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“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

BY:
SYEDA SIDRA QAMAR
(Reg. # 61101-9709019-6)
SOBIA MEHMOOD
(Reg. #
SIBGHA MALIK
(Reg. # 37405-2179412-0)
SUMERA IQBAL
(Reg. #
UZMA TARIQ
(Reg. # 34705-7695420-6)

FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY,


THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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“A PROJECT OF CROSS – CULTURAL COMMUNICATION”

This project has been submitted in the


partial fulfillment of requirement
of the degree of MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
MAY,2006

FATIMA JINNAH WOMEN UNIVERSITY,


THE MALL, RAWALPINDI, 2006.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are really thankful to Mr. Ahmad Noubi Mousa, Press Counsellor, Embassy of

Egypt, who proved to be a great help in making our project and providing all the relevant

information. We are also grateful to Miss Hend, who helped us in preparing our display

and also gave information about the Egyptian lifestyle. We took a lot of help from the

World Bank in getting our economic data and latest facts and figures.

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ABSTRACT

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S. No. Contents Page No.


1 ABSTRACT ………………………………………… 4

2 INTRODUCTION………………………………….... 6

3 CONCLUSION ……………………………………... 39

4 REFERENCES ……………………………………… 40

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Inter cultural or cross-cultural communication means the communication among different

cultures whose perceptions and backgrounds are different from each other’s. The

knowledge about inter cultural differences is very important for effective communication.

In an environment, which has a diversified work force, it is vital to consider these

differences so that there is no miscommunication or misunderstanding between people. In

this report we will focus on different aspects of Egypt with reference to inter cultural

communication. The areas of our focus will be the geography, history, social, political,

economic and cultural aspects of Egypt- the region of the Nile and the Pharaohs.

HISTORY OF EGYPT

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LIFE

Daily life in ancient Egypt revolved around the Nile and the fertile land along its banks.

The yearly flooding of the Nile enriched the soil and brought good harvests and wealth to

the land. The people of ancient Egypt built mud brick homes in villages and in the

country. The commoners lived in town houses usually two to three stories high. The first

story of the town home was usually reserved for businesses, while the second and third

floors provided the family living space. Many people slept on the roof during the summer

to keep cool. Sewage had to be disposed of by each household in pits, in the river, or in

the streets. Most all people had some furniture consisting mostly of a stool, small boxes

for jewelry and cosmetics, chests for clothing, pottery jars, and oil lamps. They grew

some of their own food and traded in the villages for the food and goods they could not

produce. Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands, farmers, craftsmen and scribes.

A small group of people were nobles. Together, these different groups of people made up

the population of ancient Egypt.

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COSMETICS

Cleansing rituals were very important to the Egyptians. Most people bathed daily in the

river or out of a water basin at home. The runoff water drained away through a pipe that

led to the garden. Instead of washing with soap, a cleansing cream was used. People

rubbed themselves daily with perfumed oil. Men, women and children of all ages and

classes wore makeup. Mirrors of highly polished silver or copper were

used. Eye paint was made from green malachite, and galena -- a gray

lead ore. They were ground into a powder and mixed with oil to make
Figure 1: Kohl
eye color called Kohl. The Kohl was kept in jars and applied to the

eyes with a small stick. The upper and lower eyelids were painted with the black

cosmetic that extended in a line out to the sides of the face. It was believed the makeup

had magical and even healing powers. Some even believed that wearing it would restore

poor eyesight. It was also used to fight eye infections and reduce the glare of the sun.

Other cosmetics used included colors for the lips, cheeks and nails.

HAIRSTYLES

Hairstyles were very similar to that of today’s. The common folk wore their hair short.

Young girls usually kept their hair in pigtails while boys had shaved heads, except for

one braided lock worn to one side. Wigs were worn by both men and

women.

JEWELERY

Everyone in Egypt wore some type of jewelry. Rings and amulets were

especially worn to ward off the evil spirits and injury. Both men and Figure
2:Pharaoh
Jewelry
women wore pierced earrings, armlets, bracelets, and anklets.

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CLOTHING

Egyptian clothing styles did not change much throughout ancient times.

Clothes were usually made of linens ranging from coarse to fine texture.

During the Old and Middle kingdoms, men usually wore a short skirt

called a kilt. Women wore a straight fitting dress held up by straps.


Figure
3:Kilt and
Frock

ENTERTIANMENT

Egyptians spent their spare time doing a wide variety of things, and many of these

activities are shown on the tomb walls. Dramatizations were held in the temples, but the

most important source of entertainment & relaxation was the Nile river. Activities on the

river include fishing, swimming, hunting crocodiles and hippopotamuses, and boat

games. Parties and festivals were also celebrated oftenly.

GODS AND GODDESSES

The ancient Egyptians believed in many different gods and goddesses. Each one with

their own role to play in maintaining

peace and harmony across the land.

Some gods and goddesses took part in creation, some Figure 4: Gods and Goddesses

brought the flood every year, some offered protection, and some took care of people after

they died. Others were either local gods who represented towns, or minor gods who

represented plants or animals. The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to

recognize and worship these gods and goddesses so that life continued smoothly.

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MUMMIFICATION

The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and

dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies

quickly, creating lifelike and natural

'mummies'. Later, the ancient Egyptians

began burying their dead

in coffins to protect them from wild Figure 5: Making a Mummy

animals in the desert. However, they realized that bodies placed in

coffins decayed when they were not exposed to the hot, dry sand of the

desert.

Over many centuries, the ancient Egyptians developed a method of

preserving bodies so they would remain lifelike. The process included

embalming the bodies and wrapping them in strips of linen. Today we

call this process mummification. Mummification was related to beliefs


Figure 6:
Mummy
concerning the afterlife and was undertaken to safeguard the fate of the

soul. The Egyptian method of preparing the body varied with the social status of the

deceased .Members of the nobility and officials also often received the same treatment,

and occasionally, common people. For religious reasons, some animals were also

mummified. The best preserved mummies are those of the pharaohs and their relatives.

PHARAOH

The most powerful person in ancient

Egypt was the Pharaoh. The pharaoh was

the political and religious leader of the

Figure 7: Pharaoh

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Egyptian people, holding the titles: 'Lord of the Two Lands' and 'High Priest of Every

Temple'. As 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower

Egypt. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt against

foreigners. As 'High Priest of Every Temple', the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth.

He performed rituals and built temples to honor the gods. Many pharaohs went to war

when their land was threatened or when they wanted to control foreign lands. If the

pharaoh won the battle, the conquered people had to recognize the Egyptian pharaoh as

their ruler and offer him the finest and most valuable goods from their land.

PYRAMIDS

The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as

tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The

pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many

different shapes and sizes from before the

beginning of the old kingdom to the end of the middle


Figure 8: The Pyramids
kingdom. There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three

largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old

Kingdom. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is

known as the 'Great Pyramids.

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TEMPLES

The ancient Egyptians believed that temples were the homes of the gods and goddesses.

Every temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he

or she was worshipped there by the temple priests and

the pharaoh. The large temple buildings were made of

stone so that they would last forever. Their walls were

covered with scenes that were carved onto the stone then
Figure 9: Philae Temple
brightly painted. These scenes showed the pharaoh fighting

in battles and performing rituals with the gods and goddesses

TIME PERIOD OF ANCIENT EGY PT

The civilization of ancient Egypt lasted for over three thousand years. During this time

there were many changes in terms of what the ancient Egyptians believed in, and how

they lived their lives. However, many aspects of the basic culture, religion, and artistic

style of ancient Egypt remained the same.

TRADE

Craftsmen in ancient Egypt were usually trained and skilled labourers. They were often

well-respected in the community

and had a comfortable lifestyle.

Yet every craftsman's lifestyle and

social standing depended on the


Figure 10: Ancient Egyptian Craftsmen
quality of his skills and experience. Thus, some

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craftsmen had more difficult lives than others. Most craftsmen worked in workshops with

other craftsmen. Objects for temples or the pharaoh were made in temple workshops or

palace workshops. Objects for ordinary people were made by local craftsmen in small

workshops.

WRITINGS

The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to

record and communicate information about religion and

government. Thus, they invented written scripts that

could be used to record this information. The most

famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic.


Figure 11: Egyptian
Hieroglyphs
However, throughout three thousand years of ancient

Egyptian civilization, at least three other scripts were used for different purposes. Using

these scripts, scribes were able to preserve the beliefs, history and ideas of ancient Egypt

in temple and tomb walls and on papyrus scrolls.

GEOGRAPHY OF EGYPT

GEOGRAPHIC BORDERS

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Most of Egypt is in North Africa; the Sinai Peninsula is in

Southwest Asia. The country has shorelines on the

Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea; it borders Libya to the

west, Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the

east. Egypt, covering 1,001,449 square kilometers of land, is

about the same size as Texas and New Mexico combined.

The country's greatest distance from north to south is 1,024 Figure 12: Map of Egypt

kilometers, and from east to west, 1,240 kilometers. The country is located in North

Africa and includes the Sinai Peninsula, which is considered part of Southwest Asia.

Egypt's natural boundaries consist of more than 2,900 kilometers of coastline along the

Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Its elevation

extremes are lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m

highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

PROVINCES

Egypt is divided into twenty-six governorates (sometimes called provinces), which

include four city governorates: Alexandria (Al Iskandariyah), Cairo (Al Qahirah), Port

Said (Bur Said) and Suez; the nine governorates of Lower Egypt in the Nile Delta region;

the eight governorates of Upper Egypt along the Nile River south from Cairo to Aswan;

and the five frontier governorates covering Sinai and the deserts that lie west and east of

the Nile. All governorates, except the frontier ones, are in the Nile Delta or along the Nile

Valley and Suez Canal.

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

Egypt can be divided in to four parts

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1. THE NILE VALLEY AND DELTA

It extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper

Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from

North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea.

2. THE WESTERN DESERT

Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west, and from the

Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's southern borders.

3. THE EASTERN DESERT

Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red

Sea, Suez gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from

Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's

southern birders with Sudan in the south.

4. THE SINAI PENINSULA

Sinai is shaped like a triangle having its base at the Mediterranean in

the North and its apex in the South at Ras Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba

to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez canal to the west.

GEOGRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE
Figure 13: Rivers and Seas
Egypt has great geographical importance

1. It controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern

Hemisphere

2. It also controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean

Sea

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3. Also its size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern

geopolitics.

SOCIAL ASPECTS OF EGYPT

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

The education system in Egypt is state-sponsored and set up in three stages: primary

school (6 years), preparatory school (3 years), and secondary school (3 years). Basic

education consists of the first two stages and is obligatory for all students in the country,

although 16% of girls still do not enroll in primary school. Primary schools are not

segregated by sex, but the public preparatory and secondary schools are.

The preparatory school exams are taken at the end of the 9th year which determine the

school the student moves on to. Students with high scores continue on to a general

secondary school, which qualifies them to attend universities later. Those with low

scores are directed to technical secondary schools, where students study commercial,

industrial, or agricultural education and pursue careers as technicians, salespeople,

secretaries, etc.

Recently, the National Council for Women has launched an optimistic project in

cooperation with the Elderly Education

Organization and with the help of non-

governmental organizations aiming at

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Figure 14: Al Azhar University


eradicating illiteracy among women aged 15-45 years as well as executing a plan for total

elimination of illiteracy among those aged 15-35 by the year 2006. this program has

worked very efficiently and by 2000, the increase in percentage of women in universitites

has increased manifolds. An important university is Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo.

Is the oldest continuously operating university in the world.

BUILDINGS

There is consensus among historians and Egyptologists that the ancient Egyptians were

the first builders ever known to man; they taught humanity how to design and erect

buildings; thus laying grounds for human civilization,

urbanization and man's settlement in a specific homeland of his

own for the first time in history. The modern buildings of today
Figure 15:State Building
are very stylish and technically constructed. The modern style

of houses is simple and spacious with relatively a few number of rooms.

TOURISM

Most people who think of Egypt think of

antiquities, but Egypt offers much more. Certainly it

is a prime location to see the great heritage from the

ancient world, including Pyramids and wonderful

temples, but it is also part Figure 16: A view on Nile

of the Holy Land, and tours to Christian and other religious

monuments are popular. Egypt also offers nature and desert

treks, great scuba diving and even golf, fishing and birding

expeditions. One may choose to relax on the wondrous Egypt

Figure 17: Deep Sea


diving in Red Sea 16
Red Sea whose beaches are an exquisite gift of nature. The sea with its crystal clear blue

waters, offers colorful corals and rare marine life. The long chain of mountains, with their

different colors, run parallel to the coastline, separated from the sea only by a plain, most

of which is suitable for camping. Some of the famous tourist sites are Ayn Sukhna "Hot

Spring", Princess Village, Safaga , Yasmine Village, Hur Palace Village, Shedwan

Village. The underwater museum of sunken monuments is also a great attraction for

divers and sea lovers.You can take in the high culture of Cairo, or even leisurely float

down the Egyptian Nile on a luxurious river boat. A very good time to visit Egypt is

during the spring time. During spring the weather is fairly moderate. For the Egyptians,

tourism is vital. It is the country's number one foreign currency earner, producing about

$4bn a year and accounting for more than 11% of GDP.

POPULATION DWELLING

The vast majority of Egypt's inhabitants live in the Nile valley and delta, and the rest of

the country (about 96% of Egypt's total land area) is sparsely populated. As a result,

many places in the Nile Valley region are extremely crowded, with several thousand

persons/sq.km. The areas to the west and the east of the Nile River--the Western and the

Eastern Deserts--only contain small settlements of semi-nomads--the Bedouins

(pronounced bed-oo-in)

OCCUPATION

The Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt, is the region between Cairo and

the Mediterranean Sea. Seven branches of the Nile create the

triangular-shaped delta, providing the area with a very rich soil.

Figure 18: About half of the population of the Nile Delta are fellahin
Egyptian Farmers

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(pronounced fel-uh-heen), or peasants--either small landowners or laborers--living on the

produce of the land. The average family of fellahin has four or five children, who start

working as soon as they are able to do so. Most fellahin, especially the women, spend

their lives in drudgery.

LANGUAGE

The ancient Egyptian language spoken by the pharoahs no longer exists and no one

speaks it. The current official language of Egypt is Arabic which came to Egypt since the

Arab/Islamic invasions very long ago; before it of course the Coptic language was the

main language. Other than, this English and French are widely understood by educated

classes.

CLOTHING

Egyptians wear cloths over their heads to shade their eyes from the bright

desert sun, and to keep sand and dust out of their eyes. The men
Figure 19:
sometimes wear the tarboosh (pronounced tahr-boosh) a tall red hat with a Tarboosh

black tassel. Women in Egypt are beautiful. Most of the

Muslim women wear a higab (a large scarf fastened at the

neck) or garb themselves in a piece of fabric that also

covers their breasts, demonstrating either modesty or

Figure 20: Traditional Dresses Muslim piety. One reason this is favored by many young

women, is that it tends to discourage male advances, physical or verbal. Skirts and

dresses are long. Pants are usually worn with a top that is not tucked in.

FOOD

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The principal Egyptian food is a porridge made of dried brown

beans or lentils baked for 24 hours and served with butter or

olive oil and lemon. The main source of protein is bread. The

Egyptians love good food, drinks like wine and


Figure21:
beer, and sweet things. They eat a variety of fish Traditional Foods

and fowl, beef, mutton and pork. They enjoy many drinks

with barley in it like beer and wine. Fast food in Egypt is very common. There is a KFC

or other fast food restaurant in almost every city.

Due to meat being expensive, they eat inexpensive food such as rice and cornmeal bread.

Vegetables are always in season and people eat many of them, especially onions and

tomatoes. Cheese is a very common food, and so are such fruits as dates, figs, and

apricots. Sweet Turkish coffee and dark tea flavored with herbs are the favorite

beverages. Because Egypt was very dry, Egyptians made the wheat into bread and into

soup and porridge. Mainly they grew wheat and barley.

LIFE STYLE

People in Egypt like music. You will hear the music of different kinds and genres, from

indigenous folk and Arabic music to the modern

Western-style songs. People very often sing as they

work. Market places in cities and villages, called

bazaars, present entertainment to passers-by: groups of

Figure 22: Evening Dances street-dancers dance to the music of the kanoun

(pronounced kah-noon)--a string instrument, snake charmers and jugglers perform for the

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coins the audiences toss them. Along with these religious rituals are habitually practiced

at home. Feasts and festivals play an important part in Egyptian life.

WEATHER

Egyptian summer is hot and dry in most of the country and humid in the Delta and along

the Mediterranean Coast. In recent years the humidity has spread to Cairo and the city

swelters in August. Winter is mild with some rain, but usually there are bright, sunny

days and with cold nights. In the coastal region average annual temperatures range from

a maximum of 37° C (99° F) to a minimum of 14° C (57° F). Wide variations of

temperature occur in the deserts, ranging from a maximum of 46° C (114° F) during

daylight hours to a minimum of 6° C (42° F) after sunset. During the winter season desert

temperatures often drop to 0° C (32° F). The most humid area is along the Mediterranean

coast, where the average annual rainfall is about 200 mm. Winter weather is fairly cold

than most people anticipate and cold winds blew over the desert at sunrise and sunset.

SOCIAL CUSTOMS AND NORMS

The Egyptian civilization was one of the great civilizations that had deep-rooted values

and persistent traditions. Despite the succession of different political rules, the Egyptian

people kept their customs and traditions, most of which are still prevalent in daily life and

social behaviours.

Being religious and acknowledging God's grace is a common phenomenon in Egyptian

society. Religious rituals are habitually practiced at home. Adherence to religion,

however, does not mean the Egyptians avoided the pleasant things in life; on the contrary,

Egyptians joyfully embraced life, as evident in their jokes, songs, love chants, and folk

arts.

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One of the most important characteristics of Egyptian society since the dawn of

civilization is the cooperation among society members. The Egyptians are faithful,

deplored vice, and held ethics as the standard by which people are appraised.

Feasts and festivals played an important part in Egyptian life. In every age, there were

new feasts to be celebrated. Theatrical plays depicting myths are also performed.

Other occasions are New Year's Day and various feasts for the beginning of the seasons.

There is the feast of flood tide that is known in the modern age as Nile Flood Day. In

addition, there is the feast of spring, which is currently called Sham El-Nassem.

Egyptians still celebrate these two feasts. These feasts are still celebrated by Egyptians

and some of them are celebrated by both Muslims and Christians, such as Epiphany and

Christmas.

Other feasts and ceremonies are also celebrated, among which are the Prophet's

Birthday, the Outset of Rajab, the Middle and Outset of Sha'aban, the Tenth of Moharam,

the New Hijri Year's Day, and the Outset of Ramadan.

CULTURE OF EGYPT

The Culture of Egypt has five thousand years of recorded history. Ancient Egypt was

among the earliest civilizations. For millennia, Egypt maintained a strikingly complex

and stable culture that influenced later cultures of Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

After the Pharaonic era, Egypt itself came under the influence of Hellenism, for a time

Christianity, and later, Arab and Islamic culture. Today, many aspects of Egypt's ancient

culture exist in interaction with newer elements, including the influence of modern

Western culture, itself with roots in Ancient Egypt.

LANGUAGE

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The Ancient Egyptian language was among the first written languages, and is known

from hieroglyphic inscriptions preserved on monuments and sheets of papyrus. The

Coptic language, the only extant descendant of Egyptian, is today the liturgical language

of the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Arabic came to Egypt in the seventh century and Egyptian Figure23:Coptic Languages

Arabic has since become the modern speech of the country. Of the many varieties of

Arabic, it is the most widely spoken second dialect, probably due to the influence of

Egyptian cinema throughout the Arabic-speaking world.

Among other languages are Nobiin, Bedawi (a Beja language), Kenuzi-Dongola, Domari

language and Berber language Siwi are spoken in different parts.

RELIGION

Ancient Egyptian religion was a polytheistic system that saw the world as in conflict

between forces of order and chaos. Coptic became popular in the Roman and Byzantine

periods, and Egypt was indeed one of the strongest early Christian communities. Today,

Christians constitute about 10% of the population.

Islam in Egypt came to the country with the successors of Mohammed. Egypt is a

republic with Islam as the figures, approximately 94 %, are Sunni and 1% are Shi'a

Muslims. Much of the remaining 6 % of the population are Christians, the majority of

whom belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church.

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STATUS OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

The Constitution provides for freedom of belief and the practice of religion; however, the

Government places restrictions on this right. According to the Constitution, Islam is the

official state religion, and Shari'a is the primary source of legislation.

MUSIC AND DANCE

Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Arabic, Turkish,

African and Western influences. , Egyptian music has strong

improvisatory and rhythmic components. As early as 4000 BC,

ancient Egyptians were playing harps, flutes, the ney and the oud.
Figure 24:An
From the 1970s, Egyptian pop music has become increasingly Oud

important in Egyptain cultured: listened to by mainly the large youth population of Egypt.

Folk music from Egypt's many cultures is also listened to a lot and played during

weddings and other festivites. Belly dance is very common and often women dance in

groups.

EGYPTIAN ART IN MODERN TIMES

Modern and contemporary Egyptian art can be as diverse as any works in the world art

scène. Egyptian mummies and sculptures of stone, wood, clay and metals are very

famous. The foundation of most of artists is paper making, and they creates paper as

ancient Egyptian created papyrus. It is composed of organic material such as tree bark

and palm fibers.

The Egyptian pyramids that still inspire awe and admiration are result of the strong

resolution of pharaohs to be respected and remembered by the future generations.

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FESTIVALS

Egypt is a wonderous country with many festivals and celebrations. Some festivals are

historic, some are secular and some are religious. Most important are:

SHAMAL-NASEEM

Both Muslims and Christians in Egypt welcome the first day of spring with a festive

picnic called Sham al-Naseem, which means “the smell of spring”.

MILAD-UN-NABI

The Prophet Mohammed's birthday is celebrated at “Milad-un-Nabi”. This festival

includes parades in the city streets and lights, feasts, drummers and special sweets.

RAMADAN

Ramadan is a very important festival in the Islamic calendar. The end of Ramadan and

the end of the fasting is marked with a festival called Eid-al-Fitr and is celebrated with

large feasts.

EGYPTIAN CHRISTMAS

Churches and Christian homes are festooned with lights, Christmas trees and manger

scenes in the week leading up to Christmas, and on Christmas Eve, the 6th of January,

celebrations in churches are held and the bells of the churches ring out.

DAILY LIFE IN EGYPT

Modern Egypt is full of life and people who are hopeful for their future. Like ancient

Egypt, it remains an energetic country but it has also made its way into the modern world.

The people of Egypt are a culture built upon for thousands of years. In general, Egyptians

share a delightful Gaelic-like wit and an understanding of human behavior that far

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exceeds ours. . The Egyptian people are beautiful, funny, kind, generous, extremely

clever and expressive of their feeling without the need for shame.

FAMILY LIFE

The family is the backbone of the Egyptian/Middle Eastern culture. In general, children

are adored, valued and coddled by the whole family and community. The people of

ancient Egypt highly valued family life. Usually an elder male member is the head of the

family. Each family member is responsible for the integrity of family and for the

behaviour of other members, creating an ideal environment. Here they are so close to

each others, family ties are far stronger than in the west. The most deeply held values--

honor, dignity, and security--are derived by an individual only as part of a larger kin

group.

The traditional Sunni religious code for Muslims defines most Muslims' family matters

(marriage, guardianship, and inheritance) while canon law defines these matters among

Christians. The father controls families' possessions and income.

For most men, marriage marks the transition to adulthood. For most women, marriage

means leaving their families' homes and sometimes their home areas. In many areas of

Nile Valley region women do not appear in public without a veil; family honor is very

important, and vendetta laws (a feud between families) apply.

EGYPTIAN PEOPLE

Egyptians are friendly, hospitable and modest. They also have a sense of balance and

moderation. They have a tendency to resist problem solutions. Whether Muslim or Copt,

the Egyptians are moderately religious and religious principles is quite noticed in their

daily lives.Insha’Allah and Ma'lesh are essential vocabulary for the visitor. Egyptians are

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proud and sensitive, proud of their history but sensitive of their present.

More then 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslims. Cairo is the center of Islam in Egypt.

More then 250 mosques stand in the city. About 8 percent of the Egyptians are Copts.The

population growth rate is 1.78% (2005). Most modern Egyptians are of a complex racial

mixture, being descended from the ancient Egyptians, Berbers, sub-Saharan Africans,

Arabs, Greeks, and Turks. People are in habit of taking good care of their health and

observe proper cleanliness. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate is less than 0.1%

BEHAVIOUR

Egyptians are, generally speaking, color blind. Other races are regarded as equal and

given the same consideration. Foreigners who live in Egypt are treated with respect and

tolerance. Egypt remains one of the more secure and friendly countries in the world for

tourists. They ask for God’s mercy when they get desperate, Superstition is part of the

Egyptian way of life.

THE EGYPTIAN WEDDING

Egyptian wedding is a very special historical ceremony. It is the most

important ceremony for Egyptian females. Wedding is considered as a

strong bond and life time commitment.


Figure 25:
Egyptian Bride
The ancient Egyptians held marriage as a sacred bond. This has been made

clear in the many statues and writings that depict men and women in a relationship where

both depended upon each other.

SPORTS

The most played most-watched sport in Egypt is football. Egyptian football clubs enjoy

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popularity even non-egyptians in the Arab countries. Among the most-watched sports in

Egypt are basketball, handball, squash and tennis.

GOVERNMENT

OFFICIAL NAME OF COUNTRY

The conventional long name is Arab Republic of Egypt. Conventional short form is

Egypt. The local name is Misr, while the former name is United Arab Republic (with

Syria).

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE COUNTRY

Egypt gained its independence on 28 February 1922 (from UK). Its capital is Cairo.

Official language is Arabic. Currency is Egyptian pound. There is a national holiday on

Revolution Day, 23 July (1952). Its national anthem is “Biladi Biladi Biladi”

FLAG DESCRIPTION

Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black. The national emblem (a gold

Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield

superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of

the country in Arabic) centered in the white band. Design is

based on the Arab Liberation flag . Figure 26: Flag of


Egypt

CONSTITUTION

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The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt, adopted in 1971 and amended in 1980,

declares that Egypt is an Arab Republic with a democratic system. The Constitution

further outlines Egypt's political system and defines public authorities.

EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY

Executive authority is vested in the Head of State, the President of the Republic, who is

nominated by a two-thirds majority of the People's Assembly, then elected by popular

referendum for a six-year term. The President formulates and supervises the

implementation of general state policy. He also acts as Supreme Commander of the

Armed Forces. The current Head of State is Mohamad Hosni Mubarak, who has been re-

elected for a fourth six-year term in October 1999.

WORKING OF GOVERNMENT

The type of government is Republic, it is the supreme executive and administrative organ

of the State. It consists of the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, who

supervises the work of the government. The People's Assembly is the legislative branch

of the State. It approves the general policy, new laws, the budget and the development

plan. According to the Constitution, the People's Assembly is made up of 444 directly

elected members and 10 members appointed by the President, who serve for a term of

five years. The Shura Council is Egypt's consultative council. It offers advice and

consultation, and proposes new laws and regulations to the People's Assembly.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The judiciary authority is exercised through four categories of courts of justice: the

Supreme Constitutional Court, which is the highest judicial body, the Court of Cessation,

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the seven courts of Appeal in the various Governorates, and the Summary Tribunals in

the districts.

POLITICAL SYSTEM

The political system is based on a Multi-party system. Law 40 of 1977 regulates the

formation of political parties in Egypt. This law prohibits the formation of religious-

based political parties. There are currently 17 active political parties representing various

stands across the political spectrum. The National Democratic Party currently holds the

majority of seats in the People's Assembly.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Egypt is divided into 26 Governorates, each headed by a Governor who is appointed by

the President. Within their districts, local government units establish and manage all

public utilities, provide services, and designate industrial areas. Local Popular Councils

are elected bodies that work closely with local government administrative units at various

levels.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION PARTICIPATION

Egypt is a participant in many of the international organizations e.g. UNESCO, UNHCR,

WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO and many others.

CURRENT POLITICAL SITUATION

Egypt has been a republic since 18 June 1953. President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak has

been the President of the Republic since October 14, 1981, following the assassination of

former-President Mohammed Anwar El-Sadat. Mubarak is currently serving his sixth

term in office. He is the leader of the ruling National Democratic Party. Prime Minister

Dr. Ahmed Nazif was sworn in as Prime Minister on 9 July 2004.

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In late-February 2005, Mubarak announced that he had ordered the reform of the

country's presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls in the

upcoming presidential election. For the first time since the 1952 movement, the Egyptian

people had an apparent chance to elect a leader from a list of various candidates.

However, the new law placed draconian restrictions on the filing for presidential

candidacies, designed to prevent well-known candidates such as Ayman Nour from

standing against Mubarak, and paved the road for his easy re-election victory. But the

results of the recent parliamentary elections, which saw Islamist parties such as the

banned Muslim Brotherhood winning many seats, genuinely indicate that a change of

some sorts is underway.

FOREIGN POLICY

The main feature of Egyptian foreign policy is the drive to strengthen independent

decision-making, to enhance Egypt's international relations and to invest her time–

honored reputation of honoring her international covenants. These endeavors combined

should establish past gains and open up new prospects in the future. It also stresses on the

need of developing relations with Arab and African countries and maintaining regional

peace. Adopt the dialogue rather than conflict, call for serious world move to combat

terrorism,

FOREIGN RELATIONS

Geography, population, history, military strength, and diplomatic expertise give Egypt

extensive political influence in the Middle East. Cairo has been a crossroads of Arab

30
commerce and culture for millennia, and its intellectual and Islamic institutions are at the

center of the region's social and cultural development.

The League of Arab States headquarters is in Cairo. The Secretary General of the League

has traditionally been an Egyptian. Former Egyptian Foreign Minister Amr Moussa is the

present Secretary General of the Arab League.Egypt is on good terms with all of its

neighbours, and was the first Arab nation to make peace with Israel.

TRANSNATIONAL ISSUES

Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north

and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their

military presence. Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line. Since

the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004,

Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip. There are

some 70,215 refugees living here.

POLITICAL OVERVIEW

Egypt is politically stable, but there have been many examples of unrest in recent years.

Egypt has only a limited democracy, where elections allow only some political parties.

The main challenge is the Muslim Brotherhood, which runs for elections, but which

adhere to an anti-democratic ideology. Egypt is a country with a fair amount of freedom

of speech, and civil rights are in most cases well secured. Egypt's political system

receives strong financial support from the U.S., and, given all the challenges of the

Egyptian state, they cannot do without this aid.

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The 2005 elections represented a little earthquake to Egyptian politics, although the

ruling party remained in full control of the People's Assembly, controlling about 2/3 of all

seats. Still, the strong progress by the Muslim Brotherhood sent a signal of a people

increasingly in the mood for political change.

ECONOMY OF EGYPT

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW

Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign

direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2%-3% in 2001-

03. However, in 2004 Egypt implemented several measures to boost foreign direct

investment. The budget deficit rose to an estimated 8% of GDP in 2004 compared to

6.1% of GDP the previous year, in part as a result of these reforms. The development of

an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects, but

improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's

persistent unemployment.

POSITION IN THE WORLD:

Egypt has the largest population in the Arab world and, after Saudi Arabia, the largest

GDP i.e. $337.9 billion (2005 est.) with a growth rate of 4.5%

ECONOMIC STRUCTURE:

The economy of Egypt is comprised of following main sectors:

SERVICES:

The economy is dominated by services, including public administration, account for one-

half of GDP(48.4%).Tourism and the Suez Canal are important service sectors. Tourism,

vulnerable to political events, has become increasingly resilient and has recovered

32
strongly from the effects of both the September 11, 2001 suicide attacks in the US and

the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The Suez Canal has performed strongly in recent

years as high fuel prices have made the longer trip around Africa more expensive for

ships traveling between Europe and Asia.

AGRICULTURE:

Agriculture’s contribution to GDP is gradually diminishing, but it is still an important

activity. Even though only 3% of total land area is cultivable land, agriculture accounted

for 15% of GDP in fiscal 2005. The major agricultural products are cotton, rice, corn,

wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep and goats.

INDUSTRIES:

Overall contribution of the industries in the GDP is 37%. Major industries are textiles,

food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals

.Manufacturing industries are also important, accounting (including oil refining) for

18.2% of GDP in fiscal 2005, and are heavily concentrated in Cairo and the Nile Delta.

The industrial production growth rate is 3.2%.

MINING:

Mining (while includes petroleum and natural gas) is also a mainstay of the economy,

accounting for 14.8% of GDP in fiscal year 2005, and 38% of the merchandise exports.

33
ECONOMIC FORECAST / MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS:

Factors 2005 2006


Real GDP 4.1 5.0
Industrial production growth 3.2 4.2
Gross agricultural production growth 3.5 3.1
Unemployment rate (average) 10 9
Consumer price inflation (av) 4.9 5.1
Lending rate 13.4 13.4
Government Balance(% of GDP) -9.3 -10.2
Exports of goods fob (US $ bn ) 15.3 17.9
Imports of goods fob (US $ bn ) 26.5 29.0
External debt(year end ;US $ bn ) 37.9 37.8
Exchange rate E :US $ (av) 5.78 5.70
Population (m) 74.0
Source: Economic intelligence unit.

ECONOMIC GROWTH:

Egypt has raised its forecast for real GDP growth in fiscal 2006 to 5%, growth is

expected to strengthen to 5.3% in fiscal 2007.

INFLATION

Average consumer price inflation in 2006 is expected to rise to 5.1%.There is an attempt

to constrain by the stability of the Egyptian pound against the US $ as well as by a

decline in average world non-oil commodity prices.

POVERTY

The population living below the poverty line is 16.7%.

BUDGET

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The budget details of Egypt lie at revenues: $18.03 billion

expenditures: $24.55 billion.

EXCANGE RATES

The currency of Egypt is Egyptian Pound (EGP). The exchange rates are Egyptian

pounds per US dollar - 5.78. As a result of strengthening foreign currency inflows and

major improvements in the policy framework, the Egyptian pound strengthened on the

official market in late 2004---for the first time since its ten years.

EXCHANGE SECTOR:

In calendar 2006 trade deficit will be little changed, as a rise in gas exports offsets strong

growth in import spending, bolstered by tariff cuts, strengthening economic growth and a

depreciation of the US dollar. The trade deficit will widen markedly as imports continue

to rise strongly, outweighing export growth, which will be dragged down by a sharp

decline in oil prices.

ECONOMIC POLICY:

There were few new economic policy initiatives during the cabinet interregnum, but

banking sector consolidation and privatization have continued to make rapid progress.

The Central Bank has lowered interest rates.

FISCAL POLICY:

The fiscal year starts and ends at 1 July - 30 June. The budget (central government)

deficit widened markedly in fiscal 2005 from 6.4% to 9.6% of GDP.

35
MONETARY POLICY:

After years of poorly focused monetary policy, the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE), under

the govern ship of Farouk -al-Okdah, has introduced more coherence into monetary

management by raising interest rates on Treasury bills and other saving instruments to

counter inflation and support the Egyptian pound.

THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY:

Since the 1970s billions of dollars in economic aid have poured into Egypt from the

United States, Arab neighbors, and European nations. However, the country's inefficient

state-run industries, its bloated public sector, and its large investments in warfare resulted

in inflation, unemployment, a severe trade deficit, and heavy public debt. A series of

economic and fiscal reforms undertaken in the 1990s, with support from the International

Monetary Fund, appear to be having a positive effect on the country's overall economy,

The domestic economy of Egypt has progressed a lot in the recent years. Inflation has

continued to fall. The second phase of pipeline to export gas to Arab countries has been

completed. Suez Canal receipts reached another record in 2005. The tourism sector broke

records in 2005 despite a renewal of attacks.

FOREIGN TRADE AND PAYMENTS

The current account returned to surplus in the third quarter of calendar 2005 and the

capital account registered a surplus equivalent to 7% of GDP on an annualized basis.

Foreign reserves reached almost US $20bn by end-September.

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS

Main destinations for exports for Egypt are Italy, US, UK and France while main origins

of imports are US, Germany, Italy and France.

36
THE IMPACT OF THE WTO

In June 1995, Egypt acceded the World Trade Organization (WTO). Around 90% of

Egypt trade is with WTO member states. Egypt benefits from several concessions,

including better access to markets in developing countries, and it has a longer period in

which to adapt to WTO rules. Nevertheless, it is acknowledged that some negative effects

are likely to arise.

MILITARY

The military of the Egypt has major branches of Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense

Command. The annual expenditure on military is $2.44 billion that makes 3.4% of the

GDP. The government has prescribed 18 years of age for conscript military service in

which 3-year service is obligatory.

INFRASTRUCTURE

The transportation services consist of railways total 5,063 km, roadways total 64,000 km

and waterways of 3,500 km. the merchant marine has total 77 ships. Alexandria,

Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit are some of the important ports and

terminals. Egypt has 87 airports and 2 heliports.

Egypt has a large communication system. There are 9.6 million telephone users. Internet

access and cellular service are available commonly. There are 98 TV broadcast systems.

The internet code of the country is .eg . There are 50 ISPs with 4.2 million internet users.

RELATIONS WITH PAKISTAN

Egypt is developing relations with Pakistan. The imports and exports between the two

countries are increasing. Pakistan is the second country of the world to import cotton

from Egypt. It also imports fruits like oranges from Egypt. Egypt imports surgical tools

37
from Pakistan and is also negotiating to import wheat. Investment in the cement industry

of Pakistan is also in the pipeline. The Egyptian Prime Minister and his ministers are

soon going to visit Pakistan and Prime Minister Shoukat Aziz is also reciprocating the

good will visit in order to increase the bilateral relations and cross cultural

communication.

CONCLUSION

In the report different aspects of Egypt are discussed in a brief but comprehensive

manner. We learnt a lot about cultural differences while doing this report. Having

considerable knowledge of each others culture will create an ideal communication

environment to conduct a business successfully. Goal of intercultural communication can

38
only be successfully achieved by knowing cultural differences, concepts of space and

rules of social behavior to conduct a business.

Ancient Egypt is perhaps the most fascinating of the ancient civilizations. The ancient

and modern Egypt is enriched in its cultural heritage and traditions. Egypt is blend of vast

historic, modern and Islamic traditions. Pakistan and Egypt have good bilateral

relationship in the fields of economy and trade but these need to develop more in order to

increase cross cultural communication between the two countries. The people have

respectable social relations with each other, as both countries are tied in golden thread of

Islam.

REFERENCES

Clayton.P, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, (2001), Facts on File Inc.

James TGH, Howard Carter. The Path to Tutankhamun , (1994) ,Thames and Hudson.

Kemp BJ, Ancient Egypt, Anatomy of a Civilization, (1992) , Kegan Paul.

Reeves N , Ancient Egypt, The Great Discoveries, (1989), Rout ledge.

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Reeves N, Wilkinson RH, The Complete Valley of the Kings, (2000),Thames and

Hudson.

Romer J , Valley of the Kings , (1988) , Michael O'Mara Books.

Shaw I , The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt , (2000) , Oxford University Press.

Tyldesley JA , Tales from Ancient Egypt , (2004), Rutherford Press.

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