance
Leeds Grammar School, a boys’ independent school in York- at me. ‘Because we don’t go to church. Because you opened
shire. She also taught at Sheffield University, lecturing on on Sunday.’
aspects of French literature and film. During this period, she You opened on Sunday.
worked on a number of book projects, four of which (The I looked at her. I wanted to take her in my arms, but her
Evil Seed, Sleep, Pale Sister and Chocolat) were published rigid, hostile stance alarmed me. I made my voice very calm.
before she left teaching to become a full-time writer. ‘And what does Jeannot think?’ I asked gently.
In 1999, her third novel, Chocolat reached No. 1 in the ‘He can’t do anything. She’s always there. Watching.’
Sunday Times newspaper’s bestseller list. The book won the Anouk’s voice rose shrilly and I guessed she was close to
Creative Freedom Award in 1999 and was shortlisted for tears. ‘Why does this always have to happen?’ she demand-
the 1999 Whitbread Novel of the Year Award. The movie ed. ‘Why don’t I ever –’ She broke off with an effort, her thin
rights were sold to David Brown and developed by Miramax chest hitching.
Pictures. The success of the motion picture, starring Juliette ‘You have other friends.’ It was true; there had been four
Binoche and Johnny Depp, brought Harris worldwide rec- or five of them last night, the square ringing with their cat-
ognition, and in 2012 she became one of only four female calls and laughter.
members of the “Millionnaires’ Club,” the elite group of au- ‘Jeannot’s friends.’ I saw what she meant. Louis Clair-
thors who have achieved a million sales of one book in the mont. Lise Poitou. His friends. Without Jeannot the group
UK since records began. Since then, all Harris’ books have would soon disperse. I felt a sudden pang for my daugh-
been UK bestsellers. She has written two more novels in the ter, surrounding herself with invisible friends to people the
Chocolat series, continuing the adventures of Vianne Roch- spaces around her. Selfish, to imagine that a mother could fill
er; The Lollipop Shoes and Peaches for Monsieur le Curé, that space completely. Selfish and blind.
as well as two French cookbooks, two collections of short ‘We could go to church, if that’s what you want.’ My voice
stories and a number of dark psychological thrillers, includ- was gentle. ‘But you know it wouldn’t change anything.’
ing Gentlemen and Players and Blueeyedboy. Accusingly, ‘Why not? They don’t believe. They don’t
care about God. They just go.’
When an exotic stranger, Vianne Rocher, a young single I smiled then, not without some bitterness. Six years old,
mother, arrives in the French village of Lansquenet with and she still manages to surprise me with the depth of her
her six-year-old daughter and opens a chocolate boutique occasional perception.
directly opposite the church, Father Reynaud, the parish ‘That may be true,’ I said. ‘But do you want to be like
priest, denounces her as a serious moral danger to his flock that?’
– especially as it is the beginning of Lent, the traditional sea- A shrug, cynical and indifferent. She shifted her weight
son of self-denial. Vianne begins to gently change the lives of from one foot to the other, as if in fear of a lecture. I searched
the villagers who visit her chocolaterie with a combination for the words to explain. But all I could think of was the
of sympathy, subversion and a little magic. This scandalizes image of my mother’s stricken face as she rocked me and
Francis Reynaud, and his supporters. As tensions run high, murmured, almost fiercely, What would I do without you?
the community is increasingly divided. And as Easter ap- What would I do?
proaches, pitting the ritual of the Church against the indul- Oh, I taught her all of this long ago; the hypocrisy of
gence of chocolate, Father Reynaud and Vianne Rocher face the Church, the witch-hunts, the persecution of travellers and
an inevitable showdown. people of other faiths. She understands. But the knowledge
In the excerpt below Vianne’s daughter Anouk comes from does not transpose well to everyday life, to the reality of
school in a depressed mood. loneliness, to the loss of a friend.
We made close to three hundred francs today. For the first ‘It’s not fair.’ Her voice was still rebellious, the hostility
time, enough to break even. I told Anouk when she came subdued but not entirely.
FOCUS ON LITERATURE English

57
November2013

Neither was the sack of the Holy Land, nor the burning 4. crony – one of a group of people who spend a lot of time with
of Joan of Arc, nor the Spanish Inquisition. But I knew better each other (used to show disapproval), e.g. The senator gave
positions of power to many of his political cronies.
than to say so. Her features were pinched, intense; any sign 5. hostile – angry and deliberately unfriendly towards someone,
of weakness and she would have turned on me. e.g. He was hostile towards me when I arrived, and the situation
‘You’ll find other friends.’ A weak and comfortless an- did not improve over the next few days.
swer. Anouk looked at me with disdain. 6. catcall – a loud whistle or shout expressing disapproval of a
speech or performance, e.g. I heard jeers and catcalls from the
‘But I wanted this one.’ Her tone was strangely adult, audience.
strangely weary as she turned away. Tears swelled her eye- 7. to disperse – to go away in different directions, e.g. Once the
lids, but she made no move to come to me for comfort. With ambulance had left, the crowd began to disperse.
a sudden overwhelming clarity I saw her then, the child, the 8. accusing (adv accusingly) – an accusing look shows that
someone thinks someone else has done something wrong, e.g.
adolescent, the adult, the stranger she would one day become, Two pairs of accusing eyes focused on her.
and I almost cried out in loss and terror, as if our positions 9. perception – the way you think about something and your idea
had somehow been reversed, she the adult, I the child. of what it is like, e.g. I was impressed by her perception and her
Please! What would I do without you? grasp of the facts.
10. cynical – unwilling to believe that people have good, honest, or
But I let her go without a word, aching to hold her but too sincere reasons for doing something, e.g. I think movie stars just
aware of the wall of privacy slamming down between us. do charity work to get publicity – but maybe I’m too cynical.
Children are born wild, I know. The best I can hope for is a 11. stricken – very badly affected by trouble, illness, unhappiness
little tenderness, a seeming docility. Beneath the surface the etc, e.g. At last the pilot managed to land his stricken aircraft.
12. to rock – to move gently backwards and forwards or from side
wildness remains, stark, savage and alien. to side, or to make someone do this, e.g. Glenda sat beside the
By Joanne Harris cradle, gently rocking it from side to side.
13. hypocrisy – when someone pretends to have certain beliefs or
ALLUSIONS opinions that they do not really have (used to show disapproval),
Mardi Gras – the day before Lent begins, or the music, dancing, e.g. It would be sheer hypocrisy to pray for success, since I’ve
parades, etc. that happen on this day in some countries. never believed in God.
The Holy Land – the parts of the Middle East where most of the 14. to sack a place/town – an army or renegades going through a
events mentioned in the Bible happened. It is also known as Pales- place, destroying or stealing things and attacking people , e.g.
tine. Yesterday I read a book about the sack of Rome in 1527.
Joan of Arc – the patron saint of France. Dressed as a man, as a 15. disdain – a complete lack of respect shown for someone/thing
young woman she led the French army which defeated the English because you think they are not important or good enough, e.g.
at Orleans. Later she was imprisoned, and a court found her guilty His father noticed them, too, but regarded them with disdain.
of being a witch. She was burned at the stake but much later recog- 16. docile (n docility) – quiet and easily controlled, e.g. Kangaroos
nized as a saint. are not as docile as they look.
The Inquisition – an official Roman Catholic organization which 17. alien – very different from what you are used to, foreign, hard
tried to fight and punish heretics during the Middle Ages, forcing con- to understand or accept [=strange], e.g. The environment of the
versions, torturing and killing non-believers. The most famous part of city seemed to be alien.
the organization was the Spanish Inquisition, led in the 15th century
by Thomas de Torquemada. 3. Make up as many sentences as you can using the words from
exercise 2.
VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR TASKS
1. Translate the following word combinations into Russian. De- 4. Read the sentences below. Think what part of speech you
scribe the situations in which they were used. need to form to fill the gaps. Add suffixes and prefixes to the
• to look distracted words given in capitals.
• not without some bitterness 1. When Anouk came home from school, her face
• suspicious expression was ______________ still. USUAL
• to shift one’s weight from one foot to the other 2. Anouk used to surround herself with _______ VISIBLE
• to flick a dark glance at smb friends to people the spaces around her.
• to transpose to everyday life 3. There was some _________ in Vianne’s smile. BITTER
• rigid stance 4. Vianne’s words were greeted with __________ HOSTILE
• rebellious voice from her daughter.
• to be close to tears 5. Vianne knew that she should not show Anouk
• pinched features any signs of _______________. WEAK
• to feel a pang for smb 6. The idea of finding new friends seemed
• weary tone _______________. COMFORT
• to people the spaces 7. Vianne was aware of a wall of __________ PRIVATE
• with an overwhelming clarity slamming down between them.

2. Study the following: Keys: 1. unusually; 2. invisible; 3. bitterness; 4. hostility; 5. weak-


1. to break even – to neither make a profit nor lose money, e.g. ness; 6. comfortless; 7. privacy
We’re hoping that we’ll at least break even, and perhaps make
a small profit.
2. lanky – someone who is tall and thin, and moves awkwardly [=
Светлана Юнёва,
gangling], e.g. We were met by a tall, lanky youth called Harry. Губернский профессиональный колледж
3. arcane – secret and known or understood by only a few people,
e.g. Written on the boxes is all manner of strange titles and ar-
cane technical terms. See more on CD.
English YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION

58 CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND FOOD STYLES


to Complement the Participants of the 2014 Sochi
November 2013

Winter Olympics
The main goal of learning a foreign language OLYMPIANS GET A TASTE OF OLYMPICS
is communication. Project work is a way to bring According to our research in line with the stated topic
a student to a success in using English in real life and based on the comparison with the Olympic games of
through humanistic approach in learner-centered the 1996 in the USA (in the state of Georgia) they prepared
class and out-of-class activities based on the use food for 15000 Olympic athletes, coaches and officials from
197 countries around the world, successfully meeting a wide
of students’ personal strengths.
variety of cultural and religious requirements and customs.
Student outcomes are clearly seen at school re- We found out that ARAMARK, the world leader in pro-
search conferences where they show the results of viding such specialized manages services, did its best in such
their project work. a great undertaking as Atlanta Olympic Games. ARAMARK
Materials are developed on the basis of authen- was serving a “World Menu” featuring food which was fun,
tic newspapers, letters, brochures, via the Inter- food that helped the athlete perform at his or her best and
net. food that offered a taste of “home”. “The World Menu” in-
Students are given reasons for communicating, cluded such special items as Halal meat for Muslim athletes,
not just instructions. E.g. research conferences Tandoori dishes for Indian athletes, Russian borshch, Japa-
provide exercises which challenge learners to nese Miso Soup, and Moroccan Fish Tagine. In total, a five-
communicate with each other. They are given the day rotating selection of over 550 world recipes had been
created.
chance to share information, to discuss the issue
The operation included the construction of a 25000-
and to ask questions. square-foot kitchen and dramatic 75000-square-foot Olym-
Last school year my students worked on the pic Dining Hall in time for the July 6th opening of the Olym-
project devoted to the future Olympic Games in pic Village.
Sochi. ARAMARK had been involved in nine previous Olympic
The objectives of the project were: Games meeting the culinary needs of athletes from around
• Learning to present information in a speaker- the World.
friendly way. They’d adopted one Georgia specialty that was served to
• Developing the attitude to belonging toDa international athletes at the Summer Olympics.
group and school community. We are sure everybody liked the tastes of the meals served.
• Describing personal experience. We developed a formula that could help the Sochi Olympi-
• Raising awareness of English-speaking ans win.
cultures concerning the topic “World Menues” Food should be fun.
and “World Cuisines”. Food should help the athlete perform
• Enlarging the vocabulary and speech patterns. Food should offer a taste of home
• Practicing grammar structures. Food should meet culinary needs
• Developing skills in using Internet resources. Food should be olfactory important
Here are some of the quotes we use starting, Scientists speak about four senses: sight, taste, smell and
making and finishing our research; touch. Scents and flavors are integral to memory. Scientists
1. Life is a do-it-for-others, do-it-yourself project. tell us this is because our olfactory path ways have a more
2. Put up the dream. direct link to the hippocampus (a major component of hu-
Put in the knowledge. man’s brain important to long-term memory) than to sensory
Put out the effort. path ways linked to sight or touch. Since food is all about
smell and taste if offers a bullet ride to distant memories for
3. Think of your imagination as a skill rather than
sportsmen (in other words things connected with home thus
a talent and learn to use it. support them and encourage to win).
4. Each human being on earth has equal rights to Different cultures developed their own “taste understand-
fulfill his or her potential. ing”. Our job was to complement any taste on the interna-
5. Optimism creates energy and is contageous. tional level.
6. It is not so much what the job gives you, it is
what you give to the job. WE ARE CREATING IDEAS!
(From Denis Waitley, “The Psychology of Win- Our internet research showed there would be 62 restau-
ning and Being the Best and the Seeds of Great- rants, 40 cafes and 27 “fast food” joints will provide meals
ness Treasury”). for athletes and guests of the 2014 Winter Olympics. Local
authorities are hoping that the region’s own chains and agri-
cultural companies will play a key role.
We would like to present some extracts from
The organizers of the event are planning to implement a
the students’ projects. special nutrition system with eight specific user groups in
mind. A similar approach has been used in laying out the
By Irina Kotova, guidelines of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympics
School No. 74, Yaroslavl Games.
METHODS OF TEACHING English

59
November2013

Прививаем вкус
к английскому на примере
шоколадного перфекта
“This involves the athletes, the media, the workforce, the
Olympic family. All of these various groups have very dif- Английский кажется нудным, если мы отно-
ferent responsibilities and requirement. Therefore, the food симся к нему как к набору правил и списку слов
styles are very different, which makes the games unique”, для заучивания. Гораздо интереснее попытаться
said British Professor David Russel, a nutrition and catering понять, какое восприятие мира стоит за тем или
expert who took part in a Sochi industry forum on providing иным скучным правилом. Например, русскоязыч-
food and cleaning for the Olympics. ному человеку сложно понять, почему фразы “Я
Besides diversity and an innovative approach food safety написал тест вчера” и “Я уже написал тест” в ан-
is another major concern. The 38-day long event requires the глийском языке различаются. Более того, вторая
highest standards and quality of service from all participants. фраза относится к настоящему времени. Пусть
It is important to provide special meals, keeping in mind и завершенному (Perfect), но все же настоящему
the visitors’ cultural diversity and dietary requirements.
(Present). Чтобы это почувствовать, можно пря-
It is expected that more than 200 experts representing
restaurants chains and cleaning companies from all over the мо на занятии предложить ученикам съесть шо-
world will be able to share their experience ahead of the Feb- коладку. Когда шоколадка съедена, мы начинаем
ruary sporting event. думать о своем действии как о прошедшем. На-
глядное тому доказательство – пустая обертка или
RUSSIAN CUISINE FOR SOCHI ATHLETES фантик. Но давайте посмотрим на эту ситуацию
Borsch is one of the top items which can best represent по-другому. Можно спросить учеников, чувству-
Russia ют ли они еще вкус шоколада? Возможно хотят
пить? Значит действие еще не совсем в прошлом.
Оно в настоящем, но завершенном: Present Perfect.
Аналогично с фразами “Я написал тест вчера” и
“Я написал тест на этой неделе”. В первом случае
мы отправляем действие в прошлое с помощью
слова “вчера” (yesterday), а во втором – говорим о
том, что хотя действие и закончилось, но времен-
ной промежуток – эта неделя – еще продолжается.
Мы еще живем этим, а значит в английском будет
использоваться настоящее завершенное – Present
Perfect. А чтобы еще лучше почувствовать разницу
Borsch recipe между по-настоящему прошедшим временем Past
These are the ingredients Simple и завершенным настоящим Present Perfect
Meat or poultry - 0,5 kg можно также поэкспериментировать с вкусным
Beetroot - 1 piece (medium size) горячим кофе. Неужели фразы “Я выпил кофе вче-
Sweet pepper - 1-2 pieces ра” и “Я выпил кофе только что” ощущаются оди-
Cabbage - 500 g
наковыми? Какая “вкуснее”? Желаю успешного
Potatoes - 2 pieces
Tomatoes - 3-4 pieces or a spoonful of tomato paste “переваривания знания”, а главное – поглощайте
Brown onions - 1 piece его с аппетитом!
Parsley - 2 pieces Пётр Степичев,
Method ИИЯ МГПУ
Boil some meat for about 1 – 1,5 hours in the salted water.
Stew sliced beetroot in the pan with the fat from the broth. Fry
sliced carrots, onions and parsley on the frying-pan (separately
from the beetroot), use vegetable oil for this. Beetroot should be
stewed, carrots and onions – fried. Peel, slice and fry tomatoes
for ten minutes separately. Put some cabbage and potatoes in
the broth. (The lid of the sauce-pan must be open). Add stewed
beetroot, fried carrots, onion, parsley, tomatoes, sweet pepper
(if you want) and in 15 minutes your borsch is ready. It is served
with sour cream, garlic and greens. Add salt to your taste.
Try it! This is one of the Russians favorites! You may take
this home and use it as a special treat for your family and
friends. They’re sure to like it!
English YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION

60 BETWEEN THE CONTINENTS:


continued from No. 10

November 2013

American Reality with Russian Eyes


THE “WASTING” ATTITUDE different, and names scribbled with a marker in a foreign lan-
Crazy wasting in America strikes you at first, especially in guage leave many without a clue what the dish is like.
student buffet-style cafeterias. I watched a poor German girl try bravely to finish her
A big country brings forward big demands, a ravenous waffle with a spicy Mexican-type sauce instead of the mar-
appetite and crazy amounts of waste. But it’s the attitude malade she hoped for. I don’t blame her for being unable
rather than the size that accounts for so much unnecessary to put the strange mixture into her mouth. I remember my
waste in America. After all, I was raised in Russia, the largest Tajik friend’s emotional story when somebody talked her
country in the world, and never came across such wasteful into trying sushi with a spicy hot greenish sauce. She still
practices. gets mad when I remind her about the incident. But she
Picture these scenes: 1) Piles of clothes on the floor in the won’t take it anymore because she knows she isn’t going
retail outlets during big sales; people grab as fast as they can to eat it.
and don’t care if, while taking one item, they leave three oth- After some time, all students know what is what, but still
ers on the floor. The clothes are cheap. 2) Piles of paper are nearly full plates go into the tray collection area.
dumped in the wastebasket; students print out everything and Other internationals were also surprised at seeing such a
don’t care if the material’s headed for the trash. The printing wasteful attitude. One of the exchange students from Eng-
service is free. 3) Serving trays full of cooked food move land last semester was indignant about food wasting in the
smoothly into the garbage receptacles in the campus cafete- U.S. Once he was sitting in the cafeteria in the library. He
ria; it’s an all-you-can-eat style buffet. Yes, it’s all-you-can- told me he was very hungry, and the staff person threw buns
eat but not all-you-can-carry-on-your-tray, though students and some other left-overs into the trash bin in front of him.
seem to prefer the latter. He saw it as cruel, he said, explaining what made him so
Tara Wiedbusch, 19, a student supervisor in Dining Com- angry. He said he even sent a letter of complaint to the caf-
mons One (DC One) in Eastern Michigan University, said the eteria staff.
food is wasted because of the buffet style. “A lot of people Well, that may seem a bit too much, but this is an illus-
take more than they want,” she said. “It’s a cafeteria style. trative example of wasting in America. I don’t want to say
Everyone sees everything and then realizes they are not go- that food is always thrown away. In DC One the food left in
ing to eat it all.” warmers is donated to the food bank, Williams said.
Wiedbusch’s duties include making sure everything is But I saw my Tajik friend pick up a piece of bread from
good on the line, every container is full, there is no problem the floor, but not because she was hungry, though. It is con-
anywhere. Overseeing the process, she came to understand sidered one of the worst things in Tajikistan to throw the
that if students didn’t take more than they can eat, there bread away. It is almost equal to a sin. That’s why she was
would be no wasted food. very upset at seeing bread on the floor or anything similar to
Ebonia Williams, 24, who had worked in DC One for two bread, for instance, cookies.
years, said the only solution is to regulate how much people I was brought up with the idea of respecting bread, too.
take, but that is impossible since it is a self-service buffet. In the Russian language, one of the meanings of the word
“Probably, because there is so much, you come in, you are so “bread” is equal to food. I remember films, books and sto-
hungry, and you take a bit of everything,” Williams said. ries about the 900-day Siege of Leningrad in 1941-44 during
But I want to know – can’t students regulate themselves? World War II. Then, a piece of bread was a treasure, more
Why do they take three platefuls knowing they won’t finish than that – it meant life. I remember the pleasure of tasting
it all? I can understand newcomers who don’t know what bread after 12 days of backpacking in the mountains. We had
the food tastes like at first. International students may have a only dried bread with us, and I was happy to break soft fresh
problem adjusting to the foreign food. It’s unfamiliar, it looks bread and put a desirable piece into my mouth. After that, I
won’t ever throw bread away.
It’s just a different attitude. Having much allows wast-
ing much. A big country allows crazy wasting, but it doesn’t
mean people should throw the food away.

NOTE: American food establishments are very strictly in-


spected by the government about leftover or uneaten food.
They are severely restricted about what they can do with this
food, especially regarding sanitation. That said, because
Americans have gotten used to food surpluses and choice,
they often have a lazy, irresponsible and wasteful attitude
towards discarding food they don’t want to eat. As we say,
“Their eyes are bigger than their stomach.” – Erin Bouma
YOUTH ENGLISH SECTION English

61
November2013

away from commenting on that. I won’t ever hesitate to say


– no, to shout – that I love Russia simply because I was born
here and because it is my country. I love the rustle of the
green leaves and slim birch trunks mounting on the hill. I
love the reflection of the night city lights in the wet autumn
roads. I love the evolving images of the city behind the bus
window and conductors’ tired voices waking me up from
daydreaming. I love Russia with all the shortcomings it has,
with all its sometimes rather stupid rules I have to obey, with
all the daily stress I endure. I love it with all my heart.
And I don’t need a national flag to express my devotion.
I didn’t even have my national flag until I had to leave for
America, and I had trouble finding a place to buy it in my
home city. You won’t find Russians decorating their homes
with the white, blue and red flag’s colors.
You won’t see national flags in Germany, either, Mike
PATRIOTISM DIFFERS… Veldink, 29, an exchange student from Germany said. When
I was interested to know if, in the USA, Americans really he was 10, his mother, who has Dutch roots, took off a small
love their country. But it turned out not many could answer German flag from his parka, a popular winter army jacket.
an honest “yes.” He is not sure why she did this; he only added that they had
I’ve always thought patriotism can be instilled. In the USA never had a German flag at home and children were never
I saw it can be promoted and advertised without being felt. taught a national anthem. Only in high school did he learn
National flags for interior design of American houses are the anthem’s story.
as popular as colorful rubber bracelets in a college environ- The anthem was shortened to the third verse after the war.
ment. The playing or singing of the national anthem is an es- “The other ones (verses) seemed to be too patriotic,” Veldink
sential beginning of every sporting event. There is definitely said.
something to be proud of in the U.S., but is there something “Das Lied der Deutschen” (“The Song of Germans”) was
to love? written before World War II, when the desire for a strong
When I asked Americans of different ages if they love united Germany was a healthy patriotic goal. After the mili-
America, I was amazed at how many people cannot say that. tary aggression and nationalist usurpation of 1933-45, the
Some thought for a second and answered a hasty “no,” others words “Deutschland, Deutschland über alles,“ (“Germany,
went on to speak about their political views and how they are Germany above all”) rang as a reminder of the nationalist
unhappy about Bush’s presidency and policy in Iraq. Some past. Now the first verses are never sung. Even the third
students explained to me that people are very liberal at East- verse, which is the official anthem, is not often sung, Veldink
ern Michigan University, and that’s why I won’t get many said.
“yeses” in my mini-investigation. Hey, what does love have “In Germany you can’t show your feelings for your coun-
to do with politics or political views? try at all,” admitted my friend from there.
The most common answer to my question was, “I like liv- “It is considered inappropriate to say loudly that you love
ing here” and “I like the freedom we have,” but this is not the your country,” Veldink told me, adding that the situation is
same as “I love my country.” different in his fraternity, which tries to bring back “healthy
I got some positive answers to my question, however. The patriotism.”
first was from an EMU sophomore who crossed his index Young Americans have the freedom of speech that they
and middle fingers to illustrate his close connection with his like so much about their country, but they still can’t say they
country and his devotion to it. But doing this, he noticed that love their Motherland. They hang national flags in their hous-
love is “too strong” a word. Why is it too strong? That’s what es or make vain statements that America is a world power
patriotism is – love of and devotion to one’s country. If love and has the right to interfere into other countries’ policies.
is “too strong” a description, then, in my opinion, there is no Only this power doesn’t make them love their country for
patriotism. simply being theirs – for being their Motherland.
“Most of us here in America are very, very spoiled and
don’t appreciate all we have, which is awfully sad,” said a By Anastasia Khodakova (Maslova)
person who was born in the U.S. and has lived there for more Photos by the author
than 50 years.
I sometimes heard in Russia that young Russians should
learn how to love their country from Americans. I’ll keep to be continued
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РЕКЛАМА English

63
Интернет-обеспечение проекта – Издательский дом «ПЕРВОЕ СЕНТЯБРЯ»

9 …
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