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CONTENTS

NOMENCLATURE

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES
Page No

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Deregulation 1
1.2 Independent System Operator (ISO)
1.3 Open Access Same time Information System (OASIS) 3
1.4 Transmission Use of System Tariffs (TUSTs) 4
1.5 power wheeling costs 6
1.6 Literature Review 7
1.7 Contributions 8
1.8 Outlines of the Thesis 9

CHAPTER 2: TRANSMISSION NETWORK COST ALLOCATION


USING ZBUS TECHNIQUE 10

2.1 Problem Statement 10


2.2 Background 10
2.3 Transmission Cost Allocation 13
2.4 Algorithm for Transmission Network Cost Allocation Using
Zbus Technique 15
2.5 Case study – 4 bus system 18
2.5 Step by step results 19
2.6 Conclusions 22

CHAPTER 3: TRANSMISSION NETWORK COST ALLOCATION


USING avgbus Z TECHNIQUE 23
3.1 Problem Statement 23
3.2 Background 23
3.3 Transmission Cost Allocation 26
3.4 Effect of Flow Directions 28

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3.5 Algorithm for Transmission Network Cost Allocation Using
Avgbus Z Technique 29
3.6 Case study – 4 bus system 34
3.6. 5.1 step by step results 35
3.7 Conclusions 42

CHAPTER 4: A NEW APPROACH FOR TRANSMISSION


NETWORK COST ALLOCATION USING
MODIFIED avgbus Z TECHNIQUE 42

4.1 Problem Statement 43


4.2 Background 43
4.3 Transmission Cost Allocation 45
4.4 Algorithm for Transmission network cost allocation Using
Modified avgbus Z technique (newly proposing technique) 47
4.5 Case Study - 4 - Bus System 52
4.5.1 Step By Step Results – 4 bus system 53
4.6 Conclusions 59

CHAPTER 5: RESULTS-IEEE RTS 24 BUS SYSTEM AND


CONCLUSIONS 60

5.1 Zbus technique Results 60


5.2 avgbus Z technique results 67
5.3 Modified avgbus Z technique results 74
5.4 comparison of Zbus based techniques 81
5.5 conclusions 83

APPENDIX 84

A.1 4-Bus System Data 84


A.2 IEEE 24- Bus Reliability Test System 85

REFERENCES 88

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NOMENCLATURE

jk C -Cost of line jk ($/h)


Ii -Nodal current (A)
Ijk - Current through the line jk (A)
n -Number of buses
PGi - Active power consumed by the generator located at bus i (W)
PDi - Active power consumed by the load located at bus i (W)
Pike - Active power flow through line jk (W)
Sjk - Complex power flow through line jk calculated at bus j (VA)
Vj - Nodal voltage at bus j (V)
yjk - Series admittance of the � -equivalent circuit of line jk (S)
sh
y
jk - Shunt admittance of the � - equivalent circuit of line jk (S)
Zbus - Impedance matrix (ohm)
Zij - Element ij of the impedance matrix (ohm)
i
a
jk - Electrical distance between bus i and line jk (adimensional)
CDi - Total transmission cost allocated to the load located at bus i ($/h)
CGi - Total transmission cost allocated to the generator located at bus i ($/h)
Di
jk C - Transmission cost allocated to the generator located at bus i ($/h)
Gi
jk C - Transmission cost allocated to the generator located at bus i ($/h)
i
jkP - Active power flow through the line jk associated with the nodal current i(W)
rjk - Cost rate for line jk ($/W & h)
Gi
jk U - Usage of line jk allocated to the generator located at bus (W).
Di
jk U - Usage of line jk allocated to the generator located at bus (W).
i
U
jk - Usage of line associated with nodal current (W).
Ujk - Usage of line jk (W).

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LIST OF TABLE Page No

Table 2.1 Converged Voltages of Zebus technique 19


Table 2.2 Bus Currents of Zebus technique 19
Table 2.3 Power flow Contributions P(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 19
Table 2.4 Power flow Usage Contributions U(k,i)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 20
Table 2.5 Powerflow Usage of Line usage(k)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 20
Table 2.6 Powerflow Contributions Ug(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 20
Table 2.7 Powerflow Contributions Ud(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 20
Table 2.8 Generator Cost Contributions cg(k,i)in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 21
Table 2.9 Load Cost Contributions cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 direction of Zbus technique 21
Table 2.10 total generation and load costs and Total cost for all the buses in Pjk>0
direction of Zbus technique 21
Table 3.1 Converged Voltages of avgbus Z technique 35
Table 3.2 Bus Currents of avgbus Z technique 35
Table 3.3 Powerflow Contributions P(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 35
Table 3.4 Powerflow Usage Contributions U(k,i)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 36
Table 3.5 Powerflow Usage of Line usage(k)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 36
Table 3.6 Powerflow Contributions Ug(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 36
Table 3.7 Powerflow Contributions Ud(i,k)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 36
Table 3.8 Generator Cost Contributions cg(k,i)in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 37
Table 3.9 Load Cost Contributions cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 direction of avgbus Z technique 37
Table3.10 Total generation and load costs and Total cost for all the buses in Pjk>0
direction of avgbus Z technique 37
Table3.11 Powerflow Contributions P1(k,i)in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 38
Table3.12 Powerflow Usage Contributions U1(k,i)in Pjk<0direction of avgbus Z technique 38
Table3.13 Powerflow Usage Of Line usage1(k)in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 38
Table3.14 Powerflow Contributions Ug1(i,k)in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 38
Table3.15 Powerflow Contributions Ud1(i,k) in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 39
Table3.16 Generator Cost Contributions cg1(k,i) in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 39
Table3.17 Load Cost Contributions cd1(k,i) in Pjk<0 direction of avgbus Z technique 39
Table3.18 Total generation and load costs and Total cost1 for all the buses in Pjk<0
direction of avgbus Z technique 39
Table3.19 Average Generator Cost Contributions cgavg(k,i) of avgbus Z technique 40
Table3.20 Average Load Cost Contributions cdavg(k,i) of avgbus Z technique 40
Table3.21 Total average generation and load costs and Total avgcost for all the buses of
avgbus Z technique 40
Table 4.1 Converged voltages of modified avgbus Z technique 54
Table 4.2 Bus Currents of modified avgbus Z technique 54
Table 4.3 Power flow Contributions S1(i,k) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 54
Table 4.4 Power flow Contributions S2(i,k) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z

IV
technique 54
Table 4.5 Power flow Contributions S3(i,k) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 55

Table 4.6 Power flow Contributions S4(ilk) In Pike>0 Direction of modified angus Z
technique 55
Table 4.7 Power flow Contributions Ug(i,k) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 55
Table 4.8 Power flow Contributions Ud(i,k) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 55
Table 4.9 Generator Cost Contributions cg(k,i) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 56
Table 4.10 Load Cost Contributions cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 56
Table 4.11 Total generation and load costs and Total cost for all the buses of modified
avgbus Z technique 56
Table 4.12 Power flow Contributions S11(k,i) in Pike<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 57
Table 4.13 Power flow Contributions S21(i,k) in Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 57
Table 4.14 Power flow Contributions S31(i,k) in Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 57
Table 4.15 Power flow Contributions S41(i,k) in Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 58
Table 4.16 Power flow Contributions Ug1(i,k)IN Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 58
Table 4.17 Power flow Contributions Ud1(i,k)IN Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 58
Table 4.18 Generator Cost Contributions cg1(k,i) in Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 58
Table 4.19 Load Cost Contributions cd1(k,i) in Pjk<0 direction of modified avgbus Z
technique 58
Table 4.20 Total generation and load costs and Total cost for all the busesin Pjk <0
direction of modified avgbus Z technique 59
Table 4.21 Average Generator Cost Contributions cgavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z
technique 59
Table 4.22 Average Load Cost Contributions cdavg(k,i) of modifiedavgbus Z technique 59
Table 4.23 Total average generation and load costs and Total avgcost for all the buses
Of modified avgbus Z technique 59
Table 5.1 Generator Cost Contributions Cg(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 61
Table 5.2 Generator Cost Contributions Cg(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 62
Table 5.3 Load Cost Contributions Cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 63
Table 5.4 Load Cost Contributions Cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 64
Table 5.5 Load Cost Contributions Cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 65
Table 5.6 Load Cost Contributions Cd(k,i) in Pjk>0 Direction of Zbus technique 66
Table 5.7 Cost For Individual Generators/Loads And Total Cost in Pjk>0 Direction of

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Zbus technique 67
Table 5.8 Average Generator Cost Contributions Cgavg(k,i) of avgbus Z technique 68
Table 5.9 Average Generator Cost Contributions Cgavg(k,i ) of avgbus Z technique 69

Table 5.10 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg (k,i) of avgbus Z technique 70
Table 5.11 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg (k, i) of avgbus Z technique 71
Table 5.12 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg (k,i) of avgbus Z technique 72
Table 5.13 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg(k,i) of avgbus Z technique 73
Table 5.14 Average Cost For Individual Generators/Loads and Total Avg Cost of avgbus Z
technique 74
Table 5.15 Average Generator Cost Contributions cgavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z
technique 75
Table 5.16 Average Generator Cost Contributions cgavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z
technique 76
Table 5.17 Average Load Cost Contributions cdavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z technique 77
Table 5.18 Average Load Cost Contributions cdavg(k,i) of modifiedavgbus Z technique 78
Table 5.19 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z technique 79
Table 5.20 Average Load Cost Contributions Cdavg(k,i) of modified avgbus Z technique 80
Table 5.21 Average Cost For Individual Generators/Loads and total average cost of
modified avgbus Z technique 81

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