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FREQUENCY REUSE

Cellular Concepts
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Frequency Reuse (I)
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Frequency Reuse (II)
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Frequency Reuse

How many cells must intervene between


two cells using the same frequency?
D: Minimum distance between centers of cells that use the same
band (co-channels)
R: Radius of a cell
d: distance between adjacent cells (d=√3 Ρ)

Ν: Νυµβερ οφ χελλσ ιν α ρεπετιτιουσ παττερν (ρευσε φαχτορ)

∆/Ρ = (3Ν)

ορ ∆/δ = Ν
Frequency Reuse is the core concept of
cellular mobile radio
Users in different geographical areas (in
different cells) may simultaneously use
the same frequency
Frequency reuse drastically increases user
capacity and spectrum efficiency
Frequence reuse causes mutual
interference (trade off link quality versus
subscriber capacity)
Channel Reuse

The total number of channels are divided


into K groups.
K is called reuse factor or cluster size.
Each cell is assigned one of the groups.
The same group can be reused by two
different cells provided that they are
sufficiently far apart.
Example:
K=7

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Frequency Reuse

F7 F2

F7 F2 F6 F1
F1 F3

F6 F1
F1 F3 F5 F4 F7 F2

F5 F4 F7 F2 F6 F1
F1 F3

F6 F1
F1 F3 F5 F4
Re
us
ed
ist F5 F4
a nc
e Fx: Set of frequency
D

7 cell reuse cluster

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Reuse Distance

R Cluster
•For hexagonal cells, the reuse distance is
given by
F7 F2
D = 3N R
F6 F1
F1 F3
where R is cell radius and N is the
reuse pattern (the cluster size or the
F5 F4 F7 F2 number of cells per cluster).
• Reuse factor is
F6 F1
F1 F3
Re
u se D
di
sta F5 F4 q = = 3N
nc
e D
R

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Reuse Distance (Cont’d)

§ The cluster size or the number of cells per cluster is given by


j
N = i + ij + j
2 2

where i and j are integers. 60o

§ N = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21, 28, …, etc.


The popular value of N being 4 and 7.

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Reuse Distance (Cont’d)

j=1

j=1 i=2
i=2 j=1
j direction
i=2
60° i=2
i direction j=1
j=1
1 2 3… i i=2 i=2
j=1
(a) Finding the center of an adjacent cluster (b) Formation of a cluster for N = 7
using integers i and j (direction of i and j can with i=2 and j=1
be interchanged).

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Frequency Reuse (III)

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Co-Channel Cells
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Finding the Nearest Co-Channel

(1) Move i cells along any chain of


hexagons

(2) Turn 600 counter-clockwise and move


j cells, to reach the next cell using same
frequency sets
v this distance D is required for a given
frequency reuse to provide enough reduced
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Co-Channel Cells

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Cellular Frequency
Reuse Concept
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Coordinate System
Use (i,j) to denote a
particular cell.

A Example:
Cell A is represented
by (2,1).

Prof. Sridhar Iyer Session: 2 21


Distance Formula
D = 3(i + ij + j ) R
2 2

= 3K R
where
R

K = i + ij + j
2 2
D

Reuse factor

Note: i and j are integers

Prof. Sridhar Iyer Session: 2 22


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Cluster Size and i, j
Relations between
Relations between
Cluster Size and i, j
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L*j
L*i In this case: j=2, i=1

r
D

L = 3r
D 2 = ( L ⋅ i ) 2 + ( L ⋅ j ) 2 − 2( L ⋅ i )( L ⋅ j ) cos(2π / 3)
D 2 = L2 ⋅ i 2 + L2 ⋅ j 2 − 2 L2 ⋅ i ⋅ j ⋅ (−0.5)
D 2 = L2 (i 2 + j 2 + ij ) Compute D based on
“law of cosine”
D / r = 3(i 2 + j 2 + ij ) = 3 N
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How frequency Reuse
Increases Capacity
● Example:

● A GSM communication system uses a


frequency reuse factor of 1/7 and 416
channels available. If 21 channels are
allocated as control channels, compute its
system capacity. Assume a channel supports
20 users

● Channels available for allocation = 416 - 21 =


Cell Planning Example
n Suppose you have 33 MHz bandwidth
available, an FM system using 25 kHz
channels, how many channels per cell for
4,7,12 cell re-use?
n total channels = 33,000/25 = 1320
n N=4 channels per cell = 1320/4 = 330
n N=7 channels per cell = 1320/7 = 188
n N=12 channels per cell = 1320/12 = 110
n Smaller clusters can carry more traffic
n However, smaller clusters result in larger
co-channel interference
Practical deployment issues

Location to setup antenna


Antenna towers are expensive
Local people do not like BSs
● Antenna/BS does not look like antenna/BS
Antenna
Omni-directional
Directional antenna

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Remarks on Reuse Ratio

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Cochannel Interference
First tier cochannel
Second tier cochannel Base Station
Base Station

R
D6
D5
D1

D4 Mobile Station
D2

D3

Serving Base Station

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Cochannel Interference

§ Cochannel interference ratio is given by

C Carrier C
= = M
I Interference
∑ Ik k =1

where I is co-channel interference and M is the maximum


number of co-channel interfering cells.
For M = 6, C/I is given by

C C where  is the propagation path loss slope


= −γ and  = 2~5.
I M
 Dk 
∑ 
k =1  R 

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Worst Case of Cochannel Interference

D6
R
D5
D1
Mobile Station
D4 D2

D3

Serving Base Station Co-channel Base Station

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