Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 101

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО


ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«РОССИЙСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТРАНСПОРТА (МИИТ)»

Институт управления и информационных технологий

Кафедра «Иностранные языки-5»

Информатика: устные темы на


английском языке
к учебному пособию Infotech 4th edition

Практикум

Москва – 2017
0
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ТРАНСПОРТА
РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО


ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«РОССИЙСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ТРАНСПОРТА (МИИТ)»

Институт управления и информационных технологий

Кафедра «Иностранные языки-5»

Информатика: устные темы на


английском языке
к учебному пособию Infotech 4th edition

Практикум
для студентов направлений
«Прикладная математика и информатика»,
«Информатика и вычислительная техника»,
«Информационные системы и технологии»,
"Информационная безопасность"

Москва - 2017

1
УДК 42
И 74
Информатика: устные темы на английском языке к учебному пособию Infotech 4th edition:.
Практикум / Кузякин А.С., Попова Т.Г., Дмитриева Е.И., Сахаров Ю.А. – М.: РУТ (МИИТ), 2017. – 100 с.

«Информатика: устные темы на английском языке» представляет собой практикум,


содержащий базовые устные темы и упражнения к 30 урокам учебного пособия по
профессиональному английскому для пользователей компьютеров Remacha Esteras S. Infotech.
English for Computer Users. 4th edition. — Cambridge University Press, 2008. Практикум в сжатой
форме излагает на английском языке профессионально значимые понятия из области аппаратного и
программного обеспечения современных компьютеров, связанных с ними устройств ввода и вывода,
хранения и обработки информации, особенностей применения информационных технологий для
работы, обучения, общения, развлечения и др.
Предлагаемая методическая разработка расширяет границы активного лексического запаса
студентов в пределах порядка 1000 - 1200 слов и выражений. Цель практикума научить студентов
самостоятельно ориентироваться в английских специализированных ИТ- текстах, переносить навыки
пересказа изученных тем на описание новых технологий из мира ИТ и осуществление
профессионально-ориентированной коммуникации. Активация навыков устной речи происходит на
аудиторных занятиях, при обсуждении тем, толковании терминов, а также при подготовке и
проведении обязательных презентаций с использованием проектора и/или интерактивной белой
доски в аудитории. Используемый языковой материал адаптирован к знанию английского языка на
уровне Pre-Intermediate и Intermediate.
Практикум «Информатика: устные темы на английском языке» предназначен для студентов
неязыковых вузов, изучающих английский язык в сфере прикладной информатики.

© РУТ (МИИТ), 2017

2
Unit 1 Living in a digital age

Topic 1. Digitally savvy society

We are now living in what some people call the digital age, meaning that digital computing
devices have become an essential part of our social lives.
In education, computers help students to perform mathematical operations and improve
their maths skills. They are used to access the Internet, to do basic research and to communicate
with other students around the world. Teachers use projectors and interactive whiteboards to give
presentations and teach sciences or humanities. PCs are also used for administrative purposes -
schools use word processors to write letters, and databases to keep records of students and
teachers. A school website allows teachers to publish exercises for students to complete online.
In business, e.g. in banks, computers store information about the money held by each
customer and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial transactions at high
speed. They also control the cashpoints, or ATMs (automatic teller machines), which dispense
money to customers by the use of a PIN-protected card. People use a Chip and PIN-card to pay for
goods and services. With online banking, clients can easily pay bills and transfer money from the
comfort of their homes.
In production, e.g. in car manufacturing, computers are used to design and build cars and test
virtual models. Computers help engineers to design the car body and the mechanical parts. During
tests, a lot of microprocessors control the electronic components of the car and monitor the
engine speed, temperature and other vital information.
In communication, new smartphones not only let people make voice calls and send SMSs, but
combine a telephone with web access, video, a games console, an MP3 player, a personal digital
assistant (PDA) and a GPS navigation system, all in one. With a built-in camera you can send
pictures and make video calls in “face-to-face” mode.
In transportation, computers help pilots control the plane. For example, monitors display data
about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to
manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. Travel agents use computers to find out about the
availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is meant by “digital age”?


2. How do students use computers for education?
3. How do teachers use computer-aided devices in education process?
4. What is the role of computers in banks?
5. What are chips and PINs in credit cards designed for?
6. What do microprocessors do in car-testing?
7. What advanced features do smartphones have over conventional telephones?
8. What is meant by a “face-to-face” mode?
9. Who controls the plane during the flight?
10. Who keeps the information about the availability of flights up-to-date?

3
Topic 2. Individual applications of computer

A modern tech-savvy composer writes music mainly for videos and plays. He works on a
keyboard connected to a computer. He uses computer in two ways, really: first of all, to record,
or store, what he plays on the keyboard. Secondly, to control the sounds he can make with the
different synthesizers. In fact, he can use his PC to get different kinds of sound from the
synthesizers. The computer is the link between the keyboard, which he plays, and the
synthesizers, which produce the sounds.
A secretary uses her computer to do the usual office things, like writing memos, letters, faxes
and so on, The thing she finds most useful is email, as soon as her company is an international
one, and they have offices all over the world. All branches, subsidiaries and departments are
linked up by email. With email I can communicate with the offices around the world very
efficiently. It's really changed her life.
An electric engineer uses computers for almost every aspect of his job. He uses them to
design electrical installations and lighting systems. For example, a special program will tell how
much lighting is needed for a particular room, or how much cable, and it'll show where the cable
should go. He also uses the computer to make drawings and to keep records. They have to test
their installations every five years, and that information is stored on computer, too.
A librarian uses computers to catalogue and classify all the materials received in the library,
and record all the books, newspapers, DVDs, etc. that users borrow. She also assists customers
and visitors in the use of IT hardware and software, including online databases and CD-ROMs. She
helps people with their enquiries, for example if children or elderly people need to find some
specific information, either in the online library catalogue or on the Internet. She’s also in charge
of other library services, such as printing and fax machines.

Questions for discussion:

1. Who writes music with the help of a computer?


2. In which ways is computer used in music writing?
3. Who/what produces sounds?
4. What are the usual office tasks which a secretary does with the help of a computer?
5. Which of them is most useful for an international company?
6. How does an electric engineer apply computer in his job?
7. How often do the electric installations have to be tested?
8. What is done to all the inventory in the library with the help of a computer?
9. Who needs help of a librarian?
10. What are additional library services?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

получить доступ в интернет, перевести деньги, делать звонки, делать презентации,


проводить исследование, хранить информацию, посылать короткие текстовые сообщения,
аппаратное и программное обеспечение, счета на оплату, списки клиентов, банковские
4
счета, информационные письма, юридические документы, электронное зажигание в
машине, взаимодействовать с людьми по всему миру, таймер в микроволновке,
программатор в телевизоре.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

 Люди используют компьютеры, чтобы играть в компьютерные игры: шахматы,


симуляции, стрелялки, квесты.
 Компьютеры позволяют объединить звук, текст, анимационные картинки при
изготовлении собственных видеоклипов.
 Приложение дает возможность редактировать фотографии.
 Оптические диски делают доступными для чтения дома энциклопедии и книги в
разных форматах.
 Компьютеры используются для управления работой станков на производстве.
 Родители могут скачать отчет об успеваемости ученика в школе и узнать домашнее
задание.

Unit 2 What is a computer?

Topic 1 Elements of a computer system

A computer is an electronic machine which can accept data in a certain form, process the
data, and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information.
First, data is fed into the computer's memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer
performs a set of instructions and processes the data. Finally, we can see the results (the output)
on the screen or in printed form.
A computer system consists of two parts: hardware and software. Hardware is any electronic
or mechanical part you can see or touch. Software is a set of instructions, called a program, which
tells the computer what to do. There are three basic hardware sections: the central processing
unit (CPU) , main memory and peripherals, which are all integrated by the motherboard.
Perhaps the most influential component is the central processing unit. Its function is to
execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the
'brain' of the computer. The main memory (a collection of RAM chips) holds the instructions and
data which are being processed by the CPU. Peripherals are the physical units attached to the
computer. They include storage devices and input/output devices.
Storage devices (hard drives, DVD drives or flash drives) provide a permanent storage of both
data and programs. Disk drives are used to read and write data on disks. Input devices enable data
to go into the computer's memory. The most common input devices are the mouse and the
keyboard. Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example,
the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by means of a
printer.
On the rear panel of the computer there are several ports into which we can plug a wide
range of peripherals - a modem, a digital camera, a scanner, etc. They allow communication
between the computer and the devices. Modern desktop PCs have USB ports and memory card
readers on the front panel.

5
Questions for discussion:

1. What is a computer?
2. Which operations do the data undergo?
3. Which parts does computer consist of?
4. What is hardware?
5. What is software?
6. What are the basic hardware sections?
7. What is the function of the CPU?
8. What is the functional difference between main memory and storage devices?
9. What are the main input and output devices?
10. What is the rear panel of a PC commonly used for?

Topic 2 Types of computers

Computers can be divided into five main types, depending on their size and power. These are:
mainframes, desktop PCs, laptops, tablet PCs and personal digital assistants, or PDAs.
Mainframes are the largest and most powerful computers. The basic configuration of a
mainframe consists of a central system which processes immense amounts of data very quickly.
This central system provides information and computing facilities for hundreds of terminals
connected together in a network. Mainframes are used for large-scale computing purposes in
banks, universities and big companies.
PCs, or personal computers, carry out their processing on a single microchip. They are usually
classified by size and portability. A desktop PC is designed to be placed on your desk. It is used as a
home computer or as a workstation for group work. Typical examples are the IBM PC and the
Apple Macintosh.
A laptop is a portable computer that has a flat LCD screen and uses batteries for mobile use.
Small laptops are also called notebooks. The latest models can run as fast as similar desktop
computers and have similar configurations. They are ideal for business executives who travel a lot.
A tablet PC is a type of notebook computer that has an LCD screen on which you can write
with a stylus or digital pen. Your handwriting is recognized and converted into editable text. You
can also input text by using speech recognition or a small keyboard. You can fold and rotate the
screen easily.
Finally, a PDA is a lightweight, handheld computer. The letters stand for personal digital
assistant. The term refers to a wide variety of handheld devices, including palmtops and pocket
PCs. For input, you type using a small keyboard or you use a stylus - a special pen to select items
on the screen. PDAs can be used as mobile phones, personal organizers or media players. They
also let you access the Internet via Wi-Fi networks, and some include a GPS navigation system.

Questions for discussion:

1. Which types can computers be divided into?


2. How is a mainframe computer designed?
3. Where are mainframes generally used?
4. How are PCs classified?
5. What are the well-known brand names of desktop computers?
6. How does an average laptop look like?
6
7. What is a tablet PC good for?
8. How can you input text on a tablet PC?
9. What do letters PDA stand for?
10. How do PDAs and pocket PCs access the internet?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


ПО, периферийные устройства, основная память, жесткий диск, аппаратное обеспечение,
ввод/вывод, порты, центральный процессор, устройства хранения информации, магнитные
накопители, оптические диски, флэш-память, скачивать из интернет, настольный
компьютер, большая вычислительная машина (суперкомпьютер), вычислительные
возможности, планшетный компьютер, цифровое перо, наладонник, персональный
цифровой секретарь.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Периферийные устройства часто делятся на три категории: ввода, вывода и хранения


данных.
 Я делаю фотографии и загружаю их на компьютер через USB-порт.
 Существует три базовые типа средств хранения информации: магнитные, оптические
и флэш-накопители.
 У меня жесткий диск объемом 1 Терабайт.
 Мой DVD-записывающий дисковод поддерживает все типы CD и DVD-дисков.
 На передней панели моего ПК есть два гнезда для USB-флэшек, это очень удобно.

Unit 3 Inside the system

Topic 1 Specifics of CPU, RAM, ROM, buses and cards

The nerve centre of a PC is the processor, also called the CPU. This is built into a single chip
which executes program instructions and coordinates the activities that take place within the
computer system. The chip itself is a small piece of silicon with a complex electrical circuit called
an integrated circuit.
The processor consists of three main parts:
 The control unit interprets instructions in the user's program.
 The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs mathematical calculations (+, -, etc.) and
logical operations (AND, OR, NOT).
 The registers are high-speed units of memory used to store and control data. One
of the registers (the program counter) keeps track of the next instruction to be performed
in the main memory. The other (the instruction register) holds the instruction that is being
executed.

7
The power and performance of a computer is determined by the speed of its processor and
by the number of processing chips. A system clock sends out signals at fixed intervals to measure
and synchronize the flow of data. Clock speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz).
RAM and ROM
The programs and data which pass through the processor must be loaded into the main
memory in order to be processed. Therefore, when the user runs a program, the CPU looks for it
on the hard disk and transfers a copy into the RAM chips. RAM (random access memory) is volatile
- that is, its information is lost when the computer is turned off. However, ROM (read only
memory) is non-volatile, containing instructions and routines for the basic operations of the CPU.
The BIOS (basic input/output system) uses ROM chip to control communication with peripherals.
RAM capacity can be expanded by adding extra chips, called DIMMs.
Buses and cards
The main circuit board inside your system is called the motherboard and contains the
processor, the memory chips, expansions slots, and controllers for peripherals, connected by
buses - electrical channels which allow devices inside the computer to communicate with each
other. For example, the front side bus carries all data that passes from the CPU to other devices.
Expansion slots allow users to install expansion cards.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the CPU?


2. Which main parts does the CPU consist of?
3. What determines the speed and performance of a computer?
4. What are the main parts of the CPU?
5. What is the function of a system clock?
6. What is the unit of measurement of clock speed?
7. Where does the CPU copy programs it runs at any definite moment?
8. What type of memory is temporary?
9. What type of memory is permanent and includes instructions needed by the CPU?
10. What is a bus?

Topic 2 General design of a PC system

A PC system consists of two parts: software and hardware. Software is the programs that
enable a computer to perform a specific task; this includes the operating system, and application
software such as a graphics package and a web browser.
Hardware is any electronic or mechanical part. The basic structure of a computer system is
made up of three main Hardware sections: the CPU, the main memory, the peripherals.
The CPU is a processor chip which executes program instructions and coordinates the
activities of all the other components. In order to improve the computer's performance, the user
can add expansion cards for video, sound and networking.
The main memory holds the instructions and the data which are currently being processed by
the CPU.
This internal memory is made up of ROM and RAM chips. RAM is volatile, so it loses the
stored data when the electricity - or power - is turned off. ROM is non-volatile.
The peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include input, output
and storage devices. Input devices, for example the keyboard and the mouse, enable us to present
8
information to the computer. Output devices allow us to extract the results from the computer.
For instance, we can see the output on the monitor or in printed form. Storage devices are used to
store information permanently. For example, we use hard disks, DVDs or flash drives to store large
amounts of information.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does a PC system consist of?


2. What are the types of software?
3. What are the hardware sections?
4. What are the functions of CPU?
5. How can a user improve computer’s performance?
6. What does the main memory hold?
7. What is the structure of internal memory?
8. What are peripherals?
9. What is the function of output devices?
10. What do we use to store information on a computer?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

центральное процессорное устройство, контроллер, регистры, арифметико-логическое


устройство, тактовая частота, оперативная память, постоянно запоминающее устройство
(ПЗУ), шина, слоты расширения, плата расширения, устройства ввода/вывода, беспроводная
связь, накопители, американский стандартный код обмена информацией, напряжение
текущего по проводу тока, возврат каретки, бинарный код, нажать на клавишу, поток
данных, единый чип, стандартная программа

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

 При обработке данных компьютер может обращаться только с единицами (1) и


нулями (0), представляющими соответственно высокое (1) и низкое (напряжение).
 Программа переводит нажатие на клавишу клавиатуры в один из знаков кодовой
таблицы ASCII.
 Коды ASCII стандартно выражаются в десятичной системе исчисления, поскольку так
более удобно для заучивания и интерпретации людьми.
 В программировании используются также шестнадцатеричные и восьмеричные
системы счисления.
 Каждый цветовой пиксель представляет собой комбинацию трех основных цветов:
красного, зеленого и синего, которым соответствуют биты в памяти графического
адаптера.
 Администратор веб-сайта проектирует, разрабатывает и поддерживает
работоспособность сайта.
9
Unit 4 Buying a computer

Topic 1 In a computer shop

Buying a computer nowadays in not an easy task because of the widest variety of models
catering to every possible whim. The choice is limited only by the size of the customer’s pocket.
If one is not technically savvy, it’s better to turn to a shop assistant for help, or make a thorough
preliminary research on the Internet.
No matter what you’re going buy – a powerful desktop PC with high-end graphics, or a
practical laptop with detachable screen-tablet, or still more miniature PDA with Wi-Fi networking,
Blue-tooth connectivity and Internet access – you’ll be looking at a number of telltale features
which normally precede the price on a price-tag. Those technical specs, which you are going to
compare, are: 1) processor speed measured in gigahertz and number of cores, the faster the
better, 2) operational memory (RAM) size given in gigabytes , its expandability also counts, 3)
hard drive capacity measured in mega- or better terabytes, 4) graphics card type with
performance index in applications, 5) OS version, which your computer is rated for, and its ability
to work on a cross-platform basis, and much-much more.
Computers may be provided with variable internal and/or external periphery (sound cards,
DVD-drives, buses, built-in cameras, mikes, etc.) and upended by various gadgets, which may
substantially increase the basic price.
Software may be pre-installed as a company bonus or offered at a premium price as add-on, it
may be proprietary or shareware, free of charge or on a paid renewable license basis.
The main advantage of a desktop PC is its hardware upgradability, though it requires certain
technical skills on the side of the end user. Laptops are normally non-upgradable, and what is
more, you’ll be void of warranty if you even try to tamper with any sealed part of your device.
The most popular computer brand-names currently on the market are various models of
Samsung, Dell, Asus, Lenovo, Apple and others, running on Microsoft OS and i-OS.

Questions for discussion:

1. Why is buying a computer not an easy task ?


2. When is it better to turn to assistant for help?
3. What features of a computer are telltale in terms of performance and functionality?
4. Which units is processor speed measured in?
5. What is meant by expandability of operational memory?
6. What kind of periphery may computers be provided with?
7. What are the options with regards to software for a newly bought computer?
8. What is the main advantage of a desktop PC?
9. Why is a user discouraged to tamper with the seals of a laptop?
10. What are most popular brand-names of modern computers?

Topic 2 Computers for particular work situations

Choice of computer depends mostly on people’s professions.

10
A student at university needs an ultra-light computer that he can easily take to class. He
needs to write essays and web-based projects, and he would also like to be able to take notes and
draw directly on the screen. A convertible notebook or a tablet will be good for him.
A manager at an advertising company needs a powerful system that'll work with multimedia
applications, integrating text and pictures with animation and voice annotations. Digitized images
occupy as a rule a lot of disk space. So, a desktop PC with enough storage capacity will do the job
for him.
A CAD engineer’s profession involves computer-aided design, simulations, geoscience and
engineering. Those applications obviously require a lot of operational memory and a large size
drive, so he needs a kind of a workstation.
A sales representative for a paper company is always travelling. He’s looking for a lightweight
machine which he can use to process orders and communicate with head office while he’s on the
road. He’ll need all MS Office programs for convenience. The company budget normally allows
him to have an average medium-size medium-price laptop.
A waiter in a drive-in MacDonald restaurant has to take down customers’ orders, send them
ASAP to the kitchen to be processed, accept payments by credit cards, etc. His device must run on
batteries and fit into a pocket. A PDA (personal digital assistant) will do the job. PDAs vary in how
you input data and instructions. Some devices use a stylus to write, draw or make selections on a
touch-sensitive LCD screen. Software inside the PDA recognizes hand-written characters and
converts them into editable text. If the device doesn't incorporate handwriting recognition, you
use the stylus to tap on the letters of a miniature on-screen keyboard. In addition, many devices
now include a small QWERTY keyboard. They may also have a speech recognition system, which
reacts to the user's voice, and a few buttons to launch programs and scroll through the files.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does the choice of computer depend on?


2. What computer does a university student need?
3. Where would a student like to write?
4. What computer does a manager at an advertising company need?
5. How much space do digitized images occupy?
6. What does CAD engineer’s profession involve?
7. What kind of computer is sales representative looking for?
8. Where must a waiter’s computer fit into?
9. How do PDAs vary?
10. When do you use stylus to tap on the letters of an on-screen keypad?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

двух-ядерный процессор, модуль памяти RAM, экран с высоким разрешением, разъемы для
карт памяти, встроенный в материнскую плату чип связи по локальной сети, встроенная
цифровая камера и микрофон, литий-ионный аккумулятор, видео карта, звуковая карта с
высококачественным 7+1 канальным аудио, цифровой телевизионный тюнер, дисковод для

11
Blue-Ray дисков, плоский тонкопленочный транзисторный жидко-кристаллический экран,
ультра-легкий, толщиной в 1,17 дюймов, с дисплеем шириной в 22 дюйма (диаметр),
расширяемая память, дисплей с расширенной графической матрицей

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Большинство моделей персональных цифровых секретарей синхронизируются с


настольными компьютерами, т.е. обмениваются данными и обновляют их.
 Для синхронизации персональный секретарь подсоединяется к ПК по USB каналу или
по беспроводной связи.
 Современные устройства поддерживают беспроводную связь по инфра-красному
каналу для удаленного контроля аппаратов, типа ТВ или проектор.
 Bluetooth чип, использующий радиочастоты, обеспечивает связь аппарата на
коротких расстояниях, напр., с мышью и мобильным телефоном.
 В отличие от ПК, у персональных секретарей нет жестких дисков, они хранят все
нужные для работы программы на чипе ПЗУ.

4. Decipher the meaning of all the technical specifications on a price tag


below

Notebook - Microsoft Surface Book (Core i5 6600U 2600


MHz/13.5"/3000x2000/8.0Gb/128Gb SSD/DVD no/Intel HD Graphics
520/Wi-Fi/Bluetooth/Win 10 Pro) Price: $ 1,499

Unit 5 Type, click and talk!

Topic 1 Input devices: the keyboard, the mouse, light pen, game controller

Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the
computer. The most common are the keyboard and the mouse. We can also interact with a
computer by using one of these: a light pen, a scanner, a trackball, a graphics tablet, a game
controller or a microphone.
A standard keyboard consists of 104 keys. The layout may vary, but generally the top row is
taken up by function keys , medium four rows contain normal typewriter keys for characters on
the left and a numeric keypad on the extreme right, the bottom row and the space between
character part and numeric keypad is occupied by space bar, navigation keys and editing keys.
Dedicated keys on extreme left are used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters,
e.g. the Ctrl key or the Alt key.
A mouse is a device for controlling the cursor and selecting items on the screen. The ball
underneath is rolled in any direction across the surface of a desk to move the cursor on the
screen. It may have an optical sensor instead of a ball. It usually features two buttons and a wheel.
By clicking a button, the user can activate icons or select items and text. A wireless version works
without cables.

12
A light pen is similar to an ordinary pen. It works by detecting light from the computer screen
and is used by pointing it directly at the screen display. It allows the user to answer multiple-
choice questions and to draw diagrams or graphics.
The PlayStation 3 game controller is an input device used to control video games on the Sony
PlayStation 3. It is held with both hands and the thumbs are used to handle the direction and
action buttons. It has a six-axis sensing system, which allows the user to move the controller in six
different directions: up, down, left, right, forwards and backwards. The PS3 controller operates
wirelessly via Bluetooth, but it features a USB mini port and USB cable which can be connected to
the PlayStation for wired play and for charging the internal battery.

Questions for discussion:

1. What are input devices?


2. How can we interact with a computer?
3. How many keys does the standard keyboard have?
4. What is the usual layout of a standard keyboard?
5. What are the functions of a mouse?
6. How does the user of a mouse activate icons on the screen?
7. How does the light pen work?
8. How does the user control direction with PS3 game controller?
9. What does 6-axis sensing system mean?
10. What is the function of a USB mini port in a PS3 controller?

Topic 2 Mouse actions

A mouse allows you to control the cursor and move around the screen very quickly. Making
the same movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would take much longer. As you move
the mouse on your desk, the pointer on the screen moves in the same direction. The pointer
usually looks like an l-bar, an arrow, or a pointing hand, depending on what you are doing.
A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with the computer. For example, if you
want to place the insertion point or choose a menu option, you just click (press and release) on
the mouse button, and the option is chosen. Since around the late 1990s, the three-button scroll-
mouse has become the de facto standard. The main button is usually located under the right hand
index finger and is functionally equal to “Enter” key on a keyboard. The second button is set
under the middle or ring finger. Users most commonly employ it to activate a contextual menu of
the interface element over which the mouse cursor currently sits. The third element - a single-axis
digital wheel switch - is used for scrolling documents. It can also be depressed to act as a third
button.
The mouse is often used to select text and items on the screen. You can highlight text to be
deleted, copied or edited in some way.
The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. When you want to move an image, you
position the pointer on the object you want to move, press the mouse button, and drag the image
to a new location on the screen. Similarly, the mouse is used to change the shape of a graphic
object. For example, if you want to convert a square into a rectangle, you grab one corner of the
square and stretch it into a rectangle.

13
The mouse is also used to start a program or open a document: you put the pointer on the file
name and double-click on the name - that is, you rapidly press and release the mouse button
twice.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does a mouse allow to do?


2. How does a pointer on the screen look like?
3. How do you choose a menu option with a mouse?
4. How many buttons on a scroll-mouse have become de facto standard?
5. Which mouse button is the main?
6. What is the wheel-switch used for?
7. Why do you highlight the text?
8. How do you move an image with a mouse when you work with graphics?
9. How do you change the shape of a graphic object with a mouse?
10. What is the function of a double click of a mouse?

Topic 3 Voice input

Now, mobile phones and the Internet have changed the way we all communicate. However,
the idea of operating computers without a keyboard and a mouse seems rather novel to many
people. The time when we’ll be able to interact with PCs by voice only is yet to come.
Such technology already exists, but the habit of talking to a computer is only just beginning to
take off.
The essential components of a speech recognition (SR) system are not multiple. Basically, you
need voice recognition software, a sound card and a microphone. If you want to have good
results, you should get a high quality headset microphone. And what you can do with SR system is
as follows.
Firstly, the system converts voice into text, so you can dictate text directly onto your word
processor or email program. The technology is particularly useful for dictating notes, business
memos, letters and email. As for the accuracy of dictation and correct interpretation of words and
meanings, that depends on many factors. Speech companies claim an accuracy rate of around 98
per cent if you train the software by reading aloud sample text for a few minutes. This process
teaches the program to recognize words that are not in its built-in dictionary, for example proper
names, abbreviations, unusual words, etc.
Secondly, speech recognition system allows one to execute programs and navigate around
menus and windows, that is you can control your PC by voice commands. This means you can
launch programs, open a file, save it in a particular format or print it. Some systems even let you
search the Web by voice or chat using your voice instead of the keyboard.
As for now, applications of SR systems in industry are already multiple and their future is
promising. In cars, simple voice commands may be used to initiate phone calls, select radio
stations or play music from a compatible smartphone or flash drive. In health care, a physician
may choose to fill in an electronic health record of a patient just by dictating data to a SR
machine. In air navigation, pilots may vocally command an auto-pilot or set steering coordinates,
etc.

14
Questions for discussion:

1. What has changed the way we communicate?


2. What idea seems novel to many?
3. What time is yet to come?
4. What are the essential elements of SR system?
5. Why do you need a high quality headset microphone?
6. Where is the technology particularly useful?
7. How can you increase the accuracy of dictation?
8. How can you control PC by voice commands?
9. What are the prospects of SR applications in future?
10. How can SR be applied in a car, health care or air navigation?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

перетаскивать, кликать по иконке, буквенно-цифровые клавиши, клавиатура, световое перо,


головная гарнитура, выбирать, захватывать, клавиша пробела, клавиша фиксации регистра
заглавных букв, двойной щелчок по кнопке мыши, степень точности распознавания,
превратить квадрат в прямоугольник, нажать и отпустить кнопку, разместить указатель на
графическом объекте, клавиша «Возврат», выбрать опцию меню, буквы верхнего регистра

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Клавиши управления курсором включают клавиши со стрелками, которые


передвигают точку вставки вверх, вниз, вправо, влево.
 Клавиши редактирования, такие как В конец строки, В начало строки, Вверх на
страницу, Вниз на страницу, Вставить, используются в программах обработки текста
для навигации по длинному документу.
 Клавиша фиксации числового регистра используется для переключения с числовых
клавиш на клавиши редактирования.
 Системы распознавания речи не дают возможности создавать и компилировать
компьютерные программы, равно как и заниматься графическим дизайном.
 Указатель обычно выглядит как прямая вертикальная черта, стрелка или
указывающая ладонь, в зависимости от того, что вы делаете.
 Мышь может использоваться для изменения формы графического объекта.

4. Decipher the specifications on a price tag of a device:


Logitech G403 Wireless Optical Gaming Mouse with 12,000 DPI, 2.4 GHz Wireless Connection for
PC, Mac, USB – Black Price: £90.87
 Gaming-grade performance – 8x faster than
standard mice.
 2.4 GHz wireless connection with 1 ms USB report
rate.
15
 Lag-free wireless and optional plug in for wired operation.
 High-precision, 12,000 DPI optical sensor.
 Metal spring button tensioning system.
 Lightweight, ergonomically designed body.
 Customisable RGB lighting with 16.8 million colours.
 6 programmable buttons
 5 on-board memory profiles

Unit 6 Capture your favourite image

Topic 1 Scanners

Generally, a scanner is a bit like a photocopier. You put the image you want to copy face down
on the glass plate of the scanner, start the program, and a laser beam reads the image in
horizontal lines. This image is then sent to the computer where you can see it, and then
manipulate it as you want.
You can scan text, if you want, but you need special software called OCR - optical character
recognition. This interprets the text letter by letter and enables the computer to recognize the
characters.
People need to scan texts for many reasons: digitized texts can be stored as data in databases,
or edited with a word processor, sent via e-mail etc.
There are three basic types of scanners: flatbed scanners, slide scanners and handheld
scanners. Flatbed scanners are built like a photocopier and are for use on a desktop. They can scan
text, colour pictures and even small three-dimensional objects. They're very convenient and
versatile. Slide scanners are used to scan 35mm slides or film negatives. They work at very high
resolution, so they're more expensive than flatbeds. Handheld scanners are small, compact and T-
shaped. The scanning head isn't as wide as the one in a flatbed - they can only copy images up to
about four inches wide. They're used for capturing small pictures, logos, and even bar-codes.
Scanners vary in quality, which depends on resolution, speed of work, software and hardware
enhancements, compression options etc. The medium level home scanner will now probably be
a self-calibrating flatbed scanner with 1,200 - 2,400 dpi of resolution and not less than 9"x15" of
scanning area. It must be able to scan everything from black-and-white to 24-bit colour. The
package should include a hardware accelerator for JPEG compression and decompression. JPEG
technology saves disk space by compressing images by up to 50 to 1. It should produce images
with high colour definition and sharpness. And it normally comes with OCR software and Adobe
Photoshop, which allows not only grey and colour retouching, but a wide range of manipulations
with the images you chose to capture.

Questions for discussion:

1. Where do you put an image when you scan it?


2. How does the laser beam read the image?
3. Where does the scanner send the image?
4. What software do you need to scan texts?
5. What types of scanners are there?
6. Why is slide scanner expensive?
16
7. Where are T-shaped scanners used?
8. What does the quality of the scanner depend on?
9. Why is JPEG format good for storage of scanned files?
10. Why does Adobe Photoshop come with the scanner software?

Topic 2 Digital cameras

The first consumer-oriented digital cameras were sold by Kodak and Apple in 1994, since then
the competition among leading manufacturers has been constantly increasing.
A digital camera takes still photos or videos electronically and converts them into digital data.
A digicam doesn't use the film found in a traditional camera; instead it employs a system of
special light-sensitive silicon chips, called sensors. These sensors are colour-blind, that’s why all
digicams have to use filtering to split natural light into three primary colors (red, green, blue).
Surprisingly, human eye is not equally sensitive to all three colors. It's necessary to include more
information from the green pixels in order to create an image that the eye will perceive as a "true
color."
Photographs are stored in the camera's memory card before being sent to the computer.
Some cameras can also be connected to a printer or a TV set to make viewing images easier. This
is usually the case with camera phones - mobile phones with a built-in camera.
My personal camera is Kodak EasyShare digital camera, with 7.0 megapixels resolution, a
2.5-inch LCD screen, and a professional 3x optical zoom lens. I bought it in 2010. It was the first
camera to incorporate proprietary Kodak Perfect Touch Technology. At the touch of a button, this
innovative feature creates better and brighter pictures by bringing out detail in shadows without
affecting lighter areas. It's ideal for underexposed pictures caused by shooting beyond the flash
range or in adverse lighting conditions.
Kodak EasyShare uses the exclusive Kodak Colour Science chip for phenomenal image quality
with rich colour and accurate skin tones. Seventeen programmed scene modes (e.g. party,
fireworks, children) and five colour modes (high, low, natural, sepia, and black-and-white) help
capture the best shot with the least effort. There is a storage of 16 MB internal memory
available and a SD/MMC card expansion slot.
Other features include cropping, auto picture rotation, digital red-eye reduction, and blurry
picture alert. For capturing more than just still pictures, the camera also features high-quality
(VGA -640х480) video capture and playback.

Questions for discussion:

1. When were the first consumer-oriented digital cameras sold?


2. What kind of pictures do digital cameras take?
3. How does a digicam process a natural light?
4. Why is the “true colour” that we see on a digital photo not exactly true?
5. Where are the photos stored before they are sent to a computer?
6. What is a cameraphone?
7. How fine is the resolution of a Kodak EasyShare?
8. What does “Kodak Perfect touch technology” mean?
9. How many programmed scene modes help capture the best shot?
10. What do other features of a Kodak digicam include?

17
Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

снимать в местах, куда не достигает вспышка, коэффициент резкости, точный тон кожи,
плохие условия освещенности, салют, светло-коричневый монохромный цвет,
предупреждение о смазывании, размытое и недоэкспонированное изображение, броские
лозунги и технологии убеждения, объектив с возможностью физического изменения
фокусного расстояния (масштаба), точки на дюйм (единица измерения), вниз лицевой
стороной, видео в реальном масштабе времени

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Это устройство ввода, переводящее тексты и графические образы из физической


формы в цифровую.
 Чтобы избежать эффекта красных глаз, используйте опцию программного устранения
этого дефекта.
 Кадрировать изображение означает обрезать те его части, которые не предполагается
использовать в конечном дизайн-проекте.
 Цифровые технологии развиваются так быстро, что пользовательская фотокамера с
разрешением 40 мегапикселей скоро уже никого не будет удивлять.
 Программное обеспечение для редактирования видео составляет важную часть
пакета, продаваемого вместе со сканером.
 Резкость на фотографии обеспечивается высоким разрешением аппарата и заданным
программой коэффициентом острости.

4. Decipher the meaning of all the technical specifications on a price tag below

NIKON COOLPIX B500 – 16.0 mln effective pixels/ image sensor ½.3″ CMOS
/Sensitivity 125-3200 ISO/ 40x optical zoom lens/vibration
reduction/autofocus/3-inch TFT LCD monitor/internal memory 20 MB +SD,
SDHC,SDXC/storage file formats JPEG, MP4, AAC stereo/image size 16M (High)
[4608 x 3456] (Fine)/programmed auto exposure and exposure
compensation/shutter mechanical and CMOS electronical/USB/HDMI/Wi-Fi/Bluetooth / Price:
$315

Unit 7 Display screens and ergonomics

Topic 1 How screen displays work

Displays, often called monitors or screens, are the most-used output device on a computer.
They provide instant feedback by showing you text and graphic images as you work or play.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) was the workhorse of text and video display technology for
several decades until being displaced by LCD, plasma, and solid-state devices such as LEDs and

18
OLEDs . Most desktop displays use Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) or Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
(OLEDs), which are thin-film LED displays that don't require a backlight to function. The material
emits light when stimulated by an electrical current, which is known as electroluminescence. They
consume less energy, produce brighter colours. Because of their slimmer design and lower energy
consumption, LCD and OLED are the winners on the market of flat screen displays for portable and
mobile devices.
Basic features
Resolution refers to the number of dots of colour, known as pixels (picture elements),
contained in a display. It is expressed by identifying the number of pixels on the horizontal and
vertical axes. A typical resolution is 1024x768. A pixel is a combination of red, green and blue
subpixels. Two measurements describe the size of your display: the aspect ratio and the screen
size. Historically, computer displays, like most televisions, have had an aspect ratio of 4:3 - the
width of the screen to the height is four to three. For widescreen LCD displays, the aspect ratio is
16:9, very useful for viewing DVD movies, playing games and displaying multiple windows side by
side. The viewable screen size is measured diagonally, so a 19"screen measures 19" from the top
left to the bottom right.
Inside the computer there is a video adapter, or graphics card, which processes images and
sends signals to the monitor. LCD monitors use a DVI (digital video interface) connection.
Colour depth refers to the number of colours a monitor can display. This depends on the
number of bits used to describe the colour of a single pixel. For example, an old VGA monitor with
an 8-bit depth can generate 256 colours and a SuperVGA with a 24-bit depth can generate 16.7
million colours.

Questions for discussion:

1. What kind of device is a display?


2. What do CRT, LCD and OLED stand for?
3. Why are LCDs and OLEDs preferred for portable and mobile devices?
4. What is a resolution of a display? How is it measured?
5. Which colours are combined in a pixel?
6. What is aspect ratio? What typical aspect ratios are there?
7. How is screen size measured?
8. What is the function of a graphics card?
9. Which monitors use a DVI connector?
10. How many colours can a SuperVGA monitor produce?

Topic 2 Ergonomics of a working place

There are a number of health problems that may result from the continuous use of
computers. Anyone spending more than four hours a day working on a PC may start to suffer from
aching hands, neck or shoulders, occasional headaches, and eyestrain.
To avoid it you should follow ergonomic standards. For example, you can avoid backache if
you position your computer properly. A person must have a good chair, which supports his/her
lower back and is adjustable so that it’s easy to change its height and angle. Make sure your feet
rest firmly on the floor or on a footrest. Position the keyboard at the same height as your elbows,
with your arms parallel to the work surface, and position the monitor at or just below eye level.
You should look down at it slightly, not up. Don't put your monitor in front of a window, and make
19
sure there isn't a lamp shining directly into your eyes or reflecting off the screen. You should sit at
arm's length from the front of the monitor - about 50 to 70 centimetres away. It's a good idea to
have a monitor with a tilt-and-swivel stand. It's a kind of stand that lets you move the monitor up
or around, so you can use it at the correct angle and height.
There are some health problems caused by using a computer abundantly. Firstly, many office
employees suffer from RSI. RSI stands for repetitive strain injury, and it causes pain in the upper
arms and back. People who type constantly at high speed often suffer from it. Remedy: keep
correct body posture, leave enough space on the table for unobstructed movement. Make regular
breaks and fill them with physical exercise. Secondly, you may feel really sore and tired after
you’ve been using the computer for a few hours. The real cause of this may lie in a monitor that's
fuzzy or that distorts the image. You should give your eyes rest now and then, changing the focal
point. Look away from the monitor from time to time, out of the window into the distance, or just
across the room.

Questions for discussion:

1. What are the usual ailments of people working at a PC?


2. How can you avoid backache?
3. What are the requirements to the chair?
4. What is a footrest?
5. How should a keyboard be positioned?
6. What is the right way to set a monitor on the table?
7. What is RSI?
8. How can you avoid or lessen RSI?
9. How can a monitor affect your eyes?
10. How can you avoid getting sore eyes?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

плата расширения, растровое изображение, газоразрядный (плазменный) дисплей, глубина


цвета, формат экрана, дисплей на органических светодиодах, измерять видимый экран,
единица яркости, допускать широкий угол обзора, подсветка, указывающее устройство, план
рабочего места, блик от яркого света на экране компьютера, эргономические подставки для
запястий и подставки для документов, обслуживание и ремонт, ящик с папками,
проецировать картинку.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Экран с электронно-лучевой трубкой содержит миллионы красный, зеленый и


голубых фосфорных точек, которые светятся, когда на них падает электронный луч.
 На плазменном экране образы создаются за счет электрических разрядов в плазме,
которая состоит из инертных газов.

20
 Содержите экран в чистоте, чтобы избежать появления искажающих изображение
теней.
 Расположение кабелей данных, переключателей и электрической разводки не
должно создавать затруднений для передвижения по помещению.
 Бездумное и безответственное выбрасывание компьютерных отходов может
серьезно загрязнить окружающую природу.
 Интерактивная электронная доска позволяет взаимодействовать с проецируемым на
экран образом при помощи светового пера.

4. Decipher the meaning of all the technical specifications on a price tag below

Samsung S24E390HL (23.6'', Full HD)


Screen size: 23.6 inches
Panel type: Samsung AD-PLS (Advanced Plane to Line Switching) LCD
Native resolution: 1920 x 1080
Typical maximum brightness: 250 cd/m²
Colour support: 16.7 million (6-bits per subpixel plus dithering)
Response time (G2G): 4ms
Refresh rate: 60Hz
Weight: 4.02kg
Contrast ratio: 1,000:1 (1m:1 Dynamic Contrast’)
Viewing angle: 178º horizontal, 178º vertical
Power consumption: 21W typical
Backlight: WLED (White Light Emitting Diode)
Price: $ 166

Unit 8 Choosing a printer

Topic 1 Types of printer

Dot-matrix printers use pins to print the dots required to shape a character. They can print
text and graphics; however, they produce relatively low resolution output - 72 to 180 dots per inch
(dpi).They are used to print multi-part forms, self-copying paper and continuous-form labels. They
are slower than laser printers but much cheaper.
Inkjet printers operate by projecting small ink droplets onto paper to form the required
image. Colour and hues are created by the precise mixing of cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks.
Inkjets are fairly fast, quiet, and not as expensive as laser printers. There are some inkjet printers
on the market with a resolution of up to 2,400 dpi.
Laser printers produce output at great speed and with a very high resolution of 1,200-2,400
dpi. They draw the image with a laser beam on a photoreceptor drum and transfer it to paper with
a special ink powder called toner. They are constantly being improved. In terms of speed and
image quality, laser printers are preferred by experts for various reasons; for instance, they have a
wider range of scalable fonts than inkjets, can emulate different language systems, and can
produce high-quality graphics.
Thermal transfer printers are used to produce colour images by transferring a wax-based ink
onto the paper. They are popular for printing bar codes, labels and medium-resolution graphics.
21
Imagesetters produce very high-resolution output (up to 3,540 dpi) on paper or on the actual
film for making the printing plates. In addition, they are extremely fast. Imagesetters are most
often used in desktop publishing (DTP). Although they produce the highest quality output, they
have one important disadvantage: they are too expensive for homes or small offices.
In modern lithographic printing, images are created on a DTP computer and then output
directly to the printing plates, without requiring film as an intermediate step. This technology is
called computer to plate, or CTP, and the machine used is called a platesetter.
Finally, we have plotters. Plotters use ink and fine pens held in a carriage to draw very
detailed designs on paper. They are used for construction plans, engineering drawings and other
technical illustrations.

Questions for discussion:

1. What do dot-matrix printers use to shape character?


2. What are dot-matrix printers used for?
3. How do inkjet printers operate?
4. How are colour and hues created?
5. What are the advantages of inkjet printers?
6. How do laser printers draw the image?
7. Why are laser printers preferred by experts?
8. How do thermal transfer printers work?
9. Where are immagesetters most often used?
10. What are plotters used for?

Topic 2 Choosing the right printer

Multifunctional devices are becoming very popular. One of them is a MF printer. Essentially a
multi-function printer is an 'all-in-one' device that can work as a scanner, a fax and a photocopier,
as well as a printer. Behind the success of MF printers stands the fact that they are cheaper and
more versatile than standalone products. The printing and scanning components are well
integrated and they come with an LCD screen, slots for memory cards, and PictBridge connections.
PictBridge, exactly, is a technology developed by Canon that lets you send images from a
memory card in a digital camera or a camera phone directly to a printer. No computer is
necessary. All you have to do is take pictures with your camera and connect it to a printer via a
USB cable.
The area of application of MF printers is rather wide. They can print sheets of paper,
envelopes, labels and even transparencies.
The downsides or disadvantages of MF printers are not many. Firstly, there are a lot of
components in one machine, so if it breaks down, you may lose all of its functions at the same
time. Secondly, they can only do one thing at a time. For example, you can't print a document
and receive a fax simultaneously.
As for the software, the package which goes with the MF printer normally includes a CD or a
link to a producer’s Internet site where the right printer drivers, OCR, and photo and image
software can be found. You can do some basic editing, like adjusting brightness and removing red
eyes. However, if you want better results, you'll need specialized software.
When you buy a MF printer, you should always bear in mind that companies don't make
money from the printer, but from the ink. If you print a lot, you'll spend a lot of money on
22
cartridges. So it’s highly advisable to consider buying printers with cheap ink cartridges. Finally, if
you are a home user, you should, probably, go for an inkjet-based model. But for groupworks and
businesses that need high-quality, low-cost-per-page output at large quantities, a laser unit would
rather be a better choice.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is a multi-function printer?


2. Why are multi-function printers so popular?
3. What is the main advantage of PictBridge technology?
4. Apart from sheets of paper, what other things can multi-function printers print?
5. What are the downsides of MF printers?
6. What software do you usually get when you buy a multi-function printer?
7. When do you need special software?
8. What do the companies like HP make most money from?
9. What type of device does is recommended for home users?
10. What type of device does is recommended for businesses?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

точный, отрегулировать яркость, необрамленное фото, имитировать языковую систему,


тонкие перья, закрепленные в каретке, полиграфическое предприятие, фотонаборная
машина, изображение линий (прямых и кривых), принтер с низкой стоимостью печати одной
страницы, ячеистый материал, оптическое распознавание символов, вместимость лотка для
бумаги, штырьки игольчатого принтера, бумага чувствительная к давлению, печатать на
подложке, прямоугольный шаблон, существенно варьировать

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Широкоформатный струйный принтер позволяет печатать на разнообразных


материалах, включая, помимо бумаги, сетчатые и ячеистые ткани, а также
прозрачный полиэтилен.
 Тонером называют красящий порошок, используемый в принтерах и копировальных
автоматах.
 Итоговое разрешение достигает 2400 точек на дюйм при печати на листе формата А4.
 Применяемые эксклюзивные технологии улучшения печати позволяют получать фото-
и графические отпечатки со сбалансированной интенсивностью света и
контрастности, а также цветом, близким к натуральному.
 Я зык описания страниц (PDL) указывает как размещать текст и рисунки на странице
документа.
 Конечный результат всегда менее точен, чем исходный образ.
 Полиграфическое предприятие печатает брошюры, каталоги и др. печатную
продукцию.
23
4. Decipher the meaning of all the technical specifications on a price tag below
BROTHER MFC-J5620DW Printer

Ultra-efficient, high-quality A4 print, copy and scan from the wireless,


compact device with class-leading print speed, cloud connectivity and
added A3 capability – not to mention the 35 sheet automatic
document feeder, 330 sheet paper capacity and the lowest cost of
ownership in its class.

Key Features
-A4 Print, Copy, Scan and Fax, with A3 print capability
-22 mono / 20 colour print speeds
-9.3cm colour touch screen LCD
-Lowest running costs in class
-USB + Wireless + Wired connectivity
-330 sheet paper capacity
Price: GBP 108.00

Unit 9 Devices for the disabled

Topic 1 Computers for the blind, partially blind and deaf

Not all people can work with standard computers and software. Blind, partially blind and deaf
users in order to work effectively need to have their computers adapted with technologies such
as Braille, screen magnifiers, speech synthesis, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), etc.
Braille keyboards have Braille lettering on keyboard overlays, allowing the blind user to easily
identify each key. For output, there are printers, called Braille embossers, that produce tactile
Braille symbols on both sides of a page at high speed.
For someone with limited but usable vision, a screen magnifier may be appropriate. This type
of software can enlarge text and images appearing on the screen by up to 16 times.
A speech synthesis system is used to read aloud the work on the computer. It has a speech
synthesizer, which produces the audio output, and a screen reader - the program which reads
aloud text and menus from word processors, databases and the Web.
OCR uses a flatbed scanner and specialized OCR software to read printed material and send
the text to the computer. The PC can then produce a copy of the text in Braille, a magnified copy,
or a version that can be read aloud by a speech synthesis system.
Deaf computer users can overcome many communication difficulties with the aid of visual
alerts, electronic notetakers and textphones. Visual alerts are indicators that alert the deaf user
when they receive new mail or when there is a system error. So instead of hearing a sound, the
user is alerted by a blinking menu bar or by a message on the screen. Electronic notetakers use
software that types a summary of what is said in meetings onto the computer screen. Textphones
allow the deaf to type and read phone conversations. They are also called TDDs (Telephone

24
Devices for the Deaf) or TTYs (TeleTypewriters). They can be used in combination with relay
services, where an operator says what the TTY-user types, and types what a voice phone user says.
Deaf people can also communicate via SMS and instant messaging.

Questions for discussion:

1. Who cannot work with standard computers and hardware?


2. How are Braille keyboard designed?
3. How do Braile embossers print?
4. How does a screen magnifier work?
5. What is the function of a screen reader?
6. How can OCR be used by a blind person?
7. Who may take advantage of a visual alert and how?
8. What is the function of an electronic notetaker?
9. How do textphones work?
10. Who interfaces between a deaf TTY-user and a speaker on the other end of the telephone
line?

Topic 2 Assistive technologies for motor-disabled PC users

Among motor-disabled people there are a lot of those who want to stay socially active - that
is to earn their living doing a suitable job, or to continue education, or to interact with their family
and friends. The latest assistive technologies are designed to help them use computers in
achieving those aims. In addition, new laws oblige companies to adapt the workplace to
accommodate disabled people. For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the
UK's Disability Discrimination Act make it illegal for employers to discriminate against people with
disabilities.
Motor-impaired workers unable to type on a standard keyboard can employ expanded or
alternative keyboards, on-screen keyboards, adaptive switches and voice recognition systems.
Expanded keyboards may lack the keys seldom used (e.g. numeric), instead they may be
provided with music synthesizer, or with bigger size letter keys, or with a key lay-out matching a
single finger or Head/Mouth stick movements.
On-screen keyboards are software images of a keyboard that appear on the screen and may
be activated with a trackball, touch screen, screen-pointing device, or eye movements. In an
eyegaze system, the keys on the virtual keyboard are activated by the user's eyes when they
pause on a key for two or three seconds.
Eyegaze technology consists of a video camera and image processing software, which
determines the eye's gazepoint on the screen.
Switches come in many shapes and sizes. They are operated by muscle movements or breath
control. For example, a pneumatic switch - known as a sip and puff - allows someone with
quadriplegia to control the PC by puffing and sipping air through a pneumatic tube. People with
quadriplegia can also use sip and puff joysticks.
Finally, there's voice recognition, which allows the computer to interpret human speech,
transforming words into digitized text or instructions. It allows the user instruct the computer
verbally - by talking. Probably, it will soon be possible to navigate the Internet by talking only.
That’ll depend on the progress of Web Accessibility Initiative, which lays down the guidelines of
making the Internet accessible to all users, especially those with disabilities. Web designers are
25
encouraged to provide audio descriptions as well as text, and to use Cascading Style Sheets that
can include oral presentations.

Questions for discussion:

1. What do disabled people need computers for?


2. Which laws in the US and the UK make it illegal to discriminate against people with
disabilities?
3. Which technologies enable motor-impaired users to interact with computers?
4. How can expanded keyboards be changed to meet the needs of motor-impaired users?
5. What is an on-screen keyboard?
6. What does eyegaze system consist of?
7. How are switches operated?
8. What does voice recognition technology allow to do in contrast to speech synthesis?
9. What does Web Accessibility Initiative lay down?
10. What are Web designers encouraged to do?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

вспомогательная технология, экранная лупа, экранное указательное устройство, экранная


читалка, пневмопереключатель, распознавать текст, слепой, глухой, обездвиженный,
определить клавишу на ощупь, визуальный сигнал-предупреждение, электронный
стенографист, мигающая полоска меню, ретрансляционные услуги, активировать при
помощи шарового манипулятора или движением глаз, ПО обработки изображений,
физический недостаток, выпуклые точки, реабилитационный техник, каскадные таблицы
стилей.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Принтер Брайля печатает на твердой бумаге выдавливая точки в определенной


последовательности.
 Майкрософт Виндоуз и Эппл Мак ОС поддерживают экранные лупы, перевод текста в
речь, голосовые предупреждения и др.
 Система, выводящая буквами на экран то, что говорится на собрании, называется
электронный секретарь.
 Экранная лупа делает экран более читаемым для людей с плохим зрением.
 Головные телефоны и экранная читалка позволяют слепому пользователю
воспринимать данные с экрана.
 Есть различные степени ограничения подвижности: от полного паралича всех четырех
конечностей до затруднения в движении суставов пальцев рук.

4. Explain how the technical specifications on a price tag below can help a motor-impaired PC
user:
26
Maltron Single Finger/Mouth Stick Keyboard
MALTRON Single finger or Head/Mouth stick keyboards have a
unique shape and keyboard layout.
The shape matches natural head movement and the key
arrangement minimizes finger or stick activity, raising speed and
relieving frustration.
Basic Features:
Push-On (занесение функции в память), Push-Off (отмена занесения функции в память) keys
are provided for Shift, Control and Alt.
MALTRON keyboards all have the ability to turn off key repeating at the keyboard if it is not
wanted. If allowed by the software in use, the repeat rate can be set to slow, medium or fast at
the keyboard.
An optional articulated arm holds the keyboard in almost any position to suit the head or mouth
stick use.
Alternative language letter layouts:
Other language layouts are available, and include Canadian-French, English UK, English US, French,
German, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish.
Price: $591.94

Unit 10 Magnetic storage

Topic 1 Magnetic storage devices and media (floppy disks, hard drives,
portable hard drives, tape drives )

Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape (media).
A floppy disk is so called because it consists of a flexible sheet of plastic, coated with iron
oxide - a magnetizable material. A legacy 3.5" floppy disk drive spins at 360 revolutions per minute
(rpm), so it's relatively slow. It is traditionally assigned to the A: drive. However, as it can store
only 1.44MB of data, it is becoming increasingly rare.
A vital part of any computer is a hard drive. On most PCs it is usually called C: drive. It spins at
over 7,200 rpm and stores data on a stack of metal rotating disks called platters. The access to the
data on hard drive is direct and random, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or
retrieved without having to wait in queue, though in any order, and rather fast. Access time of
modern hard disks varies from 2.5 to 10 milliseconds (ms), and their individual capacity may rich
up to 12 terabytes. Hard drives are used to store the OS, programs and data files. They can be
internal and external. Internal desktop PC drives use mostly SATA interface with a speed of 1,5 – 6
Gb/s.
External hard drives are connected to the USB, FireWire or eSATA (external SATA) port of the
computer. They can be as small as a wallet but can have as much capacity as internal drives; they
are typically used for backup or as secondary storage.
A tape drive reads and writes data on tapes. It is sequential-access - i.e. to get to a particular
point on the tape, it must go through all the preceding points. Tapes can hold hundreds of
gigabytes of data and are used for data collection, backup and archiving. Advantages of this type
of storage are: cheap tapes, long storage life, high streaming time – up to 140 MB/s.

Questions for discussion:


27
1. How do magnetic storage devices store data?
2. Why is the floppy disk drive becoming more and more rare?
3. What does the hard disk drive consist of?
4. How does the hard disk drive access data?
5. What are hard drives used for?
6. What is the access time and streaming speed of modern hard disks?
7. How do external hard disks connect to the PC of laptop?
8. What is sequential access?
9. What are tape drives good for?
10. What are the advantages of tape drives?

Topic 2 Structure of a hard drive

The disks of a hard drive are paired with magnetic heads which read and write data from/to
the disk surfaces. The read/write heads are located on a moving arm of a high-precision actuator.
New disks need to be formatted before you can use them, unless they come preformatted
from the manufacturer. When the disk is formatted, the operating system (OS) organizes the disk
surface into circular tracks and divides each track into sectors. The OS creates a directory which
will record the specific location of files. When you save a file, the OS moves the read/write head of
the drive towards empty sectors, records the data and writes an entry for the directory.
Later on, when you open that file, the OS looks for its entry in the directory, moves the
read/write heads to the correct sector, and reads the file in the RAM area. As soon as formatting
erases any existing files on a disk, it will be a bad idea to format disks on which data that you don't
want to lose is stored.
The OS allows you to create one or more partitions on your hard drive, in effect dividing it into
several logical parts. Partitions let you install more than one operating system (e.g. Windows and
Linux) on your computer. You may also decide to split your hard drive because you want to store
the OS and programs on one partition and your data files on another; this allows you to reinstall
the OS when a problem occurs, without affecting the data partition.
The average time required for the read/write heads to move and find data is called seek time
(or access time) and it is measured in milliseconds (ms); most hard drives have a seek time of 7 to
14 ms. We shouldn’t confuse this with transfer rate (or streaming time) - the average speed
required to transmit data from the disk to the CPU, measured in megabytes per second.

Questions for discussion:

1. Where are the read/write heads located?


2. What should be done to new disks before you can use them?
3. What does the OS do when a disk is formatted?
4. What does the OS do when a file is saved?
5. What does the OS do when you open a file?
6. What happens to existing files when the disk is formatted?
7. How is the disk divided into logical parts?
8. How can you have two operational systems on one hard drive?
9. How can you reinstall the OS without affecting the data?
10. What is the difference between access time and transfer rate?
28
Topic 3 Care and handling of disks

Hard drive is usually a combination of a high precision mechanics, sophisticated electronic


printed circuits, and intricate software. All those parts need due maintenance and care.
As for mechanics, you’ll protect it if you don’t hit or move the computer while the hard drive
is spinning. Hard drives are very sensitive to vibration and shocks, especially when they are
operating; when the read/write head touches the rotating disk, it can scratch and damage the disk
surface. This is known as head crash.
Neither mechanics, nor electronics like abrupt and unexpected stops. So, you shouldn't turn
your computer off and on quickly. It’s better to wait at least ten seconds to ensure that the drive
has stopped spinning.
As for circuitry, electronic chips and direct current motors of a hard disk require at least 6
Watts per 1 terabyte of capacity to work properly. So, to be on the safe side, you need a beefy
supply unit.
Overheating of a hard drive may be caused by fragmentation of file system, bad sectors, too
many programs running at one time, virus infection, to say nothing of economizing on fans.
Overheating may result in such unpleasant phenomena as: random restarts, hard drive circuit
board burning down, hard drive not recognized by PC, computer freeze, PC shut down without
warning, failure to boot, etc.
To avoid this, one must work properly with software. You should check your hard drive
regularly for logical and physical errors. To check and repair a drive, you can use a disk diagnosis
utility like Windows ScanDisk.
To minimize the risk of data loss or corruption, you should install an up-to-date virus scanner.
You should also back up your hard drive regularly.
Correct handling of disks implies also that they must be properly disposed of, when their
service life is finished. Old disks must be shredded or melted by certified organizations. If there
are plans for further reuse, it’s not enough to format a disk. To prevent identity theft or data
leakage, sensitive information must be removed either by multiple data overwriting (7 times and
more) or by electromagnetic shock treatment.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is a hard drive?


2. How can you protect the mechanics of a hard drive?
3. What is a head crash?
4. Why should you make pauses of at least 10 seconds between turning a PC on and off?
5. Why do you need a beefy supply unit?
6. What can overheating of a hard drive be caused by?
7. What are the risks of overheating?
8. What is to be done to keep a hard drive in good condition?
9. How should the old disks be disposed of properly?
10. How can you prevent data leakage if you plan to resell a used hard disk drive?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.


29
2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

подключаться к гнезду на задней панели компьютера, в формате последовательной записи


данных, назначить имя дисковода А:, резервная копия, дополнительное место хранения,
накопитель на магнитной ленте, пустой сектор, кольцевая дорожка, гибкий лист пластика,
тарелка (круглая пластина) диска, каталок папок, записать элемент каталога, стереть данные
форматированием, разбить диск на разделы, служебная программа диагностики диска,
нарушение целостности данных, неисправная работа диска.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Переносной накопитель является хорошим местом хранения вторичной


информации, которая регулярно не используется.
 Дисководы не удароустойчивы, особенно в рабочем режиме.
 Файловая система описывает структуру логического и физического расположения
данных на секторах жесткого диска с целью облегчения их записи и чтения.
 Следует предохранять жесткий диск от воздействия влажности, тряски,
электромагнитного излучения.
 На дефрагментированном диске файлы хранятся на секторах, образующих
непрерывные кластеры, что ускоряет скорость чтения и эффективность работы
дисковода.
 Внешний диск подключается к eSATA-гнезду на задней панели компьютера.

4. Decipher the meaning of all the technical specifications on a price tag below:

Seagate 10TB IronWolf Internal NAS HDD


The IronWolf is designed for corporate environments that utilize multi-drive systems and servers.
Product Highlights
-10TB Storage Capacity
-3.5" Form Factor
-SATA III 6 Gb/s Interface
-256MB Cache
-7200 rpm
-Up to 210 MB/s Data Transfer Rate Price: $359.99

Unit 11 Optical storage

Topic 1 Optical discs

Optical discs can store data at much higher densities than magnetic discs. It makes them ideal
for multimedia storage. They are secure and stable, but slower than hard discs.
Optical discs include CDs and DVDs. Both of them are 120mm in diameter and 1,2 mm thick. In
both cases a laser beam is used for reading the data. However, their internal structure and

30
capacity are different. In a DVD the capacity is higher as there are more tracks and pits where data
is stored. A DVD can also be double-sided or dual-layer.
Both CDs and DVDs can come in read-only (where you cannot change the data on the disc),
recordable (where you can record data only once) and rewritable (where you can record data
more than once) formats. Information is recoded by burning via a red laser to a blank disk.
To view the contents of a disc you need a CD/DVD computer drive or a DVD recorder or a
portable player. Such devices are handheld and usually support multi-format playback.
A more modern technology is represented by High Definition-DVD and Blu-Ray. A four-layer
Blu-ray disc has a capacity of 100GB and uses a blue-violet laser to record information.

Questions for discussion:

1. What are the advantages of optical discs?


2. What are their disadvantages?
3. What are the main two types of optical discs?
4. Why are they different?
5. That are the main subtypes of CDs and DVDs?
6. Which subtype do you find more comfortable?
7. How is information recorded on a disc?
8. How can you playback a DVD?
9. How is data recorded on a Blu-Ray disc?
10. Which type of discs is mostly used now?

Topic 2 Choosing a disc

Choosing a disc mostly depends on what capacity you need. A CD (compact disc) and a DVD
(digital versatile disc) look the same: they are 120mm in diameter and 1,2 mm thick. They both
record and read information with the help of a laser beam.
Still a CD has a capacity of 600Mb, while A DVD has a capacity of 4,7 Gb. In terms of content
DVDs come in 3 types. DVD-Video discs contain films (video, soundtrack and subtitles). DVD-Audio
discs contain high quality sound. DVD-Data discs contain computer data. One disc can contain any
combination of data, video and sound.
To read data on a DVD you need a DVD drive or a DVD recorder. However, DVD drives are
backward-compatible. That means they can playback CDs as well as DVDs.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the diameter of a CD/DVD?


2. How thick is a CD/DVD?
3. How do they record and read information?
4. What is the capacity of a CD?
5. What is the capacity of a DVD?
6. What are content types of a DVD?
7. Can you use a CD-drive to playback a DVD?
8. What does the term “backward-compatible” mean?
9. Do you often use CDs?
10. How do you prefer to playback DVDs?
31
Tasks:

1. Put 5 questions of different types to the sentences:

Their internal structure and capacity are different.


DVD drives are backward-compatible.

2. Explain in English:

density, stable, data, handheld, capacity, contain, diameter, soundtrack, rewritable, recordable,
read-only

3. Translate into English

 Оптические диски надежные и стабильные, но они медленнее, чем жесткие диски


 Лазерный луч используется для записи данных на CD и DVD.
 DVD содержит больше дорожек и ячеек с данными.
 Четырехслойный Blue-Ray диск имеет емкость 100Гб.
 На одном диске могут храниться в любом сочетании данные, видео, аудио.
 DVD приводы характеризуются обратной совместимостью.

Topic 3 Optical disc storage (extended)

Almost all optical storage involves the use of a 5" laser disc. Optical media can be read only,
write-once, or rewritable, and currently exists in one of three basic formats. These are compact
disc (CD), digital versatile disc (DVD) and Blu-Ray disc (BD). A fourth format called High-Definition
DVD (HD DVD) is now dead-in-the-water.
Compact disc is a low-cost and reliable storage media particularly well suited for most
personal computer users for incremental data archiving. Writable compact discs can be either CD-
R (which are a write-once media) or CD-RW (to which data can be written and erased typically a
few hundred times). The storage capacity of a compact disc is up to about 700MB for CD-R and
CD-RW.
DVD comes in two write-once formats (DVD-R and DVD+R), as well as two re-writable formats
(DVD+RW and DVD-RW). The standard capacity for any format of DVD media is 4.7GB. Commercial
read-only discs double this to 8.5GB by storing the data on two layers. Panasonic also created a
format called DVD RAM. Such discs can be re-written tens of thousands of times, as opposed to
hundreds of times for DVD-RW or DVD+RW. For video recording purposes and stable data
archiving, DVD RAM is the media of choice, though it can be read only with the help of an adaptor.
Double-sided DVD RAM discs with a capacity of 9.4GB appeared in 2000.
Blu-Ray disc is the high-capacity successor to DVD, and the only surviving new optical disc
media on the block. It was developed by the Blu-Ray Disc Association (BDA) as a higher-capacity
replacement for DVD. Blu-Ray already offers write-once (BD-R) and re-writable (BD-RW) disc
capacities of 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual layer discs.
HD DVD was the contender to Blu-Ray Disc to replace DVD as the next generation optical
storage media for both computer data storage and domestic video use. HD DVD discs had a 15GB

32
capacity. HD DVD was created by Toshiba and NEC, and was backed by Microsoft. However, most
movie studios and other computer industry players were on the side of Blu-Ray.
In the television industry, Sony now sells professional video cameras and recorders that use its
own 23.3GB XD-CAM optical disc storage system.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the dimension of a DVD disc?


2. How do you understand an expression “HD-DVD is dead-in-the-water”?
3. How much data does a CD-RW disc store?
4. How many DVD formats are there?
5. What is the difference between a DVD-R and a DVD-RW?
6. Who developed a BD-format?
7. How many layers could a BD have?
8. Who introduced an HD DVD-format?
9. Is an HD DVD-format popular nowadays?
10. What optical disc storage system does Sony introduce?

Topic 4 How the data is recorded on optical discs.

An optical disc is made mainly of polycarbonate (a plastic). The data is stored on a thin layer
inside the polycarbonate. Pits (depressions) and lands (surfaces) form the digital data. A metal
coating (usually aluminum) reflects the laser light back to the sensor. To read the data on a disc,
laser light shines through the polycarbonate and hits the data layer. The intensity of laser light
reflection or absorption is read as a ‘1’ or a ‘0’ by the computer.
A DVD can actually have data in two layers, the first layer being semi-transparent. It can
access the data from 1 side or from both sides. This is how a double-sided, double-layered DVD
can hold 4 times the data that a single-sided, single-layered DVD can.
The most common type of optical disc is the CD-ROM, which stands for Compact Disc - Read
Only Memory. CD-ROM discs are used for computer software.
The optical discs that you can record on your own computer are CD-R, DVD-R, and DVD+R
discs, called writable or recordable discs. The metal and data layers are separate. The metal layer
can be gold, silver, or a silver alloy. The data layer is an organic dye that the writing laser changes.
Once the laser modifies the dye, it can’t be changed again.
An option for backup storage of changing data is rewritable discs, CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW,
DVD+RAM. The data layer for these discs uses a phase-changing metal alloy film. This film can be
melted by the laser's heat to level out the marks made by the laser and then lasered again to
record new data.
Optical discs are much sturdier than tape or a floppy disk. It is physically harder to break,
melt, or warp. They aren’t sensitive to being touched. They’re entirely unaffected by magnetic
fields. Finally, optical discs hold much more data than floppy disks.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is an optical disc made of?


2. What value does a computer read when laser light is absorbed and when it is reflected?
3. Which DVD-discs have bigger storage capacity: double-sided or single-sided?

33
4. Where are CD-ROMs used?
5. What does “R” in DVD-R stand for?
6. Can an organic dye be changed several times?
7. What format is more appropriate for storage of changing data?
8. Is a floppy disk sturdier than an optical one?
9. Does magnetic fields make harm to optical discs?
10. Is storage capacity of an optical disc bigger than of a floppy disk?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined words and phrases in the topics 3 and 4 above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Цифровой многоцелевой диск, DVD-диск высокого разрешения, быть подходящим для


архивирования, записываемые компакт-диски, могут быть записаны и стёрты,
перезаписываемый формат, ёмкость накопителя, двусторонний диск, неперезаписываемый
диск, сделанный из пластмассы, считать данные на диске, органический пигмент, слой
данных, меняющая фазу пленка из металлического сплава, быть расплавленной, быть
прочнее дискеты, чувствительны к касанию, подвержены магнитным полям.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Существуют 4 формата оптических дисков: компакт-диски, цифровые многоцелевые


диски, блюрей-диски и цифровые многоцелевые диски высокой четкости.
 Диски могут быть только для чтения, для одноразовой записи и перезаписываемыми.
 Оптические диски могут использоваться для резервного копирования и для хранения
мультимедиа, для домашнего и коммерческого использования.
 Цифровые многоцелевые диски высокой четкости были соперниками блюрей-дисков,
но оказались в состоянии глубоко кризиса.
 Цифровые данные на слое данных формируются ячейками и ровными площадками.
 Двуслойный двусторонний диск может содержать в 4 раза больше данных, чем
односторонний диск.

Unit 12 Flash memory

Topic 1 Flash memory basics

Flash memory is non-volatile. That means that it retains information on the chip when the
power is turned off. So it is widely used in devices such as mobile phones, digital cameras etc.
Flash memory can be electronically erased or reprogrammed. Such chips are rewritable, so it is
easy to update information. It also offers fast read access times (but lower than RAM) and good
transfer rates.
Inside the chip data is stored in several floating gate transistors called cells. Each cell
traditionally stores one bit of data, but there are multi-level cell structures that can store more bits

34
per cell. The chips are constructed with either NOR or NAND gates. NOR chips function like a
computer's main memory, while NAND works like a hard drive.
Flash memory is used in many ways:
o for storing BIOS of many PCs;
o in modems;
o in USB flash drives. USB drives are a comfortable way to store information. They are more
easily transported than external hard drives because they use solid-state technology,
meaning they do not have fragile moving parts that can break when dropped. However,
flash drives have lower storage capacity than hard drives;
o U3 smart drives that have two drive partitions (one for data and one for applications)and
allow to run applications on a host computer without installation;
o flash memory cards, which are used in digital cameras, smartphones, tablets etc. They are
as small as a stamp and have good capacity. Data from such cards can be offloaded to a
computer via a cable or wirelessly. Another option is to use a flash card reader.
A development of hard drives are hybrid hard drives. They are also called SSHDs. They
combine a magnetic hard disc and flash memory into one device. Such discs allow computers to
boot very quickly and they reduce power consumption.

Questions for discussion:

1. Will flash memory store data when the power is switched off?
2. What are its advantages?
3. What are its disadvantages compared to other memory types?
4. How is a flash memory chip organised?
5. What are NOR and NAND?
6. What are flash memory applications?
7. Do you use U3 smart drives?
8. How can you offload data from a flash memory card?
9. What are SSHDs?
10. What type of portable data storage do you prefer?

Topic 2 Flash Memory Devices

A compact USB flash drive can act like a portable hard drive. The higher the capacity of such
devices is, the more expensive they are. Such devices consist of a USB-connector covered by a
removable cap, a mass storage controller and a flash memory chip. It also includes write-protect
switch and password protection. You only have to plug it into a USB port on your computer. You
can copy files to and from it, just as you would do with any other drive. Such devices have several
advantages. First, they are more durable because they do not contain internal moving parts.
Second, they are small and comfortable to carry around, so they a perfect for backing up
important data.
However, these devices are only for storage. If you want to playback music or video they will
not do. In this case you will need a portable player which features a colour screen, has
rechargeable batteries and supports multiple formats. Usually they have capacity of 64Gb. Such
devices, apart from data storage, enable you to watch videos, listen to music, take records and
play games.

35
Questions for discussion:

1. What does a USB-drive price depend on?


2. What does a USB-drive consist of?
3. What should you do to start using such a drive?
4. What are the advantages of USB-drives?
5. In which cases won’t such devices fit?
6. What elements does a portable player feature?
7. What do they enable you to do?
8. What kinds of flash-memory devices do you use in everyday life?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined words.

2. Explain in English:
retain, erase, structure, external, digital, capacity, power consumption, plug, durable, support,
rechargeable

3. Translate from Russian into English

 Флэш-память сохраняет данные даже без энергообеспечения.


 Такие чипы допускают перезапись, следовательно, можно легко обновить
информацию на них.
 USB-диски не содержат подвижных внутренних элементов и, следовательно, они
более прочные.
 Данные можно загрузить в компьютер через проводное или беспроводное
соединение.
 SSHD позволяют компьютеру загружаться быстрее и уменьшают потребление
энергии.
 Плееры, использующие флэш-память, помимо хранения данных, также
обеспечивают воспроизведение.

Topic 3 NOR-Flash and NAND-Flash memory types compared

Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be erased and reprogrammed. This
Flash memory (both NOR and NAND types) was invented by Dr. Fujio Masuoka while working for
Toshiba circa 1980. According to Toshiba, the name "flash" was suggested by Dr. Masuoka's
colleague, Mr. Shōji Ariizumi, because the erasure process of the memory contents reminded him
of the flash of a camera.
The two main types of flash memory are the NOR Flash & NAND Flash. Intel is the first
company to introduce commercial (NOR type) flash chip in 1988 and Toshiba released world's first
NAND-flash in 1989.
NOR-flash is slower in erase-operation and write-operation compared to NAND-flash. That
means the NAND-flash has faster erase and write times. Moreover, NAND has smaller erase units.
So fewer erases are needed. NOR-flash can read data slightly faster than NAND.

36
NOR offers complete address and data buses to randomly access any of its memory location
(addressable to every byte). This makes it a suitable replacement for older ROM BIOS/firmware
chips, which rarely needs to be updated. Its endurance is 10,000 to 1,000,000 erase cycles. NOR is
highly suitable for storing code in embedded systems. Most of the today's microcontrollers comes
with built-in flash memory.
NAND-flash occupies smaller chip area per cell. This makes NAND available in greater storage
densities and at lower costs per bit than NOR-flash. It also has up to ten times the endurance of
NOR-flash. NAND is more fit as storage media for large files including video and audio. The USB
thumb drives, SD cards and MMC cards are of NAND type.
NAND-flash does not provide a random-access external address bus so the data must be read
on a block-wise basis (also known as page access), where each block holds hundreds to thousands
of bits, resembling a kind of sequential data access. This is one of the main reasons why the NAND-
flash is unsuitable to replace the ROM, because most of the microprocessors and microcontrollers
require byte-level random access.

Questions for discussion:

1. What type of memory is called flash?


2. What is the origin of the term «flash memory»?
3. Who invented flash memory?
4. When was the first commercial NOR type flash chip introduced?
5. When was the first NAND-flash released?
6. Where is NOR-flash used?
7. Is NOR-flash convenient for regular updates?
8. Where is NAND-flash used?
9. What is the main difference between NOR and NAND types of flash memory?
10. Why have NAND-flash never replaced the ROM?

Topic 4 Flash memory products and features (extended)

Flash memory is used for easy and fast information storage in such devices as digital cameras
and home video game consoles. It is used more as a hard drive than as RAM. In fact, Flash memory
is considered a solid state storage device. Solid state means that there are no moving parts -
everything is electronic instead of mechanical.
While your computer's BIOS chip is the most common form of Flash memory, removable solid-
state storage devices are becoming increasingly popular. CompactFlash cards are well-known as
"electronic film" for digital cameras. Other removable Flash memory products include Sony's
Memory Stick, PCMCIA memory cards, and memory cards for video game systems such as Sony's
PlayStation.
There are several reasons to use Flash memory instead of a hard disc. Flash memory is
noiseless. It allows faster access. It is smaller, lighter, and has no moving parts. But the cost per
megabyte for a hard disc is drastically cheaper, and the capacity is substantially more.
CompactFlash cards were developed by Sandisc in 1994. CompactFlash cards are 43 mm wide
and 36 mm long, and come in two thicknesses: Type I cards are 3.3 mm thick, and Type II cards are
5.5 mm thick. CompactFlash sizes range from 16 GB to 128 GB. The onboard controller can
increase performance, particularly on devices that have slow processors.

37
USB Flash Drive acts like a portable hard drive. It can hold more than 8 GB. The drive consists
of an USB connector covered by a removable cap, a mass storage controller and a flash memory
chip. It also includes a write protect switch and a password protection. You plug it into a USB port
in your computer and you can copy files to and from it. The advantage of using a flash drive
instead of a DVD or an external hard drive is that the flash drive is more durable because it’s solid
state storage device. Then, it is small enough to fit on your key ring that makes it ideal for moving
documents, carrying music files or backing up important documents.

Questions for discussion:

1. Where is flash memory used?


2. Does a flash memory storage device have moving parts inside?
3. What type of flash memory is used as an “electronic film”?
4. What are the reasons of using flash memory instead of a HDD?
5. Who developed CompactFlash memory cards?
6. What storage capacity does CompactFlash have?
7. How much data can USB Flash Drive hold?
8. What does USB Flash Drive consist of?
9. What protection features does it have?
10. What are the advantages of using USB Flash Drive?

Tasks:
1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topics 3 and 4 above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

долговременная компьютерная память, процесс стирания напоминал фотовспышку,


выпущенный чип, шина данных, замена для устаревших чипов системы ввода-вывода, быть
подходящим для хранения кода, встроенная система, занимать площадь микросхемы,
главная причина, хранение информации, твердотельный накопитель, электронная пленка
для цифровых фотокамер, объем памяти варьируется от 4 до 16 Гб, встроенный контроллер,
повышать производительность, переносной жесткий диск, защитный переключатель на
устройстве, подключить к порту USB.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Флэш-память может быть очищена или перепрограммирована.


 NAND стирает и записывает данные быстрее, чем NOR.
 NOR-память подходит для хранения микропрограмм.
 NAND-память не предоставляет внешней шины адреса для произвольный доступа к
данным.
 Съемные твердотельные накопители становятся всё более популярными.
 Внешний жесткий накопитель долговечнее, потому что в нем нет подвижных частей.

38
Unit 13 Basic software

Topic 1 The basics of an operating system

The term user interface refers to the standard procedures that a user follows in order to
interact with a computer. Earlier it was very difficult to access computer systems as the users had
to memorize and type a lot of commands to do it. There was no need for a user-friendly interface
as computers were used only by experts.
In 1984 Apple produced the first computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI).
It was designed to facilitate interaction with the computer. A few years later Microsoft launched
Windows, an operating system based on graphics and intuitive interface.
A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment (windows, icons, menus, pointer). The background
of the screen is called desktop which contains labelled pictures called icons. They represent files or
folders. Double-clicking a folder opens a window which contains data. In a folder you can open a
document or drag it to another location. When you run a program, your PC opens a window that
enables you to work with different tools. All the programs have similar toolbars, menus, buttons
and dialogue boxes. A modern OS also provides access to networks and allows multitasking, which
means you can run several programs or do various tasks at a time.
The most popular operating systems are the Windows family, Mac OS, Unix, Linux, iOS,
Android. These platforms differ in areas such as device installation, network connectivity and
compatibility with application software.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is a user interface?


2. Why were the first computers not so user-friendly as they are today?
3. When was the first computer with a GUI produced?
4. What was its aim?
5. What does a GUI use?
6. What should you do to open a folder?
7. What is multitasking?
8. What modern OS do you know?
9. In what aspects are they different?
10. What OS do you use most often?

Topic 2 Windows Vista

There is no doubt that Windows has revolutionized the way we use computers today. People
find Windows very easy to use because everything is presented in graphic images.
Windows Vista was launched in 2007. It was a successor to Windows XP. There were four main
editions available: Home Basic, Home Premium, Business and Ultimate. Home Basic was designed
for users with basic needs such as E-mail or the Internet access. Home Premium was for more
advanced home computing and entertainment. It included a DVD maker, a video maker and a
media center. The Business edition was ideal for business organizations of any size. It offered new
backup technologies and advanced networking capabilities. Finally, the Ultimate edition combined
all the features of other editions making it the most complete.
The user interface was redesigned with new icons and new visual style. The system gave more
39
flexibility in search and organization of files. It also gave support to such technologies as DVD
creation and speech recognition. The Internet Explorer became more reliable and secure. The
security center included an anti-spyware program called Windows Defender and a firewall. The
most popular application software was still Microsoft Office suit which included a word processor
Word, an email program, a spreadsheet program Excel, a presentation graphics program
PowerPoint.

Questions for discussion:

1. Why is Windows so popular?


2. When was Windows Vista launched?
3. How many editions were there?
4. What were the differences between Home Basic and Home Premium?
5. What were the features of Business edition?
6. What was special about the Ultimate edition?
7. How did the user interface change?
8. What were the new technologies supported by Windows Vista?
9. What security improvements were introduced?
10. Have you ever used Windows Vista? What were your impressions?

Tasks:

1. Put questions of different types to the sentences:

In 1984 Apple produced the first computer with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI).
The Business edition was ideal for business organizations of any size.

2. Make up word combinations by matching the words

user interaction
type programs
facilitate edition
double interface
run computing
allow connectivity
network image
ultimate clicking
home commands
graphic multitasking

3. Translate from Russian into English:

40
 В графическом пользовательском интерфейсе используются окна, ярлыки, меню и
курсор.
 Все программы имеют схожие панели инструментов, меню, кнопки и диалоговые
окна.
 Современные операционные системы допускают многозадачность, т. е. возможность
одновременно выполнять несколько программ.
 Разные операционные системы обладают совместимостью с разным прикладным ПО.
 Windows, по мнению пользователей, очень проста в обращении, т. к. использует
графические изображения.
 Центр безопасности включает анти-шпионское ПО и файрвол.

Topic 3 Operating systems from a historical point of view

Operating system is a program, or set of programs. The operating system of the computer
may be regarded as the manager of computer’s resources. It controls the way in which these
resources are put to work. An operating system is the lowest layer of software on a computer. It
acts directly on the «raw» hardware of the computer. The part of the task of an operating system
is to avoid users from the complexities of direct use of the computer hardware.
Mac OS X is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed and sold
by Apple Inc. The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0. On October
26, 2007, Apple released Mac OS X 10.5, nicknamed «Leopard». Mac OS X Server includes
workgroup management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key
network services, including a mail transfer agent and domain name server.
Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on the top of
the older MS-DOS environment. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core.
Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD processors. In November 2006, Microsoft
released Windows Vista, which contained a large number of architectural changes and new
features (user interface and visual style Windows Aero, security features and multimedia
applications). The newest operating system from Windows family is Windows 10.
Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems with several major sub-categories
including System V, BSD and Linux. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.
They are used as server systems in business (Solaris), as well as workstations in academic and
engineering environments. Free software Unix variants, Linux and BSD, are popular in these areas.
Linux is a generic term that commonly refers to Unix-like computer operating systems that
use Linux kernel. This is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source
development. The name «Linux» comes from the Linux kernel, written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
Linux can be controlled by one or more text-based command line interfaces (CLIs), graphical user
interface (GUI), or through controls on the device itself. On desktop machines, KDE, GNOME and
Xfce are the most popular user interfaces.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does the term “operating system” mean?


2. What does OS control?
3. What are the essential functions of an OS at the simple level?
4. Who developed Mac OS?
5. What is the newest version of Microsoft Windows?
41
6. What is Unix?
7. Where is Unix used?
8. What is the main difference between the Linux and other operating systems?
9. How can a user control the Linux operating system?
10. Can Linux be used without graphical interface?

Topic 4 The main tasks of an operating system

The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so the
device it lives in behaves in a flexible but predictable way.
At the simplest level, an operating system does two things. It manages the hardware and
software resources of the system. In a desktop computer, these resources include such things as
the processor, memory, disc space, etc. On a smartphone, they include the keypad, the screen, the
address book, the phone dialer, the battery and the network connection.
It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having
to know all the details of the hardware. The first task, managing the hardware and software
resources, is very important, as various programs and input methods compete for the attention of
the central processing unit and demand memory, storage, input/output and bandwidth for their
own purposes. In this capacity, the operating system plays the role of the good parent, making
sure that each application gets the necessary resources while playing nicely with all the other
applications.
The second task, providing a consistent application interface, is especially important if there is
to be more than one of a particular type of computer using the operating system, or if the
hardware making up the computer is ever open to change. A consistent application program
interface allows a software developer to write an application on one computer and have a high
level of confidence that it will run on another computer of the same type, even if the amount of
memory or the quantity of storage is different on the two machines.
Even if a particular computer is unique, an operating system can ensure that applications
continue to run when hardware upgrades and updates occur. This is because the operating system
and not the application is charged with managing the hardware and the distribution of its
resources. One of the challenges facing developers is keeping their operating systems flexible
enough to run hardware from the thousands of vendors manufacturing computer equipment.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the purpose of OS?


2. What does it do at the simplest level?
3. What parts of devices does it control?
4. What software resources does OS manage?
5. What role does OS play doing the 1st task?
6. Does OS provide a consistent application interface?
7. What does a consistent application program interface allow?
8. What does OS ensure if a particular computer running a program is unique?
9. Is the application charged with the distribution of PC’s resources?
10. What creates difficulties for developers?

Tasks:
42
1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topics 3 and 4 above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Совокупность программ, задействовать ресурс, избежать трудности, проприетарная


операционная система, управление рабочей группой, агент пересылки почты, устаревшая
рабочая среда, изменения в машинной архитектуре, текстовой интерфейс пользователя,
свободное программное обеспечение, контролировать устройства и ПО, стабильный и
устойчивый способ, управлять ресурсами, разработчик ПО, величина памяти, быть
ответственным за, распределение ресурсов, производители компьютерного оборудования.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

 Операционная система напрямую использует аппаратную часть компьютера.


 Недавно выпущенная операционная система - Windows 10.
 Операционные системы могут использоваться в серверах, рабочих станциях,
настольных компьютерах.
 Большинство современных операционных систем включает в себя графический
интерфейс пользователя.
 Запрос выделения оперативной памяти контролируется операционной системой.
 Операционная система обеспечивает запуск программ на компьютерах одного типа.

Unit 14 Word processing (WP)

Topic 1 Word Processor

A standard MS Word interface includes several elements. At the top of the window you can
see a menu bar, then a standard toolbar, then the formatting toolbar. The formatting toolbar
includes such options as alignment, typeface, type style (bold, underlined or italic text), increase
or decrease indent (space between the margin and where the text aligns). The footer and header
commands allow you to specify customized texts at the top and at the bottom of every page. At
the bottom you can see icons for drawing, inserting and editing pictures. You can also easily add
hyperlinks to the text.
MS Word also provides some useful options to make your text more correct.
Spell checkers can be used to compare words in the program's dictionary with those in the
user's document. The spell checker points out any words it cannot match, notifies the user and
allows them to make any changes; it even suggests possible correct spellings. This is a good first
step at proofing a document but users will still need to proofread documents to ensure complete
accuracy.
Grammar checkers are applications that attempt to check more than just spelling. They count
words in sentences to flag possible run-on sentences. They look for words that show possible
conflicts between verbs and subjects, and they offer advice about corrections. Grammar checkers
are a step beyond spell checkers, but still they are not a substitute for a human editor. The
computer can only alert the user to problems that wouldn't be obvious to them otherwise.
In an online thesaurus you can look up different words to use in similar instances. Some of

43
them even include information about pronunciation and history of a word.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is situated at the top of the MS Word window?


2. What options does the formatting toolbar include?
3. What do you use the header and the footer commands for?
4. What is located at the bottom of the window?
5. What options does MS Word provide to make your documents more correct?
6. How does a spell-checker work?
7. There is no need to proofread your document if you use a spell checker, is there?
8. How does a grammar checker work?
9. What is an online thesaurus?
10. Do you benefit from the Word checkers or do you turn them off?

Topic 2 Word Instructions

How to Cut and Paste text


To move a paragraph in the document first use the mouse to select the text you want to move.
Then choose the Cut command from the Edit menu. The selected text disappears and goes onto
the clipboard. Now find where you want the text to appear and you click to position the insertion
point there. Next choose Paste from the Edit menu or hold down Ctrl and press V. Finally, check if
the text has appeared in the right place. If you make a mistake you can choose Undo from the Edit
menu, which will reverse your last editing command.
How to Insert a picture
First choose Insert on the Menu bar. From the Insert menu select Picture. As you can see, it
displays a drop-down menu with different options. Select From File and you'll get a dialogue box.
Now you navigate your hard drive's contents and find the picture you want to insert. Now click
Insert and it will be inserted into your document. Finally, right-click with the mouse and select
Format Picture to adjust the size and other properties.
How to Search
First click where you want to start searching for the text. Next go to the Edit menu and select
Replace. This displays a dialogue box. You type the text you want to find in the ‘Find what’ box and
the new text in the ‘Replace with’ box. To locate the first instance of the specified text click
Replace. Now you have 2 options: you can replace all the instances (click Replace all) or move
through the documents and replace only several cases (click Find Next).

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined words

2. Write the defined words.

_____________- an essential or characteristic part of something abstract


_____________- a thing that is or may be chosen
_____________- change (text) on a computer
_____________- write (something) on a typewriter or computer by pressing the keys
44
_____________- cancel or reverse the effects or results of (a previous action or measure)

3. Write your own instructions how to:

 copy and paste text


 erase text
 add a table to the text
 change the header/the footer
 add/remove a hyperlink

4. Translate from Russian into English:

 Ms Word также предоставляет полезные возможности для улучшения грамотности


текста.
 Абзацный отступ — это расстояние между краем страницы и началом теста.
 Автоматическая проверка орфографии сравнивает слова в памяти программы со
словами в документе.
 Если Вы допускаете ошибку, то всегда можете выбрать пункт «Отменить» в меню.
 Вырезанный текст помещается в буфер обмена.
 Компьютер может только уведомить пользователя об ошибках, которые были бы
незаметны.

Topic 3 Word processor history

A word processor (document preparation system (DPS)) is a computer application used for
creating (editing, formatting and printing) materials. The term «word processing» was invented by
IBM in the late 1960s. IBM's Mag Tape Selectric Typewriter (MTST) and later Mag-Card Selectric
(MCST) were the first devices, which allowed to work with documents. In the early 1970's,
computer scientist Harold Koplow was hired by Wang Laboratories to program calculators. One of
his programs allowed a Wang calculator to interact with an IBM Selectric typewriter. The machine
operator typed the text on a conventional IBM Selectric and, when the Return key was pressed,
the line of the text was stored on the cassette tape. One cassette stored approximately 20 pages
of the text. Basic editing functions were Insert, Delete and Skip.
Wang 1200 machine was the precursor of the Wang Office Information System (OIS)
introduced in 1976. It displayed the text on a CRT screen and incorporated virtually every
fundamental characteristic of word processors.
With the rise of personal computers, software-based word processors gradually displaced
dedicated word processors and the term referred to software rather than hardware. MacWrite,
Microsoft Word and other word processing programs were introduced in 1984. They were
probably the first true WYSIWYG (What You See Is Where You Get) word processors known to
many people before the introduction of Microsoft Windows.
Word processing functions include a «spell checker», «grammar checker» and «thesaurus».
Word processors can be distinguished from several other forms of software, such as text editors
(e.g., Notepad, Emacs), which were the precursors of word processors. Text editors are now used
mainly by programmers, website designers and computer systems administrators. Almost all word
processors enable users to employ styles, which are used to automate consistent formatting text
45
body, titles, subtitles and highlighted text. Most current word processors can calculate various
statistics: characters, words, sentences and lines.
There are many commercial (Microsoft Word) and open-source word processing applications
(OpenOffice.org Writer and KWord). On-line word processors (Google Docs) are a relatively new
category. DOC format is considered to be the de facto standard. Its the most recent version is a
new XML-based format called .DOCX. This format has been standardized by ECMA as Office Open
XML and it is available for the Windows and Mac platforms.

Questions for discussion:

1. Who invented the term «word processing»?


2. What is Harold Koplow famous for?
3. How many pages of the text can be stored on IBM Selectric?
4. When was Wang Office Information System introduced?
5. When did the first true WYSIWYG word processors appear?
6. What do word processing functions include?
7. Who generally uses text editors?
8. What features does the word processor provide?
9. What commercial and open-source word processing applications do you know?
10. Is Microsoft Word available for Mac platform?

Topic 4 Word processor tools

Word processing typically implies the presence of text manipulation functions that extend
beyond a basic ability to enter and change text. Other word processing functions include spell
checking (actually checks against wordlists), "grammar checking" (checks for what seem to be
simple grammar errors), and a "thesaurus" function (finds words with similar or opposite
meanings). Other common features include collaborative editing, comments and annotations,
support for images and diagrams and internal cross-referencing.
Spell checkers can be used to compare words in the program's dictionary to those used in the
user's document. The spell checker points out any words it cannot match, notifies the user, and
allows them make any changes, it even suggests possible correct spellings. However, this does not
mean that all the words in the document are spelled correctly. A word may be spelled correctly
but still be wrong (too instead of two, for instance). This is a good first step at proofing a
document because it can find many common errors, but users will still need to proofread
documents to ensure complete accuracy.
Many word processors include an online thesaurus with which users can look up different
word to use in similar instances. Like a conventional thesaurus, this database of words contains
definitions and suggestions of words with similar or opposite meanings. Some even include
information about pronunciation and the history of words.
Grammar checks are applications that attempt to check more than just spelling. They count
words in sentences to flag possible run-on sentences. They look for words that show possible
conflicts between verbs and subjects, and they offer advice about corrections. Grammar checkers
are a step beyond spell checkers, but they are still not a substitute for a human editor. Their
power comes not from knowing every grammatical rule, but from questioning the writer about
certain parts of the text. They give the writer another chance to think about what he or she has
written. The computer can alert writers to problems that wouldn't be obvious to them otherwise.
46
Questions for discussion:

1. What text manipulation functions does any word processor imply?


2. What common features of a word processor do you know?
3. How does spell checker work?
4. Does user get a correct document after spell checking?
5. What is a thesaurus?
6. Does a thesaurus contain an additional information like history of words?
7. What do grammar checks do?
8. Do grammar checks correct user’s mistakes?
9. Can grammar checks be a substitute for a human editor?
10. What is the difference between grammar checks and spell checkers?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


Компьютерное приложение, позволять взаимодействовать, оператор вычислительной
машины, кассетная лента, базовые функции редактирования, расцвет персональных
компьютеров, "что видишь, то и получишь", обработка текста, в отличии от, свободный
текстовый процессор, работа с текстом, грамматическая ошибка, совместное
редактирование, перекрестные ссылки, предлагать правильное написание, вычитывать
документ, обычный тезаурус, со сходным или противоположным значением, быть
очевидным.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Большинство современных программ обработки текста появилось в период расцвета


персональных компьютеров.
 Текстовый процессор включает в себя проверку правописания, проверку грамматики
и тезаурус.
 Стили могут быть применены к тексту, заголовкам и подзаголовкам.
 Проверка правописания выделяет слово и уведомляет об этом пользователя.
 Вычитывание документа помогает избежать множества распространённых ошибок.
 Тезаурус содержит определения слов, сведения о синонимах, антонимах, а иногда о
произношении и истории слова.

Unit 15 Spreadsheets and databases

Topic 1 Databases

A database is a collection of related data, and the software used in databases to store,
organize and retrieve data is called the database management system. A database can manage
any type of data.

47
Information is entered into a database via fields. Each field holds a separate piece of
information, and the fields are grouped together into records. Thus, a record about an employee
can consist of several fields such as name, address, phone etc.
Records are grouped together into files which hold large amounts of information. Files can
easily be changed – you can always add new fields, edit or delete records. An electronic database
is much faster to consult and update than the card index system. With the right software you can
keep track of stock, sales, market trends, orders and other information that can help your
company stay successful. A database query function allows you to extract information according
to certain conditions or criteria.
A database program lets you create an index – a list of records ordered according to the
content of certain fields. This helps you to search the database and sort records into order.
Modern databases are relational - that is, they are made up of related files, for example,
customers and orders, vendors and purchases, etc. Two database files can be related as long as
they have a common field.
The best database packages also include network facilities, which can make businesses more
productive. For example, managers of different departments can have direct access to a common
database. Most aspects of the program can be protected by security devices.

Questions for discussion:

1. What kinds of data can a database manage?


2. How is information entered into a database?
3. What are records?
4. Can you ever change the files in a database?
5. What does a query function allow to do?
6. What is an index?
7. What does the term “relational” mean?
8. How do network facilities make business more productive?
9. How can the data be protected?
10. What database programs do you know?

Topic 2 Spreadsheets

A spreadsheet program is normally used in business for financial planning. It's like a large
piece of paper divided into columns and rows. Each column is labelled with a letter and each
column is labelled with a number. The point where a row and a column intersect is called a cell.
For example you can have cells A1, B6, C7, etc.
A cell can hold three types of information: text, numbers and formulae. When the formula is
keyed into a cell and the values are keyed into the cells mentioned in the formula, the program
automatically calculates and displays the result.
Formulae are functions or operations that add, subtract, multiply or divide existing values to
produce new values. We can use them to calculate totals, percentages or discounts.
When you change the value of one cell, the values of other cells are automatically
recalculated. You can also update the information in different worksheets by linking cells.
The format menu of a spreadsheet usually includes several commands allowing you to choose
the font, borders, etc.

48
Most spreadsheet programs also allow users to generate graphic representation. The value of
cells are shown in various forms such as line graphs, bar or pie charts.
Some spreadsheet programs also have a database facility, which transforms a spreadsheet
into a database. In this case, each column is a field and each row is a record.

Questions for discussion:

1. How are spreadsheets most often used?


2. What are the labelling rules in a spreadsheet?
3. What kind of information can a cell hold?
4. How do formulae work in a spreadsheet?
5. What can you use formulae for?
6. How can you update information in different worksheets?
7. What does the format menu include?
8. What are the ways of graphical representation of the spreadsheet data?
9. What does the database facility do?
10. Do you often have to use spreadsheet programs?

Tasks:

1. Put questions of different types to the sentences:

A database is a collection of related data.


We can use them to calculate totals, percentages or discounts.

2. Arrange jumbled words into sentences:

 via entered database into information is a fields;


 aspects most devices the can of be protected program security by ;
 an much database update in faster to and than the card electronic index consult system ;
 of the format spreadsheet menu a usually several includes commands;
 most graphic spreadsheet allow users programs to generate also representation.

3. Translate from Russian into English:

 Поля, содержащие информацию, объединяются в записи.


 Файлы можно легко изменить: добавить новые поля, редактировать или удалить
записи.
 Современные базы данных реляционные.
 Пересечение строки и столбца называется ячейкой.
 Формулы — это функции или операции сложения, вычитания, умножения и деления
данных.
 Данные таблицы могут быть представлены в форме графика, столбчатой или круговой
диаграммы.

49
Topic 3 Spreadsheets, databases and data types

A spreadsheet program helps you manage personal and business finances. Spreadsheets, or
worksheets, are mathematical tables which show figures in rows and columns.
A cell can hold three types of data: text, numbers and formulae. Formulae are entries that
have an equation which calculates the value to display; we can use them to calculate totals,
percentages, discounts, etc. Spreadsheets have many built-in functions, prewritten instructions
that can be carried out by referring to the function by name. For example, =SUM(D2:D7) means
add up all the values in the cell range D2 to D7.
The format menu lets you choose font, alignment, borders, etc.
A database is essentially a computerized record keeping system. Each unit of information you
create is called a record and each record is made up of a collection of fields. Typically, a single
record consists of a set of field names like: Title, First Name, Surname, Job Title, TelNo and ID. You
fill in a form with the relevant information for each field to add a new record to the database.
There are different data types. Text - holds letters and numbers not used in calculations.
Number - can only hold numbers used in calculations and reports. Memo - can store long texts.
Date/Time - a date or time or combination of both. OLE Object - (object linking and embedding)
holds sounds and pictures. Yes/No - for alternative values like true/false, yes/no, on/off, etc. Once
you have added data to a set of records, indexes must be created to help the database find
specific records and sort records faster.
Two database files can be related or joined as long as they hold a piece of data in common. A
file of employee names, for example, could include a field called 'DEPARTMENT NUMBER’ and
another file, containing details of the department itself, could include the same field. This common
field can then be used to link the two files together.
Extracting information from a database is known as performing a query. For example, if you
want to know all customers that spend more than £9,000 per month, the program will search the
name field and the money field simultaneously.

Questions for discussion:

1. When is a spreadsheet program especially practical?


2. What is the structure of worksheets?
3. How many types of data can a cell hold?
4. What is a formula?
5. How do you add up all the values in the cell range C3 to C10?
6. What can you do using the format menu?
7. What is a record?
8. How many types of data can a record hold?
9. What can be done if 2 databases have a piece of data in common?
10. What does “query” mean?

Topic 4 Database management systems

Database management systems (DBMS) — software tools that allow users to create, maintain,
and manipulate an integral base of business data.
Database management systems were developed to: 1) make data independent of the
programs, so that it is easy to access and change; 2) eliminate data redundancy; 3) establish
50
relationships among records in different files; 4) define data characteristics; 5) manage file
directories; 6) maintain data integrity; and 7) provide a means of securing access to the database.
DBMS software often uses a query language as an interface between the user and the system.
This interface allows users to easily ask questions of the DBMS and obtain information.
A DBMS is usually modeled after one of three structures: 1) hierarchical, 2) network or 3)
relational. These models differ in terms of the cost of implementation, speed, degree of data
redundancy, ease with which they can satisfy information requirements, and ease with which they
can be updated.
The hierarchical database model resembles a family tree; the records are organized in a one-
to-many relationship, meaning that one parent record can have many child records. Records are
retrieved from a hierarchical model by starting at the root record at the top and moving down
through the structure. There is no connection between separate branches.
The network database model is similar to the hierarchical model, but it allows multiple one-
to-many relationships (each child can have more than one parent) and relationships between
records in different groups.
The relational database model is made up of many tables, called relations, in which related
data elements are stored. The data elements are in rows, called tuples, and columns, called
attributes. The main objective of the relational database model is to allow complex logical
relationships between records to be expressed in a simple fashion.
In general, the hierarchical and network models are less expensive to implement and allow
faster access to data. However, they are more difficult to update and aren't as effective at
satisfying information requirements as the relational model can be. Because the hierarchical and
network models are older than the relational model, they are used most often on large
computers.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is DBMS?
2. Why were DBMS developed?
3. What language does DBMS often use?
4. How many structures does DBMS have?
5. What does hierarchical database resemble?
6. What is the main difference between network and hierarchical database model?
7. What is a relational database model made up of?
8. What is the main objective of a relational database model?
9. Which of the models provides a faster access to data?
10. Which of the models are easier to update?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topics above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Управлять личными сбережениями, содержать формулы, считать итог, встроенные функции,


диапазон ячеек, выбрать выравнивание, совокупность полей, добавить новую запись в базу
данных, типы данных, зависимая база данных, выполнить запрос, устранить избыточность

51
данных, иерархическая модель, корневая запись, связанные элементы данных, сложные
логические отношения, быстрый доступ к данным.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Редактор электронных таблиц позволяет использовать данные ячеек для подсчетов.


 Базы данных могут содержать различные типы данных: текстовые, числовые, даты,
встраиваемые объекты.
 Две базы данных могут быть объединены или связаны для удобства работы с
информацией.
 Системы управления базами данных были созданы для легкого доступа и изменения
данных.
 Существует 3 модели баз данных: иерархическая, сетевая и реляционная.
 Внедрение сетевых и иерархических моделей баз данных актуально для больших
вычислительных машин.

Unit 16 The Internet and e-mail

Topic 1 The Internet

It is hard to say exactly how old the Internet is. The research that led to what we know as the
Internet was begun in 1960s. It is also hard to say who created the Internet. The initial research
was carried out by Advanced Research Projects Agency in the USA.
It took many years for the Internet to become popular around the world. It's only really since
mid- 1990s that the Internet has become a part of our daily lives.
To get connected to the Internet you need a computer, the right connection software and a
modem, connected to the phone line. A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts digital signals
into analogue signals that can be transmitted across the phone or cable network.
You also need an account with the Internet Service Provider, which acts as a gateway between
your PC and the rest of the Net. Today, ISPs offer a broadband, high-speed connection. The most
common type is ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line), which works through phone lines. It is
faster than traditional dial-up technology. However, it is replaced by such technologies as
Ethernet (ETTH), GPON (FTTH) и DOCSIS . Broadband access is also offered by some electricity
networks. The broadband has existed since 1990s.
The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP. This is like the
Internet operating system. Every computer connected to the Internet is identified by a unique IP
address.
Other methods of Internet access include Wi-Fi, satellite, mobile phones and TV-sets equipped
with a modem. Wi-Fi enabled devices allow you to connect to the Internet when you are near a
wireless access point, in locations called hotspots. Satellite services are used in places where
terrestrial access in not available. Mobile phones provide access via the phone network.

Questions for discussion:

52
1. How old is the Internet?
2. What organisation started its development?
3. When did the Internet become a part of our daily lives?
4. What is a modem used for?
5. What does an ISP do?
6. How does ADSL work?
7. What is broadband?
8. What is TCP/IP?
9. What other methods of accessing the Internet do you know?
10. How do you mostly access the Internet?

Topic 2 The Internet Services

The Internet provides many useful services, which require specific protocols.
E-Mail
Email lets you exchange messages with people all over the world. Optional attached files can
include text documents, pictures, audio and animation. A mailing list uses e-mail to communicate
a message to all its subscribers – that is, everyone who belongs to the list. There are some e-mail
programs and web-based e-mail accounts.
The Web
The Web consists of billions of documents on web servers that use the HTTP protocol. You
navigate through the web using a program called a web browser, which lets you search, view and
print web pages. Some web pages are updated thousands times per day.
Chat and Instant Messaging
Chat and IM technologies allow you to have real-time conversations online.
FTP
FTP, or file transfer protocol, is used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network. Nowadays, this
feature is built into web browsers. You can download files, music and programs from a remote
computer to your hard drive.
Telnet
Telnet is a protocol used to log onto remote computer systems. It enables you to enter
commands that will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the remote server.
Newsgroups
Newsgroups are the public discussion areas. The contents are contributed by people who post
articles or respond to articles, creating chains of related postings called message threads.

Questions for discussion:

1. What can attached files of an email include?


2. What is an e-mail?
3. Do you need a special programme to read emails?
4. How can you navigate the Web?
5. How often are web pages updated?
6. What do IM technologies allow you to do?
7. What is FTP used for?

53
8. What is Telnet used for?
9. How are newsgroups organised?
10. What services do you find most useful?

Tasks:

1. Put 5 questions of different types to the sentences:

Telnet is a protocol used to log onto remote computer systems.


A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts digital signals into analogue signals.

2. Derive (where possible) nouns, verbs and adjectives from the following words.

initial______________________ ____________________ __________________________


computer __________________ _____________________ _________________________
replace _____________________ _____________________ ________________________
modulator ___________________ ______________________ ______________________
account _____________________ _______________________ _____________________
traditional _____________________ ______________________ ____________________
transfer ________________________ ____________________ _____________________

3. Translate from Russian into English:


 Исследования, приведшие к созданию интернета, начались в 1960х.
 Для подключения к интернету требуется компьютер, соответствующее ПО и модем.
 Модем (модулятор\демодулятор) конвертирует цифровые сигналы в аналоговые, что
допускает их передачу по телефонной или кабельной сети.
 Широкополосный доступ предоставляется также многими энергосбытовыми
компаниями.
 Список рассылки позволяет отправить сообщением всем, кто включен в него.
 При помощи протокола FTP можно загружать файлы с удаленного компьютера на
свой жесткий диск.

Topic 3 E-mail and its protocols

The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions. One of them is
e-mail. E-mail sends a message to another person via the Internet. An Internet e-mail message
consists of three components: the message envelope, header and body. Envelope contains header
and body. The header contains address if the recipient and sender, topic of message and added
files. The body contains the message itself. Popular email platforms include Gmail, Hotmail,
Outlook, Mail, Yahoo!.
Different mail protocols transfer and store messages in different ways. SMTP is used to
transfer messages between one mail server and another. SMTP is very straightforward, providing
only facilities to deliver messages to one or more recipients in batch mode. Once a message has
been delivered, it can’t be recalled or cancelled. It’s also deleted from the sending server once it’s
been delivered. SMTP uses “push” operation, meaning that the connection is initiated by the
sending server rather than the receiver. This makes it unsuitable for delivering messages to

54
switched off desktop PCs. Received messages are stored locally and retrieved from the local file
system by the mail program.
POP is a message-retrieval protocol used by many IS PC mail clients to get messages from a
mail server. It only allows you to download all messages in your mailbox at once. PC-based POP3
mail clients can do this automatically at a preset interval. Since POP3 downloads all the messages
in your mailbox, there’s an option to leave messages on the server, so that they can be picked up
from different machines without losing any.
IMAP is similar in operation to POP, but allows you more choice over what messages you
download. Initially, only message headers are retrieved, giving information about the sender and
subject. You can then download just those messages you want to read. You can also delete
individual messages from the server, and some IMAP4 servers let you organise your mail into
folders. This makes download times shorter and there’s no danger of losing messages.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does an e-mail message consist of?


2. What is a header an e-mail message?
3. How many e-mail protocols are mentioned in the text?
4. Which e-mail protocol is used to transfer messages between server computers?
5. Why is SMTP unsuitable for delivering messages to desktop PCs?
6. Where are email messages stored in an SMTP system?
7. Is it possible to download only needed messages using POP3 protocol?
8. What are advantages and disadvantages of having an option to leave POP3 messages on
the server?
9. What is the difference between POP3 and IMAP4 protocol?
10. What are the advantages of using the IMAP4 protocol?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topic above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Отправить письмо через Интернет, конверт сообщения, отправитель и получатель,


соединение инициировано, принятые сообщения, доставлять сообщения, почтовая
программа, оставить сообщения в почтовом ящике, выбрать сообщения для загрузки,
запросить заголовки сообщений, сгруппировать сообщения по папкам, опасность потери
сообщений, вмещать большой объем информации, пиринговые сети, оптоволокно, внешний
модем, широкополосное соединение, карманный персональный компьютер.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English


 Заголовок письма содержит адрес отправителя, получателя и тему сообщения.
 Почтовая программа скачивает письма с сервера в фоновом режиме.
 IMAP-протокол позволяет загружать заголовки писем не загружая писем, а протокол
POP позволяет загрузить все письма сразу.
 Доступ к сети Интернет возможен через оптоволокно, беспроводное соединение,
спутниковые или сотовые технологии.
55
 Коммутируемый доступ к сети был заменен на широкополосный доступ, также
использующий телефонную линию.
 Большинство современных устройств (смартфоны, КПК, телевизоры) имеют доступ в
Интернет.

Unit 17 The Web

Topic 1 A Typical Web Page

No matter what Internet browser you are using, at the top of the page there will be the URL
address. URL means uniform resource locator. It includes such abbreviations as http (hypertext
transfer protocol) and www (world wide web). The final part of the URL is the domain name. There
are some top-level domains, such as .com, .edu., .org., .net. The parts of the URL are separated by
dot, slash and colon. Some sites begin with ftp:// or file transfer protocol, used for copying files
onto your computer.
The toolbar shows navigation icons which let you go one page back and one page forward. You
can also go to the home page or stop the current transfer.
Tab buttons let you view different sites at the same time. The built-in search box helps you
look for information. When the web page won't load you can refresh the current page and the
page will reload. If you want to mark a website to visit it again more easily you can bookmark it or
add to favourites. Then you will only have to click Show Favourites and you will see all the sites you
have bookmarked.
Many web pages feature clickable hyperlinks, which take you to other web pages when clicked.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does URL stand for?


2. What elements does it include?
3. What are the top-level domains?
4. What marks are used to separate parts of the URL?
5. What does ftp:// mean?
6. What icons are there on the toolbar?
7. What does the search box enable you to do?
8. What should you do if the web page won't load?
9. How can you mark a web site?
10. What are hyperlinks used for?

Topic 2 Cyberspace

Now people on-line take the powers of the Internet back into their own hands. They use
Internet for many purposes from posting opinions in weblogs (blogs), contributing articles for the
Wikipedia and organising rallies to illegal file-sharing on some file-sharing sites. Thanks to new
technologies such as blog software, peer-to-peer networks, open-source software and wikis,
people get together to take collective action.
For example the famous trading platform Ebay features 61 million active members who buy
and sell a great number of goods every day. The whole marketplace runs on trust, created by the

56
feedback system, by which buyers are sellers rate each other on how well they carried out their
half of each transaction. Another e-tailer Amazon also encourages customer participation in the
site.
Social networks attract millions of unique visitors every month. There is even a 3-D virtual
world, entirely built and owned by its residents called Second Life, where real companies have
opened shops, pop-groups have given concerts and researchers have held conferences.
Some other sites offer specialised content (like Flickr for photos and YouTube for videos).
Another example of collective power of the Internet is the Google search engine. Its
mathematical formulas surf the combined judgements of people whose websites link to other
sites.
The Skype software not only allows you to make free phone calls, but also automatically
contributes some of your PC's computing power to route other people's calls.
BitTorrent is a protocol for transferring music, films etc. It’s a peer-to-peer software, which is
to be used at your own risk if the data you swap is under copyright.

Questions for discussion:

1. What are the possible ways to use the Internet?


2. What do you know about the Wikipedia?
3. What is the principle of the Ebay feedback system?
4. What is your experience of using e-tailers?
5. What can the social nets and virtual reality be used for?
6. How does the Google search engine work?
7. What is the principle of the Skype connection?
8. What is BitTorrent?
9. What are the risks of using it?
10. Which of the services above do you use most often?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined words.

2. Spell 10 URL addresses.

3. Translate from Russian into English:

 Вверху страницы находится URL адрес.


 FTP используется для загрузки файлов на ваш компьютер.
 На панели инструментов расположены кнопки навигации.
 Социальные сети привлекают миллионы посетителей каждый месяц.
 Протокол BitTorrent пользователи используют под свою ответственность.

Topic 3 Browsing websites

The World Wide Web is a service on the Internet. It consists of sets of linked documents
known as webpages which can be viewed using a program called a browser. The links on a
57
webpage contain the Web address of the webpage.

The Web address of a webpage is also known as a URL e.g. http://www.hw.ac.uk./lib


WWW/irn/irn. html. This example indicates the following: http:// is known as the protocol prefix
and indicates that the hypertext transfer protocol should be used to transfer the webpage across
the Internet. www indicates that this is a World Wide Web document i.e. a webpage. hw.ac.uk is
the domain name and indicates the network domain in which the page is stored. ac is the domain
name extension and indicates the type of domain e.g. ac or edu is an educational domain, co or
com is a company. uk is the country code indicating that this webpage is stored on a computer in
the United Kingdom. libWWW/irn gives the path of the directory where the webpage is stored.
irn.html is the name of the webpage file. The extension used in webpage filenames indicates that
the file is written using HTML.
When a user clicks on a hyperlink on a webpage, the browser program contacts a server
computer known as a DNS server to look up the IP address of remote Web server computer given
in the URL of the linked webpage. The DNS has a stored table of names and addresses of nodes on
the Internet. The request for the linked webpage is then sent to a computer or a router that uses
the Internet address obtained from the DNS server to route the request.
The message requesting the webpage is divided up into small sections called packets and each
separate data packet is passed from router to router until they reach the remote Web server
where they are put back together again. The remote Web server sends the requested webpage
back to the browser computer. When the packets arrive at the browser computer, they are
combined and the requested webpage is displayed in the browser.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the World Wide Web?


2. How can webpages be viewed?
3. What do the hyperlinks on a webpage contain?
4. What parts does the URL consist of?
5. What does protocol prefix show?
6. What is the difference between domain name and domain name extension?
7. What indicates an extension of a webpage file?
8. What is the DNS?
9. Where is the request for the linked webpage sent to?
10. What is the name of a small section of the message requesting webpage?

Topic 4 Handy Internet services – searching, shopping, banking

Special websites (e.g. Google, Yandex) provide a facility known as a search engine that can be
used to search for other websites. A search engine uses special programs to collect information
about websites and stores the information in a database. The user can then search the database

58
to obtain a list of links to relevant websites. To search using a search engine, the user types
keywords into a search box. The search engine then displays a list of website links that are
relevant to the given keywords.
People regularly buy things online, mostly books, music and airline tickets. There are four
main steps to buying online. First, you enter a site dedicated to e-commerce and browse their
products. Then you put the items you want to buy into a virtual shopping cart and buy with a
credit card. Thirdly, you enter your personal data — you may have to log in with a username and a
password if you have an account with the site — and finally, you confirm the order and log out.
But before buying things online, read all the product information clearly. It’s not a good idea to
give any private information that is not directly required for your transaction, for example about
your shopping habits. You should only give your credit card number to suppliers that you know
and trust.
Online banking is the term used for performing transactions and payments through a bank’s
website. The greatest advantage of online banking is obviously convenience. Everyone can access
his or her account, check balances, pay bills and transfer. But the big issue with online banking is
of course security and cybercrime. Most banks use various layers of authentication to prevent
fraud: they give you a PIN with a username and a password, and for some transactions you’ll be
required to use a TAN, a transaction authorization number. You mustn’t give your PIN to anyone.
Be aware of phishing: fake emails claiming to be from your bank and asking for information in an
attempt to steal your identity. You shouldn’t forget to invest in some good anti-spy software.

Questions for discussion:

1. What facilities do special websites provide?


2. Where does a search engine store the information?
3. How do you buy something in the Internet?
4. What security measures should the online customer take into consideration?
5. What does “online banking” mean?
6. What are the advantages of online banking?
7. What are the disadvantages of online banking?
8. How do banks prevent cybercrimes?
9. What is “phishing”?
10. How can you protect your computer?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in topics 3 and 4 above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Совокупность связанных документов, протокол передачи гипертекста, путь к папке, таблица


имен, адресов и узлов, маршрутизировать запрос, удаленный веб-сервер, запрошенная
страница, отображать список в браузере, собирать информацию о сайтах, виртуальная
корзина, войти на сайт, подтвердить заказ, доверять поставщикам, дистанционное
банковское обслуживание, проверять баланс, личные данные, предотвратить
мошенничество, фальшивые письма от банка.

59
3. Translate sentences from Russian into English
 URL содержит информацию о протоколе передачи, домене, доменном имени и пути к
документу.
 Браузер обращается к DNS-серверу, чтобы запросить IP-адрес удаленного сервера,
указанного в URL.
 Запрос делится на небольшие части, называемые пакетами.
 Поисковая система позволяет вам найти подходящие к вашему запросу сайты.
 Сайты, занятые электронной торговлей, помогают приобрести товары и билеты по
низким ценам.
 Вы можете оплачивать счета или проверять баланс, пользуясь дистанционным
банковским обслуживанием.

Unit 18 Chat and conferencing

Topic 1 Virtual meetings

Imagine you want to assemble a group of people from around the world for a brainstorming
session.
Conferencing programs such as NetMeeting or CU-SeeMe allow virtual workgroups to
communicate via the Internet. To videoconference, you’ll need a webcam. Participants see each
other's faces in small windows on their monitors and hear each other's voices on the computer
speakers. You can use just audio, video and audio simultaneously, or the screen-sharing capability
to collaborate on documents without audio or video.
Internet telephony, also known as VolP (Voice over Internet Protocol), almost eliminates long-
distance phone charges, allowing you to call nearly anywhere in the world for the price of a local
call. If you have flat-rate internet access, you can't beat the price — it's practically free. With
internet telephony, you can make a voice call from your computer to another person's computer,
Iandline, or mobile phone. You can download telephony software such as Skype or Net2Phone
from the Net, and it's even free!
People also use more traditional chat conferencing or bulletin board systems to communicate
online. Note that during chat sessions, participants type messages to each other rather than
communicate by voice. Chat software can be used on the Web with your browser to conduct
online chat sessions with other users and can accommodate between 50 and 1,000 users
simultaneously. Some companies even use chat conferencing on their websites to facilitate
communication with customers.
But what if you want to chat privately with a friend, family member or business colleague?
Then Instant Messaging, or IM, is the way to go. Many lM services now offer audio and video
capabilities, so if you have a microphone and a webcam, you can chat and see who you're talking
to.
You can also chat in incredible 3-D worlds that are built by other users, for example Second
Life. In these virtual reality environments you can play 3-D games and interact with other users via
avatar identities. Avatars are 3-D graphical representations of the participants.

60
Questions for discussion:

1. What programs allow you to organize video conferences?


2. What equipment do you need for that?
3. What is VoIP?
4. How economical is it?
5. What telephony software do you know?
6. How can you use chat software?
7. What does IM stand for?
8. What are the capabilities of IM?
9. What is Second Life?
10. Which of the services above do you use most?

Topic 2 Cybercafe

In the early days of the Internet popularity there was a huge number of cybercafes.
It was essentially a place where you could use computers to access the Internet. Once you
were online, it was up to you what you do. There was a range of services that they allowed people
to use, from browsing the Web and multiplayer gaming to internet telephony.
They always tried and were available to help people if they had problems. For beginners, they
liked to give a tutorial to get them going.
What most people did was come in and use their machines for a fixed fee for each hour
(about 2 pounds). But some customers preferred to have unmetered access, so they gave them a
pass for a day or a week.
Many customers were travellers or students who wanted to access webmail and Instant
Messaging services to keep in touch with family and friends. They pretty much covered the globe.
They were able to provide communication services to people who would otherwise have to make
long—distance telephone calls. And they could be considerably cheaper than just picking up the
phone and dialling.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does the term cybercafe mean?


2. What could you do there?
3. Was it possible to get assistance there?
4. What were the payment options?
5. What was the usual average fee?
6. Who was the typical customer of such cafes?
7. What did they mostly use the Internet for?
8. In your opinion, why aren't these places popular anymore?
9. Have you ever been to a cybercafe?

Tasks:

61
1. Put questions of different types to the sentences:

People also use more traditional chat conferencing or bulletin board systems to communicate
online.
In the early days of the Internet popularity there was a huge number of cybercafes.

2. Explain in English

program, communicate, access, conferencing, website, facilitate, tutorial

3. Translate from Russian into English:


 Интернет-телефония практически полностью исключает необходимость оплату
междугородних разговоров.
 Для видео-конференции Вам понадобится веб-камера.
 В чате люди, как правило, печатают свои сообщения, а не прибегают к голосовой
связи.
 Некоторые компании используют чат для более удобного общения с покупателями.
 В интернет-кафе было можно за определенную плату использовать компьютеры для
доступа в интернет.
 Большинство посетителей использовали интернет-кафе чтобы воспользоваться
почтой, телефонией или системами мгновенного обмена сообщениями.

Topic 3 Instant Messaging in more detail

Instant messaging is using software that allows you to send typed messages that the receiver
sees instantly.
In order for instant messaging to work, both you and the person (or people) you wish to
communicate with need to be online and using compatible IM programs. Once the other user
replies, you have a “chat.” In the beginning, this was done by typing a message into the messenger
program and hitting “Send” or pressing Enter/Return. That was all you could do—type messages
back and forth in real time. For example, Apple’s iChat is a new application that allows users to
instant message back and forth while they can see each other on the built-in webcams. Mobile
phones have also added instant messaging applications which allow to send and receive instant
messages using different software packages (Skype, Google talk, etc.).
Now, many popular IM programs enable users to chat with more than one person at a time,
conduct audio chats using computer microphones and speakers/headsets, or conduct video chats
with webcams. Some IM programs allow you to transfer files or share a whiteboard space. Nearly
all allow you to add people as “contacts” or “friends”, tell you when those people are online, and
display your online “status” (“busy,” “not available,” “hidden,” e.g.).
There are both advantages and disadvantages involved in the use of instant messaging as a
form of communication. One key advantage is convenience. It is a huge time-saver, allowing quick
messages to be exchanged without face-to-face interaction or waiting for an email response.
Along with being quick and easy, instant messaging is also non-evasive, permitting users to make
contact with each other without feeling as though they are a nuisance. Other advantages of
instant messaging include file transfer, contact lists, simultaneous conversations, group chat,
keeping in touch with friends and family and various business uses (coordinating and scheduling
tasks).
62
The business usages of instant messaging lend themselves to numerous disadvantages.
Security risks, compliance risks, inappropriate use, and intellectual property leakage are real.
Another big concern with instant messaging is the fear of losing employee productivity. Another
major disadvantage is miscommunication. Without the verbal and nonverbal contextual clues of a
face-to-face interaction, the message can easily be misinterpreted.

Questions for discussion:

1. What kind of software is called “instant messaging”?


2. Can an e-mail communication be considered as an IM?
3. How does it work?
4. What are the examples of instant messaging programs?
5. Does IM include a webcam interaction?
6. What features does IM provide?
7. What are advantages of such kind of communication?
8. What are disadvantages of the business usage of IM?
9. Can IM increase the company’s productivity?
10. What issue caused a lack of face-to-face interaction?

Topic 4 The rules of netiquette.

Netiquette is etiquette used in online environments. Etiquette is often described as the


manners or the behavior required in social or professional life. Netiquette is a set of rules for
appropriate engagement in online environments.
Cyberspace has its own culture and if you aren’t familiar with the proper etiquette you are
likely to commit a few social blunders. You may offend people without meaning to, or you might
misunderstand what others say.
The first rule is to remember the human. When communicating online, whether in email,
instant message, chat, discussion post, text, or some other method, practice the Golden Rule:
treat others as you would like to be treated. Before you click send or submit, ask yourself if you
would be okay if someone else had written what you wrote.
This one is pretty basic but is often forgotten – know where you are in cyberspace. What is
acceptable in a text to a friend, for example jargon, may not be appropriate in an email to your
boss or colleague.
Respect other people’s time. When communicating in a virtual world it is your responsibility
to make sure that time spent reading what you write isn’t wasted. Make your communication
meaningful, relevant, to the point, on topic, and without unnecessary graphics or attachments.
Make yourself look good online. When you are online no one sees you, but will judge by the
quality of your writing. Use proper grammar (no jargon or abbreviations). For example, don’t use
text messaging acronyms like BTW (by the way), AFAIK (as far as I know), or IMHO (in my humble
opinion. Check your spelling – every computer has spell check. Be pleasant and polite in your
writing and communication.
Respect other people’s privacy. There is always a risk in an online environment, that you may
be exposed to some private personal information that should be handled with care. Just as you
want your privacy respected, respect the privacy of others.

63
Be forgiving of other people’s mistakes. You are likely to see what you consider a stupid
question, an unnecessarily long post, or encounter bad grammar or bad spelling. When this
happens, practice kindness and forgiveness.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is “netiquette”?
2. Should we take into account rules of netiquette?
3. What rules or guidelines are in place concerning netiquette?
4. What is the Golden rule?
5. Are there different rules for communicating with friends?
6. How important is netiquette on the job?
7. Is it a good idea to use acronyms in messages?
8. Should we respect other people’s privacy?
9. What is important when you see a stupid question or an unnecessarily long post?
10. Are there other netiquette rules that should be on the list of good online manners?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


Мгновенные сообщения, туда и обратно, встроенные вэбкамеры, отправлять и получать,
пакет программ, проводить видеочаты, отображать статус, совместно использовать
электронную доску, одновременные беседы, средство экономии времени,
непосредственное общение, проведение и планирование встреч, поддерживать связь с
коллегами, неверно понятое сообщение; относись к людям так, как бы ты хотел, чтобы
относились к тебе; быть подходящим для чего-либо, полезная беседа, уважать
конфиденциальность, прощать ошибки.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Программы обмена мгновенными сообщениями позволяют отправлять сообщения


туда-обратно в режиме реального времени.
 Вы можете общаться с помощью вэбкамеры и обмениваться файлами.
 Мгновенные сообщения позволяют экономить время, но имеют достаточно
недостатков для бизнеса.
 Если вы не владеете сетевым этикетом, вы можете допустить немало ошибок при
общении.
 Не забывайте о людях в сети, уважайте их время и конфиденциальность.
 Сокращения не приняты в письмах начальнику или коллегам.

64
Unit 19 Internet security

Topic 1 Internet Security

There are many benefits from an open system like the Internet, but one of the risks is that we
are often exposed to hackers, who break into computer systems just for fun, to steal information,
or to spread viruses.
Security is crucial when you send confidential information online. Consider, for example, the
process of buying a book on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order form
which passes from computer to computer on its way to the online bookstore. If one of the
intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied.
To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your web browser. Many browsers
display a lock when the website is secure and allows you to disable or delete cookies - small files
placed on your hard drive by web servers so that they can recognize your PC when you return
to their site. If you use online banking services. make sure they use digital certificates — files
that are like digital identification cards and that identify users and web servers. Also be sure to use
a browser that is compliant with SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), a protocol which provides secure
transactions.
Similarly, as your email travels across the Net, it is copied temporarily onto many computers in
between. This means that it can be read by people who illegally enter computer systems.
The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of virtual envelope — that is, to encode
it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send email privately is Pretty Good Privacy,
a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman.

Questions for discussion:

1. Why do hackers break into computer systems?


2. In what cases is computer security critical?
3. How can your data be stolen while you are buying something on the Internet?
4. How can you avoid risks?
5. What does a lock in address bar mean?
6. What is a digital certificate?
7. What is SSL?
8. What happens to an email, when it travels across the Net?
9. How can you protect an email?
10. Who wrote Pretty Good Privacy?

Topic 2 How To Protect Your Computer

Private networks can be attacked by intruders who attempt to obtain information such as
Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports. To protect crucial data,
companies hire security consultants who analyse the risks and provide solutions. The most
common methods of protection are passwords for access control, firewalls, and encryption and
decryption systems. Encryption changes data into a secret code so that only someone with a key
can read it. Decryption converts encrypted data back into its original form.
Malware (malicious software) are programs designed to infiltrate or damage your computer,
for example viruses, worms, Trojans and spyware. A virus can enter a PC via a disc drive — if you
65
insert an infected disc - or via the lnternet. A worm is a self-copying program that spreads
through email attachments; it replicates itself and sends a copy to everyone in an address
book A Trojan horse is disguised as a useful program; it may affect data security. Spyware collects
information from your PC without your consent. Most spyware and adware (software that allows
pop-ups - that is, advertisements that suddenly appear on your screen) is included with
'free’downloads.
If you want to protect your PC, don‘t open email attachments from strangers and take care
when downloading files from the Web. Remember to update your anti-virus software as often as
possible, since new viruses are being created all the time.

Questions for discussion:

1. What information do hackers try to obtain?


2. How do companies protect their data?
3. What is encryption?
4. What types of malware do you know?
5. How can a virus enter your PC?
6. What is a worm?
7. What is a Trojan?
8. What is adware?
9. How can you avoid infecting your computer?
10. Have you ever been attacked with malware?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined words

2. Write the defined words into spaces

_____________ - convert (information or data) into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized


access;
_____________- software, such as a virus, which is specifically designed to disrupt or damage a
computer system;
_____________- a self-replicating program able to propagate itself across a network, typically
having a detrimental effect;
_____________- copy (data) from one computer system to another or to a disc;
_____________- a computer file appended to an email.

3. Translate from Russian into English:

 Хакеры могут взломать компьютерную систему для развлечения, кражи ценной


информации или распространения вирусов.
 Безопасность является критически важной при передаче конфиденциальной
информации в режиме онлайн.
 Многие браузеры отображают в адресной строке значок замка, чтобы показать, что
сайт безопасен.

66
 Cookies – это небольшие файлы, которые веб-сервер сохраняет на жестком диске
компьютера, чтобы впоследствии идентифицировать его.
 Дешифровка возвращает зашифрованные файлы в их первоначальный вид.
 Обновляйте антивирусное ПО как можно чаще, т. к. новые вирусы появляются все
время.

Topic 3 Web privacy: how to protect your personal information

Every day you share personal information about yourself with others. It's so routine that you
may not even realize you're doing it. You may write a check at the grocery store, buy tickets to a
ball game, rent a car, buy a gift online, schedule a doctor's appointment or apply for a credit card.
Each transaction requires you to share personal information: your bank and credit card account
numbers, your income, your Social Security number (SSN), or your name, address and phone
numbers.
It's important to find out what happens to the personal information you and your children
provide to companies, marketers and government agencies. These organizations may use your
information simply to process your order; to tell you about products, services, or promotions; or
to share with others.
And then there are identity thieves, who want your information to commit fraud. Identity
theft occurs when someone steals your personal identifying information, like your SSN, birth date
or mother's maiden name, to open new charge accounts, order merchandise or borrow money.
Consumers targeted by identity thieves usually don't know they've been victimized.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) encourages you to make sure your transactions - online
and offline - are secure and your personal information is protected. Before you reveal any
personally identifying information, find out how it will be used and whether it will be shared with
others. Ask about company's privacy policy: Will you have a choice about the use of your
information, can you choose to have it kept confidential? It’s good idea to read the privacy policy
on the website you use.
Put passwords on your credit card, bank and phone accounts. Avoid using easily available
information like your mother's maiden name, your birth date, the last four digits of your SSN or
your phone number, or obvious choices like a series of consecutive numbers or your hometown
football team.
Use a secure browser when shopping online to guard the security of your transactions. When
submitting your purchase information, look for the "lock" icon on the browser's status bar to be
sure your information is secure during transmission.

Questions for discussion:

1. When do we share our personal information?


2. Which forms of personal information are mentioned in this text?
3. Should we keep track of personal information given to companies or agencies?
4. What is identity theft?
5. What information are identity thieves interested in?
6. How can you be sure that your transactions are secure?
7. What is “privacy policy”?
8. How to protect your credit card, bank and phone accounts?
9. Is it a good idea to use the name of your hometown football team as a password?
67
10. How can you know that the connection with a website is secure?

Topic 4 Prospects of network security

Internet security professionals are anxious people. But lately they've had more reason than
ever to be nervous. Not long ago, a new kind of worm, known as Storm, began to sweep through
the Internet. It hasn't received much attention in the mainstream press, but it has given security
professionals more than a few sleepless nights. Storm is far more sophisticated than previous
worms, because it uses peer-to-peer technologies and other new techniques to avoid detection.
Storm methodically infiltrates computers with inactive code that could be used to damage the
whole network of a company, creating opportunities for getting money illegally. And Storm's
creators continue to modify their dangerous product even as it already stands as a dark cloud
poised over the Internet.
Network security software products on the market today offer only limited defense. They use
firewalls, which simply block access to unauthorized users, and software patches, which can be
created only after a worm or virus's unique bit pattern is decoded. By the time this difficult
process of hand coding is complete, the worm has had hours and hours to spread, mutate, or be
modified by its creators.
A new kind of answer is needed. Network security researchers are developing software that
can rapidly detect a wide variety of intrusions from worms, viruses, and other attacks without the
high rate of false alarms that outbreaks many conventional Internet security products. These new
programs can detect any anomalous network behavior in seconds and block threats. This new
generation of algorithms is based on concepts related to the thermodynamic concept of entropy.
Often defined briefly as a measure of the disorder of a system, entropy as a cornerstone of
thermodynamic theory goes back more than a century and a half. But as a construct of
information theory it is only 60 years old, and its application to data communications began only
in the last decade or so.

Questions for discussion:

1. Were the press interested in a new virus?


2. What is “Storm”?
3. What technologies does Storm use?
4. What is the mechanism of infection?
5. Network security software products on the market today offer full defense, don’t they?
6. How can a user protect his or her PC?
7. How does network security researchers respond to a threat?
8. How will these new programs react?
9. What is new generation of algorithms based on?
10. The application of entropy began recently, didn’t it?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

68
Делиться персональной информацией, запланировать встречу с врачом, предоставить
информацию правительственным службам, обработать заказ, совершить мошенничество,
потребители стали жертвой мошенников, спросить о политике конфиденциальности,
установить пароль для банковского счета, использовать защищенный браузер, новый вид
вируса, беспокойные люди, начал распространяться по Интернету, сложно организованный
червь, нанести ущерб компьютерам компании, разрабатывать ПО, выявлять и блокировать
угрозы, создание информационной теории, новое поколение алгоритмов.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

 Персональная информация включает в себя имя, адрес, телефонный номер, номер


социального страхования, сведения о доходе.
 Этот вид информации используется для обработки заказов и услуг, открытия вкладов
и получения займов.
 Политика конфиденциальности позволяет узнать о том, как они будут использоваться
компанией.
 Компьютерные вирусы становятся более сложно организованными, чем прежде.
 Брандмауэры используют современные техники обнаружения большого количества
сетевых червей.
 Разработка этого приложения началась десятилетие назад.

Unit 20 Graphics and design

Topic 1 Basic Types and Applications of Computer Graphics

Computer graphics are pictures or drawings produced by computer. There are two main
categories. Raster graphics or bitmaps are stored as a collection of pixels. The sharpness of the
picture depends on the density of pixels or resolution. For example, text or pictures scaled up can
have jagged edges. Paint and photo-editing programmes like Adobe Photoshop focus on
manipulation of bitmaps. Popular raster formats are JPEG, GIF and TIFF.
Vector graphics represents images through the use of geometric objects, such as lines, curves
and polygons, based on mathematical equations. They can be changed or scaled without losing
quality. Vector data can be handled by drawing programmes like Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw.
EPS is the most popular format for vector drawings.
There are different graphics programs for different needs. For example, there are image-
editing programs, that can add filters or help you create composite images. Business people use
presentation graphics to make presentations more interesting visually by means of graphs and
diagrams. Another application is ads and TV programs. Computer animation is also used to make
cartoons or visual effects in movies.
Engineers use CAD (computer-aided design) software to develop, model and test their
projects. Designers start a project by making a wireframe, a representation showing the outlines of
all edges in a transparent drawing. The next stage is solid modeling: specifying and filling all the
surfaces to give an impression of a solid-state model. Next they add colour, paint and filters. That's
called texturing. Finally, they render the object to make it look real.

69
Questions for discussion:

1. What are the two main categories of computer graphics?


2. What is raster graphics?
3. How are bitmaps affected by scaling up?
4. What is resolution?
5. How is vector graphics different from raster graphics?
6. What is the most popular format for vector drawings?
7. What can image-editing programs do?
8. What is presentation graphics used for?
9. How is a CAD project created?
10. What graphics programs do you use?

Topic 2 How to Work with Graphics Programmes

Graphics programs usually have a toolbox — a collection of drawing and painting tools that
enable you to type, select, draw, paint, edit, move and view images on the computer.
The basic shapes which are used to make graphical objects are called primitives. These are
usually geometric, such as lines between two points, arcs, circles, polygons, ellipses and even text.
Furthermore, you can specify the attributes of each primitive, such as its colour, line type,
fill area, interior style and so on.
The various tools in a toolbox usually appear together as pop-up icons in a menu or palette. To
use one, you activate it by clicking on it. For example, if you want to draw a rectangle, you activate
the rectangle tool, and the pop-up options give you the possibility of drawing rectangles with
square or rounded corners.
You can transform an object by translating, rotating, or scaling it. Translation means moving an
object to a different location, Rotation is turning the object around an axis. For example, you may
need to rotate an object 90 or 180 degrees to fit the drawing. Scaling is making the object larger or
smaller.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is a toolbox?
2. What do we call primitives?
3. What are the most popular primitives?
4. What attributes can a primitive have?
5. How do tools appear in a toolbox?
6. What should you do to start working with a tool?
7. How can you transform an object?
8. What does translation mean?
9. What is rotation?
10. What is scaling?

Tasks:

1. Put questions of different types to the sentences:

70
The sharpness of the picture depends on the density of pixels or resolution.
The various tools in a toolbox usually appear together as pop—up icons in a menu or palette.

2. Make up word combinations by matching the words

rotate graphics
specify programmes
different of pixels
raster around an axis
photo-editing edges
density location
mathematical drawings
jagged shapes
vector the attributes
basic equations

3. Translate from Russian into English:

 Резкость изображения зависит от разрешения, т. е. плотности пикселей.


 Векторная графика отображает предметы через геометрические элементы, такие как
прямые, кривые и многоугольники.
 Текстурирование включает в себя добавление цвета и фильтров.
 Чтобы использовать графический инструмент, надо выбрать его в всплывающем меню
или палитре.
 Можно изменить объект при помощи перемещения, вращения и масштабирования.
 Вращение — это поворот объекта вокруг оси.

Unit 21 Desktop publishing

Topic 1 Desktop publishing

Desktop publishing (DTP) is a combination of a personal computer and page layout software
which is used to create documents for output and distribution. Graphics designers used these
programs to transform their ideas into the visual representation of a document for printing.
Desktop publishing began in 1985 with the introduction of MacPublisher, the first WYSIWYG
layout program. In January, 1985, the DTP market exploded with the introduction of the Apple
LaserWriter printer and later, in July, with the introduction of PageMaker software from Aldus
which rapidly became the DTP industry standard software. The ability to create WYSIWYG page
layouts on screen and then print pages at crisp 300 dpi resolution was revolutionary.
71
In desktop publishing there are two types of pages: electronic and virtual paper pages. All
documents are represented electronically. While printing, virtual paper pages require that paper
parameters coincide with international standard, such as «A4». Some desktop publishing
programs allow to designate the format of printing used in posters and billboards. A virtual page
for printing has a predefined size and can be displayed on the monitor in WYSIWYG format.
The ability to create a variety of projects defines the flexibility of a desktop publishing
application. The user can obtain this feature by supporting an abundance of paper layouts and the
ability to create custom page layouts without restrictions.
The term «layout tools» involves a range of tools (rulers, adjustable and automatic guides,
multiple editing layers, object snapping and object grouping) to manipulate the objects accurately.
The guides and snapping options offer a point of reference while placing images and text in the
document. Object grouping helps to organize the objects into multiple groups.
Desktop publishing software can offer a wide range of text editing tools beyond standard
operations on the text. Adjusting the header properties and other portions of the text can be quite
tedious, that is why applications with styles sheets make that process much quicker.
Applications allow you to do more than just manipulate images (resize or compress). They
give you a set of built-in image effects and filters as well as other functions related to design, for
example, adding shadows, controlling the transparency but professional applications may offer
advanced drawing tools.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does “Desktop Publishing” mean?


2. Who can use DTP?
3. What was the first layout program?
4. What company produced PageMaker?
5. What are the types of pages in desktop publishing?
6. What are the basic and essential features of publishing software?
7. What does term «layout tools» involve?
8. What graphics tools in DTP software do you know?
9. What do text editing tools do in desktop publishing software?
10. In DTP, applications allow you just to manipulate images, don’t they?

Topic 2 How to create a document in DTP

The process of creating a document is simple. First, the DTP designer decides the basic form of
the document (the type of document, general design, colour, fonts, images required, etc.).
Desktop Publishing (DTP) programs, such as Adobe PageMaker and Quark Xpress, let you combine
text and graphics in creative ways to produce stylish greeting cards, holiday brochures, business
cards, newsletters, sales catalogues, calendars and many other documents.
To create the DTP document, the designer begins by selecting a template or by specifying the
settings of a new document (the page size, margins, columns, paragraph styles, master pages,
etc.). The next step is to type the text directly or to import it from a word processing program like
Word or Word Perfect. While DTP programs and word-processing programs have a lot of similar
commands and tools, DTP programs have one important advantage: what you see on the screen is
exactly what you get when you print your document.

72
When the text has been edited, the designer imports the pictures and uses precise tools to
position, scale, crop and rotate all the items. DTP programs let you work with graphics: you can
draw shapes, fill them with text or colour, insert graphics or special characters from the program,
or import them from another program, and you can move them all easily around the page.
There are many things you can do with text and graphics: you can use an align command to
put them in a straight line, horizontally or vertically; and a rotate tool lets you turn them around.
You can bring text to the front of a shape or graphic or send it to the back so that you can't see it.
You can also wrap text around a picture or inside a shape.
Once the file is composed and saved, the designer has to prepare it for printing, which
involves verifying the colour specification, creating a Postscript or PDF file, exporting the file in
HTML format for the Web, checking proofs, etc. The last step is to take the files to a service
bureau, which will print the publication.

Questions for discussion:

1. What should the DTP designer do first?


2. What are the examples of modern DTP software?
3. What can you produce using these program packages?
4. What does the designer do then?
5. What is the important advantage of DTP?
6. What can the designer do with inserted pictures?
7. Do DTP programs allow you to work with graphics?
8. What things can you do with texts and graphics?
9. What does the designer do when document is composed and saved?
10. What is the last step of creating a document?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Сочетание компьютера и настольной издательской системы, художник-оформитель;


издательское приложение, работающее по принципу "что видишь на экране, то и получишь
при печати"; способность создания проектов, размеры бумаги, предустановленный размер,
инструменты для разметки, перемещать предметы точно, инструменты редактирования
текста, изменять размеры или сжимать, основная форма документа, выбрать шаблон,
повернуть изображение, нарисовать фигуру, переместить текст на задний план, подготовить
для печати, выпускать из печати.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:


 Документы представлены в электронном виде и отображаются в формате "что
видишь на экране, то и получишь при печати".
 Используя настраиваемые направляющие, дизайнер может точно перемещать
объекты на странице.
 Существует большой выбор эффектов для изображений: можно использовать
фильтры, добавить тень и настроить свойства объекта.
73
 Настольные издательские системы могут использоваться для подготовки брошюр,
визиток, каталогов и календарей.
 Вставив картинку, дизайнер с помощью инструментов может поместить ее в нужное
место, масштабировать, обрезать или повернуть.
 Для создания документа в настольной издательской системе необходимо выбрать
шаблон, вставить и отформатировать текст и картинки, сохранить и сдать в печать.

Unit 22 Multimedia

Topic 1 The basics of multimedia

Multimedia is the use of several different media to convey information (text, audio, graphics,
animation, video, and interactivity). Multimedia also refers to computer media.
As the information is presented in various formats, multimedia enhances user’s experience
and makes it easier and faster to grasp information. Presenting information in various formats is
nothing new, but multimedia generally implies presenting information in various digital formats.
An electronic multimedia encyclopedia can present information in better ways than a traditional
encyclopedia, so the user has more fun and learns more quickly.
Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing, in the
mid-20th century. Academic experiments in the 1970s proved out the basic concepts of streaming
media on computers. During the last 1980s, consumer-grade computers became powerful enough
to display various media. However, computer networks were still limited, so CD-ROM became the
most prevalent method of media distribution.
Streaming media is media that is consumed (read, heard, viewed) while it is being delivered.
The distinction is usually applied to media that is distributed over computer networks; most other
delivery systems are either inherently streaming (radio, television) or inherently non-streaming
(books, video, audio CDs).
A media stream can be on-demand or live. On-demand streams are stored on a server for a
long period of time, and are available to be transmitted at a user’s request. Live streams are only
available at one particular time, as in a video stream of a live sporting event.
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to, art, education,
entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics, and scientific research. In education,
multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses (popularly called CBTs) and
reference books like encyclopedias.
In engineering, especially in mechanical and automobile engineering, multimedia is primarily
used for designing a machine or an automobile. This lets an engineer view a product from various
perspectives, zoom in critical parts and do other manipulations, before actually producing it. This
is known as computer-aided design (CAD).
In mathematical and scientific research, multimedia presentations are mainly used for
modeling and simulation. For example, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular
substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is multimedia?
2. What advantages does multimedia have over other media?
3. What did academic experiments in the 1970s prove out?
74
4. Why were media usually delivered over non-streaming channels during the 1980s?
5. What is ‘streaming media’?
6. What two kinds of media streams do you know?
7. What are the spheres of multimedia application?
8. What is multimedia used for in education?
9. What particular fields of engineering is multimedia used in?
10. What are other ways of multimedia use?

Topic 2 The value of multimedia

Multimedia is simply multiple forms of media integrated together. Media can be text,
graphics, audio, animation, video, data, etc.
Besides multiple types of media being integrated with one another, multimedia can also stand
for interactive types of media such as video games, CD-ROMs that teach a foreign language, or an
information Kiosk at a subway terminal. Other terms that are sometimes used for multimedia
include hypermedia and rich media.
The term Multimedia is said to date back to 1965 and was used to describe the Exploding
Plastic Inevitable show. The show included a performance that integrated music, cinema, special
lighting and human performance. Today, the word multimedia is used quite frequently, from
DVD's to CD-ROMs to even a magazine that includes text and pictures.
Multimedia has become a huge force in the modern culture, industry and education.
Practically any type of information we receive can be categorized as multimedia, from television,
to magazines, to web pages, to movies, multimedia is a tremendous force in both informing the
public and entertaining us.
Multimedia in Education has been extremely effective. The human brain learns using many
senses such as sight and hearing. While a lecture can be extremely informative, a lecture that
integrates pictures or video images can help an individual learn and retain information much more
effectively.
As technology progresses, so will multimedia. Today, there are plenty of new media
technologies being used to create the complete multimedia experience. For instance, virtual
reality integrates the sense of touch with video and audio media to immerse an individual into a
virtual world. Other media technologies being developed include the sense of smell that can be
transmitted via the Internet from one individual to another. Today's video games include
biofeedback. In this instance, a shock or vibration is given to the game player when he or she
crashes or gets killed in the game. In addition, as computers increase their power new ways of
integrating media will make the multimedia experience extremely intricate and exciting.

Questions for discussion:

1. What forms does multimedia have?


2. What are interactive types of multimedia?
3. What terms are sometimes used for multimedia?
4. When did the term “multimedia” appear?
5. When was this term used?
6. What force does multimedia have nowadays?
7. What opportunities does multimedia provide for education?
8. How does virtual reality work?
75
9. What is biofeedback?
10. What influences on ways of integrating media?

Tasks:
1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

Передавать информацию, усваивать информацию, различные цифровые форматы,


отображать различные носители информации, потоковое мультимедиа, мультимедиа
потоки по запросу, найти применение, компьютеризированные курсы обучения, видеть
предмет с различных точек, компьютерное конструирование, быть интегрированными друг в
друга, получать информацию, обучать иностранному языку, информировать и развлекать,
виртуальная реальность, погружаться в виртуальный мир, содержать биообратную связь,
увеличивать мощность.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English


 Мультимедиа информация может быть представлена в текстовом, графическом,
звуковом и видео формате.
 Прямая трансляция доступна в конкретное время, а трансляция по запросу может
передаваться сразу же.
 Мультимедиа используется для проектирования, моделирования и имитации
процессов.
 Многие типы носителей информации могут считаться мультимедийными.
 Чтение, включающее в себя видео и аудиофайлы, помогает эффективно усваивать
информацию.
 Увеличение мощностей современных компьютеров ведет к появлению новых
интегрированных носителей информации.

Unit 23 Web design

Topic 1 Website basics

Many companies now have a website to advertise their goods and services and provide
information to their customers. It is therefore becoming important to have a website as good as
your competitors.
A lot of work has to be done to create a good website. The individual webpages have to be
created using a language called hypertext markup language or HTML, and the individual webpages
have to be linked together using hyperlinks. It takes a combination of technical knowledge and
artistic skill to make webpages look good. The layout of a sophisticated webpage might contain a
combination of text, graphics, animation, and other multimedia elements.
Rather than creating a website yourself, you can pay a web designer to create the site for you.
The web designer must first find out what information you want to provide on the website, and
the target audience he or she is designing for. Depending on this information, the designer will
decide what kind of information should be displayed on each webpage, and how these pages
should be linked. Navigation icons may be displayed on each webpage to make it easier for users

76
to move to different parts of the website. Every page must have a link that will let users move to
another page.
Multimedia features make the page look nicer and more interesting, but they take longer for
the user to browse. Some multimedia features also require the user to install additional programs
known as add-ons, which work in the browser to enable the multimedia features to be used. Each
webpage has to be downloaded from the web server before it can be displayed on the screen. It is
therefore advisable to divide information into small sections to suit the display screen, save
downloading time, and simplify printing. The first page of a website should be simple and tell the
reader who the website owner is. If links to other websites are included, people are more likely to
come back to your site.
It should be noted that if the site depends heavily on graphics, this could be very frustrating.
Good website designers offer some alternative versions.

Questions for discussion:

1. How do companies use their websites?


2. What language is to be used to create individual web-pages?
3. Does making web-pages require technical knowledge and artistic skill?
4. What can the layout of a sophisticated web-page contain?
5. What is the first step of web-designer to create a web-page?
6. What is the function of navigation icons displayed on each web-page?
7. What makes the web-page look nicer and more interesting?
8. What does “add-on” mean?
9. How should the first page of a website appear?
10. Why is it necessary to offer some alternative versions?

Topic 2 How to build a website

There are a few steps in building a website. First of all, you should always plan it carefully.
Decide what sort of information you're going to include and how you're going to organize it. You
can start with the home page, because this is the starting point of your site, almost like the table
of contents in a book. It's a good idea to design the site on paper first - a few diagrams will help
you clarify the relationships between the pages.
As an editing tool, you can use a web editor. It will make it easier to design your site. You can
download a web editor from the Internet quite easily.
A big part of the job is writing the text and formatting the pages. You need to type the text
and decide the formatting effects. You can also apply styles to text and other page elements.
The next step is multimedia: graphics and sounds. You can insert all sorts of pictures and
sounds, but they should have a clear purpose, some sort of communicative intention. Don't insert
photos or animations just to make the pages look nice, and avoid having a large number of
graphics.
It’s fun to experiment with colour. You may like to choose different colours for the
background and the text. But make sure that all the text is easy to read and avoid very bright
colours. Once you’ve created and saved a few pages, it’s time to join them together with
hyperlinks. A good design principle is not to put too many links on one page — people may lose
patience or get distracted. And check that all the links work, since web addresses sometimes
change.
77
If you want to publish your website on the Net, you have to find a web server and then
transfer all the files from your PC to the server. This is called going live. Finally, try to keep the
pages updated, improving the content and design if necessary. And the final touch: always include
the date to show that your site is up-to-date.

Questions for discussion:

1. What should you do first, if you decided to create a website?


2. What can help users to design a site?
3. What is a big part of this job?
4. What is the second step of creating a website?
5. Should we avoid having a large number of graphics?
6. What does a choice of colour depend on?
7. How many links can be put on a page?
8. How can you publish a website?
9. What is the final step of creating a website?
10. What should you include, when you’ve updated your site?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topics above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

рекламировать товары и услуги, гипертекстовый язык разметки, шаблон страницы,


сочетание текста и графики, значки навигации, установить дополнение, разделять
информацию на части, облегчить распечатку страницы, альтернативная версия, тщательно
продумать, главная страница сайта, связь между страницами, инструмент редактирования,
вставлять изображения, выбрать цвет для фона, опубликовать вебсайт, перемещать файлы,
улучшить дизайн.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:


 Потребитель может заказать создание вебсайта у веб-дизайнера.
 Отображаемые на страницах значки навигации и гиперссылки помогают
пользователю перемещаться по вебсайту.
 Главная страница вебсайта должна быть простой и не содержать большого
количества изображений.
 Перед тем, как вы начнете создавать ваш вебсайт, подумайте о том, как вы
расположите на нем информацию.
 Вы можете применить стили и выбрать цвет при форматировании текста.
 Для публикации сайта в сети Интернет вам потребуется сервер, куда вы переместите
все необходимые файлы.

78
Unit 24 Program design and computer languages

Topic 1 The evolution of compilers

Software for early computers has been written primarily in an assembly language for many
years. Higher level programming languages had not been invented until the benefits of being able
to reuse software on different kinds of CPUs started to become significantly greater than the cost
of writing a compiler. The very limited memory capacity of early computers also created many
technical problems when implementing a compiler.
Towards the end of the 1950s the machine-independent programming languages were
proposed first. Subsequently, several experimental compilers were developed. The first compiler
was written by Grace Hopper, in 1952, for the A-0 programming language.
The FORTRAN team led by John Backus at IBM is generally credited as having introduced the
first complete compiler, in 1957. COBOL was an early language to be compiled on multiple
architectures in 1960.
In many application domains the idea of using a higher level language has been caught on
quickly. Because of the expanding functionality supported by newer programming languages and
the increasing complexity of computer architectures compilers have become more and more
complex.
Early compilers were written in assembly language. The first self-hosting compiler — capable
of compiling its own source code in a high-level language — was created for Lisp by Hart and Levin
at MIT in 1962. Since the 1970s it has become a common practice to implement a compiler in the
language it compiles, although both Pascal and C have been popular choices for the
implementation language.
One classification of compilers is by the platform on which their generated code executes.
This is known as the target platform.
A native or hosted compiler is one whose output is intended to run directly on the same type
of computer and operating system as the compiler itself runs on. The output of a cross compiler is
designed to run on a different platform. Cross compilers are often used when developing software
for embedded systems that are not intended to support the software development environment.

Questions for discussion:

1. What problems created difficulties when implementing a compiler?


2. When were the first compilers introduced?
3. Who wrote the first compiler?
4. When was the first complete compiler introduced?
5. What was the reason of the growing compiler complexity?
6. What is “self-hosting compiler”?
7. Since when has it become a practice to implement a compiler in the language it compiles?
8. What is “a target platform”?
9. What is a native compiler?
10. What is the difference between hosted and cross compiler?

79
Topic 2 The basics of programming process

All programming involves creating something that solves a problem. The problems can range
from something of great scientific importance, through to something as trivial as relieving
personal boredom!
So, to write a program, we normally follow these steps: we identify the Problem, we design a
Solution, we write the Program and we check the Solution.
A program usually provides a solution to a given problem: for example, how to calculate
wages and income tax in a big company. First of all, you have to understand exactly what the
problem is and define it clearly. This means you have to decide, in a general way, how to solve the
problem. The next step is to design a step-by-step plan of instructions. This usually takes the form
of a flowchart, a diagram that uses special symbols to show how the computer works through the
program — where it makes decisions, where it starts and ends, where data is input, etc.
Next, you write the instructions in a programming language, like BASIC, Pascal or C. There are
usually three stages to writing a program: Coding, Compiling and Debugging. Coding is the act of
translating the design into an actual program, written in some form of programming language.
These computer instructions are called source code. Then you have to use a compiler, a special
program that converts the source code into machine code — the only language understood by the
processor, which consists of 1s and 0s. Once you’ve written the program, you have to test it with
sample data to see if there are any bugs or errors. The process of correcting these errors is called
debugging. Debugging is simply the task of looking at the original program, identifying the
mistakes, correcting the code and recompiling it. This cycle of code -> compile -> debug will often
be repeated many times before the compiler is happy with it. Computer programmers have to find
the origin of each error, write the correct instruction, compile the program again, and test it until
it works correctly.
Finally, you have to write program documentation, a detailed description of how to use the
program. A great program is not much good unless people know how to use it.

Questions for discussion:

1. What problems does programming solve?


2. What are the steps of writing a program?
3. What should a programmer do first?
4. How can a solution of the problem be presented?
5. What are stages of writing a program?
6. What does “coding” mean?
7. What is “compiling”?
8. What does a compiler do?
9. What is “debugging”?
10. What is the final step of writing a program?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the topics above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


80
высокоуровневый язык программирования, ограниченная ёмкость памяти, внедрять
компилятор, язык программирования, усложнённость компьютерной архитектуры, язык
ассемблера, самогенерирующийся компилятор, целевая платформа, решать задачу, выявить
проблему, рассчитывать заработную плату, исходный код, отлаживать программу, повторять
цикл, повторно компилировать код, происхождение ошибки, программная документация.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English


 Изначально ПО создавалось с использованием языка ассемблера, а первые
компиляторы появились вместе с первыми языками программирования.
 Первый самогенерирующийся компилятор был создан для языка Lisp.
 Кросс-компиляторы создаются для работы на различных платформах.
 Создавая программу, мы выявляем проблему, предлагаем решение, составляем
программу и проверяем это решение.
 Исходный код составляются на языках программирования - BASIC, C, Pascal.
 Откладка программы требуется для выявления ошибок и сбоев.

Unit 25 Java

Topic 1 Java: pros and cons

Java is an object-oriented programming language developed by James Gosling and colleagues


at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. Unlike conventional languages which are generally
designed either to be compiled to native (machine) code, or to be interpreted from source code at
runtime, Java is intended to be compiled to a bytecode.
Java has many advantages and some disadvantages.
Programming in Java is centered on creating objects, manipulating objects, and making
objects work together. This allows you to create modular programs and reusable code. One of the
most significant advantages of Java is its ability to move easily from one computer system to
another.
The ability to run the same program on many different systems is crucial to World Wide Web
software, and Java succeeds at this by being platform-independent. Java is designed to make
distributed computing easy with the networking capability that is integrated into it.
Java is one of the first programming languages to consider security as part of its design. The
Java language, compiler, interpreter, and runtime environment were each developed with security
in mind.
Java is reliable and programming language can really assure reliability. Java puts a lot of
emphasis on early checking for possible errors, as Java compilers are able to detect many
problems that would first show up during execution time in other languages.
Java is multithreaded, so it can perform several tasks simultaneously within a program. In
Java, multithreaded programming has been integrated into it, while in other languages, operating
system-specific procedures have to be called in order to enable multithreading. Multithreading is a
necessity in visual and network programming.
Java has few disadvantages. Java can be perceived as slower and more memory-consuming
than natively compiled languages such as C or C++. Then, the default look and feel of GUI
applications written in Java using the Swing toolkit is very different from native applications, but

81
it’s possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of
Swing.

Questions for discussion:

1. Who and when developed Java?


2. What’s different about Java?
3. Is Java intended to be compiled to a machine code?
4. What is Java centered on?
5. What is its most significant advantage?
6. Is Java secure?
7. Is Java a reliable programming language?
8. What does "multithreaded" mean?
9. What disadvantages does Java have?
10. How can you change a default look of written applications?

Topic 2 History of Java

Java Programming Language was written by James Gosling along with Mike Sheridan and
Patrick Naughton, while they all were working at Sun Microsystems. They took into consideration
5 goals: keep it simple, secure, object oriented, architecture-neutral, performant and dynamic.
The idea for Java started in 1990, when a team of software engineers at Sun Microsystems
decided to create a language for a handheld device that could control and interact with various
kinds of electronic appliances, ranging from Nintendo Game Boys to VCRs and TV set-top boxes.
They developed an object-oriented programming language that one of the engineers, James
Gosling, called Oak, after the tree outside his window.
With the advent of the Web in 1993, the company made a web browser based on the Oak
language. Later on, this language was adapted to the Internet and renamed Java. The 1.0 version
of Java was officially introduced by Sun in May 1995. It made the promise of "Write Once, Run
Anywhere", with free runtimes on popular platforms. It was secure and its security was
configurable, allowing for network and file access to be limited. The major web browsers soon
incorporated it into their standard configurations in a secure "applet" configuration. New versions
for large and small platforms (J2EE and J2ME) soon were designed with the advent of "Java 2".
At that time, web pages could only display text, pictures and hyperlinks. With the arrival of
Java, web designers were able to include animation and interactive programs on web pages. The
first major application created with Java was the HotJava browser. The Java language began to
attract serious attention from the internet community and was soon supported by Netscape
Navigator and MS Internet Explorer. Today, Java is implemented over a number of places in
modern world. It is implemented as standalone application, web application, enterprise
application and mobile application, games, smart card, robotics, desktop, etc.

Questions for discussion:

1. Where did inventors of Java work?


2. What were 5 goals of their development?
3. What was the first name of Java?
82
4. When was version 1.0 introduced?
5. Did browsers support Java 1.0?
6. What opportunity did Java provide for web designers?
7. What was the first application created with Java?
8. How is a Java program called?
9. What browsers supported Java in the 90-ies?
10. How is Java implemented?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

обычные языки программирования, быть скомпилированным в машинный код, модульная


программа, значительное преимущество, распределенные вычисления, компилятор и
интерпретатор, обеспечить надежность, выявлять ошибки, многопоточное
программирование, поглощающая память, принимать во внимание, мощный и динамичный,
телевизионная компьютерная приставка, среда выполнения приложений, малая платформа,
притягивать внимание, быть внедренным, отдельное приложение.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Язык Java, созданный в 1990 году, проектировался как надежный, простой,


безопасный и независимый от платформы язык.
 Разработчики решили создать язык для переносных устройств, который мог бы
взаимодействовать с различными электронными средами: от приставок до
видеомагнитофонов.
 С помощью языка программирования Java можно создавать модульные программы.
 Несмотря на то, что Java поребляет немало памяти компьютера, он идеален для
распределенных вычислений и сетевых задач.
 Первым браузером, написанным на Java, был HotJava.
 На языке программирования Java создаются интерактивные программы для веб-
страниц.

Unit 26 Jobs in ICT

Topic 1 Jobs in Computing

There are different jobs in ICT. Systems Analyst studies methods of working within an
organization to decide how tasks can be done efficiently by computers. He makes a detailed
analysis of the employer’s requirements and prepares a report on different options for using
information technology. He oversees the implementation and testing of a system and acts as a link
between the user and the computer.
Software Engineer produces the programs which control the internal operations of
computers. He converts the system analyst’s specification to a logical series of steps. He translates

83
these into appropriate computer language. Software Engineer designs, tests, and improves
programs for business applications, computer networks, and games.
Computer Systems Support people are analyst programmers who are responsible for
maintaining, updating, and modifying the software used by a company. Some specialize in
software which handles the basic operation of the computers. This involves the use of machine
codes and specialized low-level computer languages. Solving problems may involve retrieving files
and data lost when a system crashes and a basic knowledge of hardware.
Computer Systems Analyst Programmer creates the software programs used by computers.
He may specialize in the internal operating systems using low level computer language, or in
applications programs. He may specialize in one aspect of the work, e.g. programming, systems
design, systems analysis, or cover them all.
Hardware Engineer researches, designs, and develops computers, or parts of computers. He
may also be involved in their manufacture, installation, and testing. He may specialize in different
areas: research and development, design, manufacturing. He has to be aware of cost, efficiency,
safety, as well as engineering aspects.
Network Support Person maintains the link between PCs and workstations connected in a
network. He uses telecommunications, software, and electronic skills, and knowledge of the
networking software to locate and correct faults. This may involve work with the controlling
software or microchips on a file server, or on cables either within or outside the building.

Questions for discussion:

1. What jobs in computing are named in this text?


2. What is the aim of a systems analyst?
3. How does he act?
4. What does a software engineer do?
5. What is computer system support responsible for?
6. What does the job of a system support specialist involve?
7. What are spheres of activity of a computer systems analyst programmer?
8. What does a hardware engineer do?
9. What does a network support person maintain?
10. What does the job of a network support person involve?

Topic 2 New jobs in IT sector

That’s no surprise that new technologies in IT emerging so quickly create new jobs and
workplaces. IBM, for example, has a director of blockchains, and Ford Motor is among many
companies looking for GPU cluster engineers. At the same time, traditional IT jobs are requiring
new abilities. Network admins, for example, must learn cloud skills, and security specialists are
using machine learning to defend their networks.
Here are some of the jobs that can be hot in the not-so-distant future.
GPU computing improves application performance by offloading compute-intensive portions
of the application to the GPU, while the remainder of the code still runs on the CPU. Ford Motor is
looking for GPU engineers to work on its driverless car program. The list of necessary skills fills an
entire computer screen and the minimum skills needed include: “1+ years experience with GPU,
parallel programming tools and language extensions etc.,” as well as a broad array of
programming skills, among them C/C++, Perl, Python, Java, OpenGL, CUDA, MATLAB, and more.
84
A few billions of devices will be connected to the Internet of Things (IoT). That means the vast
network of devices connected to the Internet, including smartphones, cars, wearable devices, and
more are going to collect and exchange data. The IoT is top of mind for many innovative
companies. Verizon recently advertised for what it calls an “Internet of Things solutions architect.”
Among other skills, the applicant should have experience in “managing delivery of complex
solutions involving IoT, cloud, security, professional services” in addition to “strong technology
marketing and analytical skills.”
Cyber security specialist has long been on the hot jobs list. So, the new job of a security
incident response professional appeared. This professional can deal with the effects of an attack,
and he needs a broad understanding of security information and event management (SIEM). SIEM
combines a number of functions into a single system and centralizes event logs and other security-
related documentation for analysis.

Questions for discussion:

1. What helps to create new workplaces?


2. What are examples of new abilities for traditional jobs?
3. What does GPU mean?
4. Why is Ford interested in GPU engineers?
5. What does its list of skills include?
6. What is IoT?
7. What kind of professional is Verizon looking for?
8. What are the requirements to his or her skills?
9. What is security incident response professional charged with?
10. What is SIEM?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

требования работодателя, контролировать внедрение, переводить на машинный язык,


низкоуровневый язык, прикладная программа, базовое знание, системное проектирование,
специализироваться в разных областях, исследование и разработка, исправлять ошибки,
управляющий блочными цепями, требовать новых способностей, выгрузить часть
приложений в GPU, широкий спектр, носимые устройства, собирать и обмениваться
данными, аналитические навыки, управление событиями.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:

 Системный аналитик анализирует требования, контролирует внедрение и составляет


отчет.
 Специалист поддержки компьютерных систем изучает системные ошибки и решает
аппаратные проблемы.
 Инженер по аппаратуре проектирует и разрабатывает компьютеры и их
комплектующие с учетом стоимости, эффективности и безопасности.
85
 В ближайшем будущем появится немало новых профессий в IT.
 Инновационные компании публикуют списки навыков и умений для приема на пост
специалиста по кибербезопасности.
 Новейшие технологии, такие как "Интернет вещей", создадут немало рабочих мест.

Unit 27 Communication systems

Topic 1 Telecommunication systems: GPS

Telecommunication devices and systems transmit electronic or optical signals across long
distances. Telecommunication enables people around the world to contact one another, to access
information instantly, and to communicate with people.
People, businesses, and governments use many different types of telecommunication
systems. Some systems, such as the telephone system, use a network of cables, wires, and
switching stations for point-to-point communication. Other systems, such as radio and television,
broadcast radio signals over the air that can be received by anyone who has a special device. Some
systems make use of several types of media to complete a transmission. For example, a telephone
call may travel by means of copper wire, fiber-optic cable, and radio waves as the call is sent from
sender to receiver.
The United States Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian Global Orbiting Navigation
Satellite System (GLONASS) are networks of satellites that provide highly accurate positioning
information from anywhere on Earth. Both systems use a group of satellites that orbit around the
north and south poles at an altitude of 17,500 km (10,900 mi). These satellites constantly
broadcast the time and their location above Earth. A GPS receiver picks up broadcasts from these
satellites and determines its position through the process of triangulation. Using the time
information from each satellite, the receiver calculates the time the signal takes to reach it.
Factoring in this time with the speed at which radio signals travel, the receiver calculates its
distance from the satellite. Finally, using the location of three satellites and its distance from each
satellite, the receiver determines its position.
GPS services, originally designed for military use, are now available to civilians. Handheld GPS
receivers allow users to pinpoint their location on Earth to within a few meters. One type of
navigational tool used in automobiles integrates a GPS receiver with a compact disc player capable
of displaying road maps and other graphical information. Upon receiving the GPS location data,
the CD player can pinpoint the location visually on one of the road maps contained on disc.

Questions for discussion:

1. What do telecommunications enable people to do?


2. How many telecommunication systems are there?
3. How do telecommunication systems transmit signal?
4. Is there any positioning system similar to GPS?
5. What is the altitude of navigation satellites?
6. How do these systems work?
7. How does a receiver interact with satellites?

86
8. Who used these systems first?
9. Is it possible to keep a GPS receiver with you?
10. How does a navigational tool for cars work?

Topic 2 VoIP

VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol, a technology that lets you make phone calls using
the Internet instead of the regular phone line. VoIP converts analogue voice into digital data and
transmits it over the Internet with IP technology rather than via the traditional telephone network.
When the data packets reach their final destination, they’re converted into voice again. The
person you’re calling doesn't need any special equipment, just a phone.
You can make a call in three different ways. The easiest way is computer-to-computer. All you
need is a program like Skype or DialPad, a microphone, speakers and a fast internet connection.
You can download telephony software from the Net or you can make calls directly from a Website.
Another way is through the use of a device called an ATA, an analogue telephone adapter, which
converts the analogue signals of your traditional phone into digital signals. In this case you don’t
even need a computer. You just connect your telephone to the phone adapter, and the adapter to
your broadband modem. Thirdly, you can use a special VoIP phone with an Ethernet connector,
which plugs directly into your internet connection. There are also wireless VoIP phones that let
you make calls from any Wi-Fi access point in many public locations. A Wi-Fi phone looks like a
mobile phone, only it sends and receives audio signals via a wireless network. With a Wi-Fi phone
you’re using the Internet, so the calls are free or at least much cheaper. And you don’t have to pay
roaming fees when you go abroad.
You need to have an account with a VoIP service provider. They usually offer free calls to their
subscribers and flat rates for other VoIP calls. Some providers charge a few cents for long distance
calls.
The future of internet telephony looks promising. According to some industry analysts,
internet telephony will probably replace the traditional phone system entirely and all phone calls
will eventually be free.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does VoIP stand for?


2. How does VoIP technology work?
3. Is it necessary to use any special equipment?
4. What is the easiest way of making calls?
5. What is ATA?
6. What should you do if you use ATA?
7. Are there any special phones for VoIP?
8. Can VoIP phones be wireless?
9. What does a VoIP service provider give to its customers?
10. What is the future of internet telephony?

Tasks:
87
1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

передавать сигналы на длинные дистанции, иметь мгновенный доступ к информации,


телефонная станция, связь между двумя пунктами, распространять радиосигнал, медный
провод, сеть спутников, точная информация о местоположении, определять расположение,
карманный приёмник, отображать карту дорог, обычная телефонная линия, переводить
голос в цифровые данные, звонить с сайта, беспроводной телефон, точка доступа, плата за
роуминг, заменить обычный телефон.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:


 Телекоммуникационные системы позволяют людям и организациям
взаимодействовать, используя специальные устройства: телефон, радио,
телевидение, навигационные системы.
 Навигационные системы используют информацию, получаемую с сети спутников для
того, чтобы пользователь с помощью приёмника определил своё местоположение.
 Навигационные системы создавались для военных, но сегодня каждый может
воспользоваться ими с помощью устройств с приёмником сигналов.
 VoIP даёт пользователю возможность совершать звонки через Интернет бесплатно.
 Можно воспользоваться программами вроде Skype, звонить с сайта, приобрести
телефонный адаптер или VoIP-телефон.
 VoIP не имеет платы за роуминг, поэтому он удобен для тех, кто часто путешествует
заграницей.

Unit 28 Networks

Topic 1 Networks

It is common to connect computers together to form a network. This is usually done by


connecting cables to an electronic board called a network interface card (NIC) in each computer.
Networks make communication between users possible and allow software and hardware to be
shared. A network that is connected over a small area – e. g. one building – is called a local area
network (LAN), and a network connected over a large area, e. g. different buildings, different
cities, or even different countries, is known as a wide area network (WAN). The most common
network arrangement is known as a client/server system. The main computers that provide a
service on the network are called servers, and the other computers that use the services are called
clients.
The physical arrangement of the network is known as the network topology. Three common
topologies are known as star, ring, and bus. A star topology has each computer individually
connected to a central hub. The hub may be the main server computer, but is more often an
electronic device that is used for connecting all the computers together. A ring topology has all the
computers connected in a closed loop, and a bus topology has all the computers connected to a
main cable that is terminated at each end.

88
Passwords are commonly used to restrict access to a network and keep the system secure.
Each user of a network is given an account name and password. Passwords are supposed to
prevent unauthorized users, or hackers, from breaking into the system. At the same time, they
should not be too difficult for the user to remember. Ideally, they should have a minimum of six
characters, and be composed of a mixture of capital and small letters, numbers, and symbols. It is
better not to use words in the dictionary or proper names, since some hackers use special
computer programs which automatically try all the words and combinations of words to try to
discover users’ passwords. It is also useful to change passwords frequently.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does NIC mean?


2. What is the difference between WAN and LAN?
3. What is the most common network arrangement?
4. How many common topologies do you know?
5. What does a star topology include?
6. What is the difference between ring topology and star topology?
7. What is often used to restrict access to a network?
8. What purpose do passwords have?
9. How long is a good password?
10. What is it better not to use in passwords?

Topic 2 Network Basics

The Internet is an International computer Network made up of thousands of networks linked


together. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services. There are
the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic
mail, Usenet newsgroups, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing. All computers
communicate with one another; they share data, resources, transfer information, etc.
To do it they need to use the same language or protocol: TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol / Internet Protocol) and every computer is given an address or IP number. This number is
a way to identify the computer on the Internet.
Common methods of Internet access by users include dial-up with a computer modem via
telephone circuits, broadband over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires, Wi-Fi, satellite and
cellular telephone technology (3G, 4G).
The modem converts the digital signals stored in the computer into analogue signals that can
be transmitted over telephone lines. There are two basic types: external with a cable that is
plugged into the computer via a USB port, and internal, an expansion card inside the computer.
A PC card modem is a different, more versatile option for laptops and mobile phones.
At first, most computers used a dial-up telephone connection that worked through the
standard telephone line. Now a broadband connection, a high data transmission rate Internet
connection, has become more popular: either ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), which
allows you to use the same telephone line for voice and fast access to the Internet, or cable,
offered by most TV cable providers.
You no longer need a computer to use the Internet. Web TV provides email and access to the
Web via a normal TV set plus a high-speed modem. More recently, 3Generation mobile phones
and PDAs, personal digital assistants, also allow you to go online with wireless connections,
89
without cables. Telephone lines are not essential either, so satellites orbiting the earth enable
your computer to send and receive Internet files. Finally, the power-line Internet, still under
development, provides access via a power plug.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the Internet?


2. Which resources are available through the Internet?
3. What protocol is used in the Internet?
4. How can a PC be identified there?
5. How many types of modems are there?
6. Which of the modem’s types can be used with a laptop?
7. Which technologies can be used for an Internet access?
8. What is ADSL?
9. Do we need a PC to use the Internet?
10. Is it possible to get an Internet access through a power line?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

образовать сеть, сетевая карта, пользоваться услугами, сетевая топология, центральный


узел, замкнутая петля, топология типа "шина", запрещать доступ, сохранять безопасность
системы, предохранять от вторжения, перебирать слова и словосочетания, сменить пароль,
вмещать большой объем информации, пиринговые сети, оптоволокно, внешний модем,
широкополосное соединение, карманный персональный компьютер.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

 Компьютеры, подключенные друг к другу в одном зданиии образуют локальную сеть.


 Самая используемая топология - топология типа "звезда".
 Пароли используются для ограничения доступа к сети защиты от хакеров и
специальных программ. Доступ к сети Интернет возможен через оптоволокно,
беспроводное соединение, спутниковые или сотовые технологии.
 Коммутируемый доступ к сети был заменен на широкополосный доступ, также
использующей телефонную линию.
 Большинство современных устройств (смартфоны, КПК, телевизоры) имеют доступ в
Интернет.

Unit 29 Video games

Topic 1 Video games

90
A video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to
generate visual feedback on a video device. The word video in video game traditionally referred to
a raster display device, but it now implies any type of display device that can produce two or
three-dimensional images. The electronic systems used to play video games are known as
platforms; examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms
range from desktop computers to small handheld devices. Video games became an art form and
industry.
The input device primarily used to manipulate video games is called a game controller, and
varies across platforms. For example, a controller might consist of only a button and a joystick,
while another may feature a dozen buttons and one or more joysticks. Early personal computer
games often needed a keyboard for gameplay, or required the user to buy a separate joystick with
at least one button. Many modern computer games allow or require the player to use a keyboard
and a mouse simultaneously. A few of the most common game controllers are gamepads, mice,
keyboards, and joysticks.
Video games typically use additional means of providing interactivity and information to the
player. Audio is almost universal, using speakers and headphones. Other feedback may come via
vibration.
In the early days of cartridge consoles, they were sometimes called TV games. The first
commercial video game came along in 1971 and it was called Computer Space. Then he invented a
game called Pong in 1972 and it became a very popular activity. The very early video games like
Pong just took place on one screen. But then the playing area became larger than the total size of
one screen. The graphics in games slowly became more colourful and more detailed and then the
invention of full 3D took place. This meant that you started to control characters who explored 3D
environments.

Questions for discussion:

1. What does video game involve?


2. What did the word “video” as a term use to refer to?
3. What are the examples of platforms?
4. What is an input device?
5. What did early personal computer games need?
6. What are the most common game controllers?
7. What is a title of the 1st commercial video game?
8. When was Pong designed?
9. What was special about early video games?
10. How were games developed later?

Topic 2 The value of video games

The great thing about video games is their interactivity. Compared to a more passive
experience, such as watching a movie or reading a book, with a game you’re completely in control
of the action. With recent advances in graphics and hardware, games are now even more life-like
and visually attractive.
The graphics in many games are so realistic that they look like films. A lot of modern games
draw inspiration from films and even TV. You can see it in the look of the characters, the sound of

91
the dialogue, and in even more artistic elements such as lighting, camera work or the use of
Hollywood actors’ voices.
Gaming is at a very interesting point right now. On the one hand, you have the more cutting
edge and flashy “next generation” systems such as the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation 3, which opt
more for that cinematic experience. Both are very attractive machines designed for the dedicated
gamer. On the other hand, we have Nintendo taking gaming in a completely different direction.
Their released 'Wii' console has an inexpensive, simplistic feel to it. Their goal is to provide a less
serious experience that anyone can enjoy.
Online gaming has become so popular that games like World of Warcraft are now taking in
millions of pounds every month in subscription fees. Logging onto an entirely separate universe to
meet and play alongside your friends has enormous attraction.
Mobile gaming has traditionally been about easy, simplistic 2-D games, primarily to help
people pass the time. However, with the release of portable devices such as the Sony PSP and the
Nintendo DS, things are changing. Modern mobile phone include incredible 3D graphics and CD-
quality sound.
Some companies are demonstrating prototypes and ideas for future games. One company
showed 3D holographic images used for gaming purposes. Another company has a “gesture
recognition” system and your movements are translated directly into the game. Probably, ten
years from now we’ll be playing fully photo-realistic games that look no different to what you see
outside your window.

Questions for discussion:

1. What is the difference between video games and books?


2. What do games and films have in common?
3. What platforms are designed for the dedicated gamer?
4. What platforms are convenient for wide range of players?
5. What platform is inexpensive for gamer?
6. Why has online gaming become so popular?
7. How does mobile gaming differ from ordinary platforms?
8. What are portable devices?
9. What prototypes did some companies show?
10. What is the future of computer gaming?

Tasks:

1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.


2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:

взаимодействие человека с интерфейсом, визуальная обратная связь, растровый дисплей,


трехмерное изображение, игровая консоль, портативные устройства, игровой контроллер,
дюжина кнопок, использовать мышь и клавиатуру одновременно, яркий и
детализированный, достижения в области графики, черпать вдохновение, новейшая
технология, стоимость подписки, переносное устройство, невероятная 3D-графика, система
распознавания жестов, фотореалистичная игра.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English

92
 Игра может содержать двумерные или трехмерные объекты.
 Для управления игрой обычно используют джойстики, клавиатуру, мышь или
геймпады.
 В будущем компьютерные игры станут более детальными и фотореалистичными, а
также включать в себя многие передовые технологии.
 Главное отличие игр от книг и фильмов - их интерактивность.
 Сетевые игры позволяют игроку участвовать в них со своими друзьями.
 Sony PSP и Nintendo DS являются переносными устройствами и любой может
насладиться игрой в любом месте.

Unit 30 New technologies

Topic 1 Virtual reality

Computers are about to take people to places they have never been able to visit before.
Artificial worlds are being built up in a computer memory so that people can walk through, look
around, and even touch objects.
Virtual reality systems are being developed throughout the world for a range of uses including
enabling people to walk “inside” nuclear power stations and conducting architects through a
computer generated building before it is constructed.
A virtual reality system consists of a helmet with a color display in front of each eye, and wide-
angle lenses to cover the entire field of view and give a stereoscopic effect. The helmet contains
sensors, like electronic compasses, to record where it is pointing. A computer calculates what the
wearer should be seeing in that direction and displays it on the screen.
In more advanced systems, the operator wears an electronic glove that detects exactly what
the fingers are doing and transmits the information to the computer. If the user tries to pick up
something, the computer will make the object follow the hand to give the illusion of carrying it.
A fire-fighter in a nuclear power plant, for example, would move through a computer model
wearing an exoskeleton, while a robot would move through the real thing. The computer program
will be derived from the data used to design the plant in the first place.
Here comes a new generation of video games. Some companies launched a virtual reality
system for video arcades. The system, called Virtuality, consists of a cockpit in which a player sits,
wearing the helmet, at a set of controls that can control a spaceship, or whatever the imagination
of the games programmer can devise. The helmet has a pair of liquid-crystal displays with wide-
angle lenses giving a stereoscopic image, and a set of magnetic sensors to tell the computer what
the helmet is looking at as it moves.

Questions for discussion:


1. What kind of system is virtual reality?
2. What were virtual reality systems being developed for?
3. What does a virtual reality system consist of?
4. What components does a helmet have?
5. How does a computer process the data from helmet?
6. What is an electronic glove?
7. How can some professional use virtual reality?
8. How is virtual reality used in video games?

93
9. What are examples of such systems?
10. How can a computer control gamer’s actions?

Topic 2 The future of PC: DNA and Quantum

Researchers have been looking at alternatives to the traditional microprocessor design. Two
of the more interesting emerging technologies are DNA computers and quantum computers.
DNA computers have the potential to take computing to new levels. There are several
advantages to using DNA instead of silicon. First, as long as there are cellular organisms, there will
be a supply of DNA. Second, the large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource. Third, unlike
traditional microprocessors, which are made using toxic materials, DNA biochips can be made
cleanly. Finally, DNA computers are many times smaller than today's computer.
DNA's key advantage is that it will make computers smaller, while at the same time increasing
storage capacity, than any computer that has come before. One pound of DNA has the capacity to
store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. The computing power of a
teardrop-sized DNA computer will be more powerful than the world's most powerful
supercomputer. More than 10-trillion DNA molecules can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic
centimeter. With this small amount of DNA, a computer would be able to hold 10 terabytes (TB) of
data and perform 10-trillion calculations at a time.
DNA computers could perform calculations simultaneously. Conventional computers operate
linearly, taking on tasks one at a time. DNA can solve complex mathematical problems in hours.
Today's computers work by manipulating bits that exist in one of two states: 0 or 1. Quantum
computers aren't limited to two states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits. A
qubit can be a 1 or a 0, or it can exist in a superposition that is simultaneously 1 and 0 or
somewhere in between. Qubits represent atoms that are working together to serve as computer
memory and a microprocessor. Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states
simultaneously, it has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today's most
powerful supercomputers. A 30-qubit quantum computer would equal the processing power of a
conventional computer capable of running at 10 teraops, or trillions of operations per second.
Today's fastest supercomputers have achieved speeds of about 2 teraops.

Questions for discussion:


1. Is a DNA resource cheap?
2. What is more toxic: DNA biochips or traditional microprocessors?
3. What are the dimensions of DNA biochips?
4. What is the DNA's key advantage?
5. How much data can 1 cubic cm of DNA hold?
6. How could DNA computers perform calculations?
7. What is a qubit?
8. What does qubit represent?
9. Why are quantum computers prospective?
10. Is a quantum computer really functioning today?

Tasks:
1. Put questions to the underlined phrases in the texts above.

2. Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


94
искусственный мир, система виртуальной реальности, спектр применения, созданное
компьютером здание, широкоугольные линзы, электронный компас, продвинутая система,
поднять что-то, новое поколение, стереоскопическое изображение, квантовый компьютер,
клеточные организмы, токсичные материалы, малое количество ДНК, осуществлять
вычисления одновременно, решать задачи, существовать в суперпозиции, вычислительная
мощность.

3. Translate sentences from Russian into English:


 Виртуальная реальность позволяет посетить такие места, которые человек никогда
прежде не посещал.
 Система виртуальной реальности может состоять из шлема, перчаток, экзоскелета и
компьютера для обработки данных.
 Эти системы используются в различных сферах - от пожарных до игроков.
 Квантовые и ДНК-компьютеры значительно эффективнее обычных компьютеров и
некоторых суперкомпьютеров.
 ДНК-компьютер размером с каплю может содержать в себе несколько терабайт
информации.
 Квантовые компьютеры имеют в миллионы раз большую вычислительную мощность,
чем некоторые современные суперкомпьютеры.

Список литературы
1. Интернет-энциклопедия How stuff works [Электронный ресурс].
http://www.howstuffworks.com Дата обращения: 07.02.2017
2. Интернет-энциклопедия Wikipedia [ Электронный ресурс].
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sip-and-puff Дата обращения: 12.04.2017
2. Пройдаков Э.М., Теплицкий Л.А. Англо-русский толковый словарь по вычислительной
технике, Интернету и программированию. М.: Издательско-торговый дом «Русская
редакция», 2003.- 640 с.
3. ABBY Lingvo X 5. Многоязычный электронный словарь. Выпуск 15.0.826.5. Copyrigh
2011 ABBYY Software Ltd.
4. Remacha Esteras S. Infotech. English for Computer Users. Student's Book. 4th edition. —
Cambridge University Press, 2008. — 172 p.

95
Оглавление

Unit 1 Living in a digital age .............................................................................................................................. 3

Topic 1. Digitally savvy society..................................................................................................................... 3

Topic 2. Individual applications of computer ............................................................................................... 4

Unit 2 What is a computer? ............................................................................................................................ 5

Topic 1 Elements of a computer system ....................................................................................................... 5

Topic 2 Types of computers.......................................................................................................................... 6

Unit 3 Inside the system ............................................................................................................................. 7

Topic 1 Specifics of CPU, RAM, ROM, buses and cards............................................................................. 7

Topic 2 General design of a PC system ................................................................................................... 8

Unit 4 Buying a computer ............................................................................................................................. 10

Topic 1 In a computer shop ....................................................................................................................... 10

Topic 2 Computers for particular work situations .................................................................................... 10

Unit 5 Type, click and talk! ............................................................................................................................. 12

Topic 1 Input devices: the keyboard, the mouse, light pen, game controller............................................ 12

Topic 2 Mouse actions............................................................................................................................. 13

Topic 3 Voice input .................................................................................................................................. 14

Unit 6 Capture your favourite image ............................................................................................................. 16

Topic 1 Scanners ........................................................................................................................................ 16

Topic 2 Digital cameras ........................................................................................................................... 17

Unit 7 Display screens and ergonomics ......................................................................................................... 18

Topic 1 How screen displays work ............................................................................................................ 18

Topic 2 Ergonomics of a working place .................................................................................................... 19

Unit 8 Choosing a printer ............................................................................................................................... 21

Topic 1 Types of printer ............................................................................................................................ 21

Topic 2 Choosing the right printer ............................................................................................................ 22

Unit 9 Devices for the disabled....................................................................................................................... 24


96
Topic 1 Computers for the blind, partially blind and deaf.......................................................................... 24

Topic 2 Assistive technologies for motor-disabled PC users ..................................................................... 25

Unit 10 Magnetic storage .............................................................................................................................. 27

Topic 1 Magnetic storage devices and media (floppy disks, hard drives, portable hard drives, tape drives
) .................................................................................................................................................................... 27

Topic 2 Structure of a hard drive ............................................................................................................... 28

Topic 3 Care and handling of disks ............................................................................................................ 29

Unit 11 Optical storage ................................................................................................................................. 30

Topic 1 Optical discs.................................................................................................................................. 30

Topic 2 Choosing a disc .............................................................................................................................. 31

Topic 3 Optical disc storage (extended) ................................................................................................... 32

Topic 4 How the data is recorded on optical discs. ............................................................................... 33

Unit 12 Flash memory ................................................................................................................................... 34

Topic 1 Flash memory basics ................................................................................................................... 34

Topic 2 Flash Memory Devices ................................................................................................................ 35

Topic 3 NOR-Flash and NAND-Flash memory types compared ................................................................ 36

Topic 4 Flash memory products and features (extended) ...................................................................... 37

Unit 13 Basic software .................................................................................................................................. 39

Topic 1 The basics of an operating system ................................................................................................ 39

Topic 2 Windows Vista............................................................................................................................... 39

Topic 3 Operating systems from a historical point of view ....................................................................... 41

Topic 4 The main tasks of an operating system........................................................................................ 42

Unit 14 Word processing (WP) ....................................................................................................................... 43

Topic 1 Word Processor ............................................................................................................................. 43

Topic 2 Word Instructions......................................................................................................................... 44

Topic 3 Word processor history ................................................................................................................. 45

Topic 4 Word processor tools .................................................................................................................... 46

Unit 15 Spreadsheets and databases ........................................................................................................... 47


97
Topic 1 Databases ..................................................................................................................................... 47

Topic 2 Spreadsheets .............................................................................................................................. 48

Topic 3 Spreadsheets, databases and data types .................................................................................... 50

Topic 4 Database management systems ................................................................................................... 50

Unit 16 The Internet and e-mail ...................................................................................................................... 52

Topic 1 The Internet ................................................................................................................................ 52

Topic 2 The Internet Services ..................................................................................................................... 53

Topic 3 E-mail and its protocols................................................................................................................. 54

Unit 17 The Web ............................................................................................................................................. 56

Topic 1 A Typical Web Page ...................................................................................................................... 56

Topic 2 Cyberspace ..................................................................................................................................... 56

Topic 3 Browsing websites ..................................................................................................................... 57

Topic 4 Handy Internet services – searching, shopping, banking ............................................................ 58

Unit 18 Chat and conferencing ..................................................................................................................... 60

Topic 1 Virtual meetings ............................................................................................................................. 60

Topic 2 Cybercafe...................................................................................................................................... 61

Topic 3 Instant Messaging in more detail ................................................................................................. 62

Topic 4 The rules of netiquette. .............................................................................................................. 63

Unit 19 Internet security ................................................................................................................................ 65

Topic 1 Internet Security........................................................................................................................... 65

Topic 2 How To Protect Your Computer ................................................................................................... 65

Topic 3 Web privacy: how to protect your personal information ............................................................ 67

Topic 4 Prospects of network security ................................................................................................ 68

Unit 20 Graphics and design .......................................................................................................................... 69

Topic 1 Basic Types and Applications of Computer Graphics ................................................................. 69

Topic 2 How to Work with Graphics Programmes................................................................................... 70

Unit 21 Desktop publishing ........................................................................................................................... 71

98
Topic 1 Desktop publishing ...................................................................................................................... 71

Topic 2 How to create a document in DTP .............................................................................................. 72

Unit 22 Multimedia ........................................................................................................................................ 74

Topic 1 The basics of multimedia ............................................................................................................. 74

Topic 2 The value of multimedia .............................................................................................................. 75

Unit 23 Web design ....................................................................................................................................... 76

Topic 1 Website basics ............................................................................................................................. 76

Topic 2 How to build a website................................................................................................................. 77

Unit 24 Program design and computer languages ......................................................................................... 79

Topic 1 The evolution of compilers........................................................................................................... 79

Topic 2 The basics of programming process ............................................................................................. 80

Unit 25 Java .................................................................................................................................................... 81

Topic 1 Java: pros and cons ...................................................................................................................... 81

Topic 2 History of Java ............................................................................................................................. 82

Unit 26 Jobs in ICT......................................................................................................................................... 83

Topic 1 Jobs in Computing ........................................................................................................................ 83

Topic 2 New jobs in IT sector ................................................................................................................... 84

Unit 27 Communication systems ................................................................................................................. 86

Topic 1 Telecommunication systems: GPS ............................................................................................... 86

Topic 2 VoIP ............................................................................................................................................. 87

Unit 28 Networks .......................................................................................................................................... 88

Topic 1 Networks ...................................................................................................................................... 88

Topic 2 Network Basics ............................................................................................................................. 89

Unit 29 Video games ..................................................................................................................................... 90

Topic 1 Video games ................................................................................................................................. 90

Topic 2 The value of video games ............................................................................................................. 91

Unit 30 New technologies............................................................................................................................. 93

99
Topic 1 Virtual reality ............................................................................................................................... 93

Topic 2 The future of PC: DNA and Quantum .......................................................................................... 94

Учебно-методическое издание

Кузякин Александр Сергеевич


Попова Татьяна Георгиевна
Дмитриева Елизавета Игоревна
Сахаров Юрий Александрович

Информатика: устные темы на английском языке к учебному пособию Infotech 4th edition

Практикум

_______________________________________________________________________________
Изд. № 146-17

______________________________________________________________________________

100