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You are on page 1of 9

Chap 9:

Moment of Inertia (2nd Moment of Area)

Method of Integration -- Today

Method of Composite Bodies -- Wed.

and Parallel Axis Theorem

Problems 9.2

y

Determine by direct integration the moment of

inertia of the shaded area with respect to the

y-axis. a

yb

y=kx5/2

Problem 9.11 Determine by

x

direct integration the moment

of inertia of the shaded area with

respect to the x-axis. y=k(1 - e-x/a )

x

a

y

Problem 9.28: Determine the polar moment

of inertia and the radius of gyration b/2 b/2

of the isosceles triangle shown with

respect to point O.

h

O

Centroid:

When we worked to calculate the centroid of an area, one of the steps was to

calculate the first moment of area.

Centroid:

A = ∫ dA x=

∫ x dA y=

∫ y dA z=

∫ z dA

A A A

where

∫ x dA ∫ y dA ∫ z dA

are the 1st moment of area. The first moment of area will show up again in

the study of strengths of material when shear stresses in beams are to be

calculated.

Another geometric calculation you will be expected to work with will be the

2nd moment of area. This is found in a way very similar to the calculation

of the first moment of area, except that the offset distance will be squared.

∫x ∫y ∫z

2 2 2

dA dA dA

The second moment of area shows up in the theory that determine the

bending stresses of beam and also in buckling theory, both of which are

studied in strength of materials. Since bending stresses will be the dominant

factor in determining beam and column strength, you will need to be able to

find values of the 2nd moment of area for cross sectional areas to analyze

beams and columns.

Over the years, engineers have traditionally called this 2nd of moment of area

by the term, Moment of Inertia such that.

Iy = ∫ x 2 dA Ix = ∫ y 2 dA

Ix is the moment of inertia with respect to the x-axis.

Example 1: y

Find the moment of inertia of the

area about the x axis.

x

b

Solution:

y

Find:

Ix = ∫ y 2 dA

h

where

dA = b dy dy

y

Therefore: x

h

I x = ∫ y (b dy )

2

0

h b

= b ∫ y 2 dy

0

y =h

1 1 3 1 1 3

= b y3 = bh − b(0)3 = bh

3 y =0 3 3 3

Therefore the moment of inertia of a rectangular area about the axis through

one end of the rectangle is

1 3

Ix = bh

3

Example 2:

Find the moment of inertias

Ix and Iy of the shape shown.

Ix = ∫ y 2 dA and Iy = ∫ x 2 dA y

y=kxN

Solution: x

Start by finding the value of constant k a

at (x,y) = (a,b)

y b b N a 1

y = kx N k= N

= N y= x or x= 1

y N

x a aN b N

where

b N b

dA = ( N

x − 0)dx = N x N dx

a a

x =a b N y

Iy = ∫ x 2 dA = ∫ x2 ( x )dx

x =0 aN

b 2+ N

x =a

=∫ x dx

aN

x =0

x =a b

1 b 3+ N y=kxN

= x

3 + N aN x =0

dx

1 b 3+ N 1 b ba3

= N

a − N

(0)3+N =

3+N a 3+N a 3+ N x

x a

For Moment of inertia about the x axis:

Method 1: I x = ∫ y 2 dA

where

a

dA = a − ( 1 y 1 / N ) dy y

bN

then

Ix = ∫ y 2 dA

y =b a 1/ N 1/N

b

= ∫ y a − ( 1 y ) dy

2 x=(y/k)

y =0

bN

y =b a y =b

= a∫ y 2dy − 1 ∫ y 2+1/ N dy dy

y =0 y = 0

b N y

x

1 y =b 1 a 3+1 / N y =b a

= ay 3 − y

3 y = 0 1 b1 N y =0

3+

N

1 1 a 3+ N1

= ab3 − b

3 1 b1 N

3+

N

1 3 1

= ab − ab3

3 1

3+

N

1 1

3+ N 1 3 3 1 = ab3 1

= ab − ab 3

1 = ab3

3+ 3

1 33+ 1 3N 3 + 3 ( 3N + 1)

N

N N

element, recall the inertia a rectangular area about its end.

1 3

Ix = bh

3 y = f(x)

for an infinitely thin element about its end.

1 3 1 h=y

dI x = h dx = y 3dx

3 3

and integrate this element from x= 0 to x = a

dx

x =a 1 3

Ix = ∫ dI x = ∫ y dx

x =0 3

1 b N 3

x =a

=∫ ( x ) dx

x =0 3 aN

1 b3 x =a 3N

3 a3N ∫x =0

= x dx y

x =a

1 b3 1 3 N +1

= x

3 a3N 3N + 1 x =0

b

1 b3 1 3 N +1 1 b3 1

= 3N

a − 3N

03N +1 y=kxN

3 a 3N + 1 3 a 3N + 1

ab3 dx

=

3(3N + 1)

x

x a

Notice that this was a little easier to calculate.

The polar moment of inertia is the dA

inertia about the axis perpendicular to the

r

x and y axis and through the origin. y

O x x

JO = ∫ r 2 dA (

= ∫ x 2 + y 2 dA )

= ∫ x 2 dA + ∫y

2

dA

JO = Iy + Ix

Notice that the polar moment of inertia for this Area is simply the sum of the

Ix and Iy inertias of planar bodies.

Radii of Gyration:

If all the area of the body were concentrated at the same distance from the

axis and it still had the same inertia, this distance is defined as the radius of

gyration.

Ix = k x2 A Iy = k y 2 A JO = kO2 A

y y

dA A

r y

x k

O x O x

y

Example 3:

Find the Polar moment of inertia

and the radius of gyration about the origin. h

x

Solution: O b

JO = ∫ r 2 dA (

= ∫ x 2 + y 2 dA )

= ∫ x dA 2

+ ∫y

2

dA

JO = Iy + Ix

Using: I x = ∫ y 2 dA where dA = ( x 1 − 0 ) dy

b y

= − (y − h ) dy

h

y = -(h/b)x + h

then

y =h b

Ix = ∫ y 2 dA =∫ y 2 − (y − h ) dy

y =0

h

b y =h 3 y =h x1 h

=− ∫

h y =0

y dy + b ∫ y 2dy

y =0

dy

b 4 y =h b y =h

=− y + y 3

4h y = 0 3 y =0 x

O b

bh 3 bh 3 bh 3

=− + =

4 3 12

Notice that working through the moment inertia about the y axis covers the types of steps

but with x and y reversed…

b 3h

I y = ∫ x 2 dA =

12

bh 3 b 3h bh 2

JO = I x + I y = + = (h + b 2 )

12 12 12

bh 2

(h + b 2 )

J 12 h2 +b2

kO = O = = =

A bh 6

2

Example 4:

Determine the moment of inertia

of the shaded area with respect y

to the x axis.

y=mx

y=-mx

b

Solution: y=kx3

Ix = ∫ y dA 2 y=-kx3

x

where a a

dA = ( xR − xL ) dy Also note:

and

1

y at (x,y) = (0,0) and (x,y)= (a,b)

y 3

xL =

xR = and

k m therefore: and

then y b y b

m= = k= = 3

Ix = ∫ y dA 2

x a x 3

a

1

y =a

y 3 y

= 2∫ y − 2

dy

y =0 k m

7

2 y =a 2 y =a 3

= 1 ∫ y 3 dy −

m ∫y =0

y dy

y =0

k 3

a a

2 3 10 2 1 4

= 1 y3 − y

k 3 10 0 m 4 0

10

3 1 4

= 1

a 3

− a

5k 3 2m

10

3 1

= a3

− a4

b

1

3 b

5 3 2

a a

13

3a 3

a5

= 1

−

5b 3 2b

y

of inertia and the polar radius of gyration

of the shaded area shown with respect to a

point P.

P a

x

a a a a

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