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Alternative ealing, ic is ecoming increasingly main stream in te society, involves
te mind, ody and soul. Altoug tere are some arallels, alternative ealing in ndonesian
and out African cultures are vastly different, it asects tat ould strike even te most
oen-minded modern eole as unusual.
n ndonesia, te common term for ractitioners of traditional ealing, magic and
sorcery is i  .    ave alays layed a major role in ndonesian society as ealers,
sorcerers, riests, mystics and sages. ince te late c s tis imortant asect of ndonesian
culture as largely een ignored in
estern literature. oever, te c murders of some
susected i   , or sorcerers, in ast ava rougt tem ack into focus.    are
triving in tis current eriod of uncertainty. e climate of instaility folloing te fall of
uarto in c as seen an increase in demand for i   services. efore c , eing a i  
as a art-time occuation. o many ork full-time and eing a i   as ecome more
estalised as a rofession.
n out Africa, a 
 is a ractitioner of eral medicine, divination and
counselling in traditional guni ulu, osa, deele and azi) societies of out Africa
effectively an African saman). e ilosoy is ased on a elief in ancestral sirits. ot
men and omen can e called y te ancestors a consequence of refusing te calling is usually
ongoing ysical or mental illness) toug 
 are usually female. istorically te

 role as een te reserve of te lack, indigenous eoles of Africa, ut ost-
Aarteid ite out Africans ave also entered te rofession - on ockley is reutedly one
of te first ite men in recent istory to ecome a fully initiated osa 
. A trainee

 or taza) trains under anoter 
, usually for a eriod of years, usually
erforming umling service in te community. At times in te training, and for te graduation,

c
a ritual sacrifice of an animal is erformed usually a cicken, a goat or a co). e silling of
tis lood is meant to seal te ond eteen te ancestors and te 
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ictures:    in ndonesia
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   are te gatekeeers to te suernatural orld. n modern ndonesia eole
continue to seek refuge, el and ealing in te realm of sirits and mysticism en teir
rational orld is saken. t is te i   tat many avanese, in articular, turn to en
rolems arise.
n te ast i   used ot ite and lack magic. o tey claim to only use ite
magic and differentiate temselves from ractitioners of lack magic called i   .
eliefs aout lack magic and sorcery run dee. ven some
estern trained doctors in ast
ava elieve tat modern medicine is oerless to cure victims of sorcery. f a doctor cannot
cure a articular illness, or anoter illness arises in lace of te original one, te diagnosis is
usually sorcery. n suc cases te atient consults a i   to eliminate te sell and ease te
symtoms.
loated stomacs, aralysis of te legs, fevers, confusion and disorientation are
symtoms often attriuted to lack magic. ases of foreign ojects, suc as nails and glass,
revealed troug -rays or sucked out of te insides of victims y a i  ,are also common.
e avanese elieve te only ay to comat te effects of sorcery is to seek te el of a


i  , o can determine te source and initiator of te sorcery. e i  en removes te
sells and rovides an amulet, suc as a small ceremonial knife called a  , to ard off
furter lack magic.

ere are many oter strange and amazing accounts of te ealing and magic of
avanese i  . ese include tales of i  ealing roken ones and oen ounds itin a
matter of days, restoring a atient͛s aility to alk after years of aralysis, and sells tat
successfully ring ack stolen goods or missing loved ones.
   lay a variety of roles, from midives and masseurs to mediums and alternative
ealers. And ile an individual i   may ossess many different skills and ave knoledge
of various metods of treatment, tey usually secialise in one secific area.
ecialist i   include i     , o secialise in curing or enancing teir client͛s
oer of attraction y inserting golden needles under te skin; i    , o emloy
te advice of sirits to el or eal teir clients; i   , o use massage to aly teir
ealing oers; i     o cure it traditional remedies; and i   , o cure y
licking or sucking te rolem area of te ody.
e metods of treatment used vary from i   to i  , deending on teir
ideological and religious convictions. oever, te general rinciles of treatment, ic are
ased on avanese mysticism or  , ave remained largely te same for centuries.
A common treatment is to cant a rayer or sell over a glass of ater tat is ten given
to te client to drink. ometimes a  a mystical scrit) is ritten on aer and urnt over
te glass of ater or salt is added.    also often make u or rescrie traditional remedies
of ers and oter organic ingredients for teir atient to ingest or use as an ointment.   
use a variety of tools to diagnose teir atients including avanese numerology, mystical cards
and incense and ell as teir on siritual oer.
ne articular i     visited treats eole it stomac rolems y ruing is
faeces on te stomac of female atients and is urine or semen on te stomacs of male
atients. e licks te foreead of atients o are suffering from disorientation or confusion
and rites a  on a leaf of te etel vine, cruses it ten rus it on te eyes of atients it

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eye comlaints. e claims is self-taugt curing tecniques are usually successful, altoug it
could e argued tat tese unusual tecniques discourage reeat consultations.

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   are indistinguisale from everyday eole. ome are reverent teacers of slam,
some are comical, and some are gentle arental figures. All are strong caracters and insire
resect in teir on ays.    elieve tat teir siritual oers are a gift from od. f tose
oers are aused troug ersonal gain or netical intent, tey ill e lost or eakened.
A erson͛s aility to ecome a i   is generally assed don from teir i  
ancestors. oever, some form of rearation, at least initially, is necessary for i   to
receive teir siritual oer. is usually consists of long eriods of meditation and fasting for
days or even monts. nce te i   as received tis siritual oer, e or se needs to
learn te skills and knoledge of i   ractice. ome i   learn tese skills from anoter
i   or from ooks on   tat are readily availale in ooksos. ters say teir skills
ere taugt to tem y sirits om tey continue to consult for advice on te diagnosis and
treatment of teir clients.
As te i   ractice is ased on altruism, ayment for teir services is minimal. t is
only a token of tanks, discreetly given to te i   in a andsake at te end of te
consultation. ayment can e in te form of money, toacco, or consumales used during te
consultation suc as floers, ers and incense. t usually is eteen te value of A$ and A$.
As suc, i   live modestly and are neiter ric nor oor ut ave enoug it ic to
survive. A ell-off i   is often susected of fakery.
e i   of ava ave te ondrous aility to el eole in all areas of teir lives
including te mind, ody and soul troug ancient ractices. is intriguing and imortant
asect of avanese culture rovides oe, solace, ealing and a sense of meaning for eole in
tese uncertain and irrational times. t is no onder te i   trade is flourising.

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icture: ive V
 in ululand
V
 are te traditional ealers in te ulu, azi, osa and deele traditions in
out Africa. ey erform a olistic and symolic form of ealing, emedded in te eliefs of
teir culture tat ancestors in te afterlife guide and rotect te living. V
 are called to
eal, and troug tem ancestors from te sirit orld can give instruction and advice to eal
illness, social disarmony and siritual difficulties.
V
 ave many different social and olitical roles in te community: divination,
ealing, directing rituals, finding lost cattle, rotecting arriors, counteracting itces, and
narrating te istory, cosmology, and myts of teir tradition. ey are igly revered and
resected in teir society, ere illness is tougt to e caused y itccraft, ollution
contact it imure ojects or occurrences) or y te ancestors temselves, eiter
malevolently, or troug neglect if tey are not resected, or to so an individual er calling
to e a V
. or armony eteen te living and te dead, vital for a troule-free life, te
ancestors must e son resect troug ritual and animal sacrifice.


icture: V
͛ reeting
A V
 is called to eal y an initiation illness, often sycosis, eadace,
intractale stomac ain, soulder or neck comlaints. e ill undergo , a eriod of
training including learning umility to te ancestors, urification troug steaming, asing in
te lood of sacrificed animals, and te use of uti, medicines it siritual significance. At te
end of asa, a goat is sacrificed to call to te ancestors and aease tem.
V
 are steeed in ritual. ey ork in a sacred ealing ut or i , ere
teir ancestors reside. ey ave secific coloured clots to ear to lease eac ancestor, and
often ear te gallladder of te goat sacrificed at teir graduation ceremony in teir air.
ey summon te ancestors y urning a lant called meo, dancing, canting, and most
imortantly laying drums.
V
 are ale to access advice and guidance from te ancestors for teir atients
in tree ays: ossession y an ancestor, or canneling; troing ones; and interreting
dreams. n ossession states te V
 orks erself into a trance, troug drumming,
dancing and canting, and allos er ego to ste aside so an ancestor ossesses er ody and
communicates directly it te atient, roviding secific information aout is rolems. t
can e very dramatic, it te V
 seaking in tongues, or foreign languages according to
te secific ancestor, or dancing fervently eyond er normal aility.
Accessing te ancestors' advice troug te ones is an alternative to te eausting
ossession states. e V
 ossesses a collection of small ones and oter small ojects
like seeds, sells etc., eac it a secific significance to uman life. or eamle a yena one

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signifies a tief and ill rovide information aout stolen ojects. e V
 or te atient
tros te ones ut te ancestors control o tey lie, and te V
 ten interrets tis
metaor in relation to te atient's life. n te same ay, V
 ill interret te
metaors resent in dreams, eiter teir on or atients'.
V
 ill give teir atients uti, medications of lant and animal origin imued
it siritual significance, often it oerful symolism - lion fat is given to romote courage.
ere are medicines for everyting from ysical and mental illness, social disarmony and
siritual difficulties to otions for love and luck. uti can e drunk, smoked, inaled, used for
asing, smeared on te ody, given as enemas, or rued into an incision.

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ot i   and 
 can e categorized as ealers, ut tere are many oter roles
of i   and 
 in teir society. ostly, 
 are omen, ut tere is no gender
secification of i   in ndonesia. eir orks are ased on suernatural tings, and tey use
etraordinary stuffs as te medicines. ot of i   and 
 got teir ailities from teir
ancestors.