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DELTA PLC

3.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO PLC

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to as programmable


controllers, are in the computer family. They are used in commercial and
industrial applications. It was called “Sequence Controller” beforeIt was named
“Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)” by NEMA (National Electrical
Manufacture Association) in 1978 and defined as electronic equipment. The
operation of PLC is in the following:

Step 1. Read the external input signal, such as the status of keypad, sensor,
switch and pulse.
Step 2. Using microprocessor to execute the calculations of logic, sequence,
timer, counter and formula according to the status and the value of the input
signal read in the step 1 and pre-write programs saved inner to get the
Corresponding output signal, such as open or close of relay, operation of
controlled machine or procedure to control automatic machine or procedure of
manufacture. PLC also can be used to maintain and adjust of production
program by editing or modifying the peripheral equipments (personal
Computer/handheld programming panel). The common program language of
PLC is ladder diagram.
There are stronger functions in PLC with the development and application
requirements of electronic technology, such as position control, network and etc.
Output/Input signals are DI (Digital Input), AI (Analog Input), PI (Pulse Input), DO
(Digital Output), AO (Analog Output) and PO (Pulse Output). Thus PLC plays an
important role in the feature industry.

3.1.2 BASIC PLC OPERATION

PLC consists of input modules or points, a central processing unit(CPU) and


output points

Fig 1.BASIC COMPONENTS OF PLC


3.1.3 PARTS OF PLC

3.1.3.1. CPU

The central processing unit (CPU) is a microprocessor system which contains the
system memory and is the PLC’s decision making unit. The CPU monitors the
inputs and makes decisions based on instructions held in the program memory.
The CPU performs relay, counting, timing, data comparison, and sequential
operations

Figure 2. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT


3.1.3.2. ANALOG INPUTS

An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical analog
inputs may vary from 0 to 20 milliamps, 4 to 20 milliamps, or 0 to 10 volts. In the
following example, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in a tank.
Depending on the level transmitter, the signal to the PLC can either increase or
decrease as the level increases or decreases.

FIG.3ANALOG INPUT

3.1.3.3. DIGITAL INPUTS

A discrete input, also referred to as a digital input, is an input that is either in an


ON or OFF condition.
Fig 4 DIGITAL INPUT

3.1.3.4. DISCRETE OUTPUTS

A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids,


contactor coils, and lamps are examples of actuator devices connected to
discrete outputs. Discrete outputs may also be referred to as digital outputs. In
the following example, a lamp can be turned on or off by the PLC output it is
connected to.

Fig 5. DISCRETE OUTPUTS


3.1.3.5. ANALOG OUTPUTS

An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. The output
may be as simple as a 0-10 VDC level that drives an analog meter. Examples of
analog meter outputs are speed, weight, and temperature. The output signal may
also be used on more complex applications such as a current-to pneumatic
transducer that controls an air-operated flow-control valve.

Fig 6. ANALOG OUTPUT

3.1.2 BASIC INNER EQUIPMENTS OF THE PLC

TABLE 1:- BASIC INNER EQUIPMENTS OF THE PLC

Input Input relay is the basic storage unit of internal


memory that corresponds to external input point (it is
relay
the terminal that used to connect to external input
switch and receive external input signal). Input signal
from external will decide it to display 0 or 1. You
couldn’t change the state of input relay by program
design or forced ON/OFF via HPP. The contacts
(contact a, b) can be used unlimitedly. If there is no
input signal, the corresponding input relay could be
empty and can’t beused with other functions.
Equipment indication method: X0, X1,…X7, X10,
X11,…. The symbol of equipment is X and the
number uses octal. There are numeric indications of
input point on MPU and expansion unit.
Output Output relay is the basic storage unit of internal
memory that corresponds to external output point (it
relay
is used to connect to external load). It can be driven
by input relay contact, the contact of other internal
equipment and itself contact. It uses a normally open
contact to connect to external load and other
contacts can be used unlimitedly as input contacts. It
doesn’t have the corresponding output relay, if need,
it can be used as internal relay.
Equipment indication: Y0, Y1,…Y7, Y10, Y11,…. .
The symbol of equipment is Y and the number uses
octal. There are numeric indications of output point
on MPU and expansion unit.
Internal The internal relay doesn’t connect directly to outside.
It is an auxiliary relay in PLC. Its function is the same
relay
as the auxiliary relay in electric control circuit. Each
auxiliary relay has the corresponding basic unit. It
can be driven by the contact of input relay, output
relay or other internal equipment. Its contacts can be
used unlimitedly. Internal auxiliary relay can’t output
directly, it should output with output point.
Equipment indication: M0, M1,…, M4, M5. The
symbol of equipment is M and the number uses
decimal number system.
STEP DVP PLC provides input method for controlling
program of step actions. It is very easy to write
control program by using the conversion of control
step S of command STL. If there is no step program
in the program, step point S could be used as
internal relay M or alarm point.
Equipment indication: S0, S1,…S1023. The symbol
of equipment is S and the number uses decimal.
Counter Counter is used to count. It needs to set counter
before using counter (i.e. the pulse of counter).
There are coil, contacts and storage unit of counter
in counter. When coil is form OFF to ON, that means
input a pulse in counter and the counter should add
1. There are 16-bit, 32-bit and high-speed counter for
user to use.
Equipment indication: C0, C1,…,C255. The symbol
of equipment is C and the number uses decimal.
Data PLC needs to handle data and operation when
controlling each order, timer value and counter value.
register
The data register is used to store data or
parameters. It stores 16-bit binary number, i.e. a
word, in each register. It uses two continuous
number of data register to store double words
Equipment indication: D0, D1,…,D9,999. The
symbol of equipment is D and the number uses
decimal..
File The file register can be used to store data or
parameter when the register that PLC needs is not
register
enough during handling data and parameter. It can
store 16-bit binary number, i.e. a word, in each file
register. It uses two continuous number of file
register to handle double word. There are 1600 file
registers for SA/SX/SC series and 10000 file
registers for EH series. There is not the real
equipment number for file register, thus it needs to
execute READ/WRITE of file Register via commands
API148 MEMR, API149 MEMW or the peripheral
equipment HPP and WPLSoft.
Equipment indication: K0~K9,999. There is no
equipment symbol and uses decimal number for
number.
Index Index register E and F are 16-bit data register just
the same as general data register. It can be wrote
register
and read freely and has the function of index
indication to use for character device, bit device and
constants.
Equipment indication: E0~E7, F0~F7. The symbols
of equipment are E, F and the number uses decimal.
3.1.5 PLC SCAN

Fig7. PLC SCAN CYCLE


3.1.5.1 READING INPUT – Reads input and updates process input. The input
can be either in analog or digital form

3.1.5.2. EXECUTE PROGRAM – executes user program once. The program is in


the form of ladder logic diagram

3.1.5.3. CHECKS COMMUNICATION – Takes care of the system processes


(such as communication with other PLC’s)

3.1.5.4. UPDATES OUTPUT – The PLC updates the output according to the
execution of the program

3.1.6 THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF LADDER DIAGRAM

Ladder diagram is an automatic control diagram language that developed


during World War II. At first, it just has basic components, such as A contact
(normally open), B contact (normally close), output coil, timer, counter and etc.
(The power panel is made up of these basic components) It has more functions,
differential contact, latched coil and the application commands, add, minus,
multiply and divide calculation, that traditional power panel can’t make since PLC
is developed. The working principles of the traditional Ladder Diagram and the
PLC Ladder Diagram are similar to each other; the only difference is that the
symbols for the traditional ladder diagram are expressed in the format that are
close to its original substance, while those for the PLC ladder diagram employ
the symbols that are more explicit when being used in computers or data sheets.
In the Ladder Diagram Logics, it could be divided into the Combination Logics
and the Sequential Logics, and is described as follows:
3.1.6.1. Combination Logics:

The following example is the combination logics that show in traditional diagram
and PLC ladder diagram separately.

Fig8.Traditional ladder diagram

Fig9.PLC ladder diagram

3.1.6.2. Sequential logics:

The sequential logics are a type of circuit that possesses the “Draw-Back”
structure, which is to draw back the circuit’s output result and has it serve as the
input condition. Thus, under the same input condition, different output results will
be generated in accordance with previous conditions and motions with different
orders.
The following example is the sequential logics that show in traditional diagram
and PLC ladder diagram separately

Table 1:BASIC INSTRUCTIONS OF DELTA PLC


.
Traditional Ladder Diagram

PIC MICRO CONTROLLER