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Q1. What is feasibility study? Explain in detail.

Answer:

A feasibility study is the analysis of a problem to determine if it can be solved effectively or we can say its an
analysis and evaluation of a proposed project.It takes into account:

 operational (will it work?),


 economical (costs and benefits)
 technical (can it be built?)

Results of the study determine whether the solution should be implemented.

1:Operational and Behavioural feasibility:

This is the study of how well the solution of problems or aspecific solution will work in a system,organisation
and also how people feel about the solution.This tells whether the system be used if it is incremented / or will
there be resistance from users.This is necessary because equipments do not cry but people cry..

2:Economic Feasibilty:

(i) Identify the alternatives.


(ii) determine costs and expected savings of each of the alternates.

Costs:
(a) One time cost
(b) Recurring Cost.

One time cost may include :

(I) Feasibilty study cost


(II) Cost for converting from present to a new system
(III) Construction of complete room/ facilty.
(IV) Cost involved in software packages.

Recurring cost may include:

(I) Rental or purchase of equipments..


(II) Salaries of Perrsonels.
(III) Supplies.
(IV) Equipment Maintenance
(V) Return on Investment analysis.

ROI=(Net Earnings/Total Investment)

Economic feasibility is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the candidate
system that is proposed system, more commonly used as cost/benefit analysis. The procedure is to
determine the benefit and savings that are expected from the candidate system and compare them with the
coast, if the benefit over weight cost then the decision is made to design and implement the system, other
wise further justification in the proposed system will have it be made, if it has chance to improve. Cost
estimate for a system we consider several elements.
Hardware, Personnel, Facility, Operation, Total cost etc.

3: Technical Feasibility:

In the technical feasibility the system analyst look between the requirements of the organization, such as
-suggest input device which can enter a large amount of data in the effective time.
-Output devices which can produce output in a bulk in an effective time.

A feasibility study’s main goal is to assess the economic viability of the proposed business. The feasibility
study needs to answer the question: “Does the idea make economic sense?” The study should provide a
thorough analysis of the business opportunity, including a look at all the possible roadblocks that may stand
in the way of the cooperative’s success. The outcome of the feasibility study will indicate whether or not to
proceed with the proposed venture. If the results of the feasibility study are positive, then the cooperative
can proceed to develop a business plan.

Q2. Explain Spiral Model…

Answer:

The paradigm that combines the benefits of classical waterfall model as well as prototyping is
called the spiral model in software engineering that spiral model addresses the issues of risk
analysis. This is a distinct feature of the waterfall model
The waterfall model and prototype model doesn’t completely address the issues of risk
analysis. The Spiral model envisages the system to evolve in several iterations.
Activities of each of the system go through the stages..

(i) Planning
(ii) Risk analasys
(iii) Engineering
(iv) Customer Evaluation

In the very beginning the user requierements are identified and the planning of the project is
undertaken. During this stage objective is determined ,alternatives are evealuated. The
limitation and constraints are addressed at this stage.Based on the initial requirement and
assessment of the risk involved , the project is then carried out. Based on the results of risk
analysis a decision is made whether to a proper consideration is given to the risk.
When the decision is to go ahead, the project passes to the next stage where in the
engineering activities are undertaken. For the engineering activities there is a choice of model
selection. Spiral model allows the engineering activities to be carried out either by waterfall
model or by prototyping model.The model Selection is based on initial requirement
identification as well as on risk analysis. The engineering software then is offered for user
evaluation.
The user evaluates the system and provides suggestion for modification and improvement. This
marks the end of the software system which is produced at the time of first iteration.The spiral
model envisages that the systm will enter the second iteration. The second iteration
commences with refined requirement, identification and the planning of the projects. This is
followed by the risk analysis and go-no-go decision for the second time. Based on this decision
the engineering activities are undertaken and the system is offered a user evaluation. At the
end of second iteration an improved version of software emerges.At the end of the second
iteration software enters the third iteration.In consecutive iteration the activities of planning,
risk analysis , engineering and user evaluation are carried out in the same order.In the spiral
model the project passes through the four phases a number of times before the project is
passed.
The Spiral model has distinct advantages in the system that are complex. The resultant
software has better user accptability. The possibility of system failure is relatively less.
The spiral model is best suited in case of very large system involving massive effort.
Q3. Which model is called Meta model and why?

Answer:

Spiral Model is called meta model. Spiral model is called Meta model because it is composed of several other
models.For example a single loop spiral actually represent the Waterfall Model.The spiral model uses prototyping
approach before embarking on the actual product development effort.Also the spiral model can be considered as
supporting the evolutionary model-the iterations along the spiral can be considered as evolutionary levels through
which the complete system is built.This enables the developer to understand and resolve the risks at each
evolutionary level.The spiral model uses prototyping as a risk reduction mechanism and also retain the systematic
step approach of waterfall model.

Q4. Describe Protype Model.

Answer:

Prototype Model

In scenario where there is an absence of detailed information regarding the input to the system, the
processing needs and the output requirements, the prototyping model may be employed. This model allows
the client to interact and experiment with a working representation of the product. The developmental
process only continues once the client is satisfied with the functioning of the prototype. At that stage the
developer determines the specifications of the client’s real needs.

Advantages:
1. The software designer and implementer can obtain feedback from the users early in the project
2. The client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches the software
specification,according to which the software program is built.
3. It also allows the software engineer some insight into the accuracy of
initial project estimates and whether the deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met.

Prototyping is very effective in the analysis and design of on-line systems.


1. Systems with little user interaction, such as batch processing or systems that mostly do calculations,
benefit little from prototyping. Sometimes, the coding needed to perform the system functions may be too
intensive and the potential gains that prototyping could provide are too small.
2. Prototyping is especially good for designing good human-computer interfaces. “One of the most productive
uses of rapid prototyping to date has been as a tool for iterative user requirements engineering and human-
computer interface design.”