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# OBJECTIVE:

## 3. To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient

4. To understand the factor and the parameter affecting the rates of the

heat transfer

5. Study the effect of temperature and feed flow rate on the pattern of

## outlet water temperature changes.

THEORY:

A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one

## medium to another. The medium may be separated by a solid wall, so that

they never mix, or they may be in direct contact.They are widely used in

## processing. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a

car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water,

transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer

medium).

## Heat exchangers may be classified according to their flow arrangement. In

parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the

same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. In

## counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from

opposite ends. The counter current design is most efficient, in that it can

transfer the most heat from the heat (transfer) medium. See

## roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

For efficiency, heat exchangers are designed to maximize the surface area

of the wall between the two fluids, while minimizing resistance to fluid flow

## by the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions, which

increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence.

The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface varies with

## simple systems this is the log mean temperature difference (LMTD).

Sometimes direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the NTU

method is used.

A=COUNTERCURRENT

FLOW

B=PARALLEL FLOW

## Regenerative heat exchanger

Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger

## A plate heat exchanger is a type of heat exchanger that uses

metal plates to transfer heat between two fluids. This has a major

## exposed to a much larger surface area because the fluids spread

out over the plates. This facilitates the transfer of heat, and greatly

## increases the speed of the temperature change. Plate heat

exchangers are now common and very small brazed versions are

## used in the hot-water sections of millions of combination boilers. The

high heat transfer efficiency for such a small physical size has

## increased the domestic hot water (DHW) flowrate of combination

boilers. The small plate heat exchanger has made a great impact in

## of a coiled pipe containing one fluid that passes through a chamber

containing another fluid. The walls of the pipe are usually made of

trades.

## Schematic conceptual diagram of a plate and frame heat exchanger.

An individual plate for a heat exchanger

## transferring heat between medium- and low-pressure liquids. Welded,

semi-welded and brazed heat exchangers are used for heat exchange

## two alternating chambers, usually thin in depth, separated at their largest

surface by a corrugated metal plate. The plates used in a plate and frame

## heat exchanger are obtained by one piece pressing of metal plates.

Stainless steel is a commonly used metal for the plates because of its

## ability to withstand high temperatures, its strength, and its corrosion

resistance. The plates are often spaced by rubber sealing gaskets which

are cemented into a section around the edge of the plates. The plates are

pressed to form troughs at right angles to the direction of flow of the liquid

which runs through the channels in the heat exchanger. These troughs are

arranged so that they interlink with the other plates which forms the

## channel with gaps of 1.3–1.5 mm between the plates.

The plates produce an extremely large surface area, which allows for the

fastest possible transfer. Making each chamber thin ensures that the

majority of the volume of the liquid contacts the plate, again aiding

exchange. The troughs also create and maintain a turbulent flow in the

## liquid to maximize heat transfer in the exchanger. A high degree of

turbulence can be obtained at low flow rates and high heat transfer

## A plate heat exchanger consists of a series of thin, corrugated plates

which are mentioned above. These plates are gasketed, welded or brazed

## and tube heat exchangers require an approach of 5 °C or more. For the

same amount of heat exchanged, the size of the plate heat exchanger is

smaller, because of the large heat transfer area afforded by the plates

(the large area through which heat can travel). Expansion and reduction of

## Evaluating plate heat exchangers

All plate heat exchangers look similar on the outside. The difference lies

on the inside, in the details of the plate design and the sealing

## technologies used. Hence, when evaluating a plate heat exchanger, it is

very important not only to explore the details of the product being

## An important aspect to take into account when evaluating a heat

exchanger are the forms of corrugation within the heat exchanger. There

corrugations.

Advantages

## • Compactness- The units in a plate heat exchanger occupy less floor

space and floor loading by having a large surface area that is formed

## • Low Fabrication Costs- Welded plates are relatively more expensive

than pressed plates. Plate heat exchangers are made from pressed
plates, which allow greater resistance to corrosion and chemical

reactions. [1]

## plates are also easily replaceable as they can be removed and

replaced individually.

## flow passage. [1]

Disadvantages

• The main weakness of the plate and frame heat exchanger is the

necessity for the long gaskets which holds the plates together.

## exchangers have been successfully run at high temperatures and

pressures.

• There is a potential for leakage. The leaks that occur are sent to the

## • The pressure drop that occurs through a plate heat exchanger is

relatively high and the running costs and capital of the pumping

## system should be considered. [1]

• When loss of containment or loss of pressure occurs, it can take a

## particles found in central heating systems.

Plate heat exchangers are used extensively in the food and beverage

industries due to the fact that they are easily taken out for cleansing and

inspection. Their used in other industries will depend on the relative cost as

compared to the types of heat exchanger such as the shell and tube heat

exchangers.

= UA Tm

=
=

Q= m Cp ∆T

## Af = cross-sectional area for flow = W/ Af

Up = channel velocity

## Cp= fluid specific heat, heat capacity

The flow arrangement in a plate heat exchanger is much closer to the true

counter-current flow than in a shell and tube heat exchanger. Therefore, the

## factor Ft will be close to 1.

The plate pressure drop can be estimated using a form of the equation for

flow in conduit;

(Lp/de) (pU2p / 2)

## determination of the rate of heat transfer, the change in temperature

of the two fluids, and the pressure drop across the heat exchanger.

APPARATUS:

## 1) Plate heat exchanger

• Brand : Alfa Laval

• Model : M3-FGL

by level switch.

## • Circulation Pump : Centrifugal type, 20 LPM, dry-run protected

by level switch.
• Heating System : 11.5KW immersion type heater regulated by

temperature

## controller and level switch.

4) Instrumentations

## and cold water

streams.

• Measurement of flow rates for the hot water and cold water

circuits.

5) Control Panel

## • To mount all the necessary digital indicators, temperature

controller, selector

PROCEDURES:

## A) GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURE

Temperature controller:

The first line displays the temperature in the tank while the second

line displays the set value. The value was adjusted as follow:
1. The arrow key was pressed up and down continuously

## B) GENERAL START-UP PROCEDURE

1. A quick inspection was performed to ensure that the equipment was in a proper
working condition.

## 2. All the valves were sure to be closed at the initial.

3. Then the cold and hot water were filled in difference tank.

4. After that, the main power was switched on. Next, the heater of hot water tank
was switched on and the set point of temperature controller was adjusted to get
desired temperature value.

5. The temperature inside the hot water tank was allowed to achieve the set-
point.

## 6. The equipment was ready to be run.

C) EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

## 1. The general start – up procedure was performed as in section B

2. The valves V1, V3, V5 and V6 were opened before the pump 1

## was switched on.

3. Then, the valves V7, V9, V11 and V12 were opened followed by

## switched on the pump 2.

4. Any trapped air inside the differential pressure was bleeded off.
5. The valves V6 and V12 were adjusted to obtain the desires flow

## 9. All the results obtained were recorded in the table

10. After all the result was record, shut down the equipment.

## 2. Pump P1, P2 and main power will be switch off.

3. The liquid in the process lines will be drain off. The water inside the hot water
tank and cold water tank will be retained for next laboratory sessions.