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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь

УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ГРОДНЕНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИМЕНИ ЯНКИ КУПАЛЫ»

TECHNICAL
ENGLISH
BASICS
ОСНОВЫ
ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО
АНГЛИЙСКОГО

Пособие по английскому языку


для студентов технических специальностей

Гродно 2005
УДК 803.0(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1
Т38

Авторы-составители: кандидат филологических наук, доцент, И.А.Болдак;


преподаватель, Л.Р.Вайнерт,
ст. преподаватель, Т.Т.Русинова.

Рецензенты: кандидат филологических наук, доцент В.С.Истомин;

кандидат филологических наук, доцент Н.И.Веренич.

Рекомендовано советом филологического факультета ГрГУ им. Я.Купалы

Techical English Basics = Основы технического английского :


Т38 пособие по английскому языку / авт.-сост. И.А.Болдак [и др.] –
Гродно : ГрГУ, 2005. – 146 с.

ISBN 985-417-769-6

Пособие составлено на материалах текстов, взятых из оригинальных английских


источников, и призвано способствовать развитию понимания и чтения, а также обес-
печивает систематическую обработку основных грамматических явлений, включен-
ных в программу.
УДК 802.0(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1

ISBN 985-417-769-6 © ГрГУ им. Я.Купалы, 2005


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее пособие разработано в соответствии с системно-


деятельностным подходом к обучению английскому языку и
предназначено как для аудиторной, так и для самостоятельной
работы студентов заочной формы обучения технических
специальностей.
Основная цель пособия – обучение английскому языку. При
максимальной системной обработке основных грамматических
явлений пособие включает ознакомление студентов с лексическим
материалом по специальности, подготовку обучаемых к успешной
сдаче экзамена за весь курс обучения.
Пособие состоит из двух частей. Языковой материал в первой
части пособия сгруппирован по темам, которые обозначены в начале
каждого урока. Каждый из уроков включает тексты для изучающего
чтения, а также устные и письменные упражнения, которые
располагаются в порядке постепенного нарастания трудностей.
Материал второй части рассчитан на последовательное
формирование начальных навыков чтения литературы по
специальности. Работа над ним направлена на создание словарного
запаса терминологической лексики.
В Приложении авторы предлагают студентам ознакомиться со
структурой экзамена по английскому языку за курс обучения и
повторить пройденные лексические и грамматические темы.

–3–
PART I
UNIT 1
Grammar: 1. Verb ‘to be’: the Present Tense
2. ‘There is/ there are’
3. ‘Have/ have got’
Text: ‘The Moon’

The Moon
When people look up into the sky, they can see that it is not empty.
During the day, they can see the sun. At night, they see the moon and
many, many stars.
The moon is nearer than the sun. The moon is about 240,000 miles
away. The sun is farther, 93 million miles from us.
The sun is a star. It is a ball of fire; it sends out light. The moon is
not hot. It does not send out light; it reflects light. The sun sends out
light to the moon. Then the moon sends the sun’s light back to the earth.
The moon is very different from the earth. There is no air on the
moon. It is both very hot and very cold there. During the day, it is very
hot in the sunshine, but at night it can be –200 F. (129є below zero C.).
There are no trees, grass, or water on the moon, only rocks and
deserts. There are many mountains that are from 2 to 5 miles high. There
are at least 30,000 round holes in the moon called craters.
A moon is a smaller object in space that goes around a planet. Our
moon goes around our earth. It takes about 28 days for the moon to go
around the earth. At the same time the moon itself also turns. This takes
about 28 days too. This is why one side of the moon is always turned
toward the earth. The other side is always turned away. Spaceships went
around the moon in the 1960s. They took the first pictures of the back
side of the moon. In July 1969, two men from the United States stepped
on the moon.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

empty during at night a star far away


however to reflect light a hole a spaceship

–4–
Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises
I. Answer the questions with a sentence from the text.
1. Is the moon as large as the sun?
2. How is the moon different from the sun?
3. How far from the moon is the earth? How far is it from the sun?
4. How is the moon different from the earth?
5. Two men walked on the moon in 1969. What country were they
from? Do you know their names?

II. Are the sentences true or false?


1. The sun is nearer to us than the moon.
2. The moon looks almost the same size as the sun.
3. The sun reflects light.
4. It is always very cold on the moon.
5. Some of the mountains on the moon are 5 miles high.
6. We can see all of the moon.
7. The moon reflects light.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.
Drill 1.Is this the Moon?
· Yes, it’s the Moon.
· No, it’s not the Moon.
1. Is this a star?
2. Is this the Sun?
3. Is this a desert?
4. Is this a spaceship?
5. Is this a plant?
6. Is this a crater?

Drill 2.Are you an architect?


· No, I’m not.
1. a doctor 6. a scientist
2. a pilot 7. a photographer
3. an engineer 8. a reporter
4. a teacher 9. a nurse
5. a housewife 10.a driver

–5–
Drill 3.Is he happy?
· Yes, he is always happy.

1. late 4. right 7. tired 10. bored


2. busy 5. wrong 8. happy 11. angry
3. funny 6. ill 9. hungry 12. crazy

Drill 4. Peter is cold, isn’t he?


· Yes, he is. He is very cold.

1. Peter is hot, isn’t he? 5. Peter is tired, isn’t he?


2. Peter is hungry, isn’t he? 6. Peter is angry, isn’t he?
3. Peter is busy, isn’t he? 7. Peter is happy, isn’t he?
4. Peter is ill, isn’t he? 8. Peter is cold, isn’t he?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте формы глагола ‘to bе’, приведенные в
таблице.

to be: Present Simple


I am (I’m) am I? I am (I’m) not
you are (you’re) are you? you are not (aren’t)
he is (he’s) is he? he is not (isn’t)
she is (she’s) is she? she is not (isn’t)
it is (it’s) is it? it is not (isn’t)
we are (we’re) are we? we are not (aren’t)
you are (you’re) are you? you are not (aren’t)
they are (they’re) are they? they are not (aren’t)

II. Напишите полную форму в следующих словосочетаниях.

1. it’s 3. we’re 5. aren’t 7. She’s American.


2. isn’t 4. they’re 6. I’m English 8. He’s from Oxford

III. Заполните пропуски, употребляя ‘I, you, she, he, am, ‘m,
are, ‘re, is, ‘s’.

–6–
1. George is Swiss...... is from Geneva.
2. ‘Mrs Alexander isn’t English.’ – ‘No? Where’s..... from?’
3. ‘Are you American?’ – ‘Yes, I.....’.
4. ‘What do..... do?’ – ‘.....’m a doctor’.
5. ‘..... you married?’ – ‘Yes, I.....’.
6. ‘What..... your name?’ – ‘Charles’.
7. ‘..... your name Alice?’ – ‘No, it...n’t’.
8. ‘What does Mary do?’ – ‘..... ..... a shop assistant’.

IV. Напишите следующие предложения, заполнив пропуски


конструкциями ‘there is’ или ‘there are’.
1. ........ no air on the Moon.
2. ........ no trees on the Moon.
3. ........ a desert on the Moon.
4. ........ no water on the Moon.
5. ........ some news in the paper.
6. ........ a lot of rocks on the Moon.
7. ........ craters on the Moon.

V. Перепишите предложения, используя ‘have got’ в


соответствующей форме.
e.g. She has a dog. –—— She’s got a dog.
She doesn’t have a cat. –—— She hasn’t got a cat.

1. I don’t have a car. I have a bike.


2. ‘Do you have a dog?’ – ‘Yes, I do.’
3. He has a motorbike. He doesn’t have a car.
4. They have a flat. They don’t have a house.
5. ‘Does he have a computer?’ – ‘No, he doesn’t.’
6. ‘Does she have a new job?’ – Yes, she does.’
7. We don’t have much money. They have a lot.

VI. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. During the day it is very hot on the Moon.


2. There are no trees, grass or water on the Moon.

–7–
UNIT 2

Grammar: 1. The Present Simple Tense


2. Position of Adverbs of Frequency
3. Plural of Nouns
Text: ‘Buckingham Palace’

Buckingham Palace
The Palace. There are two addresses in London that the whole
world knows. One is 10 Downing Street, where the Prime Minister lives.
The other is Buckingham Palace. This famous palace, first built in 1703,
is in the very centre of London.
It is a family house, where children play and grow up. It is also the
place where presidents, kings, and politicians go to meet the Queen.
Buckingham Palace is like a small town, with a police station, two post
offices, a hospital, a bar, two sports clubs, a disco, a cinema, and a swim-
ming pool. There are 600 rooms and three miles of red carpet. Two men
work full-time to look after the 300 clocks. About 700 people work in
the Palace.
The Queen’s Day. When the Queen gets up in the morning, seven
people look after her. One starts her bath, one prepares her clothes, and
one feeds the Royal dogs. She has eight or nine dogs, and they sleep in
their own bedroom near the Queen’s bedroom. Two people bring her
breakfast. She has coffee from Harrods, toast, and eggs. Every day for
fifteen minutes, a piper plays Scottish music outside her room and the
Queen reads The Times. Every Tuesday evening, she meets the Prime
Minister. They talk about world news and have a drink, perhaps a gin
and tonic or a whisky.
An Invitation to the Palace. When the Queen invites a lot of peo-
ple for dinner, it takes three days to prepare the table and three days to
do the washing-up. Everybody has five glasses: one for red wine, one
for white wine, one for water, one for port, and one for liqueur. During
the first and second courses, the Queen speaks to the person on her left
and then she speaks to the person on her right for the rest of the meal.
When the Queen finishes her food, everybody finishes, and it is time for
the next course!

–8–
Words and expressions to be remembered:

the whole world famous to grow up to be like to work full-time


to prepare to feed Royal own Harrods a piper outside
to do the washing-up everybody during a course

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Are the sentences true or false?


1. The Palace is more than two hundred years old.
2. It is famous because it is in the centre of London.
3. The same person starts the Queen’s bath, prepares her clothes,
and feeds the dogs.
4. The dogs sleep in the Queen’s bedroom.
5. The Queen and the Prime Minister go out for a drink on Tuesday
nights.

II. Answer the questions.


1. Why is Buckingham Palace like a small town?
2. Are there many clocks?
3. How many dogs does the Queen have?
4. What newspaper does she read?
5. What sort of music does the piper play?
6. Why do people have five glasses on the table?
7. What happens when the Queen finishes her food?

III. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Есть два адреса в Лондоне, которые знает весь мир.


2. Этот знаменитый дворец, впервые построенный в 1703,
находится в самом центре Лондона.
3. Букингемский дворец напоминает маленький город с
полицейским участком, двумя почтовыми отделениями, больницей,
баром, двумя спортивными клубами, дискотекой, кинотеатром и
плавательным бассейном.
4. Когда Королева встает утром, семь человек прислуживают ей.

–9–
5. У нее восемь или девять собак, и они спят в своей
собственной спальне рядом со спальней Королевы.
6. Когда Королева приглашает много людей на обед, требуется
три дня, чтобы накрыть стол, и три дня, чтобы убрать со стола
(помыть посуду).

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1.Do you get up early?


· Yes, I do.
· No, I don’t.
1. Do you finish studies late? 8. Do your parents work full-time?
2. Do you know your address? 9. Do they read theTimes?
3. Do they write dictations? 10. Do you learn English?
4. Do you play hockey? 11. Do you like tea?
5. Do your friends swim well? 12. Do you like coffee?
6. Do you go to work on Saturday? 13. Do they talk about politics?
7. Do you feed the Royal dogs? 14. Do you like football?

Drill 2.Do you play golf every day?


· No, I don’t. I do not play golf every day.

1. Do you know French? 6. Do your parents travel a lot?


2. Do you speak Italian? 7. Does your friend like fast food?
3. Do you smoke? 8. Do we learn Spanish?
4. Do your friends watch TV 9. Do you like Japanese cars?
every day?
5. Do you teach physics? 10.Do you play the piano?

Drill 3.Do you ever study in the library?


· I always do. (usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never)

1. Do you ever spend your holidays abroad?


2. Does your brother ever play tennis?
3. Does your sister ever study at night?
4. Do you ever miss your English classes?
5. Does your mother ever go shopping on Sunday?
– 10 –
6. Does your father ever go fishing?
7. Do you ever listen to the news in the morning?

Drill 4.They learn English.


· Do they learn English?
1. We learn German.
2. They work in the morning.
3. I play the piano.
4. I always get up early.
5. We often make mistakes in our tests.
6. They always play tennis on Sunday.
7. You usually come home late.

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы в настоящем
простом времени.
Present Simple

I play do I play? I do not (don’t) play


you play do you play? you do not (don’t) play
he (she, it) plays does he (she it) play? he (she, it) does not
(doesn’t) play
we play do we play? we do not (don’
you play do you play? you do not (don’t) play
they play do they play? they do not (don’t) play

II. Преобразуйте следующие предложения, употребив


подлежащее в единственном числе и изменив соответственно
форму сказуемого.

1. They often go fishing and catch nothing.


2. My friends work in London; they buy and sell cars.
3. They sit at the window and watch the traffic.
4. These apples are very green.
5. My friend like meat, but do not like fish.

III. Выберите правильную глагольную форму.

1. Stan have/has breakfast at half past seven.


– 11 –
2. Karen does not have/has breakfast.
3. My father work/works in Cardiff.
4. He does not like/likes travelling.
5. He does not work/works on Saturdays.
6. My parents live/lives in a big flat.
7. What does your father do/does?

IV. Заполните пропуски глаголами ‘do’ или ‘does’.

1. ... your father work in a garage?


2. What time... you finish work in the evening?
3. What... your husband do?
4. ... both your children go to the same school?
5. Where... they have lunch?
6. ... your grandmother work?
7. When... Andrew’s sister have lunch?

V. Заполните пропуски, употребив глагол в соответствующей


форме.
1. They............... my address. (not know)
2. Where..... your mother.....? (live)
3. What time..... you..... work? (start)
4. Lucy.............. on Friday afternoons. (not work)
5. ..... Cathy..... reading? (like)
6. ..... they..... German in Switzerland? (speak)
7. I watch football, I............. it. (not play)
8. Robert..... dancing and tennis. (like)

VI. Составьте предложения, поставив слова в нужном порядке.

1. always – France – to go – we – spring – in.


2. stay – hotel – a – usually – we – in.
3. sometimes – train – go – we – by.
4. children – with – never – our – us – come.
5. we – restaurant – go – a – often – evenings – Friday – to – on.

VII. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. The Queen reads The Times.


2. The Queen has eight dogs.
3. It takes three days to prepare the table.
4. They talk about world news.
– 12 –
UNIT 3

Grammar: 1. The Present Continuous Tense


2. Indefinite pronouns
Text: ‘Working Day’

Working Day
Mr Copland has a lot of work today. He must write a report for Mr
Baxter. Mr Baxter is a very exacting man. He wants to have the report
ready today.
Mr Copland is alone in his office. He is sitting at his desk with a
pen in his hand. He is trying to keep his thoughts on the report. He must
calculate quickly and without mistakes. But he is not writing anything.
He is looking at the ceiling with unseeing eyes. He is dreaming. The sun
is shining brightly. The birds are singing. Mr Copland is driving some-
where in South America. Alice is sitting at his side and smiling at him.
Everything is quiet but... Mr Copland begins to realize that he and Alice
are not alone in this world. Another car is coming in their direction. The
driver is holding a gun in his hand and aiming it at Mr Copland. ‘I want
the report’, he says. Mr Copland recognizes Mr Baxter.

Words and expressions to be remembered

exacting a ceiling a gun to aim

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Choose the right answer to the questions below:

1. When does Mr Baxter want to have the report ready?


a. tomorrow b. today c. this week
2. What is Mr Copland trying to do?
a. calculate quickly b. keep his thoughts c. finish the report
on the report
3. What is he doing in fact?

– 13 –
a. writing b. looking at the ceiling c. singing
4. What is the weather like?
a. cold b. rainy c. sunny
5. Who is sitting to Mr Copland in his imaginary trip?
a. nobody b. Mr Baxter c. Alice
6. What puts an end to his dreams?
a. the idea b. a telephone call c. Mr Baxter’s arrival
of a report

II. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Сейчас мистер Копланд старается сосредоточиться на докладе.
2. Он смотрит на потолок невидящим взглядом.
3. Он начинает осознавать, что они с Элис не одни в этом мире.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1.Are you reading? Is he reading?


· Yes, I am. · Yes, he is.
1. Are you looking at the teacher?
2. Are you learning English?
3. Are you speaking English?
4. Are you and your friends sitting at your desks now?
5. Are the students listening?
6. Are they trying to keep their thoughts on English?

Drill 2.Are you going home? Is he coming from Oxford Circus?


· No, I am not. · No, he is not.
1. Are you watching TV at the moment?
2. Are you playing volley-ball now?
3. Is Paul eating an apple?
4. Are you speaking Japanese?
5. Are they writing a test?
6. Are you washing your dog now?
7. Is Alex writing a report?

– 14 –
Drill 3.John is writing. Susan......
· Susan is not writing.
1. Mary is reading. Dick......
2. I am driving. She......
3. You are having breakfast. We......
4. They are working. You......
5. Bob is playing the guitar. Alice......
6. Steve and Phil are eating ice-cream. Peter....
7. John is thinking. I......

Drill 4.I am speaking English. ..... you.....?


· Are you speaking English?

1. We are playing chess. ..... they.....?


2. They are cleaning the house. ..... you.....?
3. Alice and Kate are going home. ..... we.....?
4. Helen is cooking. .... John.....?
5. I am speaking German. ..... Bob and Mary.....?
6. Bob and Mary are talking. ..... Bob and you.....?
7. Mary is working. ..... I.....?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте способы образования форм с
окончанием –ing.

Большинство глаголов: work – working


wait – waiting
Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на –e: take – taking
come – coming
Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на один ударный get – getting
+ один согласный sit – sitting
Глаголы, оканчивающиеся на –ie: lie – lying
die – dying

II. Образуйте формы с окончанием ‘-ing’ от следующих


глаголов.
e.g. read – reading
swim – swimming
come – coming
– 15 –
1. think 4. wear 7. have 10. stop
2. wait 5. shine 8. take 11. run
3. rain 6. smoke 9. get 12. begin

III. Проанализируйте глагольные формы в настоящем


продолженном времени.

Present Continuous

I am (I’m) eating am I eating? I am (I’m) not eating


you are (you’re) eating are you eating? you are not (aren’t) eating
he/she/it is (he’s, she’s, it’s) eating is he eating? she is not (isn’t) eating
we are (we’re) eating are we eating? we are not (aren’t) eating
you are (you’re) eating are you eating? you are not (aren’t) eating
they are (they’re) eating are they eating? they are not (aren’t) eating

IV. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную


и вопросительную формы.

A. 1. Mr Copland has much work today.


1. There is some news.
2. I see someone there.
3. He knows something.

B. 1. The students are listening to the speaker.


2. I am concentrating on French this term.
3. We are dining out tonight.
4. Mr Palmer is painting the house.

V. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. Jeff is writing a letter to his parents.


2. The students aren’t working at the laboratory today.
3. Peter is having breakfast now.
4. The weather isn’t getting colder.

VI. Заполните пропуски, употребив ‘some’ или ‘any’.

1. There isn’t... coffee in my cup.


2. I know... nice people in Canada.

– 16 –
3. You have... fine flowers in your garden.
4. I’d like... milk, please.
5. Have you got... American friends?
6. There aren’t... matches left; we must buy... more.
7. Would you like... more coffee?
8. He answers my questions without...hesitation.

UNIT 4

Grammar: 1. The Present Simple Tense and the Present


Continuous Tense
2. Quantitative Pronouns
Text: ‘A Long Day’s Journey Into Work’

A Long Day’s Journey Into Work


Do you think you have a long and boring journey to work? Well,
David Ross takes over seven hours every day to get to and from work.
That’s 1,610 hours a year!
David Ross, a 32-year-old accountant, lives with his wife and two
children in Leeming, a small country village near York in the north of
England. But his job is in the centre of London, 400 miles (640 km)
away in the south.
Every day David leaves home at five o’clock in the morning, drives
three miles to his local railway station and catches the 5.30 train to York.
At York he takes the 6.12 InterCity Express to King’s Cross in London.
From there he goes by underground to Liverpool Street Station and then
walks to his office.
The whole journey takes three hours and fifty minutes. He gets
home at nine o’clock in the evening. What a life!
Why does he do it? David smiles: ‘Because I like my job in Lon-
don but I like living in the north and I like travelling by train!’

Words and expressions to be remembered:

boring journey an accountant to leave to catch the whole

– 17 –
Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises
I. Answer each question with a complete sentence.
1. Where does David Ross live?
2. Where is his job?
3. What time does David leave home every day?
4. How many miles does he drive to the local railway station?
5. How long does the whole journey take?
6. What time does he get home?
7. Why does he do it?

II. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Дэвид Росс живет со своей женой и двумя детьми в маленькой
деревушке на севере Англии.
2. Но работает он в центре Лондона, 640 км южнее.
3. Каждый день Дэвид отправляется из дома в 5 часов утра и в
5.30 садится на поезд до Йорка.
4. В Йорке в 6.12 он садится в междугородний экспресс до
станции Кингз Кросс в Лондоне.
5. Вся дорога занимает 3 часа и 50 минут.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1.Do you like apples? Does she ask a question?


· No, I don’t like apples. · No, she doesn’t ask a question.
1. Do you like bananas? 5. Do you speak German?
2. Does she like potatoes? 6. Does he play the piano?
3. Do they know the answer? 7. Do they like to dance?
4. Do we understand them? 8. Does George like coffee?

Drill 2.Look! He is washing the car.


· Of course! He washes the car every day.
1. Look! She is cooking the potatoes.
2. Look! He is walking to school.
3. Look! I am waiting for you.
4. Look! She is learning her lessons.
5. Look! You are using my guitar.
– 18 –
Drill 3.They have dinner at 7 o’clock.
· Look! They are having dinner now.
1. He works in the garden every afternoon.
2. They visit us in the summer.
3. We listen to the radio in the evening.
4. Nancy does her homework after school.
5. Harold writes to his cousin every week.
6. Mr Parker drives to work every morning.
7. He listens to music in the evening.

Drill 4.Does he smoke a lot?


· I don’t know. But he is smoking now.
1. Do they work hard?
2. Does she sing every day?
3. Does he often cry?
4. Do they always laugh?
5. Does she talk a lot?
6. Does he often drink?
7. Do they sleep all day?

Drill 5.Tom’s making a lot of mistakes!


· He doesn’t usually make mistakes.
1. Tom’s answering the telephone!
2. He’s helping his wife!
3. He’s walking the dog!
4. He’s cleaning the windows!
5. They’re working late!
6. The dog is sleeping on your bed!
7. She’s stopping at the traffic lights!

Drill 6.Are there many books in the bookcase?


·Yes, there are a lot of.
· No, there aren’t. There are few.

1. Are there many flowers in the vase?


2. Are there many stars in the sky?
3. Are there many trains to London?

– 19 –
4. Are there many children in the hall?
5. Are there many drawings in the book?

Drill 7.Is there much snow in the street?


·Yes, there is a lot of.
· No, there isn’t. There is little.

1. Is there much water in the glass?


2. Is there much coffee in your cup?
3. Is there much money in the pocket?
4. Is there much work to do?
5. Is there much food in the fridge?

Grammar Exercises
I. Заполните пропуски формами с окончанием ‘-ing’
следующих глаголов.

1. I’m..... a sandwich. (eat)


2. I’m..... a letter. (write)
3. I’m..... abroad. (travel)
4. I’m..... of thirst. (die)
5. I’m..... your case. (carry)
6. I’m..... down. (lie)
7. I’m..... down. (sit)

II. Проанализируйте наречия, употребляемые в Present


Simple и в Present Continuous.

Present Simple usually, always, never, often He leaves home at


sometimes, seldom, every year 5 every day.

Present Continuous now, at present, still He is playing the


piano now.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в


соответствующем времени: Present Simple или Present Continuous.

– 20 –
1. She (go) to school every day.
2. We (learn) English now.
3. The sun always (shine) in Egypt.
4. I (sit) on a chair and (eat) a banana.
5. Bad students never (work) hard.
6. It (rain) in winter. It (rain) now.
7. He usually (sing) in English but today he (sing) in French.

IV. Проанализируйте формы местоимений ‘much, many, a


lot, little, few’.

much, many, a lot little, a little, few, a few

1. We spend a lot of money. 1. He drinks little beer. (=not much)


2. Are there many people there? 2. There’s a little wine left. (=some,
indefinite)
3. We haven’t got much time. 3. Few students are present.
(=not many)
4. How much does it cost? 4. A few students are present.
(=some, indefinite)
5. He hasn’t got many friends.

V. Напишите следующие предложения в отрицательной


форме, употребив ‘much’ или ‘many’.
e.g. I’ve got a lot of time. – I haven’t got much time.

1. There are a lot of people in the street.


2. I take lots of photos while I am on holiday.
3. He always gives me lots of help.
4. They’ve got a lot of whisky.
5. You can see a lot of animals in the Zoo.
6. He can drink a lot of wine.
7. There is a lot of blood on his face.

VI. Заполните пропуски, употребляя ‘a little’ или ‘a few’.


1. I have..... friends in this city.
2. I take..... sugar in my coffee.
3. There are..... clouds in the sky.
– 21 –
4. We can see..... shops along the street.
5. Would you like..... more ice cream?

VII. Заполните пропуски, употребляя ‘much, many, a lot of,


a little, a few’.
Иногда возможны несколько вариантов.

1. There is..... snow on the roof.


2. He has..... English books.
3. There are..... flowers in this vase. Take..... for your wife.
4. Now there is..... water in the river.
5. There isn’t..... rice left.
6. He earns..... money in his job.
7. She’s got..... classical music records.

UNIT 5

Grammar: 1. The Present Perfect Tense


2. Possessive Case
Text: ‘Loch Ness’

Loch Ness

Loch Ness is a large lake in the Highlands of Scotland. It’s narrow and
quite deep, nearly 300 metres. There is a lot of peat in it, so it’s very black.
People have said and believed for hundreds of years that there is a
monster in the lake. Fifty years ago they built a new road along the lake
and since then people have reported that they have seen the monster.
There have also been expeditions with small submarines and underwa-
ter cameras to try and find out more about the monster.
In some interesting underwater photos from 1975 you can see a
head and a big body. But not everybody believes that there really is a
large animal in the loch. Some people say that it’s only peat, which is
rising from the bottom of the lake, or branches of trees which are float-
ing in the water. And yet there are people who keep watch day and night
all summer in the hope of catching sight of Nessie, if and when she
raises her head.
– 22 –
This is what the monster, Nessie, looks like, if you believe what
the photos show you: it’s dark brown, its total length is about 15 metres
and its head is very small and snake-like.
People say that the best time to see the monster is in the summer
months, early in the morning and evening, when the weather is warm
and the loch is calm.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

The highlands narrow deep peat a monster a submarine


to float to catch sight of length snake-like

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Answer the questions with a sentence from the text.


1. What is Loch Ness?
2. Why is it very black?
3. What is there in the lake?
4. What can you see in some interesting underwater photos from
1975?
5. Why do some people keep watch day and night all summer?
6. What does the monster, Nessie, look like?
7. What is the best time to see the monster?

II. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Люди говорят, что в озере живет чудовище.


2. На некоторых интересных подводных снимках 1975 года
вы можете видеть голову и большое туловище.
3. Некоторые люди считают, что это всего лишь ил, который
поднимается со дна озера, или ветки деревьев, которые плывут по воде.
4. И все же есть люди, которые не спускают глаз днем и ночью
все лето, в надежде хоть краешком глаза увидеть Несси.

– 23 –
Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1.Have you seen him?


· Yes, I have
· No, I haven’t.
1. Have you been to the Zoo?
2. Have you lived here all your life?
3. Have you ever played tennis?
4. Have you ever ridden a horse?
5. Have you driven a car?
6. Have you ever written a letter to a newspaper?
7. Have you ever eaten a frog?
8. Have you ever driven a tractor?
9. Have you ever broken your leg?
10. Have you ever had an operation?
11. Have you ever eaten Chinese food?

Drill 2.a new film


· I have seen a new film.
1. an English magazine 5. an elephant
2. an interesting article 6. a camel
3. a scientific journal 7. a tiger
4. a hippopotamus 8. a lion

Drill 3.his brother


· He has met his brother.
1. a student from group 7 5. his friend
2. his parents 6. his neighbour
3. his teacher 7. the postman
4. his Dean 8. a fashion model

Drill 4.Have you been to Mexico? – (No).


· No, I haven’t been to Mexico yet.
Have you spoken to the manager? – (Yes).
· Yes, I’ve already spoken to the manager.
– 24 –
1. Have you had your breakfast already? – (Yes).
2. Have you ever been to Italy? – (No).
3. Has the class started? – (Yes).
4. Have you ever spoken to a famous person? – (No).
5. Have you read ‘Hamlet?’ – (Yes).
6. Have you ever been to Disneyland? – (No).

Drill 5.My sister has been a good pupil. (always)


· My sister has always been a good pupil.

1. She has been late for classes. (never)


2. He has told us about his work. (already)
3. I have seen an elephant. (never)
4. I have done my homework. (already)
5. She has learned to swim. (just)

Drill 6.Tom is opening the door.


· Tom has just opened the door.

1. Harry is changing his clothes.


2. I am washing my hands.
3. We are listening to the news.
4. You are speaking over the telephone.
5. He is having breakfast.
6. They are returning books to the library.
7. Peter is washing his car.

Drill 7.Why aren’t you doing the exercise?


· I have already done it.

1. Why aren’t you reading the text?


2. Why aren’t you doing your homework?
3. Why aren’t you listening to the news?
4. Why aren’t you getting ready for the exams?
5. Why aren’t you having dinner?
6. Why aren’t you drinking milk?
7. Why aren’t you cooking supper?
– 25 –
Grammar Exercises

I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы в настоящем


завершенном времени.

Present Perfect

I have (‘ve) asked Have I asked? I have not (haven’t) asked


you have (‘ve) asked Have you asked? You have not (haven’t)
asked
he/she/it has (‘s) asked Has he asked? She has not (hasn’t) asked
we have (‘ve) asked Have we asked? We have not (haven’t) asked
you have (‘ve) asked Have you asked? You have not (haven’t) asked
they have (‘ve) asked Have they asked? They have not (haven’t) asked

II. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и


вопросительную формы.

1. Robert has gone to Brazil.


2. The children have come back from school.
3. Mrs Parker has made coffee.
4. I have had lunch.
5. The lecture has begun.

III. Составьте утвердительные или отрицательные


предложения, не изменяя формы глагола.

The students hasn’t done the work of late.


Alice haven’t seen Michael lately.
Peter have been here yet.
We has met her twice this week.
The Parkers have been Anne’s friends today.
Paul has lived in Paris since 9 o’clock.
They has been ill for a week.
The child have known George for ten years.
I has gone to bed already
Have prepared their homework

– 26 –
IV. Составьте предложения со сказуемыми во времени
Present Perfect Tense.

1. He, never, to London, been, before, has.


2. We, seen, a friend of ours, just, have.
3. She, a letter, written, her, to, parents, lately, has.
4. I, interesting, have, a book, very, read, this week.

V. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. They have lived in New York since 1985.


2. Henry and Bess have gone to Niagara Falls for their honey-
moon.
3. He has just had dinner.
4. He has bought a new car.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, употребив


сказуемое в a. Present Continuous; b. Present Perfect

1. I give the message to Mrs Green.


2. We send a birthday present to her.
3. We give some old cornflakes to the birds.
4. Mum and Dad watch television.
5. Tina writes letters.
6. Paul makes tea.

VII. Перепишите предложения, употребляя полную форму


глагола.
1. She’s 37. 6. He’s cold.
2. It’s late. 7. What’s he done?
3. She’s got blue eyes. 8. She’s gone to London.
4. He’s wearing a dark suit. 9. She’s tired.
5. She’s hungry. 10. Here’s the ambulance.

VIII. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы во времени


Present Perfect.

1. He just (go) out.


2. Someone (take) my bicycle.
3. The phone (stop) ringing.
4. I just (wash) that floor.
– 27 –
5. The cat (steal) the fish.
6. I (live) here for ten years.
7. I (buy) a new carpet. Come and look at it.
8. I (not pay) the telephone bill yet.

UNIT 6

Grammar: 1. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense


2. Word Order
3. Question Words
Text: ‘What’s your favourite colour?’

What’s Your Favourite Colour?

Colour is all in your mind. It doesn’t exist. When your eye receives
light, it sends messages to your mind. And your mind translates these mes-
sages into colours which vary according to the wavelengths of the light.
Colours become linked with memories, associations and emotions.
Perhaps this is why, over the centuries and throughout the world people
have given special significance and magical properties to colours. Every
colour in the visible spectrum has a superstition associated with it.
RED – the colour of fire. Red is usually associated with passion. If
red is your favourite colour, your heart rules your life. In China, red is a
lucky colour for brides. Scientists believe that red stimulates the nerv-
ous system. They have also found that red light can help you solve math-
ematical problems.
YELLOW – the colour of the sun. Yellow is a joyful colour, and in
some parts of the world it is associated with fertility because of yellow
harvests. Yellow is also a musical colour.
GREEN – the colour of trees and leaves. Green is a harmonious
colour, because it symbolizes growth in nature. It is a peaceful colour
which can make you feel calm and rested. In some schools, blackboards
have been replaced by greenboards because green light wavelengths do
not cause strain to the eyes.
BLUE – the colour of the sky. Blue is a spiritual colour, and is
normally associated with the mind. If this is your favourite colour, you
are either very spiritual or very intellectual – or both. Blue is cold. It can
make you shiver and may dull your emotions.
– 28 –
BLACK AND WHITE – these are not really colours, but to most
people black symbolizes death and evil, white means innocence and
good. But in many oriental cultures, black is good and white is for wid-
ows and the devil. It’s all in your mind.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

mind to exist to receive wavelength message to vary property


passion superstition to rule bride to solve fertility harvest
to cause strain spiritual to shiver to dull evil innocence

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. Answer the questions.
1. Does colour exist?
2. What happens when your eye receives light?
3. What colour is the colour of fire?
4. What is a musical colour?
5. Why is green a harmonious colour?
6. What is a spiritual colour?
7. What colour symbolizes death and life?

II. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Свет посылает сообщения в ваш мозг.
2. Цвета различаются в зависимости от длины волны света.
3. Люди думают, что цвета имеют магические свойства.
4. Красный цвет обычно ассоциируется со страстью.
5. Черный цвет символизирует зло, белый – добро.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. How long have you been living in this house? (since 1970)
· I have been living in this house since 1970.
1. How long has the baby been crying? (all the morning)
2. How long have you been trying to get this book? (for a week)

– 29 –
3. How long has your brother been watching television? (all the
evening)
4. How long has the fire been burning? (all the night)
5. How long has he been sleeping? (for hours)

Drill 2. Why are you so dirty? (dig potatoes in the garden)


· Because I have been digging potatoes in the garden.

1. Why are her eyes red? (cry)


2. Why are you so angry? (quarrel with Bob)
3. Why is her coat wet? (walk in the rain)
4. Why do you know nothing about Helen’s marriage? (travel)
5. Why haven’t they left the room during the break? (discuss the
new play)

Drill 3. Is John still sleeping? (hours)


· Yes, he’s been sleeping for hours.

1. Is Mary still writing letters? (two o’clock)


2. Are you living in Scotland now? (a year)
3. Are you still working for the same company? (I left school)
4. Are they still trying to learn French? (ten years)
5. Is John still waiting for Mary? (more than an hour)

Drill 4. John is still waiting for Mary.


· How long has be been waiting for her?
1. They’re all sitting in the garden.
2. He’s still working in that office.
3. Mary is still staying at the Grand Hotel.
4. Mrs. Smith is still talking to Mrs. Jones.
5. That fire is still burning.

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы во времени Present
Perfect Continuous.

– 30 –
Present Perfect Continuous

I have (I’ve) been working have I been working? I have not (haven’t) been
working
you have (you’ve) been working have you been working? You have not (haven’t) been
working
she has (she’s) been working has she been working? She has not (hasn’t) been working
we have (we’ve) been working have we been working? We have not (haven’t) been
working
you have (you’ve) been working have you been working? You have not (haven’t been
working
they have (they’ve) been working have they been working? They have not (haven’t) been working

II. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и


вопросительнуюформы.
1. They’ve been waiting for half an hour.
2. She has been wearing glasses since she was ten.
3. It has been raining for two days now.
4. We have been fishing for two hours.
5. They have been living in France since 1980.

III. Заполните пропуски, употребив ‘since’ или ‘for’:

1. He has been selling cars..... ten years.


2. I’ve been waiting..... five o’clock.
3. We’ve been reading this book..... last January.
4. We’ve been studying English..... three months.
5. He has been sleeping..... seven hours.
6. He has been working..... seven o’clock this morning.
7. It has been raining..... yesterday morning.
8. I’ve been trying to open this door..... forty five minutes.

IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя сказуемое во времени


Present Perfect Continuous.
e.g. How long you (wait)?
How long have you been waiting?
1. I (try) to phone him all day.
2. We (live) in this house for about twelve years.
3. How long you (learn) English?

– 31 –
4. People (fight) each other for millions of years.
5. They (talk) for a long time.
6. It (rain) since I got up this morning.

V. Проанализируйте схему порядка слов утвердительного


предложения.

1) подлежащее 2) сказуемое 3) дополнение 4) обстоятельство

4а) об-во образа действия 4б) об-во места 4в) об-во времени

VI. Закончите предложения, расположив обстоятельства в


нужном порядке.

1. She can play..... (now/ very well/ the piano).


2. The children have been playing..... (this afternoon/ in the park/
football).
3. We work..... (at school/ hard/ every day).
4. They live..... (in Main Street/ now).
5. I’ll meet you..... (at 10 o’clock/ in front of the office).
6. Johnny goes..... (early/ to school).
7. Mr. Jones is coming..... (right now/ up the street).
8. We are going camping..... (this summer/ in the mountains).
9. She stays.... (at home/ every day).
10. I saw you..... (this morning/ at the library).

VII. Составьте предложения, поставив слова в нужном порядке.

1. loudly/ in the bath/ sings/ he/ always.


2. was born/ in the morning/ at 2 o’clock/ 1994/ the baby/ on 3d June.
3. usually/ come/ the students/ noisely/ out of class/ at four o’clock..
4. sings/ beautifully/ that song/ Jean/ generally.
5. music/ likes/ very much/ classical/ my father.

VIII. Проанализируйте наречия, употребляемые в Present


Perfect tense и Present Perfect Continuous tense.

Present Perfect already, just, yet, ever, I have just written a letter to
never, this month a friend.

– 32 –
Present Perfect Continuous for since, all day, how long I have been writing
letters all morning

IX. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в


соответствующем времени: Present Perfect или Present Perfect
Continuous.

1. I (sit) here waiting for you for nearly an hour. I (already drink)
four whiskies.
2. What (you do) all this time? I (not see) you for weeks.
3. They (not work) for several days now. They (be) too ill.
4. It (not rain) for a month now. The grass is very dry.
5. They (go) to this pub every evening for the last 10 years.
6. I (sleep) for the last two hours and I (not wake) up properly yet.

X. Заполните пропуски следующими вопросительными


словами.

what when where which who whose why how

1. ..... time do you finish work?


2. ..... is it who lives in that big house?
3. ..... of these coats belong to you?
4. ..... old is your daughter now?
5. I haven’t seen George for ages...... did you last come across
him?
6. ..... bag is this? It’s not yours, is it?
7. ..... did you live before you came to London?
8. But..... can’t you come? Are you busy?

XI. Поставьте вопросы к следующим предложениям.

1. George is buying her that necklace. Who.....


2. George is buying her a necklace. What.....
3. They have invited Mary and Philip. Who....
4. They give the keys to Peter. What.....
5. My daughter answers the telephone. Who.....

– 33 –
UNIT 7

Grammar:1. The Past Simple Tense


2. The Past Tense of ‘to be’: ‘was’ and ‘were’
3. The repetition-word ‘one’
Texts: ‘Guy Fawkes’

Guy Fawkes
English children do not have bonfires on Midsummer Eve. Instead
they have them on November 5th – Guy Fawkes’ Night or Bonfire Night.
Who was Guy Fawkes? A man called Guy Fawkes tried to blow up
the Houses of Parliament in 1605. He and some other men dug a tunnel
under the Houses of Parliament and then put a lot of gunpowder in the
tunnel. They planned to light it on November 5th, the day the King opened
Parliament.
On November 4th Guy Fawkes went into the tunnel and waited. But
someone told the King about the plot. The King’s soldiers found the
gunpowder under the Houses of Parliament and they also found Guy
Fawkes, – with three matches ready in his hand. Some days later they
burnt him to death.
So, November 5th became Guy Fawkes’ Night and every year peo-
ple lit a bonfire and burnt a ‘guy’. Some families still do this in their
gardens today, but often towns have big bonfires and fireworks in a
park. Children still learn the rhyme:
Remember, remember
The fifth of November
Gunpowder, treason and plot.
I see no reason
Why gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot!
Following an old tradition, even today Beefeaters from the Tower
look under the Houses of Parliament for gunpowder every 5th of No-
vember.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to have bonfires to dig a tunnel gunpowder treason to blow up


a plot a match to burn a ‘guy’ fireworks Beefeaters

– 34 –
Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Answer the questions.

1. When do English children have bonfires?


2. What did Guy Fawkes try to do?
3. Where did Guy Fawkes dig a tunnel?
4. When did they plan to light the gunpowder?
5. Why did Guy Fawkes go into the tunnel?
6. What happened to Guy Fawkes?
7. What did people do every year?
8. What do Beefeaters from the Tower do every 5th of November?

II. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Человек, по имени Гай Фокс, попытался взорвать Парламент


в 1605 году.
2. Он вместе с другими заговорщиками вырыл туннель под
Домами Парламента и затем заложил туда порох.
3. Но кто-то донес королю о заговоре.
4. Следуя старой традиции, даже сегодня Бифитеры из Тауэра
ищут порох под Домами Парламента каждый год 5-го ноября.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. Was he at home in the evening?


· Yes, he was.
· No, he wasn’t.
1. Was she a good cook? 5. Was he at the theatre in the evening?
2. Was he a doctor? 6. Was she at the party with you?
3. Was she a nurse? 7. Were you out in the evening?
4. Was it cold in the morning? 8. Was your father very busy last week?

Drill 2. Were you tired this morning?


· No, I wasn’t at all tired.
– 35 –
1. Was he happy? 6. Was he cold?
2. Was she sad? 7. Was she busy?
3. Were you and Mary afraid? 8. Were they upset?
4. Were the Browns surprised? 9. Were you bored?
5. Were you angry? 10.Was he hungry?

Drill 3. Did you see him in London?


· Yes, I did.
· No, I didn’t.
1. Did she come home late yesterday? 5. Did you meet her at the station?
2. Did you invite him to your party? 6. Did she make many mistakes?
3. Did it rain yesterday? 7. Did they swim much?
4. Did your mother like that film? 8. Did you see his brother in the library?

Drill 4. Did the lift stop?


· Of course, it stopped.
1. Did you watch the match? 7. Did they like the programme?
2. Did she talk to the boss? 8. Did you listen to the news?
3. Did the news surprise him? 9. Did you visit uncle Jack?
4. Did she cook the dinner? 10.Did he complain about the weather?
5. Did they invite Mary? 11.Did he drive his car?
6. Did you wait for her? 12.Did she buy a new house?

Drill 5. Did Sheila sing at the party? (beautifully)


· Yes, she sang beautifully.
1. Did you find her house? (easily)
2. Did Mike drive the car? (carefully)
3. Did it rain yesterday? (hard)
4. Did Betty learn the poem? (easily)
5. Did John play the violin? (very well)
6. Did you enjoy the party? (very much)
7. Did Maradonna play? (very well)

Drill 6. Peter has a newspaper. What about you?


· I had one yesterday.

– 36 –
1. Peter has a party. What about you?
2. You have a book. What about Peter?
3. Harold has a bicycle. What about Nancy?
4. Ray has a brilliant idea. What about you?
5. Mr Parter has a bottle of lemonade. What about you and John?
6. We have an apple. What about Henry and James?

Grammar Exercises

I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы во времени Past Simple.

Past Simple

правильный глагол + –ed неправильный глагол

+ I stopped + I drank.
? Did you stop? ? Did I drink?
x He did not (didn’t) stop. x I did not (didn’t) drink.

to be: Past Simple

I was Was I? I was not (wasn’t)


you were Were you? You were not (weren’t)
he/she/it was Was he/she/it? He/she/it was not (wasn’t)
we were Were we? We were not (weren’t)
you were Were you? You were not (weren’t)
they were Were they? They were not (weren’t)

II. Напишите следующие предложения в утвердительной


и отрицательной формах времени Past Simple.

1. I break a cup 9. You are tired.


2. You cut your finger. 10.He does his work well.
3. Birds fly high. 11. Someone steals the money.
4. I lie on the bed. 12.You spend too much money.
5. I know his name. 13.The little boy falls down.
6. You lie to me. 14.The sick man gets better.
7. He is happy. 15.I eat my lunch quickly.
8. They drink tea every day. 16.We buy meat.
– 37 –
III. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. He taught English in 1998.


2. They went to Italy on holiday last summer.
3. It began to rain 2 hours ago.
4. My watch stopped this morning.
5. Fred wanted coffee for breakfast.

IV. Дополните следующие утверждения отрицательными


и утвердительными предложениями. Используйте слова,
предложенные в рамке

e.g. Shakespeare wrote songs.


· Shakespeare didn’t write songs. He wrote plays.

radium the Eiffel Tower John F.Kennedy detective stories

the radio 1962 America the 20th century fish Italy Germany

1. Christopher Columbus discovered India.


2. Beethoven came from France.
3. Leonardo da Vinci lived in Brazil.
4. The Americans landed on the moon in the nineteenth century.
5. Gustave Eiffel built the Statue of Liberty.
6. Marconi invented the telephone.
7. Marilyn Monroe died in 1990.
8. Marie and Pierre Curie discovered penicillin.
9. Lee Harvey Oswald killed Martin Luther King.
10. Agatha Christie wrote children’s stories.
11. Last night I had grass for dinner.

V. Заполните пропуски нужными формами неправильных


глаголов.

1. I often see Harold. I..... him again only yesterday.


2. We always meet on Sunday. we..... last Sunday as usual.
3. I often find things on the beach. I..... this very old bottle yesterday.
4. They sell all kinds of rubbish now, but they once..... good hand-
made furniture.
5. She is very good at figures, you know. She..... first in maths at
school.
– 38 –
6. I have the same car now I..... five years ago.
7. I don’t keep pets now, but I..... a dog when I was a boy.
8. Where did you eat last night? – We..... at a restaurant.

VI. Перепишите предложения, избегая повторения


существительных.

1. St.Peter’s in Rome is a large building, but the Great Pyramid is


a much larger building.
2. Galileo showed that the small weight dropped as quickly as the
large weight.
3. He is fond of nearly all games, but tennis and football are the
games he likes best.
4. You asked me to get you a dictionary. Is this the dictionary you
want?
5. These shoes are too small. Please get me some larger shoes.

UNIT 8
Grammar: 1. ‘Used to’. Past habit with ‘used to’
2. ‘Used to’ and the Past Simple Tense
3. Degrees of Comparison
Texts: 1. ‘Transportation Used to be Much Slower
than It is Now’
2. ‘Sultan of Brunei, One of the Richest
Men in the World’

Text 1. Transportation Used to be Much Slower than It is Now

For many years in the desert, camels used to be the only form of
transportation. Before the age of modern trains, camel trains used to
carry all the goods for trading between Central Africa and Europe. Traders
sometimes used to put together camel trains with 10,000 to 15,000 ani-
mals. Each animal often used to carry as much as 400 pounds and it
could travel twenty miles a day. This form of transportation used to be
so important that camels were called the ‘ships of the desert’.
Now modern trains travel across the desert in a very short time.
One engine can pull as much weight as 135,000 camels.
– 39 –
Air travel has changed, too. The earliest planes were biplanes, with
two sets of wings. The top speed of this plane was 60 miles per hour.
The plane engines sometimes used to stop in the middle of a trip. It used
to be impossible to fly in bad weather.
Mechanical improvements during the first world war changed
airplanes. Monoplanes took the place of biplanes.
Further improvements have lowered the cost of flying, and they
have made air travel much safer than it used to be. A modern Boeing
707 can carry 170 people and can fly at 600 miles per hour. People never
used to eat, sleep, or watch movies on airplanes. Now these things are a
normal part of air travel!

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a desert a camel train transportation trader an improvement


a monoplane a biplane a pilot an engine further a jet

Text 2. Sultan of Brunei, One of the Richest Men in the World

His Majesty, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah, the twenty-ninth Sul-


tan of Brunei, is one of the richest men in the world. He is descended
from one of the oldest ruling dynasties on earth – a royal line that goes
directly back over 600 years to 1363.
His money. The Sultan’s total wealth is more than $25 billion. He
owns hotels all round the world. He has a fleet of private planes.
Some years ago, in Brunei, he built the biggest palace in the world.
It has 1,788 rooms, 5 swimming pools, 257 toilets, 44 staircases, and 18
lifts. The dining-room can seat 4,000 people. The total cost of the palace
was $400 million. In 1996, he had a special party there for his fiftieth
birthday. It lasted three days and the guests included Michael Jackson,
the American musician, the Infanta Elena from Spain, and Prince Charles
from Britain.
His country. Brunei is one of the smallest but richest countries in
the world. Its wealth comes from oil and gas. Many people in the west
think that Brunei is in the Middle East but it isn’t. It’s in East Asia, on
the north coast of the island of Borneo. It sells the oil and gas to Japan,
and earns $2 billion a year from it. And the beauty is that there are so
few people to share all this money. The population of Brunei is only
230,000. The Sultan and his three brothers are part of the government.

– 40 –
His lifestyle. Despite all his money and power, the Sultan is a very
shy man. He often goes to international meetings but says very little. In
1965, when he was nineteen, he married his cousin, Princess Saleha,
who was sweet, pretty, and only sixteen. Time passed and she became
more and more reserved. In 1980, the Sultan met an air hostess called
Mariam Bell. She is much more outgoing than many Bruneian girls and
the Sultan fell in love with her. So, in 1981, he married her, too, and now
the two wives and ten children – four princes and six princesses – all
live happily together in the palace.
And the Sultan himself? With all his wealth, is he a happy man?
Nobody asks him that.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to descend ruling wealth outgoing to share despite shy reserved

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

1. (Text 1) Answer the questions:


1. What used to be the only form of transportation in the desert?
2. How many camels did traders use to put together in camel trains?
3. How fast did camel trains use to move?
4. How much weight did the camels use to carry?
5. What did people use to call the camels?
6. Did people use to eat and sleep on planes?

II. (Text 2) Answer the questions:


1. What do the following numbers refer to?
1363 1,788 257 1996 230,000 19 1981 10
2. Find three reasons why Brunei is so rich.
3. What is the Sultan like?
4. What are his wives like?
5. Read the following summary of the text. There are five mis-
takes in it. Find and correct them.
The Sultan of Brunei is descended from the oldest ruling family on
earth and he is one of the richest men in the world. He owns lots of
hotels in many different countries and some years ago, he built the big-

– 41 –
gest palace in East Asia. He is very sociable and outgoing and in 1996, he
had a party, which lasted three days, to celebrate his fortieth birthday. In
1981, he divorced his first wife and married an air hostess. He has ten chil-
dren and lives in the palace with his family. He also has houses in London.

III. (Text 1) Translate the following sentences into English.

1. В пустыне на протяжении многих лет верблюды были


единственным транспортным средством.
2. Этот вид транспорта был настолько важен, что верблюдов
называли «кораблями пустыни».
3. Сейчас современные поезда пересекают пустыню за очень
короткое время.
4. Современные поезда используют специальные вагоны для
своих грузов.
5. Раньше двигатели самолетов иногда глохли (останавливались)
в середине полета.
6. Люди раньше никогда не ели, не спали и не смотрели кино в
самолетах. Сейчас это обычное дело при путешествиях по воздуху.

IV. (Text 2) Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Его Величество, Султан Брунея, – один из самых богатых


людей в мире.
2. Королевская линия восходит к 1363.
3. Несколько лет назад в Брунее он построил самый большой
дворец в мире.
4. Бруней продает нефть и газ Японии и зарабатывает на этом
2 миллиарда долларов в год.
5. Вопреки деньгам и могуществу, Султан очень застенчивый
человек.
6. Она более открытая по характеру, чем многие брунейские
девушки, и Султан влюбился в нее.

Drills
Составьте предложения, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. I believe William eats too much.


· He used to, but he doesn’t any more.

– 42 –
1. I believe Lilian lives in London. 4. I believe your aunt plays the piano.
2. I believe they often watch TV. 5. I believe your neighbours often quarrel.
3. I believe Bob runs very fast. 6. I believe Jim gets up early.

Drill 2. I don’t like chocolate now. (when I was a boy)


· But I used to like chocolate when I was a boy.

1. We don’t study French any more. (at school)


2. You don’t play football any more. (when you were younger)
3. They don’t smoke. (when they were at University)
4. He hasn’t got much money. (when he was a film actor)
5. She is not beautiful. (when she was young)
6. I don’t get up early. (when I was a schoolboy)
7. I don’t read much. (when I was at school)

Drill 3. My car is fast.


· I think my car is faster.
1. My suitcase is heavy. 4. My hair is wet..
2. My coat is dusty. 5. My window is large
3. My room is hot 6. My food is bad.

Drill 4. Was it an exciting trip?


· Yes, it was more exciting than I expected.

1. Was it a comfortable coach? 4. Was it a modern plane?


2. Was it an expensive weekend? 5. Was it a dangerous landing?
3. Was it an interesting town? 6. Was it a difficult problem?

Drill 5. Is it a good film? (to see)


· Yes, it’s the best film I’ve ever seen.

1. Is it a long book? (to read) 5. Is it a good ship? (to see)


2. Is it a boring book? (to read) 6. Is she a beautiful girl? (to meet)
3. Is it a beautiful painting? (to see) 7. Is he an interesting person? (to meet)
4. Is it a good museum? (to visit) 8. Is it a beautiful country? (to visit)
– 43 –
Grammar Exercises

I. Проанализируйте употребление конструкции ‘used to’ в


утвердительных, oтрицательных и вопросительных предложениях.

Used to
He used to smoke, but he never smokes now.
He didn’t use to smoke, but he smokes now.
Did he use to smoke?

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, используя


конструкцию ‘used to’.

1. Mr Green played football before he was married.


2. Mr West drove very fast before he had that bad accident.
3. Travel was slower fifty years ago.
4. She was quite pretty in those days.

III. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную


и вопросительную формы.

1. I used to eat a lot of sweets when I was a child.


2. They used to live in a small village.
3. Tom used to travel a lot.
4. She used to be my best friend.

IV. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. They used to live in London.


2. He used to paint pictures.
3. They used to live in a small flat in the town.

V. Проанализируйте способы образования степеней


сравнения прилагательных.

Сравнительная степень Превосходная степень

Односложные small smaller the smallest


прилагательные *big bigger the biggest

– 44 –
Прилагательные, funny funnier the funniest
оканчивающиеся на –y heavy heavier the heaviest
Двухсложные и много- careful more careful the most careful
cложные прилагательные expensive more expensive the most expensive
Исключения good better the best
bad worse the worst
far further/farther the furthest/farthest
many, much more the most

VI. Раскройте скобки, употребив прилагательные в


сравнительной степени.

1. The prices are (expensive) this year than last year.


2. Many people think that nurses work (hard) than doctors.
3. Which river is (long) – the Thames or the Seine?
4. Have this armchair. It’s (comfortable) than that one.
5. I think the Science Museum is (interesting) than the Natural
History Museum.
6. My new job is (good) than my old one.
7. We’re moving to a (big) office next year.

VII. Раскройте скобки, употребив прилагательные в


превосходной степени.

1. New York is one of the (exciting) cities in the world!


2. The (tall) person in our family is my younger brother.
3. What’s the (long) river in China?
4. The Rhine is one of the (polluted) rivers in the world.
5. The (bad) part of the journey is between Singapore and Sydney.
6. Florida has some of the (beautiful) beaches in the USA.
7. She’s one of my (good) friends.

UNIT 9

Grammar: 1. The Past Simple Tense and the Present


Perfect Tense
2. Adjectives and adverbs
Text: ‘Dinosaurs’

– 45 –
Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs lived on the earth for 135 million years. They appeared
200 million years ago, and they disappeared 65 million years ago. They
were the largest animals ever to live on earth, and they ruled the earth
for a very long period of time. Dinosaurs lived in North America, in
Africa, and in Europe. During this time the land in North America was
under a large, shallow sea. Many dinosaurs lived in the water, which
helped to hold up their great weight. The early dinosaurs walked on two
feet, and they ate meat. The later dinosaurs were larger and walked on
four feet. Some of the later dinosaurs ate plants only.
Why did dinosaurs die out? Nobody knows for sure. Probably a
change in the weather made serious problems for them. About 70 mil-
lion years ago, the Rocky Mountains formed in North America. The
plant life and the weather changed. Perhaps the dinosaurs couldn’t change
fast enough.
People who like dinosaurs can see fossils in Dinosaur National
Park. This park is in Utah and Colorado. Fossils are bones which have
become stone. Fossils have taught us a lot about these great animals of
the past.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a dinosaur to disappear shallow serious fossils

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Answer the questions.


1. How long did dinosaurs live on the earth?
2. When did they appear on the earth?
3. When did they disappear?
4. Where did dinosaurs live?
5. Why did many dinosaurs live in the water?
6. How did the early dinosaurs walk and what did they eat?
7. How did the later dinosaurs walk?
8. What made serious problems for them?
9. Where can people see fossils?
10. What are fossils?

– 46 –
II. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Динозавры исчезли 65 миллионов лет назад.


2. Динозавры были самыми крупными животными, которые
когда-либо жили на Земле.
3. Динозавры господствовали на Земле очень долго.
4. Многие динозавры жили в воде, которая помогала им
удерживать свой большой вес.
5. Ранние динозавры передвигались на двух ногах, и они
питались только растениями.

Drills
Составьте предложения, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. do the washing-up


· Have you done the washing-up yet? – Yes, I’ve just done it.

1. finish your homework 6. buy your plane ticket


2. wash your hair 7. speak to the bank manager
3. clean the car 8. make a cup of tea
4. make the dinner 9. read the report
5. do the shopping 10. call a taxi

Drill 2. Have you ever been to England? (last year)


· Yes. I have. I was there last year.

1. Has your cousin returned? (last week)


2. Has it rained here lately? (yesterday morning)
3. Has your little brother watched TV this week? (yesterday)
4. Has your friend already moved to a new flat? (a month ago)
5. Have you given them my new address? (yesterday)

Drill 3. I have seen the film before. And Fred? (last night)
· Fred saw it last night.

1. Kate has been to London this month. And Mary? (last month)
2. They’ve lived in Scotland for five years. And you? (in 1980)
3. I haven’t seen his cousin for ages. And Helen? (last summer)

– 47 –
4. We haven’t got any letters from Bob for a long time. And Ned?
(yesterday)
5. Peter has played football all his life. And Tom? (only in his
schooldays)

Drill 4. Nancy has opened a box.


· When did she open it?

1. Peter has learned his lessons.


2. She has made a cake.
3. The car has stopped at the edge of the cliff.
4. They have had their coffee.
5. Harold has bought a new flat.
6. The children has built a bonfire in the garden.
7. The class has begun.

Drill 5. That’s a beautiful girl.


· She sings beautifully.

1. That’s a quick answer. He answers _____.


2. That’s a quiet boy. He speaks _____.
3. That’s a bad player. He plays _____.
4. That’s a careful driver. He drives _____.
5. That’s a slow thinker. He thinks _____.
6. That’s a good book. She writes _____.

Drill 6. Ben is quick. How does he play?


· He plays quickly.

1. Lorna is angry. How does she speak?


2. Peter is sad. How does he look?
3. They are happy. How do they talk?
4. Peter is quick. How does he stop?
5. They were quiet. How did they speak?
6. Mother was angry. How did she help?

Grammar Exercises
I. Напишите инфинитивы следующих причастий
прошедшего времени.
– 48 –
e.g. visited – visit
eaten – eat
seen, taken, met, driven, drunk, cooked, lived, stayed, flown, bought,
won, written, had, made, sent, done.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, употребив


сказуемое во времени: a) Present Perfect и b) Past Simple.

1. I drink tea for breakfast. (always/ yesterday)


2. It rains here. (never/ last week)
3. They go to Monte Carlo. (recently/ for their last holiday)
4. He smokes in bed. (never/ when he was ill)
5. Mother makes a nice cake. (often/ for tea yesterday)
6. Do you write letters? (already/ while you were away)
7. He sleeps in the garden. (lately/ last night)

III. Проанализируйте наречия, употребляемые во временах


Past Simple и Present Perfect.
Past Simple yesterday, last year, 2 days ago I saw him yesterday.
Present Perfect lately, this week, never, ever, just, already I haven’t met him lately.

IV. Раскройте скобки, употребив сказуемое в Past Simple


или Present Perfect tense.

1. He (be) in prison since last October.


2. I (never see) her so angry.
3. I (meet) him only yesterday.
4. They (go) out five minutes ago.
5. Who (write) ‘Hamlet’?
6. (you hear) anything of him lately?
7. She (write) me two letters this week.

V. Проанализируйте способы образования наречий.

Adjective Adverb

a. Образование наречий quick quickly


– 49 –
beautiful beautifully
happy happily
true truly

b. Исключения good well


c. Прилагательные и наречия, daily, deep, early, fast, hard, high,
late, loud,
имеющие одинаковую форму low, pretty, straight, etc.
A daily newspaper. It arrives daily.
A hard worker. He works hard.
A fast car. He drives fast.

VI. Образуйте наречия от следующих прилагательных.

1. happy 4. sound 7. busy 10.terrible


2. perfect 5. quick 8. good 11.true
3. frequent 6. possible 9. full 12.enthusiastic

VII. Заполните пропуски прилагательными или наречиями.

1. Could I have a ..... word with you? (quick, quickly)


2. She walked away ...... (quick, quickly)
3. This is a ..... train – it stops everywhere. (slow, slowly)
4. I’ve got an ..... job for you. (easy, easily)
5. She writes in ..... English. (perfect, perfectly)
6. I sing very ...... (bad, badly)
7. I feel ..... today. (happy, happily)
8. Could you talk more ....., please? (quiet, quietly)

UNIT 10

Grammar: 1. The Past Continuous Tense


2. The Past Simple Tense (Revision)
Texts: 1. ‘Noisy Neighbours’
2. ‘Electronic Car’

– 50 –
Text 1. Noisy Neighbours
Carol and her friends were having a party. They were all making a
lot of noise. The record player was playing at full volume. Pete was
playing his guitar and Polly was trying to play Tom’s clarinette. To make
things worse, Tom had got his dog with him and it was chasing Carol’s
cat round the room. Everybody was talking, laughing, singing and danc-
ing. The dog was barking and the cat screeching.
The doorbell rang. It kept ringing and ringing, but of course they
didn’t hear it n all that noise. Then Carol went to change a record and
noticed that there was somebody at the door. She opened it and found
her neighbour from upstairs standing outside in his dressing-gown.
- Hello, Mr Smith. What are you doing out here in your dressing-
gown? It’s very late. Come in!
Mr Smith pointed to the ceiling and shouted.
- Can you hear that noise? That’s my wife!
Carol listened. Somebody was banging on the floor of the flat up-
stairs.
- My wife is making that noise. She’s banging on the floor.
Carol smiled at Mr Smith.
- That’s all right, Mr Smith. Don’t worry. We’re making quite a lot
of noise, too. Come on in and join the party!

Words and expressions to be remembered:

volume to chase to bark to screech a dressing gown


to point a ceiling to bang to smile

Text 2. Electronic Car


The electronic car is the most modern car in the world. My uncle
had one. The car had no engine, no battery, no brakes, nothing. Instead it
had an electronic computer. The computer reacted to the driver’s voice.
When my uncle said, ‘Thank goodness’ the car started. And when
he said, ‘Bread and Butter’ the car stopped. One day my uncle was driv-
ing in the mountains. The road was very bad. There were many sharp
bends. Then he saw a sign, ‘Stop! Road ends.’
My uncle said ‘Bread and butter’ but the car didn’t stop. Again he
said ‘Bread and butter,’ this time a little louder. But still the car didn’t
stop. Uncle was beginning to feel very frightened. ‘Bread and butter,

– 51 –
bread and butter, bread and butter,’ he shouted. At last the car stopped at
the edge of the cliff.
‘Thank goodness,’ said uncle.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a battery an engine to react Thank goodness!


sharp a bend a sign an edge

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. (Text 1) Answer the questions.

1. What were Carol and her friends doing?


2. What was Pete doing?
3. What was Tom’s dog doing?
4. Was everybody sleeping and dreaming?
5. Did the guests hear the doorbell?
6. Who was standing at the door?
7. What was Mr Smith wearing?
8. What did Carol ask Mr Smith to do?

II. (Text 2) Answer the questions:

1. Did the car have an engine or a battery?


2. In what way did the computer work?
3. When did the car start and when did it stop?
4. Where was the uncle driving one day?
5. Why was the road bad?
6. What sign did he see?
7. What did the uncle say when he saw a sign?
8. Did the car stop?
9. Where did the car stop at last?
10. What did the uncle say when the car stopped at last?

III. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. У Кэрол и ее друзей была вечеринка.


2. Проигрыватель играл на полную мощность.
3. Что хуже всего, Том взял свою собаку в гости и она гонялась
по всей комнате за котом Кэрол.
– 52 –
4. В дверь позвонили, но, конечно же, в этом шуме они не
услышали его.
5. Не беспокойтесь, мистер Смит. Входите и присоединяйтесь
к нам.
6. Электронный автомобиль – самый современный в мире.
7. У машины не было ни двигателя, ни аккумулятора, ни
тормозов, а вместо этого был компьютер.
8. Компьютер реагировал на голос водителя.
9. Дорога была плохая, и в ней было много резких поворотов.
10.Наконец машина остановилась на краю обрыва.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. Are they dancing?


· I don’t think so. They weren’t dancing when I left them.

1. Is she reading? 5. Are Jack and Jill sleeping?


2. Are they fighting? 6. Is Mr Brown watching television?
3. Is John singing? 7. Are the Smiths drinking coffee?
4. Are they shouting? 8. Is Mary eating?

Drill 2. Why didn’t you go out last night? (rain)


· Because it was raining.

1. Why didn’t you come to the party? (feel bad)


2. Why did they tell him to be quiet? (watch TV)
3. Why did Nancy stay at home? (do the flat)
4. Why didn’t he stop to talk to you? (hurry to the lecture)
5. Why did you switch off the radio? (work)

Drill 3. When did she meet Helen? (walk along the street)
· She met Helen when she was walking along the street.

1. When did you catch that cold? (skate on a frosty day)


2. When did he write those nice poems? (have a holiday)
3. When did she learn the language? (live in England)
4. When did Philip lose his camera? (walk about the city)
5. When did he ring you up? (have supper)
– 53 –
Drill 4. I made the tea. John cleaned the car.
· I was making the tea while John was cleaning the car.

1. It rained. I walked up the hill.


2. They watched television. I wrote some letters.
3. You talked to Mary. I talked to John.
4. I had a holiday. He worked hard.
5. You had a bath. The girls washed the dishes.

Grammar Exercises

I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы во времени Past


Continuous.

Past Continuous

I was talking Was I talking? I was not (wasn’t) talking


You were talking Were you talking? You were not (weren’t) talking
He/she was talking Was he/she talking? He/she was not (wasn’t) talking
We were talking Were we talking? We were not (weren’t) talking
You were talking Were you talking? You were not (weren’t) talking
They were talking Were they talking? They were not (weren’t) talking

II. Составьте вопросительные и отрицательные


предложения.

1. The fire was still burning at six o’clock this morning.


2. She was reading a book when he came in.
3. The sun was shining when we went out.
4. It was raining this morning when I got up.

III. Раскройте скобки, употребив глаголы во времени Past


Continuous.

1. You (walk) very quickly when I saw you.


2. James (go) to a disco when I met him.
3. When you came in I (write).
4. The boy jumped off the bus while it (move).
5. I (have) a bath when the phone rang.
– 54 –
IV. Проанализируйте наречия, употребляемые в Past Simple
tense и Past Continuous tense.

Past Simple yesterday, last week, 2 days ago I wrote ten


letters yesterday.
Past Continuous at 5 o’clock yesterday, yesterday I was watching TV
when you came.
when you came

V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в соответствующем


времени: Past Simple или Past Continuous.

1. Yesterday the sun (shine) when I (cycle) to school.


2. When I (come) home it (get) dark.
3. Tom (still read) when the phone (ring).
4. We (have) dinner when John (arrive).
5. Mary (know) that her husband (love) fishing.

VI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в соответствующем


времени: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Past
Continuous, Present Perfect.
1. She (go) away every weekend.
2. He (go) abroad last week.
3. No, he isn’t here. He just (go) out.
4. He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him.
5. This boy never (see) the sea.
6. I (see) you yesterday. You (sit) outside a cafй.
7. He is busy now; he (write) a letter.
8. I usually (not take) sugar in my tea.

UNIT 11
Grammar: 1. The Past Perfect Tense
2. Relative Pronouns
Text: ‘Nobody Had Believed It Was Possible’

Nobody Had Believed It Was Possible


In 1912, the Titanic hit an iceberg on its first trip across the Atlan-
tic, and it sank four hours later. At that time, the Titanic was the largest
– 55 –
ship that had ever traveled on the sea. It was carrying 2207 people, but it
had taken on enough lifeboats for only 1178 people. When the passengers
tried to leave the ship, only 651 of them were able to get into lifeboats.
The Carpathia was 58 miles away when the Titanic called on its
radio for help. It arrived two hours after the great ship had gone down,
and it saved 705 people. Some of the survivors had been in the icy water
for hours when they were saved. Most of the passengers hadn’t lived
that long; 1502 people had lost their lives.
Through the whole tragedy, the Californian was only ten miles
away. Its officers were close enough to see the Titanic, but they didn’t
understand the situation.
Why were there so few survivors? Why didn’t the Californian come
to help?
First of all, nobody had prepared for such a tragedy. Nobody had
believed that the Titanic could sink. The steamship company had thought
that its ship would be completely safe in all situations.
The ship had already received six ice warnings on its radio when it
struck the iceberg. Nevertheless, it had not changed its direction or its
speed. When the Titanic hit the iceberg, the radio officer in the Califor-
nian had just gone to bed. He’d tried to warn the officers on the Titanic
about the ice before he went to bed, but the officers hadn’t listened.
After this accident, ocean travel changed. Now there are always
enough lifeboats for everybody. Radio officers work 24 hours a day. A
tragedy like the sinking of the Titanic should never happen again.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

an iceberg a lifeboat to sink a passenger a survivor


tragedy an officer a drill warning speed direction

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. Answer each question in the Past Perfect Tense.
e.g. Did the ‘Titanic’ cross the Atlantic in 1913? – No, it had al-
ready sunk in 1913.
1. Did the ‘Titanic’ have enough lifeboats for its passengers?
2. Did the people on the ‘Carpathia’ see the ‘Titanic’ when they
picked up the survivors?

– 56 –
3. Why were the survivors so cold?
4. Why hadn’t the steamship company prepared for the tragedy?
5. Why were there so few lifeboats?
6. How did the officers know there was ice on the sea?

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. Why didn’t you listen to that play on the radio? (hear)
· Because I had heard it before.
· I didn’t listen to that play on the radio because I had heard
it before.

1. Why didn’t you see Fred when you came to Moscow? (leave)
2. Why didn’t Kate want to go to the cinema? (see the film)
3. Why didn’t you tell him my new address? (forget)
4. What did Jeff hear about Kate’s examination? (pass)
5. Why did Fred come home so soon from his holiday? (spend all
the money)
6. Why couldn’t you get into your flat at once? (lose the key)
7. What did you learn about Bob? (marry)

Drill 2. Did that girl help you?


· Yes, she’s the girl who helped me.

1. Did that boy see you? 5. Did that fellow beat you?
2. Did that woman hear you? 6. Did that lady smile at you?
3. Did that man find you? 7. Did that gentleman invite you?
4. Did that nurse speak to you?

Drill 3. Did you see that film?


· Yes, that’s the film which I saw last night.

1. Did you find that ring? 5. Did you sing that song?
2. Did you watch that programme? 6. Did you sell that moped?
3. Did you write that letter? 7. Did you read that book?
4. Did you win that prize?
– 57 –
Drill 4. Did you see that girl yesterday?
· Yes, she’s that girl whom I saw yesterday.

1. Did you meet that man yesterday? 5. Did you talk about that fellow
yesterday?
2. Did you hear that woman yesterday? 6. Did you dream of that girl
yesterday?
3. Did you find that boy yesterday? 7. Did you speak to that doctor
yesterday?
4. Did you invite that nurse yesterday?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте формы глагола во времени в Past
Perfect.

Past Perfect

+ I had worked etc.


? Had you worked etc.
– He had not worked etc.

II. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в Past Perfect Tense.

1. When John and I got to the theatre the play ... (start already)
2. When she went to bed, she remembered that she... (not lock the
door).
3. She felt tired because she... (work too hard the day before).
4. She went for a holiday after she... (pass the exams).
5. I didn’t know what to do when I... (spend all the money).
6. When I met Helen, I understood why Bill... (marry her).
7. He understood the book only after he... (read it again).

III. Перефразируйте предложения, следуя образцу и


употребляя подчеркнутый глагол в Past Perfect tense.
e.g. He left school and went to university.
· After he had left school he went to university.
– 58 –
1. He studied for three years but failed his exams.
2. He worked in an office for a while and then emigrated to Aus-
tralia.
3. He tried several jobs and then he became a farmer.
4. He made a lot of money and decided to go home for a holiday.
5. He arrived in England and married an old girlfriend.
6. He met his old friends and didn’t want to go back again.
7. He sold his farm and bought a business in England.

IV. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. Most of the shops had closed by 6 p.m.


2. By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.
3. He had been smoking for 30 years before he gave up smoking.
4. They had been waiting for 20 minutes before the bus came.

V. Проанализируйте наречия, употребляемые во временах


Past Simple и Past Perfect.

Past Simple yesterday, last week, ago, last year, He washed, dressed
and then had
then, when breakfast.
Past Perfect after, before, when, already After he had finished
hiswork,hewent home.

VI. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в соответствующем


времени: Past Simple или Past Perfect.

1. First she (open) the parcel, and then she (read) the letter.
2. After she (open) the parcel, she (read) the letter.
3. He quickly (forget) all he (learn) at school.
4. After she (put) her baby to bed, she (walk) down into the town.
5. I (know) that they (not see) him since Friday.
6. He (have) no idea in which room he (hear) the noise.
7. When he (go) to London he (already study) English.

– 59 –
VII. Проанализируйте употребление относительных
местоимений ‘who, whom, which, that’.

who, whom, which, that

1. The man who spoke to us wasn’t English. (for people)


2. That’s Jim whom I saw yesterday. (for people)
3. Did you see the letter which came this morning? (for things)
4. We’ve got all the stuntmen that we want. (for people)
5. She said a word that I didn’t hear. (for things)

VIII. Заполните пропуски, употребив who, whom, which.

1. That’s the artist ..... spoke to me.


2. That’s the woman ..... I met yesterday.
3. That’s the programme ..... we saw last night.
4. That’s the girl ..... smiled at me.
5. That’s the astronaut ..... walked on the moon.
6. That’s the language ..... I have learned.
7. ..... steals once is for ever a thief.
8. Here is the money ..... I earned.
9. That’s the door ..... he painted.
10. Here is the bridge ..... was built in the Middle Ages.

UNIT 12
Grammar: 1. The Future Simple Tense
2. The construction to be going to
3. Modal Verbs may, might
Text: ‘The Car of the Future’

The Car of the Future


A pessimist is a person who always expects bad things to happen.
Pessimists think that today’s cars are in trouble because they use too
much gas. They say the car of the future will be much, much smaller.
The car of tomorrow will have no heater and no air conditioning. It’ll
have no radio and no lights. Tomorrow’s car will be an open air car with
no doors and windows. It won’t need a pollution control system because
it won’t use gas. In fact, drivers will push this new car with their feet.
– 60 –
Very few people will be killed in accidents, because the top speed will
be five miles per hour. However, pessimists warn us not to ask for pretty
colours, because the car will come in grey only.
Optimists are sure that the future will be happy. They think that car
companies will soon solve all our problems by producing the Supercar.
Tomorrow’s car will be bigger, faster, and more comfortable than be-
fore. The Supercar will have four rooms, color TV, running water, heat,
air conditioning, and a swimming pool. Large families will travel on
long trips in complete comfort. If gas is in short supply, the Supercar
will run on water. Finally, optimists promise that the car of the future
will come in any color, as long as the colour is grey.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a pessimist air conditioning a swimming pool


an optimist to solve Supercar comfortable

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. Answer the questions with a sentence from the text.
1. What is a pessimist?
2. Why are today’s cars in trouble?
3. What will the car of the future look like, according to the pessi-
mists?
4. How will it run?
5. How many colors will it come in?
6. What is an optimist?
7. What will the Supercar look like? How will it run?

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. He will get married soon.


· Will he get married soon, indeed? – No, he won’t.
He won’t get married soon, I am afraid.
1. He will pass his English exam easily.
2. My teacher will be proud of my progress.
3. They will graduate from college next month.
4. She will make a good housewife.
– 61 –
5. We shall enjoy ourselves at the week-end.
6. We shall manage to get the book by Agatha Christie.

Drill 2. It rained a lot yesterday.


· Yes, and it will rain a lot tomorrow too.

1. She swept the floor yesterday. 5. He got up late yesterday.


2. He repaired the car yesterday. 6. They were polite yesterday.
3. They won the match yesterday. 7. She was kind yesterday.
4. She studied her lessons yesterday.

Drill 3. Did you phone me yesterday?


· No, but I’ll phone you tonight.

1. Did you phone Harold? 5. Did you phone John?


2. Did you phone Nancy? 6. Did you phone Pat?
3. Did you phone Jill and Joe? 7. Did you phone me and Sam?
4. Did you phone me?

Drill 4. How long will it take her to get home from her office?
· It will take her half an hour to get there.

1. How long will it take you to get home from college?


2. How long will it take your friend to get to his office tomorrow?
3. How long will it take her to cook dinner today?
4. How long will it take you to do your work well?

Drill 5. Are you going to walk home or take a bus?


· I’m going to take a bus.

1. What are you going to do after the lesson?


2. Are we going to read ‘Treasure Island’?
3. When are you going to have another party?
4. Where are you going to spend your next holiday?
5. When are we going to meet again?

Drill 6. Where is Kitty? (in the garden)


· She may be in the garden.

– 62 –
1. Where is the doctor? (at the hospital)
2. Where are the boys? (on the river)
3. Where is Mr Miller? (in the garage)
4. Where is the cat? (in the kitchen)
5. Where is Peter? (on the playground)
6. Where is Miss Parker? (at her friends’)
7. Where is Nancy? (at the cinema)

Drill 7. Can she play the guitar?


· Yes, she can.
· No, she can’t.

1. Can they lift a car? 7. Can I drive a car?


2. Can he clean the house? 8. Can you climb a tree?
3. Can you walk on your knees? 9.Can she swim across the sea?
4. Can he speak Japanese? 10.Can you catch a mouse?
5. Can he wash the floor? 11.Can the drive a bus?
6. Can she paint a door? 12.Can he sing a song?

Drill 8. We can see the sea from our bedroom window.


· We could see the sea from our bedroom window.

1. Tom can drive. 5. He can speak Spanish.


2. She can understand English. 6. They can swim very fast.
3. I can express my thoughts in English. 7. Tom can plat tennis.
4. We can spell these words. 8. He can speak English fluently.

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы во времени Future
Simple.
Future Simple

I shall come Shall I come? I shall not (shan’t) come


You will come Will you come? You will not (won’t) come
He will come Will he come? He will not (won’t) come
We shall come Shall we come? We shall not (shan’t) come
You will come Will you come? You will not (won’t) come
They will come Will they come? They will not (won’t) come

– 63 –
II. Перепишите предложения, употребив глаголы во
времени Future Simple.

1. I never believe you. 6. I eat an orange every day.


2. You don’t understand it. 7. He feels ill.
3. I don’t buy cheap things. 8. I never have much money.
4. He never cleans his own shoes. 9. I never look as pretty as her.
5. It doesn’t cost very much. 10.He doesn’t like it at all.

III. Проанализируйте формы конструкции ‘to be going to’.

be going to
I am going to work Am I going to work? I am not going to work
You are going to work Are you going to work? You are not going to work
He/she is going to work Is he/she going to work? He/she is not going to work
We are going to work Are we going to work? We are not going to work
You are going to work Are you going to work? You are not going to work
They are going to work Are they going to work? They are not going to work

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, употребив


конструкцию ‘to be going to’.
1. He will leave tomorrow.
2. Where will he stay?
3. John will wait for us there.
4. Mr Thomson will sell his house.
5. I’ll sing it again this evening.
6. He’ll speak to us about it.
7. I shall have three weeks’ holiday this year.
V. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям.

1. The car of the future will come in grey colour.


2. The top speed of the supercar will be five miles per hour.
3. They are going to make a trip to the old castle.
VI. Проанализируйте употребление модального глагола
‘may (might)’.
may (might)
+ He may swim.
- He may not swim.
? When may he swim?
– 64 –
VII. Перепишите предложения, следуя образцу и
употребляя модальный глагол ‘may’.
e.g.. John will see you tomorrow.
· John may see you tomorrow.
1. If she stays, she’ll get a job.
2. If you go alone, you will lose your way.
3. They will never come again.
4. Perhaps we’ll go to Spain for our holidays.
5. Perhaps I’ll get my cheque today.
6. Put the keys somewhere safe. Perhaps you’ll lose them.
7. Don’t buy that book for John. Perhaps he won’t like it.

VIII. Проанализируйте употребление модального глагола


‘can (could)’.

can (could)
+ Tim can speak English well.
- He can’t dance.
? How well can he swim?

IX. Поставьте вопросы к следующим предложениям.

1. I can smell gas. 4. They can understand sign language.


2. He could see a few stars in the sky. 5. He can sail a boat.
3. She can count to twenty in Spanish. 6. They could play chess.

X. Перепишите следующие предложения, выражая


вежливую просьбу и употребляя модальный глагол ‘can’.
Следуйте образцу:
e.g.. I should like to close the window. It is cold in the room.
· Can I close the window? It is cold in the room.

1. Let me do what I want to.


2. They wish to spend the day on the sea-shore.
3. I shall come tomorrow.
4. She wants to telephone you tomorrow.
5. Will you allow me to ask a question, please?

– 65 –
UNIT 13
Grammar: 1. Modal Verbs must, have to, should
2. Reported Speech
Texts: 1. ‘Strange Laws’
2. ‘Race to the South Pole’

Text 1. Strange Laws


In Thailand, you mustn’t leave your house if you are not wearing
underwear. You have to wear a shirt while driving a car. It is illegal to
walk down the streets with your shoelaces undone in Maine, USA.
In Switzerland, you can’t wash your car, mow your lawn or hang
clothes out to dry on Sunday. It is also against the law to flush the toilet
after 10 p.m. if you live in an apartment.
In Singapore, it is illegal to chew gum or drop litter. You can’t
smoke in public places.
In Saudi Arabia, women can’t drive cars.
In England, you mustn’t stick a stamp on an envelope upside down
if it has the Queen’s picture on it. It is illegal to leave bags unattended.
Every man must grow a beard in Brainerd, Minnesota.
Between the hours of 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. in France, 70 per cent of
music on the radio has to be by French artists.
In Kentucky, USA, you mustn’t marry the same man more than
three times.
If you have more than one child in China, you have to pay a fine.
In Denmark, you can’t start your car when someone is lying
undernearth it.
In Italy, men mustn’t wear skirts.
You have to get a licence to paint your house in Sweden.
In Florida, USA, you mustn’t sing in a public place while you are
wearing a swimsuit.
In Toronto, Canada, you can’t drag a dead horse down Yonge Street
on Sunday.
And if you are in Hawaii and you are laughing at these strange
laws, don’t! In Hawaii, you mustn’t laugh after 10 p.m.
Words and expressions to be remembered:

illegal a shoe lace to flush the toilet upside down


to get a licence a swimsuit to drag

– 66 –
Text 2. Race to the South Pole
On 1 June, 1910, Captain Scott left London to begin his Antarctic
expedition. On his way, he received a telegram from the Norwegian
explorer Roald Amundsen: ‘Am going South.’ So the race to the South
Pole was on!
During the polar summer of 1910-1911, both teams organised food
depots in preparation for their expeditions the following year.
Amundsen was the first to leave, on 15 October, 1911. He had teams
of dogs pulling the sledges and all his men were on skis. Because of this
he made rapid progress. Scott left on 1 November and soon had prob-
lems. First, his two motor sledges broke down, and then the ponies be-
gan to have serious difficulties with the snow and the cold. After a while,
Scott and his men had to push the sledges themselves.
Amundsen reached the Pole on 14 December and put a Norwegian
flag there. Scott finally arrived at the Pole with four companions on 17
January. They were devastated when they saw the Norwegian flag.
Their return journey was one of the worst in the history of explora-
tion. Scott and his companions didn’t survive the return journey. Scott’s
diary was found beside his body.
16 or 17 March
Things are getting worse. Two days ago, at noon, poor Titus Oates
said he couldn’t continue because of his leg. He asked us to leave him in
his sleeping bag. We could not do that. We completed our afternoon
march. At night he was worse, and we knew that the end was near. Oates’
last thoughts were of his Mother. Hope never left him before the end.
There was a wild snowstorm. He said ‘I am just going outside. I may be
sometime.’ He went out into the snowstorm, and we have not seen him
since. We knew that poor Oates was walking away to die. It was an act
of a brave man. We all hope to meet the end with this kind of courage –
and surely death is not far away. We talk all the time of completing the
trip. But I don’t think any of us believes it in his heart.
The news of Scott’s death shocked the world. He had failed to win
the race to the Pole, but the remarkable courage shown by Captain Scott
and his men made them into heroes.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

polar a food depot to pull to push a sledge rapid


to break down to be devastated to survive a diary
at noon courage to fail to win the race
– 67 –
Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. What must you wear when you go out in Thailand?
2. Where can’t women drive cars?
3. Where mustn’t you stick a stamp upside down on an envelope?
4. Where can’t you walk down the street with your laces undone?
5. What can’t men wear in Italy?
6. Where do men have to grow beards?
7. When can’t you laugh at these laws in Hawaii?

II. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. When did Scott and Amundsen start their journeys?
2. Who travelled more quickly?
3. Did Scott and his companions survive the return journey?
4. Where was Scott’s diary found?
5. Why was it difficult for Oates to continue the journey?
6. What did Oates do?
7. Did he come back?
8. What news shocked the world?

III. (Text 1) Translate the sentences into English..


1. В Таиланде на вас должна быть рубашка, если вы ведете
машину.
2. В Швейцарии вы не должны мыть машину, косить лужайку
или вывешивать сушить одежду в воскресенье.
3. В Сингапуре законом запрещается жевать жвачку или бросать
мусор. Вы не должны курить в общественных местах.
4. В Кентукки, США, вам запрещается выходить замуж за
одного и того же человека больше трех раз.
5. В Италии мужчинам запрещается носить юбки.

IV. (Text 2) Translate the sentences into English.


1. В 1910 году 1 июня капитан Скотт уехал из Лондона, чтобы
отправиться в экспедицию в Антарктиду.
2. Началась гонка на Южный полюс.
3. Амундсен отправился первым, 15 октября 1911.
4. Он двигался быстро.
– 68 –
5. Скотт и его люди должны были толкать сани сами.
6. Скотт достиг Южного полюса вместе со своими четырьмя
товарищами 17 января.
7. Новость о гибели Скотта потрясла мир.

Drills
Дайте ответы на вопросы, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. he – leave
· Must he leave now? – No, he needn’t leave now.

1. I – come 5. he – hurry 9. they – talk


2. they – play 6. they – go 10. I – calculate
3. you – read 7. you – pay 11. he – be present
4. she – answer 8. she – decide 12. they – change the clothes

Drill 2. The coat is probably very expensive.


· The coat must be very expensive.

1. This is probably the book Charles wants.


2. She’s probably very tired after the journey.
3. It’s probably very nice to be in London now.
4. That is probably the best theatre here.
5. Your friend is probably over 20.
6. Your passport is probably at home.
7. He’s probably an Italian.

Drill 3. When must you come home? (a quarter to nine)


· I must come home at a quarter to nine.

1. When must I go to school? (5 minutes past 3)


2. When must Bob telephone you? (at a quarter past 6)
3. When must mother drive to Brisbane? (10 minutes past 5)
4. When must your parents be there? (16.30)
5. When must Margaret type the letter? (14.20)
6. When must you and your brother play tennis? (11.25)
7. When must the bus be there? (14.35)
– 69 –
Drill 4. I’ve got an awful headache. (take an aspirin)
· I must take an aspirin.

1. My watch is broken. (take it to be repaired)


2. My car is very dirty. (wash it)
3. I’ve got a terrible cold and a cough. (go to the doctor’s)
4. I’ve got an awful toothache. (go to the dentist’s)
5. I smoke too many cigarettes. (stop smoking)
6. I’ve got a pile of unpaid bills. (pay them)
7. I’ve written three important letters. (post them immediately)

Drill 5. Do we have to read this article for today? (No, for tomorrow)
· No, we have to read it for tomorrow.

1. Do you have to go shopping in the afternoon? (No, right now)


2. Do they have to work in the lab now? (No, from one till two)
3. Do you have to take this medicine once a day? (No, three times
a day)
4. Does she have to meet her little sister after school? (No, after
the theatre)
5. Does Peter have to ring you up in the morning? (No, in the
evening)
6. Do we have to come here at seven? (No, at eight)
7. Do they have to start the experiment now? (No, tomorrow morning)

Drill 6. Mrs. Brown is not well. (see a doctor)


· She should see a doctor.

1. Mary is so selfish. (help her relatives)


2. Mr. Brown isn’t punctual. (come on time)
3. Your friend is very rude. (be more polite)
4. Jane is so extravagant. (spend less on clothes)
5. Grandfather is so forgetful. (write down telephone messages)
6. The boys are idle too often. (study more)
7. Your friend works too much. (have a rest)

Drill 7. Steve drives too fast.


· He shouldn’t drive so fast.

– 70 –
1. Liz spends too much money. 4. Young people get married too early.
2. Zed talks too much. 5. Steve smokes too much.
3. Jenny works too hard.

Drill 8. ‘I’m going out.’ – What does she say?


· She says (that) she’s going out.

1. ‘We’ll be here on time.’ – What does she say?


2. ‘I have lost my money.’ – What does she say?
3. ‘I’m going to the theatre with my cousin.’ – What does she say?
4. ‘I had read Hamlet in English before I went to see it.’ – What
does she say?
5. ‘I like apples better than oranges.’ – What does she say?

Drill 9. ‘My train leaves at 5 sharp.’ – What did he say?


· He said that his train left at 5 sharp.
What did he tell you?
· He told me that his train left at 5 sharp.

1. ‘My friend is waiting outside.’


2. ‘I know these two girls quite well.’
3. ‘We don’t remember where Bob lives.’
4. ‘I’ve got two sisters besides Mary.’
5. ‘I’m only 18.’

Drill 10. ‘I met him last year.’ – What did he say?


· He said that he had met him the previous year.
What did he tell you?
· He told me that he had met him the previous year.

1. ‘I’ve been ill for a fortnight.’


2. ‘You came too late.’
3. ‘We’ve been shopping all the morning.’
4. ‘I had no time to look through the magazines.’
5. ‘My brother didn’t go fishing yesterday.’

– 71 –
Grammar Exercises

I. Проанализируйте формы модальных глаголов ‘must, have


to, should’.

must have to should


+ You must do it. + You have to work hard. + You should do it.
— He mustn’t do it. He has to work hard. – You shouldn’t do it.
? When must he do it? – You don’t have to work hard.? Should we do it?
He doesn’t have to work hard.
? Do we have to work hard?
Does he have to work hard?

II. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную и


вопросительную формы.
1. I must get there before eight.
2. You will have to come again.
3. She must wash up all the glasses.
4. We have to change our shoes.
III. Поставьте разделительные вопросы к следующим
предложениям.
1. We must write to her at once.
2. The man has to return the documents.
3. You don’t have to paint the doors green.
4. I must help Mary to cook dinner.
5. They have to prepare it for Sunday.

IV. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в соответствующем


времени. (Повторение системы времен).
1. We (go) to the theatre last night.
2. He usually (write) in green ink.
3. She (play) the piano when our guests (arrive) last night.
4. Where you (go) for your holidays last year?
5. My mother (come) to stay with us next weekend.
6. We (meet) only yesterday and already (decide) to get married.
7. Violets (bloom) in the spring.
V. Проанализируйте правила перевода прямой речи в
косвенную.
– 72 –
Перевод прямой речи в косвенную
Present → past
e.g. ‘I love you’. He said he loved me.
‘I’m going out now’. Ann said she was going out.
Present Perfect Past Perfect
e.g. ‘We have met before’. She said they had met before.
Past Simple Past Perfect
e.g. ‘We met in 1997’. He said they had met in 1997.
Will would
e.g. ‘I’ll mend it for you’. She said that she would mend it for me.
Can could
e.g. ‘I can swim’. She said she could swim.

Besides verb changes there are changes of the pronouns and the
time advervials.
Pronouns Time adverbials
I/you he/she yesterday the day before/previous day
we/you they today that day
me/you him/her tomorrow the next day
us/you them last week the week before
this that a month ago a month before
these those next week the following week

→ VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменяя прямую


речь косвенной. Следуйте образцу.
e.g. John: ‘I’m tired.’
· John said that he was tired.

1. The postman: ‘There aren’t any letters.’


2. Dick: ‘I have a new car.’
3. Sally: ‘Nobody wants to help me.’
4. Helen: ‘The radio doesn’t work.’
5. John: ‘I will be in Paris in July.’
6. David: ‘I can’t swim.’
7. Alice: ‘My parents are travelling.’

UNIT 14
Grammar: 1. Conditionals
2. Ing-forms: Gerund and Present Participle
Text: ‘Smoking’

– 73 –
Smoking
We entered the 21st century with such maladies as heart and vascu-
lar system diseases, environmental diseases, cancer, AIDS (Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The risk factors that cause these dis-
eases are poor environment (especially after Chernobyl disaster), con-
stant stress and bad habits. All these diseases have a huge impact on the
quality of life, darken our prospects for future. Alcohol, drugs, smok-
ing, AIDS have also become the reality of our life.
Smoking is very dangerous. Most young people smoke because their
friends pressure them to do so. They may be copying their parents who
smoke, or other adults they respect. In the past 30 years attitudes about
smoking have changed. Smoking is now banned in many places so that
other people don’t have to breathe in smokers’ shocking tobacco smoke.
Smoking becomes addictive very quickly, and it’s one of the hard-
est habits to break. A chemical called nicotine is a substance that causes
addiction. It can contribute to heart disease. Cigarette smoke also con-
tains tar – a major factor for causing cancer. If you’ve ever watched an
adult try to give up smoking, you know how hard it can be. It’s easier,
healthier and cheaper never to start.
Facts about smoking:
· The smell of smoke on your breath and clothes will put people off.
· Someone who smokes 15 cigarettes a day can forget six to nine
years of their life.
· You’re burning a great deal of money.
· Your skin will wrinkle faster and deeper than of a non-smoker.
· Females who smoke heavily may wrinkle like a woman 20 years
older in age.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

malady disease to cause to witness to suffer impact


to breathe to break a habit addiction to wrinkle

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the maladies that we entered the 21st century with?
2. What are the risk factors that cause these diseases?
3. Why do most young people smoke?

– 74 –
4. Is smoking allowed nowadays in many places?
5. Why is smoking one of the hardest habits to break?
6. What substance in a cigarette causes addiction?

Drills
Составьте предложения, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. Tom is on holiday now. I expect he is sitting on the beach.


· If I were on holiday, I would be sitting on the beach too.
1. sailing 7. playing tennis
2. gardening 8. swimming
3. lying in a hammock 9. painting pictures
4. fishing 10.watching a football match
5. camping 11.sun-bathing
6. sight-seeing 12.taking photographs

Drill 2. I think I’ll have to ask someone else to help me.


· I’m afraid so. I would help you if I could.
1. meet me 6.carry it for me
2. see me off 7. find me a job
3. wait for me 8. do it
4. show me the way 9. show me how to do it
5. give me a lift 10.explain it to me

Drill 3. I was sitting in the park. I was writing a letter.


· I was sitting in the park writing a letter.

1. The woman was driving along. She was listening to her car radio.
2. He came into the room. He was carrying a suitcase.
3. She was sitting in an armchair. She was reading a book.
4. I got home. I was feeling very tired.
5. The old man was walking along the street. He was talking to
himself.

Drill 4. Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm.


· Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.

– 75 –
1. Ann was watching television. She fell asleep.
2. The man slipped. He was getting off the bus.
3. Dick burnt himself. He was cooking his dinner.
4. He broke a cup. He was doing the washing-up.
5. She lost her keys. She was getting out of her car.

Drill 5. He reads a lot.


· He likes reading.
1. We play a lot. 5. You sleep a lot.
2. She dances a lot. 6. He drives a lot.
3. I swim a lot. 7. I sail a lot.
4. They sing a lot.

Drill 6. He left school and went to university.


· After leaving school he went to university.
1. He studied for three years but failed his exams.
2. He worked in an office for a while and then emigrated to Aus-
tralia.
3. He tried several jobs and then he became a farmer.
4. He made a lot of money and decided to go home for a holiday.
5. He arrived in England and married an old girlfriend.
6. He met his old friends and didn’t want to go back again.
7. He sold his farm and bought a business in England.

Grammar Exercises
I. Составьте предложения, следуя образцу.
e.g. ⇐ get to work late again
· If the bus is late, I’ll get to work late again.
⇐ lose my job
· If I get to work late again, I’ll lose my job.

1. → not find another job


2. → lose my flat
3. → move back to my parents’ house
4. → get very bored
5. → go swimming every day
6. → look very good
7. → meet interesting people
– 76 –
8. → go to lots of parties
9. → have a wonderful time

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, следуя образцу.


e.g. He lives near his work so he’s always in time.
· If I lived near my work I would always be in time too.
His case is light so he carries it himself.
· If my case were light I would carry it myself too.

1. She is nice and slim, so she looks marvellous in tight jeans.


2. He has plenty of money, so he spends the winters abroad.
3. He works overtime, so he earns a lot of money.
4. His garden gets a lot of sun, so he can grow peaches.
5. He can ski, so he goes skiing at Christmas.
6. He runs round the park every morning, so he keeps very fit.
7. He travels first class, so he enjoys travelling.

III. Заполните пропуски, употребив глаголы в соответствующих


формах. Следуйте образцу.
e.g. If people ... four arms, life ... easier. (have; be)
· If people had four arms, life would be easier.

1. If dogs ... talk, they ... some interesting stories. (can; tell)
2. If I ... the answer, I ... you. (know; tell)
3. If my cat ... open the fridge, it ... all my food. (can; eat)
4. If you ... read people’s thoughts, what ... you ...? (can; do)
5. If the programmes ... better, I ... more TV. (be; watch)
6. If I ... you to marry me, what ... you ...? (ask; say)

IV. Заполните пропуски, употребив глаголы в


соответствующих формах. Следуйте образцу.
e.g. If you ... me, I would have helped you. (ask)
· If you had asked me, I would have helped you.

1. If I ... here yesterday, I would have come to see you. (be)


2. If you ... a map with you, you wouldn’t have got lost. (take)
3. We would have won the game if we ... so badly. (not play)
4. You ... badly if you hadn’t drunk all that coffee. (not sleep)
5. If you ... on holiday with us, you ... a wonderful time. (come;
have)
– 77 –
V. Прочитайте предложения и закончите предложения.
e.g. If it hadn’t been hot, my mother wouldn’t have opened the
door.
It was hot, so my mother opened the door. A cat came in and ate her
supper, so she went to the shop to buy food. In the shop she saw an
advertisement for a secretary. So she got a new job, and met my father.
I’m glad it was a hot day!

1. If she hadn’t opened the door, the cat .......... her supper.
2. .......... her supper, .......... the shop.
3. .......... the shop, .......... the advertisement.
4. .......... the advertisement, .......... a new job.
5. .......... a new job, .......... my father.

VI. Образуйте причастие настоящего времени и употребите


его в функции определения. П ереведите фразы на русский язык.
e.g. a child; to sleep
· a sleeping child (a child that is sleeping)
a fish; to fly
· a flying fish (a fish that can fly)

1. a woman; to smile 6. winter; to come


2. children; to laugh 7. a bus; to pass
3. a building; to burn 8. a thought; to disturb
4. a ship; to sink 9. interest; to grow
5. a story; to touch 10.a page; to miss

VII. Перепишите предложения, заменяя придаточные


предложения на причастный оборот. Следуйте образцу.
e.g. She looked down at her son who was sleeping on the sofa.
· She looked down at her son sleeping on the sofa.

1. The windows that face the garden were open.


2. He couldn’t fall asleep because of the noise that was coming
from the street.
3. She got on the train that was going to London.
4. What can you do about a dog which is barking all night?
5. There’s someone who is knocking at the door.

– 78 –
VIII. Перепишите предложения, употребляя причастия в
настоящем времени.
e.g. We smiled and drove away.
· Smiling, we drove away.

1. She lifted the telephone, she answered, ‘Yes?’


2. I didn’t hear what he said and asked him to repeat it.
3. I was short of money, I couldn’t afford to buy it.
4. She got worried and thought we had had an accident.
5. After we looked at the map, we tried to find the right street.

UNIT 15
Grammar: 1. Passive Voice
2. – Ing and –ed adjectives
Text: ‘An Amazing Crime’

An Amazing Crime
The Millennium Dome robbers wanted to go down in history as
the gang who committed the biggest and most ambitious robbery of the
Millennium – and they nearly did. They never thought the police would
catch them because they planned the crime and the speedboat getaway
very carefully.
The attempted diamond robbery at the Millennium Dome in Lon-
don was an amazing crime. The British government built the Millen-
nium Dome to celebrate the year 2000. One of the most popular exhibi-
tions in the Dome was a fabulous diamond collection worth Ј350 mil-
lion which included the magnificent Millennium Star diamond. The gang
of five men tried to steal the diamonds. But unfortunately for the rob-
bers, hundreds of police officers dressed as tourists and cleaners were
waiting for them in the Dome when they attacked.
The huge police operation organised by Scotland Yard was called
Operation Magician and over 200 police officers took part in it. The
police knew the gang were planning a big crime but they didn’t know
exactly what. So they followed the men for many months before the
robbery.
One day, they saw one of the gang visiting the Dome with his friends.
He filmed the diamond exhibition with a camcorder. The police now
– 79 –
knew what the robbers planned to do. Another time, they saw the men
sailing a speedboat up and down the Thames. They guessed how the
robbers planned to escape.
At their trial, the jury found the arrested men guilty of robbery
with violence. The two gang leaders received 18-year prison sentences,
and the other members of the gang received 15-year prison sentences.
British people like daring crime stories and the Dome robbers are
already famous. It seems likely these men will go down in history as the
robbers who attempted one of the most daring crimes ever.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to rob a robber to plan a crime to commit a robbery a getaway


a trial a diamond a gang to steal to escape the jury to find guilty of
violence a prison sentence to go down in history daring

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. Answer the questions.


1. What did the Millenium Dome robbers want?
2. Why did the British government build the Millennium Dome?
3. What was one of the most popular exhibitions in the Dome?
4. What did the gang of five men try to do?
5. How did the police know what the robbers planned to do?
6. What sentences did the robbers receive at the trial?
7. Why will the robbers go down in history?

II. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Грабители выставочного зала ‘Миллениум Доум’ хотели
войти в историю.
2. Они никогда не думали, что полиция их поймает, так как
они тщательно спланировали преступление.
3. Британское правительство построило выставочный зал
‘Миллениум Доум’, чтобы отметить 2000 год.
4. Попытка кражи алмазов из выставочного зала ‘Миллениум
Доум’ в Лондоне была необычным преступлением.
– 80 –
Drills

Составьте предложения, следуя образцам.

Drill 1. They make combs of plastic.


· Combs are made of plastic.
1. They make glass of sand. 5. They make this sweater of wood.
2. They make these shoes of leather. 6. They make this necklace of silver.
3. They make these shirt of cotton. 7. They make doors of wood.
4. They make these rings of gold. 8. They make books of paper.

Drill 2. They sell bread at the baker’s.


· Bread is sold at the baker’s.
1. They sell apples at the greengrocer’s. 6. They sell meat at the butcher’s.
2. They sell potatoes at the greengrocer’s. 7. They sell sugar at the grocery.
3. They sell cabbage at the greengrocer’s. 8. They salt at the grocery.
4. They sell milk at the dairy. 9. They sell sweets at the confectionery.
5. They sell cheese at the dairy. 10.They sell cakes at the confectionery.

Drill 3. Paper is made of plastic. (wood)


· Paper isn’t made of plastic. It’s made of wood.
1. President Kennedy was killed in New York. (Dallas)
2. Coffee is grown in Scotland. (Brazil)
3. War and Peace was written by Shakespeare. (Tolstoy)
4. Romeo and Juliet was written by Tolstoy. (Shakespeare)
5. Sunflowers was painted by Renoir. (Van Gogh)
6. The Berlin Wall was knocked down in 1982. (1989)
7. Rolls-Royce cars are made in Japan. (England)

Drill 4. Did they open the doors?


· Yes, the doors were opened.

– 81 –
1. Did they build the house? 6. Did they punish the boys?
2. Did they catch the thieves? 7. Did they answer the question?
3. Did they kill the lion? 8. Did they burn the house?
4. Did they sell the stamps? 9. Did they see the lights?
5. Did they buy the ring? 10.Did they do the work?

Drill 5. Will they kill the lion?


· Yes, the lion will be killed.
1. Will they answer the letters? 5. Will they see the pictures?
2. Will they open the doors? 6. Will they sell the moped?
3. Will they give the money? 7. Will they make a test?
4. Will they buy the house? 8. Will they sell the records?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте глагольные формы в страдательном
залоге (Passive Voice).

Passive Voice
Forms: am/is/are
was/were
has/have been + verb + ed (past participle)
had been
am/is/are being

e.g. Present Simple Passive: Lunch is served from 12 p.m. to 3 p.m.


Past Simple Passive: He was stopped by a policeman.
Future Simple Passive: The door will be opened.
Present Perfect Passive: We have been woken by the birds.
Past Perfect Passive: The car hadn’t been washed by 3 o’clock.
Present Continuous Passive: Our meal is being cooked by Mrs Harris.

II. Перепишите предложения, употребляя сказуемое в


страдательном залоге. Следуйте образцу.
e.g. He buys cars.
· Cars are bought.
1. He bought cars. 9. He will close the office
2. He has bought cars. 10. They will not open the door.
3. He will buy cars. 11. She will write poems.
– 82 –
4. He is buying cars. 12. She is writing poems.
5. She writes poems. 13. He broke the glass.
6. She wrote poems. 14. She teaches languages.
7. She has written poems. 15. He was building the house.
8. They play tennis. 16. She read the story.

III. Дайте два варианта предложений в страдательном залоге.


e.g. They offered me a cup of tea.
· I was offered a cup of tea.
· A cup of tea was offered to me.
1. They gave me a form to fill in. 3. We’ll offer him help by all
means.
2. They granted me a visa. 4. He has just told us a very amusing
story.

IV. Ответьте на вопросы, используя сказуемое в


страдательном залоге.
France Sweden England Belgium Kenia
Italy Japan Saudi Arabia Switzerland India
South Africa China Egypt USA

1. Where do the people speak French and Dutch? – French and


Dutch are spoken in ......
2. Which country grows coffee? – Coffee is ......
3. Where do people eat pasta?
4. Which country produces lots of oil?
5. Which country makes famous perfumes?
6. Where do people wear kimonos?
7. Which country manufactures paper?
8. Which country sells pints of milk?
9. Which country grows tobacco?
10. Which country manufactures watches?
11. Which country makes champagne?
12. In what country do they find gold?
13. In what country do they drink tea?
14. In what country do they grow cotton?

V. Выберите правильный вариант глагола в следующих


предложениях.

– 83 –
1. Nylon invented/was invented in the 1930s.
2. Walt Disney created/was created the character of Mickey Mouse
seventy years ago.
3. Mickey calls/is called ‘Topolino’ in Italian and ‘Mi Lo Shu’ in
Chinese.
4. At first he called/was called Mortimer Mouse.
5. He gave/was given the name Mickey by Walt Disney’s wife,
Lilian.
6. Disney made/was made the first full-length cartoon, Snow White,
in 1937.
7. Mickey Mouse cartoons have translated/have been translated
into sixty languages.
8. Since 1928, 120 cartoons have made/have been made.

PART II
UNIT 16
Grammar Review: 1. Passive Voice
Texts: 1. ‘Electromagnetic Relay’
2. ‘The Northern Lights’

Text 1. Electromagnetic Relay


Electromagnetic devices called relays are widely used in various
branches of industry. The main parts of a relay are an electromagnet, a
spring and an armature. When a current starts flowing in the electromag-
net winding, the armature moves and the spring closes the contacts. The
primary circuit of a relay is its electromagnet circuit and the secondary
circuit is the one closed by the contacts. When there is no current in the
relay’s primary circuit, the spring pulls the armature and the contacts open.
The relay is used to control the work of an electric motor. The
relay is placed close to the motor which is connected to its secondary
circuit. The armature closes the contacts of the secondary circuit, and
the motor starts operating; it will stop when the relay opens.
Without a relay, conductors with a large cross-section would have
to be brought to the motor. This would be very uneconomical. The cur-
rent in a relay is tens and even thousands of times smaller than that used
to power the motor. Therefore, the connecting wires can have small cross-
sections.
– 84 –
In many systems the relay primary circuit operates automatically.
Every evening and morning street lights are switched on and off from
the main control panel by means of a great number of relays.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

various spring armature to move to close


close to to switch on to switch off various

Text 2. The Northern Lights


In reports from Alaska and areas in the north, some people men-
tion the beauty of the Northern Lights. The Northern Lights, or Aurora
Borealis as they are scientifically known, are huge light shows that na-
ture creates in our atmosphere.
Because of the Earth’s magnetic fields, these beautiful lights can
only be seen in the extreme regions of the northern and southern hemi-
spheres. And the conditions have to be just right.
The Northern Lights can be seen when the sun’s high-energy parti-
cles are thrown toward Earth by solar winds. These solar winds have
great speed, so when the particles hit the atmosphere of Earth, their
energy is turned into light and the Northern Lights are created.
When you see the lights, they are very high in the atmosphere. The
Northern Lights can reach as high as 600 miles above the Earth! To give
you an idea of how high that is, the space shuttle orbits the Earth at
about 190 miles. No two Northern Lights are the same. They are differ-
ent sizes and different colors. They can vary from night to night and
even within the same night! This is determined by the sun’s activity and
the atmospheric conditions around Earth.
The colors are determined by what type of molecule strikes the
atmosphere and where. If the lights occur at 200 miles up, high-level
oxygen makes the lights glow red. This is very rare. If the lights occur at
lower levels, say around 60 miles up, the oxygen glows a very bright
yellowish-green. This is the brightest and most common of the Northern
Lights. But if the particles hit some nitrogen molecules in the atmos-
phere, the lights will glow blue or purplish.
The northern lights are always moving, like giant curtains of light
weaving and swaying across the sky. This is caused by the constantly
changing interaction between the solar wind and the earth’s magnetic field.
– 85 –
Words and expressions to be remembered:

a phenomenon (phenomena) to create hemisphere a particle


wind rare a curtain to cause

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the words and put down their Russian equiva-
lents:

relay, electromagnet, armature, contact, system, automatic, panel.

II. (Text 1) Put down the Russian for:

to start flowing, to start moving, to start operating, to start powering


the motor, various branches of industry, small cross-section, relay’s pri-
mary circuit.

III. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.

Электромагнитные приборы; главные детали реле; пружина


замыкает контакты; контролировать работу электрического мотора;
двигатель с большим поперечным сечением; соединительные
провода; в десятки раз меньше; действует автоматически; уличное
освещение.

IV. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant:


1. The main parts of a relay are .....
a) an electromagnet, a capacitor, and a spring.
b) An electromagnet, an armature, and a spring.
2. When current starts flowing .....
a) the spring opens the contacts.
b) the spring closes the contacts.
3. The spring pulls the armature .....
a) when there is current in the primary circuit.
b) when there is no current in the primary circuit.
4. The wires connecting the panel with the relay .....
a) have a large cross-section.
b) have a small cross-section.
– 86 –
5. Street lights are switched on and off .....
a) by means of relays.
b) by means of electric motors.

V. (Text 1) Answer the following questions:


1. What are the main parts of a relay?
2. How is a relay put into operation?
3. When does the spring pull the armature?
4. What wires connect the panel with the relay?
5. By what means are street lights switched on and off?

VI. (Text 1) Match the questions and the answers.


Ask the questions and let your groupmate answer them.
1. In what position does the switch have high (low) resistance?
2. What are the functions of the switch?
3. In what position is the switch open? closed?
4. In what way is the switch connected to the circuit?
___________________
a) Switches are used to open and close the circuits.
b) Closed is the on-position; open is the off-position
c) The switch is connected in series with the load.
d) In the on-position the closed switch has a very low resistance,
which results in maximum current in the load with zero voltage
loss across the switch. When the switch is off it has a very high.
When the switch is off it has a very high resistance and no current
flows through the circuit.

VII. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. What are the Northern Lights?
2. Where can these beautiful lights be seen?
3. When can the Northern Lights be seen?
4. What happens when the particles, thrown from the sun, hit the
atmosphere of Earth?
5. How high are the Northern Lights in the atmosphere?
6. Are the Northern Lights always the same?
7. What are the colours determined by?
8. What is the source of the auroras?
9. Why are the Northern Lights always moving?

– 87 –
Grammar Exercises

I. Образуйте наречия, добавляя к прилагательным


суффикс –ly и переведите их.

Automatic, wide, economical, unprogressive, unnecessary, uneco-


nomical.

II. Проанализируйте формы глагола Simple Passive,


приведенные в таблице.
Затем прочтите текст и скажите, в каких предложениях
употреблены формы Simple Passive.

Времена группы Simple Passive


to be + Participle II
Infinitive to be written
to be translated
Present The letter is written/ translated.
Past The letter was written/ translated.
Future The letter will be written/ translated.

Grodno University is the largest educational establishment in


Grodno Region. It is situated in the centre of Grodno in Ozheshko Street.
The old building of Grodno University was built in the 19th century. The
University is composed of 11 faculties and 5 colleges.

III. Сравните следующие пары предложений и переведите их.

1. The teacher asks the students a lot of questions.


The students are asked a lot of questions.
2. He told them an interesting story.
He was told an interesting story.
3. She visited her friends. She was visited by her friends.
4. I will give you a good book. I will be given a good book.
5. The rector will receive you at 3 o’clock.
You will be received on Wednesday.
6. They will show us a new film tomorrow.
They will be shown a new film tomorrow.

– 88 –
IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая
внимание на сказуемое в страдательном залоге.
1. The books were borrowed from the central library.
2. An interesting problem was discussed at the lecture.
3. The newspapers are usually brought in the morning.
4. When was Grodno University founded?
5. All the work will be done by automatic machinery.
6. The lectures on mathematics were attended by all the students.
7. The academic year is divided into two terms.
8. This road was built last year.

V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание


на глаголы, требующие после себя определенных предлогов.

to look at – смотреть на
to wait for – ждать кого-либо
to pay attention to – обращать внимание на
to listen to – слушать что-либо
to send for – посылать за кем-либо, чем-либо
to speak about – говорить о чем-либо, ком-либо

1. He was listened to with great attention.


2. The documents were sent for a week ago.
3. This poet is much spoken about.
4. You are always waited for.
5. The picture was looked at with interest.
6. The work of this student was paid attention to.

UNIT 17
Grammar Review: 1. Participle I, II. Forms and functions.
Texts: 1. ‘Fuses’
2. ‘Do Great Minds Think Alike?’

Text 1. Fuses
Fuses are widely used nowadays as protection devices. They are
utilized in various circuits, electrical equipment and installations. Fuses
serve to protect them against overcurrents and short-circuits.
There are different types of fuses in use nowadays. Of them,
quartzsand fuses serve for voltages up to 500 volts; fuses of this kind are
– 89 –
produced with current ratings of 15 to 60 amp and of 100 to 350 amp.
Fuses are commonly used in low-voltage industrial installations rated
up to 1,000 V.
Fuse protection is based on a very simple principle: in case of a
short-circuit or overcurrent, when the maximum value of current has
been exceeded, the fusible link of a fuse is heated to its melting point.
This opens the circuit and disconnects the circuit from the power source.
In case of a fault, one should replace the faulty fusible element by a new
one. Fuses are used both in direct current (d.c.) and alternating current
(a.c.) circuits.

Words and expressions to be remembered:


a fuse to utilize equipment installation to equip
to protect to serve up to link to melt fault faulty

Text 2. Do Great Minds Think Alike?


What makes a person so brilliant that they change the course of
history? Is there a recipe for genius – a list of ingredients that all gen-
iuses share? Perhaps not, but geniuses really seem to have quite a lot in
common. For example, geniuses often come from an unhappy background
and many are orphans. One study of important creators found that twenty
per cent of them lost one or both parents in childhood. Tolstoy,
Michelangelo, Bach, Raphael, Wagner and Charlie Chaplin all lost par-
ents before they were ten years old. Seventy-five per cent of the gen-
iuses in another study came from families affected by poverty, divorce,
abuse, alcoholism and mental illness.
What is the connection? Perhaps stress made the children escape
into their own private worlds – they felt different from other children
and so decided to become even more different.
Geniuses are also incredibly productive. Picasso is responsible for
20,000 works. Thomas Edison, inventor of the light bulb, patented 1093
inventions. Freud produced 330 publications. Of course, high produc-
tivity will include failures, but what makes geniuses different is that
they do not give up when they fail. Freud had his breakthrough about the
importance of dreams after spending years on another project, which
finally came to nothing. He was already over forty – but according to
one study, most great work is done between the ages of thirty-five and
forty-five. Whenever their great creations come, however, one thing

– 90 –
seems to connect all geniuses (even young ones like Mozart) – a ‘ten-
year rule’. Geniuses have always worked hard in their chosen areas for
at least a decade before they create their first masterpieces.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

brilliant a recipe an ingredient background an orphan poverty


to escape incredibly failure breakthrough a masterpiece

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the words and put down their Russian equivalents.
Quatz, base, principle, stress.

II. Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. A fuse serves ........
a. as a load b. as a protection
2. Fuses are used ........
a. for d.c. only b. for both a.c. and d.c.
3. In case of a fault ........
a. the whole fuse should be replaced b. the faulty link should be
replaced
4. Fuse protection is based on ........
a. a simple principle b. a complex principle

III. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Защитные приборы; используются в различных электрических
цепях, электрооборудовании и установках; перегрузки и короткие
замыкания; низковольтные промышленные установки; звено
плавкого предохранителя; нагревается до точки плавления; источник
тока; в случае дефекта; следует заменить; постоянный ток;
переменный ток.

IV. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. What does a fuse serve for?
2. For what type of current are fuses used?
3. What should be done in case of a faulty fuse?
4. What principle is fuse protection based on?
– 91 –
V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.
1. What have Michelangelo, Wagner and Charlie Chaplin got in
common?
2. According to the text, how can the death of a parent influence a
child?
3. Did Freud’s work on the importance of dreams finally come to
nothing?
4. What id the ‘ten-year rule’?

VI. Find words in the text which mean:


1. The type of education, family and social experience that
someone has. (n)
2. The time when you are a child. (n)
3. When people have very little money. (n)
4. Cruel treatment of someone. (n)
5. The opposite of successes (n, pl) and succeed (v).
6. An important discovery or development. (n)
7. Works of art, pieces of writing, etc, of an excellent standard. (n, pl)
8. Typical of a child, in a positive way. (adj)

Grammar Exercises
I. Образуйте новые слова в соответствии с образцом и
переведите их на русский язык.
e.g.: charge – overcharge – перегрузка
сonnect – disconnect – разъединять

Pressure, heat, stress, current, load, organize, place, stress, use.

II. Образуйте существительное от данных глаголов в


соответствии с образцом.
Переведите новое слово на русский язык.
e.g: to protect – protection – защита

To utilize, to install, to reduce, to connect.

III. Рапределите данные слова по трём колонкам:


action process doer

– 92 –
Utilizer, utilize, installation, displace, overheater, displacement,
overproduction, starter, equip, protection, disorganize.

IV. Переведите на русский язык. Помните о переводе


конструкций: both ... and, in case, up to.
1. Both solid and gaseous insulators are highly in use.
2. In case a fuse gets faulty it should be replaced by a new one.
3. Capacitors of very high capacity – up to 1000 and more mF –
are utilized in modern installations.

V. Проанализируйте формы причастия переходного глагола


‘to ask’, приведенные в таблице. Затем прочитайте текст и
скажите, какие формы причастия употреблены в нем.

Participle I Participle II
Active Passive основа
Indefinite asking being asked стандартного asked
Perfect having asked having been asked глагола + –ed

People living in Japan have some customs different from ours. For
example, we wipe our washed faces with dry towels (полотенце), they
wipe their faces with wet towels. Entering houses our men take off
their hats, the Japanese take off their shoes. We give presents when
arriving, they leave them when departing. When in mourning (траур)
we wear black, they wear white. We frown (хмуриться) when being
scolded (бранить), they smile.
When we say that Japanese are strange people, they could reply,
‘The same to you’.

VI. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие


словосочетания, обращая внимание на причастия.

a. the student attending all the lectures, the plan containing many de-
tails, the workers building a new house, the engineer using a new
method, the car developing the speed of 80 km, the plant producing
machinery;

– 93 –
b. using new methods, constructing new machines, achieving good re-
sults, discovering new lands, using new equipment, receiving impor-
tant information, moving at high speed;
c. having calculated the distance, having returned home, having found
the new way, having developed the speed of 120 km, having passed
all the examinations;
d. the achieved results, all developed countries, the research made in the
laboratory, the film shown to the students, the letter sent to his par-
ents.

VII. A. Образуйте Participle I (Indefinite, Active) от


следующих глаголов и переведите их на русский язык.

To build, to grow, to think, to bring, to move, to obtain, to produce,


to get, to teach, to tell, to make, to begin.

B. Образуйте Participle II от следующих глаголов и


переведите их на русский язык.
To find, to send, to change, to keep, to maintain, to install, to show,
to develop, to receive, to write, to make, to do, to see, to say, to speak.

VIII. Переведите следующие словосочетания на


английский язык:

a. профессор, читающий лекцию; студент, изучающий английский


язык; мальчики, играющие на улице;
b. студент, спрошенный преподавателем; книга, взятая в библиотеке;
машина, сконструированная молодым инженером;
c. изучая иностранный язык, читая книгу, строя дороги, увеличивая
скорость, устанавливая новое оборудование, применяя новые
методы;
d. изучив один иностранный язык; прочитав интересную книгу,
закончив работу, построив дорогу.

XI. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,


обращая внимание на причастия.

1. He heard the voices coming through the open window.


2. Waiting for him I looked through the newspapers.
3. They remained at home refusing to go anywhere that day.
– 94 –
4. The channel linking the two seas is being built now.
5. The explanation given was not complete.
6. Having obtained the necessary results they stopped their experi-
mental work.
7. When studying elements Mendeleyev found that they could be
divided into nine groups.
8. When burnt, coal produces heat.

UNIT 18
Grammar Review: 1. Gerund, its functions; gerundial
constructions
Texts: 1. ‘Components of Electric Circuits’
2. ‘Cars: Passion or Problem’

Text 1. Components of Electric Circuits


The main components of any circuit are devices that produce and
utilize electric energy. They are 1. Power sources, 2. Utilizing loads, 3.
Connecting conductors. The most common power sources are electric
generators and primary cells. Electric generators convert chemical en-
ergy into electric energy.
Loads include electric heaters, electric motors, incandescent lamps,
etc. Motors convert electric energy into mechanical, incandescent lamps
and heaters convert electric energy into light and heat. Utilizing devices or
loads convert electric energy into thermal, mechanical or chemical energy.
Electric power is delivered from power sources to loads by electric
wires. According to their material, wires can be aluminium, copper, steel,
etc. Besides, electric circuits use different types of switches, protection
devices (relays and fuses), and meters (ammeters, voltmeters, wattme-
ters, etc.).

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to convert incandescence etc. = et cetera to deliver


according to copper steel

– 95 –
Text 2. Cars: Passion or Problem?
For some people, the car is a convenient form of transportation.
But for many people, cars are also a source of passion and pleasure. Yet
cars can be a source of many problems.
In 1903, Henry Ford began selling the Model T car for $825. His
company, Ford Motors, was the first to produce cars in large numbers.
Most Americans buy a new car every five or six years.
Some environmentalists believe that such forms of public trans-
portation such as buses and trains have not been fully developed in the
United States. They try to teach others that public transportation saves
fuel and helps to protect the environment. One environmentalist, Jan
Lundberg, left his Mercedes-Benz in Los Angeles and moved to the
forests of northern California. There he works on the Auto-Free Times,
a newspaper that teaches people how to live without driving. Lundberg
travels on foot, on bicycle, or by bus.
Lundberg and other environmentalists dream of replacing cars with
bicycles, but most people around the world believe that the car is a nec-
essary part of life in today’s world. Still, there is an important question
that must be answered: What kind of fuel will we use when gasoline is
no longer available? Lundberg believes that by the year 2021, there will
no longer be oil for gasoline makers to use. To solve this problem, car
companies in Korea, Japan, Europe, and the United States are trying to
develop an electric car that will not require gasoline at all.
Cars may change, but their importance will not. Cars are important
to nearly everyone, including engineers, businesspeople, environmen-
talists, and even poets. Poet Curt Brown believes that cars are part of
our passion for new places and new experiences. According to Brown,
this ‘very, very comfortable flying chair’ will continue to bring us travel
and adventure, no matter how it changes in the future.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

passion a source to produce fuel to protect


gasoline to solve to require adventure

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the words and put down their Russian equivalents.

Aluminium, chemical, generator, material, mechanical, thermal,


motor.
– 96 –
II. (Text 1) Translate into Russian.
Convertible values, protected power source, various fuses, vari-
able resistors, chemical cells, cells delivering electric power, generator
converting mechanical energy, circuits utilizing common fuses.
Primary cells deliver electric power.
Different kinds of energy can be converted into electric energy.
Protection devices are utilized in any circuit.

III. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Производят и потребляют электроэнергию; источники энергии;
соединители; электрические генераторы и первичные батареи;
преобразуют химическую энергию в электрическую; электрические
обогреватели; лампы накаливания; электрические цепи; реле и
плавкие предохранители; амперметры, вольтметры, ваттметры.

IV. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. The main components of electric circuits are ........
a. loads and wires b. power sources, load and wires
2. Power sources are used ........
a. to produce electric energy b. to deliver it to the loads
3. Electric conductors are used ........
a. to connect the circuit elements b. to deliver electric power
4. Protection devices are utilized ........
a. in some circuits b. in any circuit
5. A switch is utilized ........
a. in some circuits b. in any circuit

V. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. What are the main components of an electric circuit?
2. What is the function of an electric source?
3. What is the function of a load?
4. What is the function of wire conductors?
5. What other devices are utilized in a circuit.

VI. (Text 2) Number the following main ideas in the order they
appear in the text.
1. Soon there will be no oil to fuel cars.
2. Cars, whether gasoline or electric powered, will always be im-
portant.
– 97 –
3. Cars can cause problems.
4. To some people, cars are more than transportation.
5. Some environmentalists teach people how to live without cars.

VII. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.

1. What are cars for people?


2. When did Henry Ford begin selling his car?
3. What was the price of the car?
4. How often do most Americans buy a new car?
5. What do some environmentalists believe?
6. Will the gasoline fuel always be available?
7. What car will not require gasoline at all?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте формы герундия, приведенные в
таблице. Затем прочтите и переведите текст. Скажите, в каких
функциях употреблен герундий.

Gerund
Active Passive
Indefinite asking being asked
Perfect having asked having been asked

Lena has a bad habit. Her friends always tell her to stop smoking.
They say that smoking is unhealthy. Lena knows it, but still keeps on
smoking. She wants to stop, but she can’t. Smoking is a habit she just
can’t break.

II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание


на герундий.
1. Reading English technical journals is important for an engineer.
2. They began making the experiment in May.
3. What is the reason for his having left our city so suddenly?
4. We heard of the experiment having been started last week.

– 98 –
5. Instead of restoring the old theatre they decided to build a new
one in the centre of the town.
6. The idea of creating a multi-stage rocket belongs to Tsiolkovsky.
7. Before being sent up the balloon was filled with a special gas.
8. What apparatus do we use for measuring air pressure?

UNIT 19
Grammar Review: 1. Infinitive
Texts: 1. ‘Electric Lines and Their Efficiency’
2. ‘Hackers’

Text 1. Electric Lines and Their Efficiency


Wires are used to deliver electric power and to interconnect differ-
ent components of electrical installations. Conductors used for electric
wiring are commonly produced of copper and aluminium. Aluminium is
widely used nowadays due to its low cost. Copper is also widely used in
electrical engineering but its cost is much higher.
Wires connecting the components of various installations may be
insulated. They may also be used without insulation. Since in short lengths
of wire power loss is exceedingly low one can ignore it. In long wires
(longer than 10 m), power loss cannot be ignored since it is rather high.
Power loss in a line should not exceed a definite value. If this value is
exceeded the line becomes inefficient.
One should know that the efficiency of a line is not constant – it
may change. The value of the line efficiency depends on the load: the
greater the load the lower is the line efficiency. At voltage losses of 2 to
5 per cent the efficiency of a line is 98-95 per cent. Protecting devices,
fuses and relays are used to protect the circuit against overcurrents and
short-circuits.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

efficiency cost length loss exceedingly


to ignore to exceed to depend per cent

Text 2. Hackers
With the development of technology in the twenty-first century, it
would be really difficult to imagine life without computers. They are a
– 99 –
source of information, education and entertainment, but today’s world
of computers can also be quite frightening and dangerous. This is be-
cause of people who use computers for illegal purposes. They are called
hackers.
Hackers spend their time playing with computer data in all parts of
cyberspace. Much of what they do is not dangerous, but sometimes their
activities break the law, for example, when they break into websites,
take control of computers or create viruses. They are especially inter-
ested in breaking through the security of military websites.
Hackers know how to trick people just using their programs. They
use a ‘Trojan Horse’, a program that looks perfectly safe, but actually
contains something destructive. The only way of not getting into trouble
is not to open it.
Although they can get serious punishment if they are caught, most
hackers still think that what they do is a game. They often meet at festivals
to take part in discussions, share their experiences, meet other hackers and
generally to have a good time. These meetings are organised in well-known
places like Las Vegas or Berlin. However, what the hackers do at such fes-
tivals is a secret and often many of their activities take place at night.
Recently, hacking has started to increase. Hackers are getting into
computer systems and stealing or destroying information. It is certain
that there will be a lot more of this high-tech crime in the twenty-first
century.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a source entertainment dangerous purpose illegal


cyberspace to break a law website to create to trick
punishment to steal to destroy crime

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the words and put down their Russian equivalents.
Line, station, engineer, engineering.

II. Put down the nouns corresponding to these verbs.


Model: to act – action
To ignore, to depend, to cost, to produce, to use, to lose.

– 100 –
III. Translate into Russian.
Line efficiency, voltage loss, power station, interdependent values,
interconnected sources, changing power efficiency, exceedingly high
power losses, exceedingly inefficient energy sources.
One can ignore these exceedingly low power losses.
One should take into consideration the interdependence of these
values.
One should not ignore the high cost of these installations.

IV. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.

Передавать электрический ток; для электропроводки; из меди


и алюминия; благодаря невысокой стоимости; электротехника; без
изоляции; потеря энергии; можно не принимать во внимание;
степень эффективности линии; зависит от нагрузки; перегрузки и
короткие замыкания.

V. Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. Aluminium is used due to its ........
a. high cost b. low cost and high efficiency
2. Cross-section of different conductors ........
a. varies b. is the same
3. Power loss can be ignored ........
a. in short wires b. in long wires
4. A definite value of loss ........
a. can be exceeded b. should not be exceeded
5. Electric lines nowadays are ........
a. efficient b. inefficient
6. Installations are protected ........
a. by switches b. by fuses

VI. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. Why is aluminium widely used nowadays?
2. Is its cost very low or comparatively low?
3. What is the cross-section of copper conductors?
4. May one ignore power loss in short wire? Why?
5. What does the efficiency of a line depend on?
6. What are fuses used for?
7. When does a line become inefficient?

– 101 –
VIII. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.
1. What are hackers?
2. How do hackers spend their time?
3. When do their activities break the law?
4. What are hackers especially interested in?
5. What is a ‘Trojan Horse’?
6. Where do hackers meet?
7. What do hackers do at such festivals?
8. What will happen in the twenty-first century?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте приведенные формы инфинитива и
примеры, иллюстрирующие различные функции инфинитива.

Infinitive
Indefinite Active: to write
Indefinite Passive: to be written
Continuous Active: to be writing
Continuous Passive: –——-
Perfect Active: to have written
Perfect Passive: to have been written

Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели:


1. He used his influence to get me a job.
2. You must work hard to pass this exam.
3. I turned on the light to see what time it was.

Инфинитив в функции определения:


The conference discussed some new methods to be used in teach-
ing English as a foreign language.

II. Прочтите текст, найдите в нем и проанализируйте


случаи употребления инфинитива.
My hobby is to read books. I like to read books everywhere – at
home, at the university, in the bus. If I want to read a book I always
remember that some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed
(глотать), and some few to be chewed (обдумывать), and digested. I
– 102 –
also know well that there is a great difference between the eager man
who wants to read a book, and the tired man who wants a book to read.

III. Переведите следующие словосочетания и предложения,


обращая внимание на инфинитив.
a) to send the letter to inform them; the house to be built; to build
the road to connect two towns; the story to listen to; the question to be
answered;
b) I am happy to help you. I am glad to have helped him. He was
glad to have been helped. I an glad to be helping them. I am glad to be
helped.

IV. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык следующие


словосочетания. Укажите, чем выражено определение.

a) the problem to be solved; the instrument to be used; the bridge


to be constructed; the experiment to be carried out;
b) the remark made; the distance travelled; the money paid; the
translated article; the tested method.

V. Прочтите и переведите следующие предложения,


обращая внимание на инфинитив.
1. They were happy to take part in our expedition.
2. She wanted to be answered at once.
3. He was happy to be working with the famous scientist.
4. It’s very difficult to drive a car in a big city.
5. Water may be used to drive dynamos which generate electricity.
6. Newton made use of the three laws of motion to explain the move-
ment of the Moon around the Earth and of the planets around the Sun.
7. In this area there are no monuments to speak of.
8. The new channel to be constructed here will be the longest in the
country.
9. The new branches of industry to be developed in this part of the
country are metallurgy and radio engineering.

VI. Проанализируйте способы выражения определения с


помощью существительных. Переведите приведенные
словосочетания на русский язык.
– 103 –
Способы выражения определения

the land transport


the land transport improvement
the land transport improvement problem

The traffic speed; the traffic speed increase; the railway bridge; the
railway bridge reconstruction; the London underground; the London
underground problem; the energy accumulation process; the car speed
calculation; the steam engine invention; the deep sea current measuring
device.

UNIT 20
Grammar Review: 1. Complex Object
2. Complex Subject
Texts: 1. ‘Substations’
2. ‘A Legend on Wheels’

Text 1. Substations
A substation is designed to receive energy from a power system,
convert it and distribute it to the feeders. Thus a substation serves as a
distribution centre. Substations feed (supply) various consumers if their
basic load characteristics are similar. Therefore the energy is distributed
without transformation of the voltage supplied.
Common substations comprise isolators, switchgear buses, oil cir-
cuit breakers, fuses, power and instrument transformers and reactors.
Substations are classed into step up and step down ones. The step up
substation includes transformers that increase the voltage. Connected to
the busbars of the substation are the power transmission lines of power
plants of the system.
As to step down substations, they reduce the voltage to 10 or 6 kV.
At this voltage the power is supplied to the distribution centres and to
the transformer substations of power consumers.
A transformer substation serves for transmitting and distributing
electric power. It comprises a storage battery, control devices and auxil-
iary structures. Transformer substations are classed into indoor and out-
door; both types are used for feeding industrial enterprises. Compared

– 104 –
to other types of substations, transformer substations have certain ad-
vantages. They have flexible construction and easy and reliable opera-
tion. In case of a fault in the left-hand section, the main circuit breaker
opens while the normally open section circuit breaker closes and puts
the voltage of the section to normal. Power from a substation is deliv-
ered to distribution centres.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to convert feeder to distribute to supply similar voltage


breaker to increase busbar power transmission lines to reduce
a consumer to comprise a storage battery auxiliary flexible as ...to

Text 2. A Legend on Wheels


In the 1930s, the Wolfsburg car factory in Germany produced the
first inexpensive car ‘for the people’ – the Beetle. Nobody really ex-
pected it to be such a great success. It was the idea of the well-known
constructor, Ferdinand Porsche, and it immediately became even more
popular than Ford’s ‘T’ model which was at that time the most modern
and popular car.
The production of the ‘T’ model continued for 20 years without in-
terruption between 1908-1927. The Beetle had a production life of 48
years between 1935-1978. This model had not changed throughout the
years, except for some modifications in the engine. It remained the same
size, and was relatively cheap and simple in construction. Even today, the
Volkswagen Beetle is still manufactured in Brazil on the original licence.
The War interrupted development of the Beetle and the factory
was used for military production. However, as soon as the war ended,
Beetle production restarted and by 1972 the total number of cars pro-
duced increased to over 15,000,000. It was then that the Beetle in
Wolfsburg was replaced by the new Golf model which actually had noth-
ing in common with its older brother. In 1975, Volkswagen introduced
this new Golf in the United States where it was called ‘Rabbit’.
Over the years, there were many models of Volkswagens, produced
by using the Beetle and Golf as a starting point and including many
other concepts and standards. The mass media advertised the entire family
of Volkswagen cars: Passat, Jetta, Polo, Derby. There were vans and
various sizes and types of trucks. They were manufactured in Emden,
Osnabruck, Wolfsburg and other German cities.
– 105 –
Many people today are of the opinion that Volkswagens are among
the most comfortable and powerful cars in Europe. Although the Beetle
is hardly ever seen in the streets any more, the owners of the few re-
maining Beetle models still make an effort to keep their small cars in the
best possible condition. What is more, they are very proud of driving a
car with a history behind it.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to produce to construct production engine to manufacture


military mass media to advertise a van a truck

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the following word combinations and put down
their Russian equivalents.
Circuit breaker, auxiliary units, distribution centre, flexible con-
struction, reliable operation, switch gear bus, hydraulic as well as solar
sources of energy, as to phase-word motors.

II. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Распределительные центры; обычные подстанции; изоляторы,
шинные коммутаторы (переключатели); масленые прерыватели;
предохранители; трансформаторы; повышающие и понижающие;
накопительная батарея; устройства управления; вспомогательные
устройства; передающие и принимающие; гибкая конструкция; в
случае повреждения; подает напряжение в нормальном режиме.

III. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. A substation serves ........
a. to consume energy b. to distribute energy c. to convert energy
2. A substation feeds consumers ........
a. with various load characteristics b. with similar load c
haracteristics
3. The lines of power plants are connected ........
a. to the busbars b. to the switchgear
4. A substation comprises ........
a. the main elements b. the main and auxiliary elements
5. flexible construction is ........
a. an advantage b. a disadvantage
– 106 –
IV. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.
1. What does a substation serve for?
2. What type of consumers does a substation feed?
3. What parts are the power transmission lines connected to?
4. What components does a substation comprise?
5. What types are substations classed into?
6. What are advantages of a transformer substation?

V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. What car did the Wolfsburg car factory in Germany produced in
the 1980s?
2. Whose idea was it?
3. How long did the production of the ‘T’ model continue?
4. What production life did the Beetle have?
5. Is the Volkswagen Beetle still manufactured?
6. Was the factory used for the production of the Beetle during the
war?
7. When was the Beetle in Wolfsburg replaced by the new Golf
model?
8. How was this new Golf called in the United States?
9. What cars belong to the family of Volkswagen cars?
10. Why are the owners of the few remaining Beetle models proud
of their cars?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте структуру объектного инфинитивного
оборота.
Complex Object
A. Подлежащее + глагол-связка + дополнение + инфинитив с to
I want you to help me.
He expects me to type this letter.
Б. Подлежащее + глагол-связка + дополнение + инфинитив без to.
I saw him cross the road.
I heard the car stop.
She made me learn the poem by heart.

II. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на


объектный инфинитивный оборот.
– 107 –
A. 1. She wanted us to visit the art exhibition.
2. I expect you to tell me everything.
3. I suppose her to be about 50.
4. The teacher does not consider him to be a good student.
5. The engineer expected the work to be done in time.
6. We thought him to have taken part in their experiment.
Б. 1. We heard him come in and close the door behind him.
2. Many people like to watch the sun rise.
3. She saw her son fall.
4. You can’t make me believe that all these stories are true.
5. She watched the boy buy a newspaper.

III. Проанализируйте структуру субъектного инфинитивного


оборота.

Complex Subject
Подлежащее + глагол-сказуемое + инфинитив
He is said to be living in France.
You are supposed to do the washing up.

IV. Прочитайте текст и проанализируйте случаи


употребления Complex Object и Complex Subject.
Socrates is known to be the Great Greek philosopher and orator. A
talkative young man wanted Socrates to teach him oratory. He begged
Socrates to hear him speak on some subject. Socrates let him talk as much
as he liked and then said: ‘You must pay me double price, for I’ll have to
teach you two sciences: how to speak and how to hold your tongue.’

V. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,


обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.
1. The lecture was said to be very interesting.
2. The English delegation us believed to come at the end of the
month.
3. She seems to know English and French.
4. This school is considered to be the best in the town.
5. She seems to be waiting for you.
6. The members of the committee are reported to come to an agree-
ment.
7. Lake Baikal is said to be the deepest in the world.
– 108 –
VI. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на инфинитивные конструкции.
1. A lot of people came to watch the ocean liner return home after
a long voyage.
2. Everybody thought him to be quite a reliable person.
3. He seems to know a lot about the history of navigation.
4. The 20th century is considered to be the century of space travels.
5. The results of the experiment were found to be very interesting.
6. Rubber is known to have been brought from America.
7. Ink is supposed to have been invented in Egypt.

UNIT 21
Grammar Review: 1. Функции слов ‘one, ones, that,those’
Texts: 1. ‘Hydroelectric Power Plants’
2. ‘Mobile Phones’

Text 1. Hydroelectric Power Plants


Hydroelectric power plants are built on rivers. Large-capacity hy-
droelectric power plants are commonly located at considerable distances
from the consumers of electric power. The production process at these
plants is rather simple: the water flows into the hydroturbine runner,
acts upon the runner blades and rotates the runner and the turbine shaft.
The generator shaft is connected to the turbine runner shaft. The
difference in the water level influences the power capacity of a plant,
i.e. the magnitude of the water head and the daily inflow of water fluctu-
ates considerably according to the season.
The production process is different at power plants of different
constructions and of different kinds. In atomic power plants, for exam-
ple, it is not so simple as in hydroelectric plants.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

plant a runner blade to rotate shaft level


a to influence magnitude head to fluctuate

Text 2. Mobile Phones


The necessity for telephones is unquestionable. They have become,
especially since the 1950s, an essential tool in modern life. One may
– 109 –
argue if a real ‘need’ exists for people to use their telephones as often as
they do. But can you imagine your life without one at home, or even in
your car, or when on holiday in the mountains, for instance? Hardly
anybody would give a positive answer to this question.
In recent years mobile phones have become particularly fashion-
able. Technically called cellular phones, they are one of the great contri-
butions of technology to our lives. Calls can now be made from far away
areas of the world thanks to a vast web of microwave transmission tow-
ers, antennas, and satellites in space that took years to develop and build.
The invention of the cellphone or mobile phone dates back to the
year 1947. The cellphone was a two-way radio. The technology wasn’t
very developed and only twenty-three conversations were possible on
one area. In 1968 there was already a system of towers, each was a
‘cell’, and could broadcast waves for a few miles. When people carried
a phone from place to place, telephone conversations passed from one
tower to another.
The first commercial cellular phone system started working in 1979
in Tokyo. In 1982 the USA had a cellular system that everybody could
use. More and more people started using cellphones and suddenly they
were everywhere. We know that mobile phones are no longer just phones.
There are many models with radio, calculator, or with access to the Internet.
Nowadays, throughout the world, the cellular phone has become a
status symbol, without which in some cultures it is assumed that you be-
long to a ‘lower class’ of ‘less successful’ people. Yet, it is often amusing
to hear such ‘successful’ people using their phones to call friends from
bars and restaurants when cheaper public payphones are nearby.
Still, mobile phones will continue to improve in quality, and prices
should continue to decrease. It may not be long before the cellular phone
is as basic as a calculator in the lives of many people around the world.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

necessity a tool to imagine fashionable cellular phones


contribution microwave transmission space invention
to broadcast a wave successful to improve to decrease

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises

I. (Text 1) Read the following word combinations and put down


their Russian equivalents.
– 110 –
Runner blade, turbine runner, turbine shaft, water level, water head,
large capacity power plant, magnitude of the water head, daily inflow of
water, turbine runner shaft.

II. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. Hydroelectric power plants are built ........
a. on rivers b. on waterfalls
2. Large-capacity power plants are located ........
a. at a short distance from consumers of power b
b. at a considerable distance from consumers of power
3. The production process at the plants ........
a. is very complex b. is rather simple
4. The power capacity of a plant ........
a. remain constant b. changes considerably
c. is influenced by the difference in the water level
5. The daily inflow of water ........
a. fluctuates according to the consumption
b. fluctuates according to the season
6. The production process ........
a. depends upon the construction of the plant
b. is the same at power plants of different constructions

III. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. On what sites are hydroelectric power plants built?
2. Are large-capacity plants located far from consumers of power?
3. Is the production process at the plants simple or is it complex?
4. What influences the power capacity of a plant?
5. According to what factors does the daily inflow of water fluctuate?
6. Does the production process at the plant depend on its construction?
7. Do you know that a thermal power plant seldom has an effi-
ciency more than 40 %?

IV. (Text 1) Dictation-translation.


1. Гидроэлектростанции строятся на реках.
2. Гидроэлектростанции огромных мощностей обычно
расположены на значительном расстоянии от потребителей
электроэнергии.
3. Процесс производства на этих электростанциях достаточно
прост.

– 111 –
4. Вал генератора соединен с турбинным ротарным валом.
5. Процесс производства электростанций отличается в
зависимости от различных конструкций и разных видов.

V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. When did the telephone become an indispensable machine in
our lives?
2. What makes it possible to communicate over a mobile phone
from a great distance?
3. What time does the invention of the cell phone or mobile phone
date back to?
4. When and where did the first commercial cellular phone system
start working?
5. Why do many ‘successful’ people not use the public payphones?
6. In what way will mobile phones continue to develop?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте функции, в которых употребляются
слова ‘one, ones’.
Функции слов ‘one, ones’.
1. He has given me one of his English books.
2. One must always observe traffic rules.
3. He hasn’t got a radio-set, he wants to buy one.
4. Those texts are too long, we need shorter ones.

II. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на


значения слов ‘one, ones’.
1. I shall have to buy a new coat for myself and another one for my
sister.
2. One thing is clear to everybody: one must study hard if one wants
to pass one’s examinations.
3. This TV set is very expensive, show me another one.
4. One never knows what may happen.
5. The more one studies, the more one knows.
6. These trucks are too small; they will need bigger ones.
7. He is one of the most experienced drivers.
8. This article is much more difficult than the one we translated
yesterday.
– 112 –
III. Проанализируйте случаи употребления слов ‘that, those’.
Функции слов ‘that, those’.
1. Give me that textbook, please. (Give me those textbooks.)
2. That was a hard day. (Those were hard days.)
3. He thought that they would arrive the next day.
4. I will show you the engine that we must test.
5. The year on the Earth is twice as short as that on Mars.

IV. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на


значения слов ‘that, those’.
1. I am afraid that he has fallen ill.
2. She said that she would come back in ten minutes.
3. The book that you gave me is very interesting.
4. The question that was discussed at the meeting yesterday is very
important.
5. Those children are always very noisy.
6. That was the thing that he wanted.
7. He thought that all those things were not important.

V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание


на значения слов ‘one (ones), that (those)’.
1. This dictionary is very large, show me a smaller one.
2. One should be very attentive when taking notes at the lecture.
3. The trouble is that they haven’t calculated the exact speed of the car.
4. This device is an ordinary one.
5. He said that the question should be discussed at once.
6. This advanced method allows one to get good results.
7. The properties of gold are different from those of iron.
8. This was one of the reasons for extending the bus route.

UNIT 22
Grammar Review: 1. Условные предложения
2. Многозначность слов
Texts: 1. ‘Transmission Lines’
2. ‘Tsunami’

– 113 –
Text 1. Transmission Lines
A power system is an interconnection of electric power stations by
high voltage power transmission lines. Nowadays the electricity is trans-
mitted over long distances and the length of transmitting power lines
varies from area to area.
A wire system is termed a power line in case it has no parallel
branches and a power network in case it has parallel branches. Accord-
ing to their functions, power lines and networks are subdivided into
transmission and distribution lines. Transmission lines serve to deliver
power from a station to distribution centres. Distribution lines deliver
power from distribution centres to the loads.
Lines are also classed into: 1) overhead; 2) indoor; 3) cable (under-
ground). Overhead lines include line conductors, insulators, and sup-
ports. The conductors are connected to the insulators, and these are con-
nected to the supports. The greater the resistance, the higher are the
heating losses in the conducting wires. In order to reduce the losses, a
step-down transformer can be used.
Indoor lines include conductors, cords, and buses. The conductor
may include one wire or a combination of wires not insulated from one
another. They deliver electric current to the consumers. As to under-
ground lines, they are used in city areas. Accordingly, they are used in
cities and towns, and in the areas of industrial enterprises.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

distance length area to term network to subdivide


to distribute distribution centre support cord bus
as to accordingly enterprise power consumption

Text 2. Tsunami
You’ve probably never seen a tsunami, and you can count among
your blessings the fact that you have not. The tsunami, or tidal wave, is
one of nature’s most destructive forces. The devastating force of a tidal
wave can match in fury just about any other catastrophe caused by nature.
The term ‘tidal wave’ is actually a misleading one because tsunami
are not caused by the tides. These enormous waves are caused by earth-
quakes or volcanic eruptions under the sea. They may also originate as a
result of hurricane storms that occur far from land.

– 114 –
Tidal waves can travel thousands of miles, at speeds between 400
and 500 miles per hour. They move not only with great speed, but with
great power. When a tsunami strikes land, successive waves pile up on
the shore. As a result, waves develop to an extremely great height. These
waves have been known to reach a height of 100 feet or more.
It’s difficult for a person to comprehend the speed, size, and poten-
tial for destruction and violence that the tidal wave brings with it. To get
an idea of what one would be like, think of a tsunami as an express train
as high as an apartment house travelling with the speed of a jet airliner.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to count blessing a tidal wave destructive devastating fury


to cause an earthquake to originate to strike to reach violence

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the following word combinations and put down
their Russian equivalents.
Interdependent city areas, interacting underground lines, intercon-
nected overhead lines, transmitting power lines, transmission and distri-
bution lines, overhead lines, step-down transformer, indoor lines, un-
derground lines.

II. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Высоковольтные линии передачи, силовые линии; линии
электропередачи; распределительные линии; распределительные
центры (подстанции); воздушные линии; проводники, изоляторы,
опоры; пошаговый передатчик; провода и шины; поставлять
электрический ток потребителям.

III. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. Electric power is transmitted ........
a. by electric lines b. by power network
2. Lines are divided into ........
a. overhead and underground b. overhead, indoor and underground
3. An overhead line includes ........

– 115 –
a. conductors and supports b. conductors, insulators and supports
4. The insulators are connected ........
a. to the buses b. to the supports
5. Conductors consist of ........
a. bare wire b. insulated wire
6. Underground lines are used ........
a. in cities b. in areas of enterprises c. in agricul-
tural areas
IV. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.
1. By what means is electric power system transmitted?
2. Which system has no parallel branches?
3. Into what grounds are all the transmitting lines classed?
4. What components does an overhead line have?
5. What elements do conductors consist of?
6. In what areas are overhead (underground) lines used?

V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. What is one of nature’s most destructive forces?
2. What are tsunami caused by?
3. Why is the term ‘tidal wave’ misleading?
4. At what speed can tidal waves travel?
5. Does tsunami move in one wave or in a series of waves?
6. What height can the waves reach?
7. Is it difficult or easy for a person to understand the speed, size
and power of such waves?

Grammar Exercises
I. Проанализируйте, какие формы времен используются в
условных предложениях.

Условные предложения
I. If you leave before ten, you’ll catch the train.
II. a) If you washed your hair with my shampoo, it would look
much better.
b) If I hadn’t been ill, I would have gone a week ago.

II. Прочтите диалог, найдите в нем условные предложения


и объясните, почему в них следует употребить именно эти формы.

– 116 –
SAILOR: My father and grandfather had all died at sea.
FARMER: Then, if I were you, I would never go to sea.
SAILOR: And where did your father and grandfather die?
FARMER: Why, in their beds, of course.
SAILOR: In their beds? If I were you, I would never go to bed.

III. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,


обращая внимание на условные придаточные предложения.
1. If I come early, I’ll be able to write my report today.
2. If he were at the university now, he would help us to translate the
article.
3. If you had come to the meeting yesterday, you would have met
with a well-known English writer.
4. You will get good results if you apply this method of calculation.
5. If he had taken a taxi, he would have come on time.
6. If the air were composed only of nitrogen, burning would be
impossible.
7. If you pass the button, the device will start working.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык,


обращая внимание на союзы условных придаточных
предложений ‘if, unless, provided.’
1. If they needed the equipment urgently, we could transport it by
plane.
2. The sputnik will keep to its orbit provided it travels at the uni-
form speed of 8 kilometres per second.
3. It would have been impossible to send up sputniks unless the
laws governing the motion of planets had been studied.

UNIT 23
Grammar Review: 1. Способы выражения
подлежащего и сказуемого.
2. Многозначность слов
Texts: 1. ‘Atomic Power Plant’
2. ‘Ancient Steel-Making Secret’

– 117 –
Text 1. Atomic Power Plant
Atomic power plants are modern installations. They consist of sev-
eral main units and a great number of auxiliary ones. In a nuclear reactor
uranium is utilized as a fuel. During operation process powerful heat
and radioactive radiation are produced. The nuclear reactor is cooled by
water circulation. Cooling water circulates through a system of rubes, in
which the water is heated to a temperature of 250-300 °C. In order to
prevent boiling of water, it passes into the reactor at a pressure up to 15
atmospheres.
A steam generator includes a series of heat exchangers comprising
tubes. The water heated in the reactor is delivered into the heat exchanger
tubes. The water to be converted into steam flows outside these tubes.
The steam produced is fed into the turbogenerator. Besides, an atomic
power plant comprises a common turbogenerator, a steam condenser
with circulating water and a switchboard.
Atomic power plants have their advantages as well as disadvan-
tages. The reactors and steam generators operate in them noiselessly;
the atmosphere is not polluted by dust and smoke. As to the fuel con-
sumption, it is of no special importance and there is no problem of fuel
transportation.
The disadvantage of power plants utilizing nuclear fuel is their ra-
diation. Radioactive radiation produced in the reactors is dangerous for
attending personnel. Therefore, the reactors and steam generators are in-
stalled underground. They are also shielded by thick (up to 1.5 m) con-
crete walls. All their controls are operated by means of automatic devices.
These measures serve to protect people from radioactive radiation.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

an installation to utilize to cool to prevent steam exchanger


to deliver a tube to pollute dust attending personnel to shield

Text 2. Ancient Steel-Making Secret


When two metallurgists at Standford University were trying to pro-
duce a ‘superplastic’ metal they became interested in the secret of Da-
mascus steel, the legendary material used by numerous warriors of the
past, including Crusaders. Its formula had been lost for generations.
The remarkable characteristics of Damascus steel became known
to Europe in the 11th century. They discovered that swords of the metal
– 118 –
could split (рассечь) a feather in air at the same time retain their edge
sharp through many battles. For eight centuries the Arab sword makers
kept the secret about their techniques and methods. And with the inven-
tion of firearms, the secret was lost and it was never fully rediscovered.
The two metallurgists carried out a lot of researches. When they
realized that they might be close to the discovery of a new material, a
sword fancier (знаток), at one of their demonstrations, pointed out that
Damascus steel, like their own product, was very rich in carbon. This
led them to conduct a comparative analysis of their steel and those of
the ancient weapons. As a result, it was found that a basic requirement
was a high carbon content. The two metallurgists believed it had to be
from 1 per cent, compared to only a part of 1 per cent in ordinary steel.
Their research showed how to make steel of even greater hardness than
Damascus steel.
Notes:
a warrior – воин
Crusaders – крестоносцы
a sword – меч
a feather – перо
firearms – огнестрельное оружие

Words and expressions to be remembered:

a metallurgist steel to retain an edge


sharp carbon to conduct content

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the following word combinations and put down
their Russian equivalents.
Auxiliary units, steam generator, heat exchanger, fuel consump-
tion, water to be heated in the reactor, water to be converted into steam,
steam to be fed into the turbogenerator, the polluted atmosphere, uti-
lized nuclear fuel, shielded concrete walls.

II. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Современные сооружения; несколько главных блоков; ядерный
реактор; используется как топливо; радиоактивное излучение;
охлаждается водным циркулятором; охлажденная вода; под
– 119 –
давлением; паровой генератор; теплообменные трубы; что касается
расхода топлива; установлены под землей; защищены толстыми
бетонными стенами.

III. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. A nuclear reactor is used in ........
a. wind-power plants b. atomic power plants
2. A nuclear reactor is cooled by ........
a. water circulating in tubes b. oil circulating in tubes
3. Water is passed into the reactor ........
a. at a low pressure b. at a high pressure
4. High pressure ........
a. activates boiling of water b. prevents boiling of water
5. Atomic power plants ........
a. pollute the air with dust and smoke
b. do not pollute the air with dust and smoke
6. Circulating water flows ........
a. inside the heat exchangers b. outside the heat exchangers
7. Attending personnel is shielded by ........
a. thick concrete walls b. thick metal walls

IV. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. What are the main units of an atomic power plant?
2. By what means is the nuclear reactor cooled?
3. At what pressure does the water pass into the reactor?
4. What types of power plants pollute the air with dust and smoke?
5. Why is it necessary to protect attending personnel?
6. By what means is it done?

V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. What is Damascus steel?
2. When did Damascus steel become known to Europe?
3. For how long did the Arab sword makers keep the secret about
their techniques and methods?
4. When was the secret lost?
5. What did the comparative analysis of the new steel and Damas-
cus steel show?
6. What was the basic requirement?

– 120 –
Grammar Exercises

I. Найдите подлежащее и сказуемое в следующих


предложениях. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. That electricity is clean and easily-regulated is its great advantage.
2. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at
reduced cost.
3. That the two scientists Lodygyn and Yablochkov were the first
in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering is well-known.
4. One of the main advantages of electricity is that it doesn’t pol-
lute the environment.

II. Определите время глагола-сказуемого и переведите


предложения на русский язык.
1. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future.
2. The transformer was invented at the end of the 19th century.
3. Electric power has become universal.
4. A combination of electric lines and networks are being set up
throughout the country.
5. Electricity is transmitted to distant parts of the country.

III. Изучите значения слова ‘hand’. Переведите предложения,


обращая внимание на различные значения этого слова.

Многозначность слов
hand (n) 1) рука; 2) работник, исполнитель; 3) pl. команда
корабля; 4) почерк; 5) стрелка (часовая); 6) участие в чем-либо
(v) передавать, вручать

1. Where can I wash my hands?


2. Will you hand me that pencil?
3. You can see his hand in this experiment.
4. He worked several years as a farm hand.
5. Do you have a hand in this project?
6. The hour hand of my watch is broken.
7. The letter was written in a strange hand.
8. He handed me a telegram.

– 121 –
UNIT 24
Grammar Review: 1. Составные предлоги.
2. Составные союзы.
Texts: 1. ‘Protection Against Environmental
Pollution’
2. ‘Tunnels’

Text 1. Protection Against Environmental Pollution


Any operating nuclear power plant releases fission products into the
environment, which causes environmental pollution. To prevent the harmful
effects of nuclear power release, the nuclear power plants are supplied
with protective installations that serve as barriers to the pollution.
First, the nuclear fuel and the fission products are confined within
sealed tubes made of stainless steel or zirconium. Then the assembly of
tubes is placed in a steel reactor vessel. And finally the steel reactor
vessel is placed in a large steel and concrete housing.
As to the hot radioactive waste products they are disposed in heav-
ily shielded cylinders. The cylinders are buried 305 to 610 metres un-
derground.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

fission environment to confine stainless steel vessel


concrete waste to release to dispose to withstand

Text 2. Tunnels
Tunnelling is difficult, expensive and dangerous engineering work.
Tunnels are built to provide direct automobile or railway routes through
mountain ranges, under or over rivers. Before the 19th century men had
not acquired enough skill in engineering to carry out extensive tunnelling.
Tunnels, however, were known in ancient times. They were, for instance,
driven into the rock under the Pyramids of Egypt. One of the earliest tun-
nels known was made in Babylon. It passed under the Euphrates rivers.
Other ancient tunnels were built for water supply and for drainage.
Modern tunnels are often very long and deep. The Simplon Tunnel
on the France-to-Italy railway, for example, is 12 miles long and in one
place the peaks of the Alps rise over 6,000 feet above it. Connecting the
– 122 –
British Isles to mainland Europe is a fantasy that can be dated back
nearly 200 years.
The first suggestion to construct a tunnel came from Napoleon in
1800. His engineers even drafted a tunnel plan, but Britain and France
were at war at that time. In 1988 the question of a Channel Tunnel was
studied afresh by a group of French and British engineers and the work
actually began.
The work proceeded very quickly and was successfully completed
in about six years. The Tunnel was opened to traffic on May 7, 1994.
Now cars and trucks carried by rail make crossing in 35 minutes, about
an hour less than by ferry. Passengers remain in their vehicles.

Words and expressions to be remembered:

to provide to acquire to carry out ancient to pass water-supply


drainage to date back a suggestion to proceed to cross

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


I. (Text 1) Read the following word combinations and put down
their Russian equivalents.
Nuclear fuel, nuclear fission, steel vessel, reactor vessel, fission
release, sealed tubes, concrete housing, waste products, nuclear waste,
shielded cylinders.

II. (Text 1) Find English equivalents.


Выбрасывает продукты расщепления; загрязнение
окружающей среды; обеспечены защитными установками;
изолированные трубы; сделаны из нержавеющей стали и циркония;
стальной сосуд реактора; бетонный корпус; горячие реактивные
отходы; плотно запечатанные цилиндры.

III. (Text 1) Complete the sentences using the correct variant.


1. A nuclear power plant releases ........
a. liquid products b. fission products
2. Operating nuclear power plants ........
a. pollute the environment b. prevent the pollution
3. The protective power plant installations ........
a. produce the release of fission products

– 123 –
b. prevent the release of fission products
4. The sealed tubes are made of ........
a. bronze b. stainless steel
5. The fission products are confined ........
a. within sealed tubes b. within open tubes
6. the steel reactor vessel is placed ........
a. in a concrete housing b. in a zirconium housing
7. The waste products are disposed ........
a. in an open vessel b. in shielded cylinders

IV. (Text 1) Answer the following questions.


1. What kind of products does the operating nuclear power plant
release?
2. What installations are used to prevent the harmful effects of a
nuclear power plant operation?
3. What material are the tubes made of?
4. Where are the fission products confined?
5. In what part of the installation is the reactor vessel placed?
6. In what way are hot radioactive waste products disposed?

V. (Text 2) Answer the following questions.


1. Why are tunnels built nowadays?
2. What are the examples of ancient tunnels?
3. Why were tunnels built in ancient times?
4. How long is the Simplon Tunnel?
5. When did the first suggestion to construct a tunnel under the
Channel come?
6. When did the work begin?
7. When was the Tunnel opened to traffic?

Grammar Exercises
I. Ознакомьтесь с примерами употребления составных
предлогов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

Составные предлоги
1. according to According to the information received by us the
ship will arrive on the 10th of April.
2. because of They didn’t go to the country because of the rain.

– 124 –
3. in addition to In addition to the trouble in the engine there
appeared another in the transmission.
4. in order to The new equipment was used in order to test the
vibration of the engine.
5. in spite of He left in spite of all my protests.
6. thanks to Thanks to his help we finished our work early.
7. instead of What book can you give me instead of that one.
II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание
на составные предлоги.
1. The work is going on according to the schedule.
2. The engine did not operate well because of bad fuel.
3. In order to protect the surface from heat and cold we covered it
with special substance.
4. The monument was restored in spite of many difficulties.
5. Who can repair the apparatus instead of him?
6. In addition to the usual methods of computation they made use
of computers.
III. Ознакомьтесь с примерами употребления составных
союзов и переведите предложения на русский язык.
Составные союзы
1. as soon as I’ll telephone you as soon as I return home.
2. as well as This book is interesting as well as useful.
3. both...and... Both the bridge and the tunnel will be constructed
next year.
4. either...or... I shall leave either tonight or tomorrow.
5. neither...nor... I could find him neither at home nor in the office.
6. so...that... They crossed the mountains so that they could reach
the village before dark.
7. the...the... The longer I think of your plan, the more I like it.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая


внимание на составные союзы.
1. You can get there either by bus or by underground.
2. As soon as all the calculations are completed, we will begin the tests.
3. These children know neither German nor French.
4. The sun gives us both light and heat; it gives us energy as well.
5. We decided to cross the mountains so that we could reach the
airfield in the daytime.
– 125 –
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

Prepare for your English Exam


Examination Card No 1
1. Read the text Engine with the help of a dictionary, translate it
into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Engine
All motor vehicles have an engine. There are two types of engines.
There are petrol engines and there are diesel engines. There are two
engines in the diagram. There is a two-stroke petrol engine on the left.
There is a four-stroke diesel engine on the right. There are spark plugs
in all petrol engines. Diesel engines do not have spark plugs. They have
fuel injectors.
There are always valves in 4-stroke diesel engines. There are no
valves in 2-stroke petrol engines. A 2-stroke petrol engine never has
valves. There is no oil sump in a 2-stroke engine. There is oil in the fuel.
The 4-stroke engines have an oil sump. There is no oil in the fuel.

2. Read the text Canadians and Americans without a dictionary.


Put 5 or 6 types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Canadians and Americans
Canadians and Americans usually tip in places like restaurants, air-
ports, hotels and hair salons because people who work in these places get
low salaries. A tip shows that the customer is pleased with the service.
At airports, porters usually get a dollar for each bag. Hotel bell-
hops usually get a dollar for carrying one or two suitcases. A hotel door
attendant or parking valet also gets about a dollar for getting a taxi or for
parking a car. Many people also tip hotel maids, especially when they
stay in a hotel for several days. They usually leave a dollar a day.
The usual tip for other kinds of service – for taxi drivers, barbers,
hairdressers, waiters and waitresses – is between 15 and 20 percent of
the check. The size of the tip depends on how pleased the customer is.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expressions.


Явление, оборудование, исчезать, медь, производить, длина,
опасный, напряжение, производить, вращать, вклад, сеть,
землетрясение, предотвращать, сталь, бетон, выполнять.
– 126 –
Grammar Card No 1
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. What he (to do) for a living? – He (to sing) and (to play) the
guitar.
2. Tom’s father (to teach) him to drive, when he (to be) 17.
3. It (to be) the most interesting book I ever (to read).
4. I (own, not) an umbrella. I (to wear) a waterproof hat on a rainy days.
5. If I (to see) him, I (to give) him a book.
6. My car (to steal) last night.
7. Don’t bother to read that book. It is (boring, bored).
Report the following statements:
8. Nora and Jim are getting married next month.
9. I’ve been playing tennis a lot recently.
10. My father is a businessman.

Examination Card No 2
1. Read the text Alternative Sources of Energy with the help of a
dictionary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Alternative Sources of Energy
There are several alternatives to fossil fuels and wind power is one
of them. Wind power was at one time an important source of energy on
farms. It has been considered recently for use in regions where strong
winds prevail. An enormous number of windmills would be required, ac-
companied by electric storage facilities. The aesthetic aspect of windmill
power must be considered beyond the technical and economic factors.
Tidal power is a less conventional method in which water from the
sea enters and leaves a restricted channel periodically, with each stream
turning a turbine. Only one full-scale plant is in existence, on the coast
of France, and there are a few other promising sites where tides and
terrain are suitable.

2. Read the text To Send a Message without a dictionary. Put 5 or 6


types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
To Send a Message
500 years ago it took five months for news of Christopher
Columbus’s arrival in South America to reach Queen Isabel in Spain.
– 127 –
150 years ago it took 2 weeks for the news of President Abraham Lin-
coln’s assassination to get to Europe.
A walkie-talkie is a small two-way radio. The US army first used
them in the 1930s, but they weighed 13.6 kilos so talking was easier
than walking! After World War II, they became popular with policemen.
Before that policemen had to use whistles to call for help! Nowadays,
you can send messages, pictures and text around the world in a few
seconds via a computer using e-mail. Millions of people send and re-
ceive e-mails every day. But in the early 1990s, very few people had e-
mail, and only one person in fifty knew what it was.

an assassination – убийство
a whistle – свисток

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Включать, защищать, составная часть, требовать, сталь,
зависеть, похожий, двигатель, инструмент, расстояние, происходить/
брать начало, охлаждать, окружающая среда, обеспечивать.

Grammar Card No 2
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. Jim (not to be) here at the moment. He (to go) to the shop.
2. By the way, I (to have) a little party here tonight.
3. What you (to look for)? – I (to loose) my purse.
4. My grandmother (to come) to us this weekend. She always (to
bring) us nice presents.
5. I (to buy) a new house last year, but I (not to sell) my old house yet.
6. If I (to be) you, I (to apply) for the job.
7. There isn’t any food left. All of it (to eat).
8. (Delayed, delaying) by technical problems, the plane took off
one hour late.
Report the following statements:
9. I’ve left some books on your table. I think you will find them
useful.
10. I’m working in a restaurant, and I don’t much care for it.

– 128 –
Examination Card No 3
1. Read the text Solar Power as a Source of Energy with the help of
a dictionary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Solar Power as a Source of Energy
Solar power is often mentioned as the logical and proper alterna-
tive to exhaustible sources of energy. And indeed, the amount of radiant
energy that strikes the Earth’s surface is far more then is needed. How-
ever, there are serious problems to be solved. To collect and concentrate
the energy by reflectors and converters of present efficiency is the major
difficulty. An area of collector of about 16 mi2 – 4 miles on a side –
would be needed to supply electricity to a city of a couple hundred thou-
sand population. Obvious problems come to mind, related to unfavour-
able weather conditions, energy storage requirements, and the use of the
shadowed space. The desert is a logical place to locate solar devices
because of open space, isolation, and the frequency of sunny days, but
transmission costs for electrical power to cities would be excessive.

a desert – пустыня

2. Read the text Street Markets Around the World without a dic-
tionary. Put 5 or 6 types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.

Nowadays you can shop by telephone, by post or through your


home computer; but for many people the most exciting way to shop is
also the most traditional – at a street market. You can find markets any-
where in the world. Every weekend thousands of young people from all
over London travel to Camden Market in an attractive area in the north
of the city – it’s the place to go for street fashion, jewellery, CDs and
tapes ... but many people just go for the lively atmosphere!
There are many ‘floating markets’ in Asia; perhaps the most fa-
mous is in Thailand, at a place called Damnoen Saduak 100 km from the
capital city, Bangkok. From six in the morning to midday, every day,
people sell fresh tropical fruit and vegetables from their boats.
The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul, Turkey is more than four thousand
shops under one roof! You can buy almost anything, but the most popu-
lar items for tourists are the beautiful rugs and carpets. It’s open all day
every day.

– 129 –
3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-
sions.

Пружина, частица, ошибка/ошибочно, рецепт, быть доступным,


доставлять/поставлять, зависимость, источник, обеспечивать,
строить, уровень, передавать/транслировать, длина, причинять,
загрязнять, острый/точный.

Grammar Card No 3
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. Where you (to be), Tommy. Your face is dirty.
2. I hear you just (to get) married. Where the ceremony (to take)
place?
3. Water (to boil) at 100 °C.
4. Tom usually (to sleep) very well. Last night he (to sleep) badly.
5. Mr and Mrs Davis were in an airplane. They (to be) very nerv-
ous, as the plane (to take) off, because they (never fly) before.
6. If he (to eat) all that he (to be) ill.
7. Can I take the documents? – I am afraid not They (not type) yet.
8. (Entering, entered) the hall you will see a staircase (leading,
lead) to the basement.
Report the following statements:
9. You must leave a note for your mother, or she will be terribly
worried.
10. I’ve got a job.

Examination Card No 4
1. Read the text Fuels with the help of a dictionary, translate it into
Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Fuels
There is a lot of carbon (about 85 %) in diesel fuel. There is also a
lot of carbon in petrol. There is a little hydrogen in both these fuels. But
there is little sulphur (about 1 %) in diesel fuel and there is no sulphur in
petrol. There is a great deal of petrol (about 95 %) and a little oil (about
5 %) in the fuel mixture for two-stroke engines. There is no oil in the
fuel for four-stroke engines. There is a great deal of air (90 %) and not
much fuel (10 %) in the fuel and air mixture.

– 130 –
2. Read the text Discovering New Worlds without a dictionary. Put
5 or 6 types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Discovering New Worlds
Nine planets of our solar system orbit round the Sun, six of them
being visible to the naked eye. To see the other three (Uranus, Neptune
and Pluto) you need a telescope, and you need to know where to point it.
The two outermost planets were discovered because of the effect of their
gravitational pull on the orbit of Uranus. From the speeding up and slow-
ing down of Uranus, astronomers could work out where the unseen plan-
ets were.
Distant planets are almost impossible to see, as they do not shine
by their own light. However, they reflect the light of their star. Moreo-
ver, moving around its orbit such a planet will periodically block the
star’s light giving the scientists more proofs of its own existence.
There is a problem with the newly-discovered planets. They seem
to be massive. Their orbiting around the stars at high speed means that
they are very close to the stars, and therefore very hot. Our ideas of how
planets form do not fit very well with this. Jupiter-sized planets are ex-
pected to be gassy giants, far from their stars, where it is cold enough for
gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia to freeze solid. The theorists
have some explaining to do.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Выключать, создавать, плавить/сваривать, в соответствии с чем-
либо, топливо, производительность, цель, увеличивать,
рекламировать, лезвие/лопасть, сотовые телефоны, поставлять, пар,
металлург, запас воды, освобождать, покупатель/заказчик.

Grammar Card No 4
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. No wonder he (to be) very tired. He (to work) hard for the last 3
months.
2. My mother (to come) to stay with us next weekend.
3. I (not to see) him since we finished school.
4. I (to live) in London many years ago.
5. When you last (to wear) it? – I (to wear) them at the theatre.
6. If she (to need) a radio she (to buy) this one.

– 131 –
7. Football (to play) all over the world.
8. The soldier spent an hour (polished, polishing) his boots.
Report the following sentences:
9. Is your apartment far from here?
10. Janice, you have to clean up your room.

Examination Card No 5
1. Read the text Holography and Holograms with the help of a
dictionary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Holography and Holograms
Holography and hologram are normally referred to as a process
and as a plate or film itself respectively. In 1947 Dennis Gabor (the
father and the first theorist of holography, awarded with the Nobel prize
for his research) coined the term hologram from the Greek words ‘holos’
meaning whole or complete and ‘gram’ meaning message. Gabor’s theory
was originally intended to increase the resolving power of electron mi-
croscopes. Incidentally, it was proved not with an electron beam, but
with a light beam. The result was the first hologram ever made. Gabor’s
hologram was clear, but imperfect, as he lacked the correct light source –
the LASER, which was first seen operating in 1960.
Holography is an art that attracts people’s attention and curiosity
and colourful multidimensional images are widely used in advertising,
stamps, jewelry, with holography museums exhibiting masterpieces. Credit
cards are considered original if supplied with a hologram. Holographic
lenses are lighter than traditional lenses and mirrors and can be designed
to perform more specialized functions, for instance, to make the panel
instruments of a car visible in the windshield in order to increase safety.

2. Read the text Electricity Basics without a dictionary. Put 5 or 6


types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Electricity Basics
Electricity is something we do not notice until we do not have it.
However, few people understand what it is and still fewer can explain it.
So, what is electricity? Electricity is simply a movement of charged
particles through a closed circuit. The electrons, which flow through
this wire, carry a negative charge. A lightning discharge is the same
idea, just without the wire.
– 132 –
Electricity is made by converting some form of energy into flow-
ing electrons at the power plant. The type of power plant depends on the
source of energy used: thermal power (coal, oil, gas, nuclear, under-
ground steam), solar power (photovoltaic), kinetic power (water, wind)
and chemical power (fuel cell).

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Поперечное сечение, заставлять, таять, прорываться,
преобразовывать, защищать, процент, киберпространство,
дополнительный, производство, влиять, улучшать, делить, пыль,
углерод, нержавеющая сталь.

Grammar Card No 5
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. I (to do) the room when my mother (to come) home from work.
2. You (to drive) a car? – Not yet. But I (to learn) to drive now.
3. Next month I (to get) the driving licence.
4. They say if you (to see) a back cat, you (not to have) good luck.
5. He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind
(to blow).
6. If you (not go) away, I (to send) for the police.
7. Wine (to produce) in many parts of France.
8. To please my daughter, I had her old bicycle (painted, painting)
bright red.
Report the following sentences:
9. I went to the dry-cleaner’s at lunchtime.
10. What country do you come from?

Examination Card No 6
1. Read the text Copper with the help of a dictionary, translate it
into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Copper
Copper is man’s oldest metal as people could extract it more than
10,000 years ago. As it is rather soft and ductile, copper is alloyed with
other elements. There is evidence that the first copper alloy – bronze
(90 % copper, 10 % tin) – was produced around 2800 BC in countries
– 133 –
such as India, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Bronze was harder and could be
used for making reliable cutting tools. Its use characterizes the Bronze Age.
The workability and the ability for corrosion resistance made cop-
per, bronze and brass the most important functional as well as decora-
tive materials from the Middle Ages and on till the present day. With the
beginning of the Electrical Age the demand for copper increased tre-
mendously because it is an unusually good conductor of electricity and
heat. Today more than 5 million tons of copper are produced annually
and the copper metals are playing an increasingly vital part in all branches
of modern technology.

2. Read the text The Curse of Tutankhamun without a dictionary.


Put 5 or 6 types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
The Curse of Tutankhamun
On 26 November 1922, the archaeologists Howard Carter and the
Earl of Carnarvon finally discovered the remains of the Egyptian phar-
aoh Tutankhamun, which had not been seen for over 3,000 years. It was
dais that a curse of death would be on anyone who disturbed
Tutankhamun’s body. Very shortly after the discovery, a cobra, which
was considered by the ancient Egyptians to be a royal snake, bit and
killed Howard Carter’s pet canary. Shortly after, the Earl of Carnarvon
fell ill and died. At the exact moment of his death all the lights in Cairo
suddenly and inexplicably went out. At this same moment in England,
the Earl’s dog began to howl and then died. Three of the archaeologists
assistants died shortly after this, and then a French professor visiting
Egypt to see the tomb died on the night of his arrival. An exhibition of
treasures opened in London in 1972. The curator of the museum pub-
licly laughed when questioned about the curse. Four weeks later he was
dead. Curse or coincidence?

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Закрывать, редко, решать, стоимость, нелегальный, сокращать,
производить, величина, необходимость, поддержка, использовать,
содержание, дренаж/осушение, пространство, изобретение,
представить.

Grammar Card No 6
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:

– 134 –
1. Don’t turn on the TV set. Little Kate (not to get up) yet. She (to
fall asleep) very late yesterday.
2. Kate always (to help) her mother about the house.
3. Last term Ann (to make) good progress in her English.
4. You (to be) to the movies this week?
5. Her phone (to ring) for 10 minutes. I wonder why she doesn’t
answer it.
6. If he (to be) late, we (to go) without him.
7. I had to wait a little. When I came the students (to test).
8. I’ve never seen him (danced, dancing).
Report the following sentences:
9. Are you still angry with me?
10. I’m going to buy a little island in the Pacific.

Examination Card No 7
1. Read the text Design and Construction of Tall Buildings with
the help of a dictionary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the
questions.
Design and Construction of Tall Buildings
The world is building at an ever-increasing pace to house the rap-
idly growing population, to replace deteriorating or obsolete buildings,
and to satisfy the demand for accommodation of a higher quality.
The need for tall buildings is increasing rapidly. They provide more
open space and green areas in the conditions of increasing the urban
population.
The scarcity of land in the desirable central parts of cities is un-
doubtedly one of the basic reasons for tall buildings. High land values
make the erection of tall buildings the only economical way to build.
Economic considerations were the prime movers in the erection of the
early skyscrapers. The prestige value of tall buildings is undoubtedly
another reason that has prompted buildings owners to strive for greater
heights.
The desire to preserve the central core of a city, and to limit the
urban sprawl, are further factors which favour tall buildings. The in-
creased permitted population densities combined with requirements for
ample open space, make tall buildings the only practical way for effec-
tive urban renewal schemes.

– 135 –
scarcity – недостаток
a skyscraper – небоскреб

2. Read the text Einstein, Albert without a dictionary. Put 5 or 6


types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Einstein, Albert
In the summer of 1905, a young man was sitting at home after a
day’s work. While rocking his one-year old baby, he thought something
over. Suddenly it came to him. The equation E=mc2 was born, an equa-
tion which would change our understanding of the Universe but would
help to create the nuclear bomb. Albert Einstein was aware of recent
developments, such as Marie Curie’s research into radioactivity, but he
had been working on his own. His mould-breaking equation showed
how a small piece of mass could produce an unbelievable amount of
energy. Einstein then demonstrated in his ‘theory of relativity’ that not
even time, mass or length are constant – they vary according to our per-
spective of them. For example, if we could see people moving at the
speed of light, they would appear much heavier and larger and would
seem to move in slow motion.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Различный, оборудовать, и так далее, превышать/превосходить,
ломать, накопительная батарея/накопительный гальванический
элемент, средства массовой информации, поставлять, сохранять,
проходить, современный, подсчитывать, опустошающий.

Grammar Card No 7
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. I (not to read) much since I (to leave) school.
2. People (to speak) English in different countries.
3. He (to leave) for London tomorrow.
4. The man (to tell) us, he (to buy) two boxes of chocolate.
5. He had a hard time finding a job. He (to try) to get a new job for
six months.
6. If I (to have) enough time, I (to write) to my parents every week.
7. Is the plane going to be late? – No, it (to expect) to be on time.
8. The leaves (lying, laid) on the ground give us the answer.

– 136 –
Report the following sentences:
9. How often does Ann go shopping?.
10.The soup is cold.

Examination Card No 8
1. Read the text Engineering Materials with the help of a diction-
ary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Engineering Materials
All engineering materials are divided into metals and non-metals.
Copper, cast iron, aluminium are examples of metals. Rubber, plastic
and ceramics are examples of non-metals. Today different metals are
widely used in machine-building industry.
We can divide all metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. Steel and
cast iron are in the group of ferrous metals. They are alloys of iron with
carbon, manganese, silicon and other components.
Non-ferrous metals are metals and alloys the main component of
which is not iron but some other element such as aluminium, copper and
others. Some of the characteristics of non-ferrous metals are high elec-
tric and heat conductivity, high corrosion resistance, light weight and
easiness of fabrication.

2. Read the text Easy English without a dictionary. Put 5 or 6 types


of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Easy English
English is an important global language – but that doesn’t mean
it’s easy to learn. Many experts have tried to make English easier for
students to learn ... but they weren’t always successful.
In 1930, Professor C.K.Ogden of Cambridge University invented
Basic English which it had only 850 words (and just 18 verbs!), and
Ogden said most people could learn it in just thirty hours ... The prob-
lem was that those people who learned Basic English could write and
say simple messages ... but they couldn’t understand the answers in ‘real’
English! It was also impossible to explain a word which wasn’t in the
Basic English world list; so if you wanted a water melon, you asked for
‘a large green fruit with the form of an egg, which has a sweet red inside
and a good taste.’

– 137 –
3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-
sions.
Двигаться, ветер, использовать, неудача, источник,
раскаленный, потеря, наказание, гибкий, военный, луч света/
вспышка (молнии), волна, предприятие, волна прилива, установка,
проводить, расщепление, получать/достигать.

Grammar Card No 8
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. John never (to go) bed before 11 o’clock.
2. I (to give) her the flowers, that I (to buy) for her.
3. When you (to meet) him last?
4. I (to go) to London tomorrow.
5. I (hear, not) the thunder during the storm last night, because I (to
sleep).
6. If I had a typewriter, I (to type) it myself.
7. Even though construction costs are high, a new building (to build)
next year.
8. The (stealing, stolen) car was found in the wood.
Report the following sentences:
9. We are waiting for the school bus. It’s late again.
10. Did you see him today?

Examination Card No 9
1. Read the text Welding with the help of a dictionary, translate it
into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Welding
Welding is one of the most important operations that are used in
industry. Many parts of machines, automobiles, airplanes, ships, bridges
and buildings are welded. In order to join two metal pieces it is neces-
sary to soften them with heat and then to press, hammer or fuse them
together. The most widely used method of welding is electric arc weld-
ing where the workpieces are joined by means of electricity at the tem-
perature of about 7,232 єF. This is the hottest heat that can be obtained
for engineering purposes.
– 138 –
In electric arc welding two workpieces are welded by an electric
arc. In order to create the arc a powerful electric currect should be pro-
vided. The currect must be at least 60A and for thicker workpieces it
may be 250A or more.

2. Read the text Internet without a dictionary. Put 5 or 6 types of


questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Internet
The Internet is a global computer network that embraces millions
of users all over the world. It dates back to 1969 when it began as a
military experiment. Information that people send over the Internet takes
the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of
this, any two computers on the Internet stay in touch with each other as
long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called
packet switching network. Owing to this technology, if some computers
on the network fail, the information just routes around them.
One of the most popular Internet services is e-mail. Most of the
people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for send-
ing and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are
available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide
Web and Intranet.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Близко к, занавес, служить, шедевр, приключения,
игнорировать, разрушать, заключать в себе, колебаться,
микроволновая печь, потребление энергии, защищать, ограничивать,
пересекать, называть/выражать, центральная телефонная станция.

Grammar Card No 9
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. Don’t make so much noise. I (to study).
2. Tom can’t find his key. He’s afraid he (to loose) it.
3. Nick usually (to get up) early at 7. Yesterday it (to be) Sunday
and he (to get up) a little later.
4. If you (to come) at 5 o’clock, you (to see) an interesting program
on TV.

– 139 –
5. You (to see) Helen today? – No, I (to see) her 2 days ago.
6. If I (to have) enough time tomorrow, I (to write) to my parents.
7. Millions of cars (to export) from Japan every month.
8. Have you heard the latest news? It’s really (exciting, excited).
Report the following sentences:
9. When did you play first TV role?
10. Ask Clare to get a few more details.

Examination Card No 10
1. Read the text Branches of Engineering with the help of a dic-
tionary, translate it into Russian. Be ready to answer the questions.
Branches of Engineering
Engineering is a very practical activity. It is the process of apply-
ing the latest achievements of science and technology into practice. There
are a lot of branches in engineering. Mechanical engineers are experts
in the design and manufacture of tools and machines. Mechanical engi-
neering has marine, automobile, aeronautical, heating and ventilating
branches.
Electrical engineering deals with producing and applying electric-
ity in various fields of national economy. It has the following branches:
electrical installation, electrical generation, lighting, etc.
Components and equipment for computing and communicating are
the products of electronic engineering. Civil engineering deals with con-
structing bridges, roads and airports.

2. Read the text Important Inventions without a dictionary. Put 5 or


6 types of questions to the text. Retell it in Russian.
Important Inventions
Nobody knows who wrote the first letter, or when. But we know
that 4,000 years ago in Ancient Egypt, people carried letters by hand
over hundreds of kilometres. In those days you didn’t need a stamp to
send a letter: the first stamp didn’t appear until 1840 – it cost one penny
... nowadays one of these original stamps costs 225Ј.
An American company – Remington and Sons – made the first type-
writer in 1871. All the letters in the word ‘typewriter’ were on the top
line on the keyboard, so the salesmen could demonstrate the machine
– 140 –
easily. The letters are still in the same place on a modern computer key-
board.
The inventor of the first telephone was a Scottish-American teacher
called Alexander Graham Bell. In 1876 he showed his new invention at
an exhibition in Philadelphia. Unfortunately, the public weren’t very
interested.

3. Give English equivalents to the following words and expres-


sions.
Установка, бедность, увлечение, чрезвычайно/исключительно,
создавать, линии передачи энергии, уменьшать, разрушительный,
располагать, продолжать, воровать, обманывать, превращать.

Grammar Card No 10
Open the brackets, using the right verb-forms:
1. When you (to visit) Moscow last?
2. When I (to leave) the house in the morning, it still (to rain).
3. The boys already (to do) his homework, and now he (to watch) TV.
4. He (to be) a student now? – Yes, he (to study) at the University.
5. There (to be) a very good programmer on TV last night. You (to
see) it?
6. If I (to have) a lot of money, I (to travel) round the world.
7. Last week I (to offer) a job at a local bank, but I didn’t accept.
8. After (finishing, finished) our work, we went home.
Report the following sentences:
9. Take a seat.
10. Her name is Isabel and he met her only yesterday.

– 141 –
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1. Abbs B., Freebairn I. Blueprint. – London, 1989.


2. Abbs B., Freeebairn I., Elsworth S. Discoveries. – Longman,
1996.
3. Allen W. Stannard. Living English Structure. – Longman, 1997.
4. Changing Times, Changing Tenses. – New York, 1991.
5. «Читай, познавай, думай!» Книга для чтения на английском
языке для инженерных специальностей вузов. – М., Высшая школа,
1985.
6. Полякова Т.Ю., Синявская Е.В., Тынкова О.И., Улановская Э.С.
Английский язык для инженеров. – М.: Высшая школа, 2000.
7. Английский язык. Контрольные задания для студентов-
заочников высших учебных заведений неязыковых специальностей /
Московский Институт коммунального хозяйства и строительства. –
М., 1997.

– 142 –
Contents

Предисловие........................................................................................3
Unit 1 ....................................................................................................4
Grammar: Verb ‘to be’: the Present Tense. ‘There is/there are’.
‘Have/have got’. Text: ‘The Moon’.
Unit 2 ....................................................................................................8
Grammar: The Present Simple Tense. Positions of Adverbs of Frequency.
Text: ‘Buckingham Palace’.
Unit 3 ...................................................................................................13
Grammar: The Present Continuous Tense. Indefinite pronouns.
Text: ‘Working Day’.
Unit 4....................................................................................................17
Grammar: The present Simple Tense and the Present Continuous Tense.
Quantitative Pronouns. Text: ‘A Long Day’s Journey Into Work’.
Unit 5.....................................................................................................22
Grammar: The Present Perfect Tense. Possessive Case Text: ‘Loch Ness’.
Unit 6....................................................................................................28
Grammar: The Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Word Order.
Question Words. Text: ‘What’s Your Favourite Colour?’
Unit 7....................................................................................................34
Grammar: The Past Simple Tense. The Past Tense of ‘to be’:
‘was’ and ‘were’. The repetition word ‘one’. Text: ‘Guy Fawkes’.
Unit 8....................................................................................................39
Grammar: ‘Used to’. Past habit with ‘used to’. ‘Used to’ and the Past
Simple Tense. Degrees of Comparison. Texts: ‘Transportation Used
to Be Much Slower than It Is now’. ‘Sultan of Brunei, One of the
Richest men in the World’.
Unit 9...................................................................................................45
Grammar: The Past Simple Tense and the Present Perfect Tense. Adjec-
tives and adverbs. Text: ‘Dinosaurs’.
– 143 –
Unit 10.................................................................................................50
Grammar: The Past Continuous Tense. The Past Simple Tense
(Revision). Texts: ‘Noisy Neighbours’. ‘Electronic Car’.
Unit 11 .................................................................................................55
Grammar: The Past Perfect Tense. Relative Pronouns.
Text: ‘Nobody Had believed It Was Possible’.
Unit 12 ................................................................................................60

Grammar: The Future Simple Tense. The construction ‘to be going to’.
Modal Verbs ‘may’, ‘might’. Text: ‘The Car of the Future’.

Unit 13 ................................................................................................66

Grammar: Modal Verbs ‘must’, ‘have to’, ‘should’. Reported Speech.


Texts: ‘Strange Laws’. ‘Race to the South Pole’.

Unit 14..................................................................................................73

Grammar: Conditionals. Ing-forms: gerund and Present Participle.


Text: ‘Smoking’.

Unit 15.................................................................................................79

Grammar: Passive Voice. – Ing and -ed adjectives.


Text: ‘An Amazing Crime’.

Unit 16.................................................................................................84

Grammar Review: Passive Voice. Texts: ‘Electromagnetic Relay’.


‘The Northern Lights’.

Unit 17.................................................................................................89

Grammar Review: Participle I, II. Forms and Functions.


Texts: ‘Fuses’. ‘Do Great Minds Think Alike?’.

Unit 18.................................................................................................95

– 144 –
Grammar Review: Gerund, its functions; gerundial constructions.
Texts: ‘Components of Electric Circuits’. ‘Cars: Passion
or Problem?’.

Unit 19..................................................................................................99

Grammar Review: Infinitive Texts: ‘Electric Lines and Their Efficiency’.


‘Hackers’.

Unit 20.................................................................................................104

Grammar Review: Complex Object. Complex Subject.


Texts: ‘Substations’. ‘A Legend on Wheels’.

Unit 21.................................................................................................109

Grammar Review: Функции слов ‘one, ones, that, those’.


Texts: ‘Hydroelectric Power Plants’. ‘Mobile Phones’.

Unit 22.................................................................................................113

Grammar Review: Условные предложения. Многозначность слов.


Texts: ‘Transmission Lines’. ‘tsunami’.

Unit 23................................................................................................117
Grammar Review: Способы выражения подлежащего и сказуемого.
Многозначность слов. Texts: ‘Atomic Power Plant’. ‘Ancient Sreel-
Making Secret’.

Unit 24................................................................................................122

Grammar Review: Составные предлоги. Составные союзы.


Texts: ‘Protection Against Environmental Pollution’. ‘Tunnels’.

Приложение.......................................................................................126

Список литературы..........................................................................142

– 145 –
Учебное издание

TECHNICAL
ENGLISH
BASICS
ОСНОВЫ
ТЕХНИЧЕСКОГО
АНГЛИЙСКОГО

Авторы-составители:
Болдак Ирина Александровна
Вайнерт Лилия Ричардовна
Русинова Татьяна Ивановна
Редактор Н.Н. Красницкая
Компьютерная верстка: И.П.Зимницкая

Сдано в набор 28.10.2005. Подписано в печать 14.12.2005.


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