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EME 231 Engineering Statics: Fall 2009

Lecture 36: Moment of Inertia

Chap 9:
Moment of Inertia (2nd Moment of Area)
Method of Integration -- Today
Method of Composite Bodies -- Wed.
and Parallel Axis Theorem

Homework Problem Assignment 36:


Problems 9.2
y
Determine by direct integration the moment of
inertia of the shaded area with respect to the
y-axis. a

yb
y=kx5/2
Problem 9.11 Determine by
x
direct integration the moment
of inertia of the shaded area with
respect to the x-axis. y=k(1 - e-x/a )

x
a

y
Problem 9.28: Determine the polar moment
of inertia and the radius of gyration b/2 b/2
of the isosceles triangle shown with
respect to point O.
h

O
Centroid:
When we worked to calculate the centroid of an area, one of the steps was to
calculate the first moment of area.

Centroid:
A = ∫ dA x=
∫ x dA y=
∫ y dA z=
∫ z dA
A A A

where

∫ x dA ∫ y dA ∫ z dA
are the 1st moment of area. The first moment of area will show up again in
the study of strengths of material when shear stresses in beams are to be
calculated.

Another geometric calculation you will be expected to work with will be the
2nd moment of area. This is found in a way very similar to the calculation
of the first moment of area, except that the offset distance will be squared.

∫x ∫y ∫z
2 2 2
dA dA dA

The second moment of area shows up in the theory that determine the
bending stresses of beam and also in buckling theory, both of which are
studied in strength of materials. Since bending stresses will be the dominant
factor in determining beam and column strength, you will need to be able to
find values of the 2nd moment of area for cross sectional areas to analyze
beams and columns.

Over the years, engineers have traditionally called this 2nd of moment of area
by the term, Moment of Inertia such that.

Iy = ∫ x 2 dA Ix = ∫ y 2 dA

where Iy is the moment of inertia with respect to the y-axis and


Ix is the moment of inertia with respect to the x-axis.
Example 1: y
Find the moment of inertia of the
area about the x axis.

x
b
Solution:
y
Find:
Ix = ∫ y 2 dA
h
where

dA = b dy dy
y
Therefore: x
h
I x = ∫ y (b dy )
2
0
h b
= b ∫ y 2 dy
0
y =h
1  1 3 1 1 3
= b y3  = bh − b(0)3 = bh
3  y =0 3 3 3

Therefore the moment of inertia of a rectangular area about the axis through
one end of the rectangle is
1 3
Ix = bh
3
Example 2:
Find the moment of inertias
Ix and Iy of the shape shown.

Ix = ∫ y 2 dA and Iy = ∫ x 2 dA y

y=kxN

Solution: x
Start by finding the value of constant k a

at (x,y) = (a,b)

y b b N a 1
y = kx N  k= N
= N  y= x or x= 1
y N

x a aN b N

For Moment of inertia about the y axis: Iy = ∫ x 2 dA

where
b N b
dA = ( N
x − 0)dx = N x N dx
a a

x =a b N y
Iy = ∫ x 2 dA = ∫ x2 ( x )dx
x =0 aN
b 2+ N
x =a
=∫ x dx
aN
x =0
x =a b
1 b 3+ N  y=kxN
= x 
3 + N aN  x =0
dx
1 b 3+ N 1 b ba3
= N
a − N
(0)3+N =
3+N a 3+N a 3+ N x
x a
For Moment of inertia about the x axis:

Method 1: I x = ∫ y 2 dA
where
 a 
dA =  a − ( 1 y 1 / N )  dy y
 bN 
then
Ix = ∫ y 2 dA
y =b  a 1/ N  1/N
b
= ∫ y  a − ( 1 y )  dy
2 x=(y/k)
y =0
 bN 
y =b a y =b
= a∫ y 2dy − 1 ∫ y 2+1/ N dy dy
y =0 y = 0
b N y
x
1 y =b 1 a 3+1 / N y =b a
= ay 3  − y 
3 y = 0 1 b1 N y =0
3+
N
1 1 a 3+ N1
= ab3 − b
3 1 b1 N
3+
N
1 3 1
= ab − ab3
3 1
3+
N
 1 1
3+ N 1 3 3 1 = ab3 1
=   ab −   ab 3
 1 = ab3
3+ 3
1 33+ 1 3N  3 +  3 ( 3N + 1)
 N
 N N

Method #2: Instead of using a differential element dA for the vertical


element, recall the inertia a rectangular area about its end.

1 3
Ix = bh
3 y = f(x)

We can set up a differential inertia element


for an infinitely thin element about its end.
1 3 1 h=y
dI x = h dx = y 3dx
3 3
and integrate this element from x= 0 to x = a
dx
x =a 1 3
Ix = ∫ dI x = ∫ y dx
x =0 3
1 b N 3
x =a
=∫ ( x ) dx
x =0 3 aN

1 b3 x =a 3N
3 a3N ∫x =0
= x dx y
x =a
1 b3 1 3 N +1 
= x 
3 a3N 3N + 1 x =0
b
1 b3 1 3 N +1 1 b3 1
= 3N
a − 3N
03N +1 y=kxN

3 a 3N + 1 3 a 3N + 1
ab3 dx
=
3(3N + 1)
x
x a
Notice that this was a little easier to calculate.

Polar Moment of Inertia: y


The polar moment of inertia is the dA
inertia about the axis perpendicular to the
r
x and y axis and through the origin. y
O x x
JO = ∫ r 2 dA (
= ∫ x 2 + y 2 dA )
= ∫ x 2 dA + ∫y
2
dA
JO = Iy + Ix
Notice that the polar moment of inertia for this Area is simply the sum of the
Ix and Iy inertias of planar bodies.

Radii of Gyration:
If all the area of the body were concentrated at the same distance from the
axis and it still had the same inertia, this distance is defined as the radius of
gyration.
Ix = k x2 A Iy = k y 2 A JO = kO2 A
y y
dA A
r y
x k
O x  O x
y

Example 3:
Find the Polar moment of inertia
and the radius of gyration about the origin. h

x
Solution: O b
JO = ∫ r 2 dA (
= ∫ x 2 + y 2 dA )
= ∫ x dA 2
+ ∫y
2
dA
JO = Iy + Ix

Using: I x = ∫ y 2 dA where dA = ( x 1 − 0 ) dy
 b  y
=  − (y − h ) dy
 h 
y = -(h/b)x + h
then
y =h  b 
Ix = ∫ y 2 dA =∫ y 2  − (y − h )  dy
y =0
 h 
b y =h 3 y =h x1 h
=− ∫
h y =0
y dy + b ∫ y 2dy
y =0
dy
b 4 y =h b y =h
=− y  + y 3 
4h y = 0 3 y =0 x
O b
bh 3 bh 3 bh 3
=− + =
4 3 12

Notice that working through the moment inertia about the y axis covers the types of steps
but with x and y reversed…
b 3h
I y = ∫ x 2 dA =
12

Therefore the polar moment of inertia about the origin is


bh 3 b 3h bh 2
JO = I x + I y = + = (h + b 2 )
12 12 12

and the radius of gyration about the origin is

bh 2
(h + b 2 )
J 12 h2 +b2
kO = O = = =
A bh 6
2
Example 4:
Determine the moment of inertia
of the shaded area with respect y
to the x axis.

y=mx
y=-mx

b
Solution: y=kx3
Ix = ∫ y dA 2 y=-kx3
x
where a a
dA = ( xR − xL ) dy Also note:
and
1
y at (x,y) = (0,0) and (x,y)= (a,b)
 y 3
xL =
xR =   and
k m therefore: and
then y b y b
m= = k= = 3
Ix = ∫ y dA 2
x a x 3
a
 1

y =a
  y 3 y 
= 2∫ y   − 2
dy
y =0  k  m 
 
7
2 y =a 2 y =a 3
= 1 ∫ y 3 dy −
m ∫y =0
y dy
y =0
k 3
a a
2 3 10  2 1 4
= 1 y3 − y 
k 3 10 0 m 4 0
10
3 1 4
= 1
a 3
− a
5k 3 2m
10
3 1
= a3
− a4
 b
1
3 b
5 3  2 
a   a
13
3a 3
a5
= 1

5b 3 2b
y

Example 5: Determine the polar moment


of inertia and the polar radius of gyration
of the shaded area shown with respect to a
point P.
P a
x
a a a a