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Using Weber’s Law in FMCG Product.


Weber’s Law states that the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional
intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived to be different. The minimal
difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is called the differential
threshold or Just Noticeable difference.

The Strength of the Initial Stimulus:

Traditionally Rasna soft drink concentrate has been marketed with a family campaign of
“I Love you Rasna” and the Brand Recall is phenomenal in India.
The Objectives behind consistent Advertising has been to Increase consumption among
existing users, get more users to Rasna fold, strengthen the economy perception &
thereby increase Value for Money.
The Advertisement builds on the values that Rasna currently owns.


Target Audience: - SEC A, B, C, D, E.
Marketing Strategy:
 Build on the strong emotional (mother- child interaction) appeal that has
traditionally been identified with the brand.
 Use Celebrity to enhance mother child relationship.
 Take the high – ground on the lead Orange Flavor and highlighting the Nagpur
Orange in the front panel.

The Second Stimulus:



Rasna has long been marked as a company, which will sell products only in the summer
season. To bridge this gap between season and non-season, a milk shake mix concept was
developed. Various reasons can be attributed to Rasna’s entry into the Milk Segment.
Some are as follows:

 Very strong milk drinking habit in India-the market for Milk food drink is 1015
crores market.
 Give consumers an opportunity to get milk shake made at home and to relish new
flavors like strawberry and mango.
 Consumer research indicated a strong expressed need for making milk taste better,
especially for children
 Large consumption of homemade milk shake with flavors like Chocolate, Chiku,
Strawberry, Mango etc.
Thus, there was an opportunity seen to launch a product that is:
 Available in wide range of flavors.
 Available in a convenient and easy to make format.
 Low unit priced single serve unit as the market is soon transiting towards a sachet
led market across category.
 Provide convenience to the consumers in sachet format.
 More fun and tastier.

Target Group: Children in the age group 5-14 years in SEC A, B, C Household and
Mothers of children in the age group5-14 in SEC A, B, C Households.
The positioning platform would be ‘Fun Filled Milk Shake’ complimented by ease of
preparation and low price.

The communication highlights ‘Don’t be Seedha Saadha’. In launching this product

Rasna is urging the children not to be ‘seedha saadha’. Don’t be serious and dull. Go
on...be mischievious, have Rasna Shake Up which will make milk fun.
Enriched with Vitamins and Calcium is being highlighted to add a healthy tone to the

Rasna Shake Up is available in 4 flavours:
Kesar Badam

However, the campaign went unnoticed in the first year of launch in 2003.
The Consumer connect did not happen because of the positioning of the traditional Brand
was so powerful. Consumers tried Shake up but in WATER! The message that the
product is to be mixed in Milk did not register as the initial Stimulus of Rasna as
Concentrate to be mixed in Water was too powerful. Retailers also did not understand
enough to explain this to consumers.

The Company then had to change the campaign to Focus on “Milk”

New Advertising and Promotion:

The primary objective of the communication is to position the milk shake mix as a fun
filled product. The Ad clearly shows that it is being mixed in Milk, and the setting of
Mother and Child connect are broken. Now it shows a Naughty Child having FUN with
the Milkshake.
Strawberry promoted as the main flavor as this is the most wanted among the milk shake
flavors and is not readily available in milk shake milk format.
To highlight the communication message ‘Don’t be Seedha Saadha’ is promoted to bring
out the fun and active perspective of the product.
 Milk Shake Mix is a new category.
 Fun filled milk shake.
 Ease in preparation and Rs.3/- per sachet.
 Available in Various flavours like strawberry, chocolate and mango.
 Round the year consumption.
 Chocolate can be relished in both hot and cold milk.
 No need to add sugar.
 Enriched with Calcium and Vitamins.

Thus, using Weber’s Law a Just Noticeable Difference HAD to be Added to the Entire
Shake Up campaign to establish it as a separate product in the Consumers Mind in 2004.
The Actual sales started increasing from 2005.

• Club med is a prominent company in the vacation and travel industry.

Describe how the company can use demographics and psychographics’ to
identify the TV shows and magazines in which to place its advertisements.

Demographics refers to the vital and measurable statistics of population .For a

Vacation and Travel company the demographics that help to locate the target market
to place an advertisement in the TV shows and magazines are as follows:

1.After Retirement ( 65 plus): couples would like to travel and go for dream vacations
if placed comfortably in terms of Income.
2.Leisure travel which occurs in middle age concerning work life balance
3.Corporate travel currently consists of local and global official travel by executives.

1.Essentially men would be decision makers in Indian households for Vacation and
Travel plans as they would have access to data and analysis
2.Women would express their opinions, but not usually go through the booking etc.

Marital status

Vacations are necessarily a family oriented occurrence travel. It can also happen in
official tours.

Income, education and occupation

After satisfying security and basic needs would families think of using extra income
for vacation and travel. High-level occupations would involve more traveling

Motivation: Vacation and Travel needs are acquired needs in response to the
environment it may be to satisfy self esteem or self-renewal needs or there could be a
personal or professional goal
Personality:Individual differences are highlighted however we can determine some
consistent and enduring personality criteria’s for people going for vacation and travel.
Consumer could travel for social character, need for uniqueness, optimum stimulation
levels, variety novel seeking or sensation seeking
Perceptions: Regarding destinations, first impressions, stereotype location or a hyped
location can decide on the travel and vacation
Learning: knowledge experience and feedback
Attitudes: consistent attitudes are encountered for the consumers .

How can a marketer for a chain of health clubs use the VALS segmentation
profiles to develop an ad campaign? which segments should be targeted? How
should the health club be positioned to each of these segments?

The VALS profile in this case :

Pros cons posible campaign

Actualisers Receptive to new products Skeptical of advertising on finer qualities of a healthy life
Most resources style

Experiencers Follow fashion Buy on impulse Action oriented, highly fashionable

Attend to advertising Health club approach

Achievers Attracted to premium products Average TV watchers Highlight premiumness of health club

Makers Shop for value Read specific magazines only Explain value additions in life
After joining
Fulfilleds Read widely Low interest in image Educational health related

Strivers Spend on personal care limited discretionary income Highlight personal care aspect
Coupled with reasonableness of charges
Mention payment option flexibility
Believers Watch tv slow to change habits Hype health as a habit

Strugglers Brand loyal, trust advertisements least resources only to be pitched if very reasonable charges

The segments to be targeted in order of preference are

Maker: as they look at value additions and are essentially outdoor people would be
comfortable with payments
Health club would be positioned a lifetime membership home comforts personal attention
and basic regular health packages
Visualization: a person who is instructed by a personal coach in swimming, then
explained about complete body exercise in large comfortable uncluttered surroundings

Achievers: as they are attracted t the premium ness of the club

The health club would be positioned as a chain brand with premium offerings on various
health related activities
Visualization: a personal pampering session at the club

Experiencers: as they are action oriented and ready to try new things also would have
the income to support club membership
Health club to be pitched as a hot and happening place where all fashion icons come to
get in shape
Visualization: Celebrity endorsement to be used

Strivers: as they spend the most on the personal care even at the cost of taking credit
Health club to be positioned as a complete personal care center
Visualization: before and after experience sharing

Actualisers: as they have the most resources and would be drawn to any exclusivity of the
Hype the luxury and the exclusivity
Visualization: health club luxury video

Describe the type of promotional message that would be most suitable for each of
the following Personality market segments and give examples

1.Highly Dogmatic Consumers

These consumers are very close minded towards unfamiliar and untoward information
that is contrary to their own established beliefs.They approach such information with
considerable discomfort and uncertainty

The promotional message most suitable would be endorsement or appeal from an

authoritative figure.For example:
 Colgate Dental Cream with Doctors and Experts endorsements.
 Anti-Polio Campaign featuring Amitabh and Sachin Tendulkar also use
Authoritative statements.
 The Cadbury’s brand took a beatng in sales after the worms were found in some
packets. Dogmatic Consumers stopped purchasing the Brand. Amitabh Bacchhan
was then used as Authority figure to reestablish Brand.

2.Inner Directed Consumers

These tend to rely on their own inner values or standards in evaluating new products and
are likely to be consumer innovators
They would prefer ads that stress product features and benefits, which enable them to use
their own values and standards in evaluating products
Surf Ad showing Shabana Azmi saving two buckets of water is an example of the same.
The latest from Surf Excel is currently running on television. This is the ad where many
people are seen walking with two buckets full of water. They then pour it into a large
reservoir. At this point none other than Shabana Azmi informs you what a great thing this
saving of water is for the country and implores you to use Surf Excel.

3.Consumers with High Optimum Stimulation Levels

Research has found that they have a greater willingness to take risks, to try new products,
to be innovative, to seek purchase related information and to accept new retail facilities.
The exciting and exotic Vacation Campaign of Malasia-Truly Asia is positioning of
Airways to sell the Asian Adventures

4.Consumers with high need for cognition

These enjoy thinking. They are responsive to that part of Ad that is rich in Information.

The TATA-AIG Life insurance Ad showing Naseeruddin Shah giving information

though Q&A will click for them.

5.Consumers who are Visualizers v/s verbalizers

Visualizers prefer visual information and products that stress the visuals
Morning Dew Ad where there is a race with a Cheetah is a visual treat.
“Do the Dew”

Verbalizers prefer verbal dimensions to the promotional message.

The Oye Bubbly Jingle of Pepsi is a Verbal treat to the ear, though it conveys nothing
much about the product.


A marketer of Health foods is attempting to segment a certain market on the basis

of consumer self image.
Describe the four type of consumer self image and discuss which one would be most
effective for the stated purpose.

Consumers have four types of image.

1.Actual self image-how consumers in fact see themselves
In Everyday house hold products, they see themselves in Reality. For example,
Washing powders Ads would be realistic. Nirma Powder focuses on Housewives ability
to get more for less money.

2.Ideal self Image-how consumers would like to see themselves

In case of Fantasy Products, consumers desire to see themselves perfect, as in case of
Women, Fairness or looking Pretty is high on desire list.
The fair and Lovely campaign for fairness cream sells this dream.

3.Social Self Image-how consumers feel others see them

Here there is an inherent fear factor also involved as to how they are being perceived by
others. For example Products which position themselves on social front, showing
appropriate behaviour at parties etc appeal here.

4.Ideal Social Self image-how consumers would like others to see them

For Example, Aashirwad ready to cook products and Sambhar Masala Product campaign
show the desire of Wives to be seen as a great cook by others. However, since they are
working or busy, they do not have time to cook themselves. That is when the Brand
comes to rescue.And finally they are seen as Ideal Wives.

There are two more categories of Self-image:

Expected Self image-how consumers expect to see themselves at some specified future
The ABKING PRO Ad for machine to slim down people hypes this expectation of
individuals that they will slim down and look good in Future.
Ought to self image-traits consumer thinks he ought to have.The Ashrwad readymeal Ad
is a hit for the wives feel that good cooking is a trait they ought to have.