You are on page 1of 2


Ecology Review:
Steve Hall SNC1P
Biology: the study of living organisms (biotic).
Ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their environment and each other.
(biotic -> biotic, biotic -> abiotic, abiotic -> abiotic)
Organism (Biotic): a single living thing, e.g. person, rabbit.
Population (species) : all organisms of the same species living in a given area.
Community: collection of all the populations [species] in a given area. Eg: lake

Biotic: a living or has been living thing / organism. Eg: person, rabbit, tree, dead person, dead tree.
Abiotic: a thing that has never been living, e.g.: rock, water, cloud, air

Biome: a large geographical area with similar climate and dominant form of vegetation. Climate determines
vegetation, vegetation determines animals. Eg of Biomes: desert, tundra, boreal forest.
Biosphere: all the areas on the Earth that support life.

Types of Interactions:
Biotic -> Biotic // Bear eats berries, cow eats grass
Biotic -> Abiotic // Animals breathe, fish swimming in water
Abiotic -> Abiotic // Sun evaporates water, water eroding rock

Producers and Autotophs:

All energy starts from the sun. Sun gives energy to the producers (plants) and then the producers get eaten
by first degree consumers (herbivores) and take in 10% of that energy. Then the herbivores get eaten by
second degree consumers (carnivores/omnivores) and they take in 10% of that energy.

Consumers and Heterotrophs:

Niche: a consumers job eg: herbivore
Herbivore: plant eater/vegetarian *Always 1st degree consumer
Omnivore: eats plants and meat
Carnivore: eats meat
Scavengers: eat the scraps that animals leave behind
Decomposers: eats dead things
Parasites: live off something else (parasitism)

Habitats: where animals live

Trophic Levels:
Trophic levels are the rankings on a food chain. The sun is always at the bottom, then the
producers/autotrophs. Then there are the herbivores. After that, there can be a variety of carnivores and
omnivores. The top of the food chain (top carnivore) is the animal that isn’t eaten by anything. Herbivores
are always considered 1st degree consumers. (see food chain for more details)

Food Chain:
Eg: Grass (producer) ->
Rabbit (herbivore/1st degree consumer) ->
Coyote (carnivore/2nd degree consumer/top carnivore)

Food web:
Food webs are created because food chains are less effective. The food chain diagram shows the animal
only eating one kind of animal/producer. However, animals usually eat more than one type of food. *Keep in
mind that the arrow points to the one doing the eating.

Species Interactions:
Competition: When to organisms compete for the same resource.
Predation (predator/prey): When 1 organism hunts and kills another for food.
Symbiosis: When two different species live in/on eachother. Examples of symbiosis:
Commensalism: 1 organism benefits, other unharmed.
Mutualism: Both benefit.
Parasitism: 1 benefits, other harmed.

Energy Flow:
After every interaction in a food chain, the consumer intakes 10% of the original animal’s energy.

Eg: DDT being passed through consumers. Top consumer gets less than first degree consumer.

Numbers: Population count, pyramid in order of food chain, ie: producers on bottom.
Biomass: eg 10 robins, and robins dried mass is 50 grams. 50 x 10 robins = biomass.
Keep in mind that when graphing, the X is horizantal and the Y Is vertical. X contains information you
control, ie air temperature. Y contains information that happens naturally, Ie, snake’s heart rate.
Chemistry Review
Steve Hall SNC1P
Lab Safety: WHMIS Symbols are circled. HHPS Symbols are surrounded by either an octagon [danger], a diamond
[warning] or a triangle [caution].

WHMIS Symbols Legend: Tube = Compressed gas // Fire = Flammable // Flaming hoop = Oxidizing agent // Hands =
Corrosive // Skull & Bones = Acute toxicity // T = Chronic toxicity // Three rings = Biohazardous // R = Reactive

States of Matter:
soli Particles orderly, very close Very strong Low kinetic
d together. attraction. energy.
liqu Particles less orderly, large spaces in Weaker Higher kinetic
id between, formed in groups. attraction energy.
gas Single particles, very far apart. Very weak Very high
attraction. energy
Physical Properties of Matter: How one would describe something scientifically. Identified by senses.
solid liquid gas
shape Definite Takes shape of Takes shape of
container container
Descriptors: color [colourless, red, etc], texture [fine, smooth], odour [sharp, burnt], luster [shiny, matte],
clarity [transparent, opaque], taste [bitter, sweet], viscosity [i.e. the thicker the liquid, the higher the
viscosity], malleability [shatters when hammered or not], ductility [can it be drawn into wires?], hardness,
conductivity [is it an insulator?], density [float or sink?], solubility [ability to be dissolved in liquid].

Physical or Chemical Change?: Physical change is when something changes in appearance. Chemical change is
when a substance changes into a new material. [Physical change – metal expanding] [Chemical change – rust]

Factors in Physical and Chemical Changes: New color, change in heat, gas produced [bubbles], precipitate
[formation of solid in a solution].

Graphing: The independent variable is what YOU control. The dependent variable depends on the independent
variable. Control variables are what must remain the same to not interrupt the experiment.

Density Problems: When answering a problem give the givens, then show the formula, then input your givens into
the formula, then rewrite the formula and answer the question. Finally, put the answer in a statement.
1. M= 9g, V= 16mL, D= ?
2. M/V = D
3. 9g/16mL = D
4. 9g/16mL = 0.5 g/mL
5. The density is 0.5 g/mL

Mixtures: Mixtures are made up of two or more particles such as mechanical mixtures which are heterogeneous.
Examples of mechanical mixtures are juice or ketchup. Solutions are also mixtures. Solutions are made up of
solutes [solids that dissolve] and solvents [the liquid that dissolves the solid.]

Pure Substances: [Homogeneous] Pure substances are made up of ONE particle. They can be elements, [example:
oxygen, phosphorus, sodium] or compounds [made up of two or more atoms [water (H2O) salt (NaCl)]

Homogeneous: looks the same throughout

Heterogeneous: different parts are visible.

Bohr Rutherford Diagrams:

Atomic Number Atomic Mass Number of Number of Number of
Protons Neutrons Electrons
Found in top left Found under Same as atomic Atomic mass Same as atomic
corner of periodic element code. number. minus number number.
table box. of protons.

• Nucleus is the center box. Contains protons and neutrons.

• Electrons are found on outer shell.
• First shell always has two electrons.
• Second shell has a maximum of 8 electrons.
• If a third shell is needed, it also has a maximum of 8 electrons.

Astronomy Review
Steve Hall SNC1P
Phases of Moon:

The Sun: Core

Radiative Layer – Heat radiates outwards
Convective Layer – Boiling currents
Photosphere – Surface of sun (Not solid)
Sun Spots – Areas which appear darker. (One Sunspot is larger than the Earth.)
Chromosphere – Inner atmosphere
Corona – Outer atmosphere, only visible during eclipses.
Solar Prominence
Solar Flares – Violent Explosions near sun spots.
The sun is so large, you could fit 100 Earths across the diameter of the sun. It is the closest star to the Earth. 1
million Earths could fit inside the sun. It has four million times the mass of the Earth. The sun spins on its axis from
west to east. The Earth only receives 1 billionth of the sun’s energy. The sun is composed of 73% hydrogen and
25% helium.

The Moon: The moon is a natural satellite of Earth. Moonlight is reflected sunlight. It takes the moon 27.3 days to
revolve around the Earth.

Seasons: The reason we have seasons is because the Earth’s axis is tilted. It is pointed towards Polaris, aka the
North Star.

Planets, in order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune (Pluto no longer a planet because it
does not have an orbit.